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Project Report

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SUBMITTED BY:
Name: PRIYA APTE
Branch: Electrical Engineering
Roll No.:1101EE05
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY PATNA
Training Period: 05/05/2014 TO 30/06/2014


CERTIFICATE


This is to certify that Priya Apte has completed the Summer
training on Satellite Communication in ONGC during 05
th
May 2014 to
30
th
June 2014 at ONGC Vasundra Bhavan,Bandra(East) under the
guidance of Vikas Shinde, Chief Engineer (E &T),ONGC Mumbai.




(Vikas Shinde)
C.E .(E&T),ONGC








ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincere acknowledgement to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Limited for giving me valuable opportunity to work with them. This
project report is dedicated to all the people, whom I met, took guidance,
talked and gained knowledge from them.
I also express my sincere thanks to Mr. K. C. Ghosh ,C.E.(Inst.)
,ONGC,Mumbai and Mr. D.K. Dhiraj ,DGM (E&T),ONGC ,Mumbai for
providing us conductive environment and allowing us to reach desired
accomplishment.
With warm regards I would like to thank my project mentor
Mr.Vikas Shinde C.E.(E&T),ONGC ,Mumbai for the encouragement and
guidance continuously provided by him to undergo my summer training
in this esteemed organization .
I would like to thank all the staff ONGC, Mumbai for being so
helpful during this summer internship.
Lastly, I thank almighty , my parents for their constant
encouragement and support without which this project would not be
possible .






About the company
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) is an
Indian multinational oil and gas company headquartered
in Dehradun, India.
It is one of the largest Asia-based oil and gas exploration and
production companies.
produces around 77% of India's crude oil(equivalent to around
30% of the country's total demand) and around 81% of its natural
gas.
ONGC has been ranked 357th in the Fortune Global 500 list of the
world's biggest corporations for the year 2012.
It is also among the Top 250 Global Energy Company by Platts.
ONGC was founded on 14 August 1956 by the Indian state, which
currently holds a 69.23% equity stake.
. Its international subsidiary ONGC Videsh currently has projects in
15 countries.
A Brief on ONGCs Mumbai High Asset
Mumbai High is biggest oil & gas field in Western offshore .
The field is located about 165 kilometers away in Arabian Sea at a
water depth of 70 to 80 meters.
The field was discovered in 1974 by the legendary rig Sagar Samrat.
The field was put on commercial production in 1976. The field has
developed with mammoth infrastructure for Oil & Gas production,
process and export.


The field producing currently about 2,60,000 barrels of oil per day,
about 15 mms cmd of sweet gas besides injecting nearly 10,00,000
barrels of water per day into the reservoir.
ONGC has its own telecommunication network which connects its
HQ at Dehradun to all regional offices located all over India, Offshore
Rigs & Process Platforms.
- (Ref. : www.ongcindia.com)












What is Satellite
Communication?



Satellite Communication operates in Microwave frequency Band
and can be considered as a Repeater placed in Space.
It consist of ground-based or Earth stations (i.e. parabolic
antennas) and orbiting transponders which receives signal from the
ground unit (uplink) amplifies it and then transmits it back to earth
(downlink).
Large coverage area across terrestrial boundaries, cost is
independent of the distance.




How do Satellites work?
An Earth Station sends message in GHz range. (Uplink)
Satellite Receive and retransmit signals back. (Downlink)
Other Earth Stations receive message in useful strength area.
(Footprint)
Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequency from
30MHz to 1 GHz. The ionosphere cannot reflect microwaves back
to the earth. They pass through the ionosphere. A satellite used to
receive microwaves and then transmit them back to the earth.
Satellites provide links in two ways. Firstly a satellite provide point
to point communication link between one ground station and the
other.
One ground station transmit signal to the other satellite and next
ground station receives them from the satellite. Secondly, satellite
receives signals from one ground station and transmits to them to
the number of ground receivers.
Most satellite use frequency bandwidth through from 5.92 to
6.4GHz from transmission of data from earth to the satellite and a
frequency bandwidth from 3.7 to 4.1GHz for transmission from
satellite to the earth.





