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Data Transmission Modes

Data Communications: Data Transmission Modes
The term transmission mode defines the direction of data flow between two
linked devices. The manner or way in which data is transmitted from one place to
another is called Data Transmission Mode. There are three ways for transmitting data
from one location to another. These are:
1. Simple mode
!. "alf#Duple mode
$. %ull#Duple mode
1. Simplex Mode
&n Simple mode' the communication can take place in only one direction. &n this
mode' a terminal can only send data and cannot receive it or it can only receive data
but cannot send it. &t means that in this mode communication is uni#directional.
Today' this mode of data communication is not popular' because most of the modem
communications re(uire two#way echange of data. "owever' this mode of
communication is used in business field at certain point#of#sale terminals in which
sales data is entered without a corresponding reply. The other eamples of simple
communication modes are )adio and T.* transmissions.
&n computer system' the keyboard' monitor and printer are eamples of
simple devices. The keyboard can only be used to enter data into computer' while
monitor and printer can only accept +display,print- output.
2. Half-Duplex Mode
&n "alf#duple mode' the communication can take place in both directions' but only in
one direction at a time. &n this mode' data is sent and received alternatively. &t is like a
one#lane bridge where two#way traffic must give way in order to cross the other.
&n half#duple mode' at a time only one end transmits data while other end receives.
&n addition' it is possible to perform error detection and re(uest the sender to re#
transmit information. The &nternet browsing is an eample of half duple. .hen we
issue a re(uest to download a web document' then that document is downloaded and
displayed before we issue another re(uest.
3. Full-Duplex Mode
&n %ull#duple mode' the communication can take place in both directions
simultaneously' i.e. at the same time on the same channel. &t is the fastest directional
mode of communication. /ample of this mode is conversation of the persons through
telephone. This type of communication is similar to automobile traffic on a two#lane
road. The telephone communication system is an eample of M&#duple
communication mode.
Types of Data Transmission Modes
There are two types of data transmission modes. These are:
1. 0arallel Transmission
!. Serial Transmission
1. Parallel Transmission
&n parallel transmission' bits of data flow concurrently through separate
communication lines. 0arallel transmission is shown in figure below. The automobile
traffic on a multi#lane highway is an eample of parallel transmission. &nside the
computer binary data flows from one unit to another using parallel mode. &f the
computer uses $!#bk internal structure' all the $!#bits of data are transferred
simultaneously on $!#lane connections. Similarly' parallel transmission is commonly
used to transfer data from computer to printer. The printer is connected to the parallel
port of computer and parallel cable that has many wires is used to connect the printer
to computer. &t is very fast data transmission mode.
2. Serial Transmission
&n serial data transmission' bits of data flow in se(uential order through single
communication line. Serial dat1 transmission is shown in figure below. The flow of
traffic on one#lane residential street is an eample of serial data transmission mode.
Serial transmission is typically slower than parallel transmission' because data is sent
se(uentially in a bit#by#bit fashion. Serial mouse uses serial transmission mode in
Synchronous 1 2synchronous Transmissions
Synchronous Transmission
&n synchronous transmission' large volumes of information can be transmitted at a
time. &n this type of transmission' data is transmitted block#by#block or word#byword
simultaneously. /ach block may contain several bytes of data. &n synchronous
transmission' a special communication device known as synchroni3ed clock4 is
re(uired to schedule the transmission of information. This special communication
device or e(uipment is epensive.
synchronous Transmission
&n asynchronous transmission' data is transmitted one byte at a 5time4. This
type of transmission is most commonly used by microcomputers. The data is
transmitted character#by#character as the user types it on a keyboard.
2n asynchronous line that is idle +not being used- is identified with a value 1' also
known as 5Mark4 state. This value is used by the communication devices to find
whether the line is idle or disconnected. .hen a character +or byte- is about to be
transmitted' a start bit is sent. 2 start bit has a value of 6' also called a space state.
Thus' when the line switches from a value of 1 to a value of 6' the receiver is alerted
that a character is coming.