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FIBER OPTICS

COMMUNICATIONS
HAROLD KOLIMBIRIS
Seneca College
PEARSON
Prentice
Hall
Pearson Education International
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION xi
PARTI INTRODUCTORY
CONCEPTS
1 ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND
QUANTUM PHYSICS 1
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Elements of Geometric Optics 3
1.3 Elements of Physical Optics 7
1.4 Absorption 12
1.5 Scattering 13
1.6 Dispersion 18
1.7 Electromagnetic Theory and the Dielectric
Medium 21
1.8 Wave Polarization 23
1.9 Elements of Quantum Optics 29
2 FUNDAMENTALS OF
SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY 39
2.1 Semiconductor Theory 40
2.2 Af-Type Semiconductors 50
2.3 P-Type Semiconductors 51
2.4 The /W-junction 53
2.5 Optical Emission 57
PART II E^CTRO-OPTICS
3 OPTICAL SOURCES 63
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 65
3.3 Laser Diodes 74
3.4 Quantum Well Laser Diodes 83
3.5 Surface Emitting Lasers 85
3.6 Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers 85
4 OPTICAL DETECTORS 95
4.1 Photodetection 96
4.2 PIN Photodetectors 96
4.3 Avalanche Photodetectors 100
4.4 Photodetector Device Characteristics
4.5 Advanced Optical Semiconductor
Devices 107
104
OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS 121
5.1 Types of Optical Amplifiers 122
5.2 Raman Optical Amplifiers 124
5.3 Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers 124
5.4 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers 126
5.5 Applications: 155 Mb/s SONET/OC3-STM
Transimpedance Amplifier 128
OPTICAL TRANSMITTERS 137
6.1 Introduction 138
6.2 The Multiplexer 138
6.3 32:1 2.488 Gb/s Multiplexers with Clock
Generators (VSC8131) 141
6.4 Led Drivers Based on the Motorola
MC10SX1130 144
6.5 Led Drivers Based on the Nippon NE53OO
DEVICE 148
6.6 Led Drivers Based on the Philips
74F5302 150
6.7 Laser Drivers Based on the Philips
OQ2545 HP 153
6.8 Laser Drivers Based on the Lucent
Technologies LG1627BXC 161
6.9 Laser Drivers Based on the
Nortel YA08 163
6.10 Laser Drivers Based on the Vitesse
VSC7928 3.2 Gb/s 168
6.11 Externally Modulated Laser Diodes 178
6.12 The Effect of Noise and Power Supply Noise
Rejection 178
6.13 Uncooled Laser Transmitters 185
6.14 10 Gb/s DWDM Optical Transmitters 187
OPTICAL RECEIVERS 193
7.1 Introduction 194
7.2 Data Patterns 194
7.3 Photodetector Diodes 196
7.4 Classification of Optical Receivers 201
7.5 Transimpedance Amplifiers 205
7.6 AGC Postamplifiers 209
vli
7.7
7.8
7.9
Data and Clock Recovery Circuits 218
Optical Receiver Performance
Characteristics 233
Optical Receiver Performance with Clock
Recovery 236
8 OPTICAL TRANSRECEIVERS 241
8.1 Introduction 242
8.2 LEDTransreceivers 242
8.3 LASER Diode Transreceivers 250
8.4 Design Guidelines for a Fiber Channel
Transreceiver 276
8.5 High Speed Optical Transreceivers 281
PART III OPTICS
9 OPTICAL FIBERS 291
9.1 Introduction 292
9.2 The Ray Theory 292
9.3 Theory of Optical Wave
Propagation 296
9.4 Optical Fiber Attenuation (a) 299
9.5 Optical Fiber Absorption 300
9.6 Scattering 301
9.7 Fiber Bend Losses 305
9.8 Classification of Optical Fibers 306
9.9 Dispersion 312