Types of Satellites
Anti-Satellite weapons sometimes called "Killer satellites" are
satellites designed to destroy "enemy" satellites, other orbital
weapons and targets.

Astronomical satellites are satellites used for observation of
distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

Biosatellites are satellites designed to carry living organisms,
generally for scientific experimentation.

Communications satellites
are an artificial satellite stationed in space for the
purposes of telecommunications.
Modern communications satellites typically use
geosynchronous orbits, Molniya orbits or low
Earth orbits.

Navigation satellites are satellites which use radio time signals
transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to
determine their exact location.



A communications satellite is a satellite located in space for the purposes
of telecommunications.
There are three altitude classifications for satellite orbits:
LEO Low Earth Orbit
LEO satellites orbit from 160-2000km above the earth, take
approximately 1.5 hrs for a full orbit and only cover a portion of the


earths surface, therefore requiring a network or constellation of
satellites to provide global, continual coverage. Due to the proximity to
Earth, LEO satellites have a lower latency (latency is the time between
the moment a packet is transmitted and the moment it reaches its
destination) and require less amplification for transmission.


MEO Medium Earth Orbit
MEO satellites are located above LEO and below GEO satellites and
typically travel in an elliptical orbit over the North and South Pole or in
an equatorial orbit. These satellites are traditionally used for GPS
navigation systems and are sometimes used by satellite operators for
voice and data communications. MEO satellites require a constellation
of satellites to provide continuous coverage. Tracking antennas are
needed to maintain the link as satellites move in and out of the antenna
range.

GEO Geostationary Orbit
GEO satellites orbit at 35,786 km (22,282 mi) above the equator in the
same direction and speed as the earth rotates on its axis. This makes it
appear to the earth station as fixed in the sky. The majority of
commercial communications satellites operate in this orbit; however,
due to the distance from the earth there is a longer latency.






Satellite Orbits


GSAT 10
GSAT 10 communication satellite is presently used by Oil and
Natural Gas Corporation Limited ,Mumbai.
GSAT-10, Indias advanced communication satellite, is a high power
satellite being inducted into the INSAT system.
GSAT-10 was launched by Ariane-5ECA carrier rocket in September
2012.
It has 12 KU Band, 12 C Band and 6 lower extended c band
transponders.
GSAT-10 also carries a Ku-band beacon to help in accurately
pointing ground antennas towards the satellite.



Features:
Spacecraft design -ISRO
Orbital location -83 degree east
Orbit -Geostationary , co-located with
INSAT-4A and GSAT-12
Vehicle -Ariane-5 VA-209
Design life -15 yrs
Power - Solar array providing 6474 Watts (at
Equinox) and two 128 AH Lithium-
Ion batteries
Transponder -12 ku band ,12 c-band, 6 lower extended
c-band
Launch mass(kg) -3400 Kg
Dry mass(kg) -1498 Kg
Model(bus) - insat-2/-3






Frequency Bands
Different kinds of satellites use different frequency bands.
1)L-Band 1 - 2 GHz
2)S-Band 2 - 4 GHz
3)C-Band 4 - 8 GHz
4)X-Band 8 - 12 GHz
5)Ku-Band 12 - 18 GHz
6)K-Band 18 - 26.5 GHz
7)Ka-Band 26.5 - 40 GHz
8)Q-Band 30 - 50 GHz
9)U-Band 40 - 60 GHz
10)V-Band 50 - 75 GHz
11)E-Band 60 - 90 GHz
12)W-Band 75 - 110 GHz
13)F-Band 90 - 140 GHz
14)D-Band 110 - 170 GHz

C band uplink 5.925-6.425 GHz; downlink 3.7-4.2 GHz:
The C band is primarily used for voice and data communications as well
as backhauling. Because of its weaker power it requires a larger antenna,
usually above 1.8m (6ft). However, due to the lower frequency range, it
performs better under adverse weather conditions on the ground.



Ku band uplink 14 GHz; downlink 10.9-12.75 GHz
Ku band is used typically for consumer direct-to-home access, distance
learning applications, retail and enterprise connectivity. The antenna
sizes, ranging from 0.9m -1.2m (~3ft), are much smaller than
C band because the higher frequency means that higher gain can be
achieved with small antenna sizes than C-band. Networks in this band
are more susceptible to rain fade, especially in tropical areas.

Satcom Technology
(In ONGC)
FDMA
FAMA-FDMA
DAMA-FDMA

TDMA
Advantages over FDMA
FDMA-
Satellite frequency is already broken into bands and is broken in to
smaller channels in frequency division multiple access.
Overall bandwidth and frequency band is increased due to frequency
reuse.
The number of sub channels is limited by three factors:
Thermal noise (too weak signals will be effected by background noise).


Intermodulation noise (too strong a signal will cause noise).
Crosstalk (cause by excessive frequency reusing).

FDMA can be performed in two ways :
Fixed assignment multiple access(FAMA):
The sub channel assignments are of a fixed allotment .Ideal for broadcast
satellite communication .
Demand assignment multiple access(DAMA):
The sub channel allotment changes based on demand. Idea for point to
point communication.

TDMA-
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) breaks a transmission into
multiple time slots , each one dedicated to a different transmitter.
TDMA is increasingly becoming more widespread in satellite
communication.
TDMA uses the same technique (FAMA and DAMA) as FDMA does.
Advantages of TDMA over FDMA
Digital equipment used in time division multiplexing is increasingly
becoming cheaper.
Lack of intermodulation noise means increased frequency.





Evolution of SATCOM in ONGC
OPSNET:
In 1982-83, two Satellite Earth Stations at Uran and BHN (offshore) were
established under Titan project in Mumbai. Subsequently three more
SES at Hazira, BPA and Heera were setup during mid/late 80s.
TELNET:
During early 90s 5 more SES were installed at DDN, BDA, NZR, AGT, JDR
and RJY. Two SES of DOT at KOL, Chennai and NTPC Delhi Were used.
ICNET:
During 2000, VSAT based SATCOM network was established to cover 21
locations for providing voice and data circuits.
MFTDMA C-band VSAT:
During 2008-09, MFTDMA based SATCOM network was established to
cover the field installations like Production Installations, Geophysical
Field Parties, and Drilling Rigs.






Introduction to VSAT

A class of Very Small Aperture Terminal,
Intelligent satellite earth station,
Suitable for easy on-premise installation,
Capable of supporting a wide range of two-way, integrated
telecommunication and information services.
consisting of hub, a relatively large central station and many VSAT
(remote) earth stations
network with star/ mesh topology
Data rate - low to medium bit rate (<= 2 Mbytes/sec)
Ku (14/11-12 GHz) and C (6/4 GHz) operation






MFTDMA BASED C-BAND VSAT
The project was based on MF-TDMA technology, covers 183 Satcom
locations & 25 radio links spread across the country. Under the project
the following installations have been provided with Satcom links.

o Production installations at various Assets (3.8m/ 2.4m)
o Geophysical Field Parties (2.4m)
o On-shore Drilling Rigs (2.4m)
o Augmentation of 8 off-shore Drilling Rigs

Based on IP technology, capable of handling fast data rates and
provide a highly reliable and bandwidth efficient solutions for Voice
& Data communication.
Providing communication links between the field locations and
their respective Assets/Basins for Enterprise Wide on-line SCADA
to facilitate analysis of valuable well / Process data and Drilling data
available in the SCADA servers.
To ensure access to various corporate wide I.T. applications like
SAP, Intranet/internet, e-mail from these field installations.