9.10 Multimode Fibers for Gb.E Applications
(IEEE 802.37) LAN 317
9.11 Nonzero Dispersion Shifted Fibers
1NZ-DSF) 320
9.12 Large Effective Area NZ-DSF 321
9.13 Optical Fiber Nonlinear Effects 322
9.14 Ability to Upgrade Already Installed Standard
Single-Mode Fibers 332
9.15 Plastic Optical Fibers (POF) 333
9.16 Optical Fiber Geometry 334
9.17 Splicing Efficiency 334
9.18 Optical Fiber Alignment 335
1 0 OPTICAL MODULATION
10.1 Introduction 346
10.2 The Mach Zehnder Interferometer 346
10.3 The Mach Zehnder (LiNbO,) Optical
Modulator 346
10.4 The MZ LiNbO. Design Process 349
10.5 MZ UNbO
3
Optical Modulator Operating
Requirements 355
] 0 6 Modulator Drivers 356
10.7 DFB Laser Diode with PMFs for External
Modulators 358
10.8 Electro-Absorption Modulated
Lasers 360
345
PARTIV SYSTEMS
11 MULTIPLEXING 369
11.1 Introduction 370
11.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing 370
11.3 Time Division Multiplexing of
PCM Signals 373
11.4 Code Division Multiplexing Access 376
11.5 Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing 380
11.6 Future Optical Devices for DWDM
Schemes 390
11.7 DWDM Multiplexing 391
11.8 AWG Multiplexers/Demultiplexers for
DWDM Systems 399
11.9 40-Channel AWG Multiplexer/
Demultiplexer 400
11.10 Add/Drop Optical Multiplexing/
Demultiplexing (OADM) 403
11.11 Programmable Add/Drop
Multiplexers/Demultiplexers 404
11.12 2.5 Gb/s 8:1 Multiplexer Circuit and Laser
Diode Driver 406
11.13 2.5 Gb/s 16:1 Multiplexer 411
11.14 2.5 Gb/s 1:8 Demultiplexer with Clock and
Data Recovery 414
11.15 2.5 Gb/s 1:16 Demultiplexer 416
11.16 Ultra High Speed Demultiplexers
(40 Gb/s-100 Gb/s) 417
1 2 OPTICAL SYSTEMS 423
12.1 Introduction 424
12.2 Optical Power Budget Analysis 430
12.3 10 Mb/s Optical Link Designed for Industrial
Applications 433
12.4 Optical Fiber Link Design 435
12.5 The Dispersion Effect 440
12.6 20 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s Experimental Systems
that Employ Spectral Inversion 463
12.7 Application 1 467
12.8 Application 2 469
12.9 Application 3 470
12.10 Application 4 472
12.11 The Wave Polarization Effect in Optical
Systems 474
12.12 LED Transmitters Coupled into Multimode
Fibers 478
12.13 LASER Transmitters Coupled into Multimode
Fibers 480
12.14 LASER Sources Coupled into Single-Mode
Fibers 480
12.15 Analog Optical Systems 484
12.16 Hybrid Multichannel Analog and Digital
Optical Systems 497
12.17 Undersea Optical Systems 501
12.18 Tb/s Experimental Optical Systems 516
VIII
CONTENTS
12.19 Ultra High Spmi Singh.- Channel OTDM l.VS AsuichminMis TnmsU-r Mok- 5S5
Experimental Systems 521 I I ' ) AIM ur linuilKiiul ISDN IVmvol .^N"
12.20 Soliton Transmission 527 l.vll) Nvnilnononv OjMual Ntluoiks
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1 3 NETWORKS SSI
13.1 mlroduL-tion 552 CUOSSARY S
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13.2 Optical Nclvvorks ?54
13.3 Review olDatiiCDmnuniiLatiidis I.inks s.Sh ABBREVIATIONS d.
13.4 Networks 557
13.5 Network Tuinsport Aivhnechiiv 5W) REI
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13.6 LAN Slandards 5M
13.7 The Fiber Channel 574 I N DE X <>4
CONTENTS
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