COMMUNICATION NETWORK
IN ONGC
(Schematic)




Equipments used in Voice and
Data Communication
EPABX(for voice)
MUX
MODEM(modulator & demodulator)
ROUTER(for data)
UP-CONVERTER
DOWN-CONVERTER
SSPA(solid state power amplifier)
LNA(low noise amplifier)
ANTENNA

Electronic Private Automatic Branch
Exchange(EPABX)
A private branch exchange is a telephone exchange that serves a
particular business or office (in our case, ONGC). This is the
opposite of one that a common carrier or telephone company
operates for many businesses or for the general public.
The EPABX in the above used system is only for the transmission
and the reception of the voice signals via the satellite.


The EPABX makes connection among the internal telephones of
a private organization (ONGC) and also connect them to the public
switched telephone network (MTNL) as also to the satellite
network as shown in the above case.

Multiplexer (MUX)
A MUX or a multiplexer combines the many voice signals into a
single path and gives the output to the modem.It is used only for
the voice signals and not for the data signals.
For eg.,in telecommunication ,several telephone calls may be
carried using one wire.
A process known as demultiplexing can extract the original signals
on the receiver side.
Generally the MUX used is of the brand (3600/3600+ Mainstreet
Company Alcatel).There are various cards that are used and fitted
in the MUX used as follows










3600 mainstreet alcatel mux

ONGC uses this mux for satellite communication . This mux consists of
the following cards:
V.35 PRI-connected to modem
V.35 for data communication
DSP-handles configuration of circuits
E&M(ear & mouth)
DAP card
Control card-controls entire system





Up Converter
A radio frequency up-converter is a device that takes an input of
intermediate frequency energy of a specific frequency range and
outputs it on a higher frequency.
The up-converters are designed for use in the communication
systems or in the satellite uplink data systems (like here) for the
transmission of SCPC, DAMA and TDMA communication signals.
The up-converter used in the satellite communication system
above is the Comtech UT 4505.

Upconverter-UT-4505

The RF output frequency range for the up-converters used here is
5845-6425 MHz
Upconverter converts IF to RF frequency .
Eg.Upconverter converts 70MHz to 6175MHz for C band
application.



Down Converter
A radio frequency down-converter is a device that takes an input of
higher frequency energy of a specific frequency range and outputs
it on a intermediate frequency.
The down-converters are designed for use in the communication
systems or in the satellite uplink data systems (like here) for the
reception of SCPC, DAMA and TDMA communication signals.
The down-converter used in the satellite communication system
above is DT-4503.

Downconverter-DT-4503




The RF output frequency range for the down-converters used in the
system is the same as up-converters and is given as
5845-6425 MHz
Downconverter converts RF to IF frequency .
For eg.Downconverter converts 3950MHz to 70MHz for C band
application.

Splitter/combiner and codec


It eliminates the need for extra wiring thereby reducing the cost of
installation.
A codec converts analog input into digital format and vice versa.



Modem

It performs modulation and demodulation on transmit and receive
side.
Digital signals are modulated to take full advantage of existing
circuitry,eg.in telephone lines.
Modulation refers to the method of changing the carrier signal with
respect to the message signal.

The modem used for our satellite communication is the Radyne
Corporation DMD2401 Satellite Modem.


Modulator inserts information on intermediate
frequency(IF),usually called carrier.This is done based on
modulation scheme set.Usually QPSK scheme is used.
In order to communicate between VSAT1 and VSAT2,modulation
frequency of VSAT1 and demodulator frequency of VSAT2 need to
be same.

Types of modulation:
Amplitude shift keying(ASK):Uses one amplitude at a fixed
frequency to convey a logic high(1) and zero amplitude to convey a
logic low(0).
Frequency shift keying(FSK):One frequency is used to show logic
high and another is used to show logic low.
Phase shift keying(PSK):It relies on transmitter and receiver being
perfectly synchronized so that reference used by demodulation process
is same as that for modulation.







Router(CISCO 3600 & 7200 series)



A wide area network (WAN) is a network that covers a broad area
using leased telecommunication lines.
ONGC utilize WANs to relay data among employees from various
geographical locations.
In essence, this mode of telecommunication allows a business to
effectively carry out its daily function regardless of location.
Router is a device that determines the next network point to which
a packet must be forwarded towards its destination.




Solid State Power Amplifier (SSPA)
Solid state power amplifiers are usually divided into low power
driver sections and high power output stages.
Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistors (GaAs FET) are used for
power amplification.
To obtain high powers, many stages are fed in parallel from a
medium to high power amplifier and combined at the output
These C band high power amplifiers (100 through 250 watts)
provide the linearity and gain stability required for earth station.
The SSPA used here is ADVANTECH ARMA C-200 watt.






Features:
Frequency range: 5.85 to 6.425 GHz
Output Power @ 1dB Gain compression is 50.6 dBm
Temperature compensation
20 dB Gain adjustment
1:1 Redundant system
Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
The low noise amplifier (LNA) is a special type of electronic
amplifier or amplifier used in communication systems to amplify
very weak signals captured by an antenna.
It is often located very close to the antenna. If the LNA is located
close to the antenna, then losses in the feed line become less
critical.
It is a key component, which is placed at the front-end of a radio
receiver circuit. Using an LNA, the noise of all the subsequent
stages is reduced by the gain of the LNA and the noise of the LNA
is injected directly into the received signal. Thus, it is necessary for
an LNA to boost the desired signal power while adding as little
noise and distortion as possible so that the retrieval of this signal is
possible in the later stages in the system.
The LNA used here is a LOCUS Lnac-1100-7.





Antenna

The 6.3 meter earth station scientific antenna meets international
specifications is deployed at Vasundhara Bhavan hub Station.
The reflector consists of 40 dual shaped panels placed in 3 rows
over 16 trusses emanating from a center hub.
The antenna features shaped cassegrain paraboloid configuration
with a conical corrugated horn, sub-reflector and shaped reflector.
The center hub is spacious to accommodate receive electronic
equipments.






Parabolic antenna


It uses a parabolic reflector , a curved surface with the cross
sectional shape of a parabola ,to direct the radio waves.
Uses:
satellite communication
used in radio telescopes
radar antennas to transmit a narrow beam of radio
wireless WAN/LAN
ONGC uses cassegrain antenna:


9metres
Transmission: horizontal polarisation
Reception: vertical polarization.


The Cassegrain Antenna

In telecommunication and radar use, a Cassegrain antenna is an
antenna in which the feed radiator is mounted at or near the
surface of a concave main reflector and is aimed at a convex
subreflector.
Both reflectors have a common focal point. Energy from the feed
unit (a feed horn mostly) illuminates the secondary reflector, which
reflects it back to the main reflector, which then forms the desired
forward beam.





SUMMARY
All applications in ONGC are supported through a star/mesh WAN
infrastructure spread across the country, interconnecting all offices
and field locations using a combination of connectivity mediums
like hired terrestrial leased lines, ISDN, satellite, and radio links.
Major work centers across the country are connected to regional
gateway offices using intercity leased line, satellite, or radio links.
Communication network in ONGC allow geographically dispersed
personnel to collaborate with subject matter experts and other
human resources from a distance through voice and data
communication as well as video conferencing.
As operations expand and move increasingly to offshore and other
challenging environments, it will provide the ability to monitor rig
operations remotely while improving safety, helping reduce costs
and, ultimately, enabling them to make better decisions.

Conclusion
Infrastructure of the organization has kept pace with evolving
technologies. HF/ VHF radio communications, point to point
microwave links, point to multipoint TDMA network, TDM/ TDMA,
MF-TDMA access techniques, have been installed from time to
time to meet the voice and data connectivity requirements at
remote locations.
In the present deployment in ONGC, redundancy for sector and
power supply was conceived and implemented.




Reference
1. www.ongcindia.com
2. www.isro.org
3. Behrouz A.Forouzan:Data communications and networking(4
th

edition),McGrawHill
4. Onsite visit at ONGC,Mumbai