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Prepared by Saleem Gaibie





2





First Published 2008
By Madbt Writers & Translators
Western Cape
South Africa
muaadth_allie@yahoo.com




Any part of this book may be reproduced for teaching
purposes with condition that no alterations are made in it.


Books may be bought or ordered by contacting madbut at the
above email






3
CONTENTS

Contents 3
Introduction 4
System of Transliteration 5

Chapter One:
1) Brief history of qir`t 6
2) The link of the teachers of Medinah to the Prophet 7
3) The link of the teachers of Makkah to the Prophet 8
4) The link of the teachers of Basrah to the Prophet 9
5) The link of the teachers of Kfa to the Prophet 10
6) The link of the teachers of Shm to the Prophet 10
7) The Qurr` - Readers 11
8) The Ruwt Transmitters 11
9) The Turuq Ways 12
10) Shtibs sanad to Hafs 13
11) The tarq of Muaddil 13
12) Muaddilss sanad to the Prophet 15
13) Ibn al-Jazars sanad to Muaddil 16
14) Samannds sanad to Ibn al-Jazar 17

Chapter Two:
1) Biography of Sheikh Ibrhm Samannd 18
2) Bahjah al-Luhhth (poem on the tarq of the Roudah) 21

Chapter Three:
1) Biography of Sheikh mir Sayed Uthmn 47
2) Sheikh mirs sanad to Sheikh Mutawall 49
3) Sheikh mirs poem on the tarq of the Roudah 50

Chapter Four:
1) Text of Sheikh Samannd 60
2) Text of Sheikh mir 61
3) Table showing difference between the tarq of the Roudah and
the tariq of the Shtibiyyah 62

Bibliography 63


4
INTRODUCTION

Many students are going abroad to receive ijzah (licence) in
Qurn. The most commonly read narration is that of Hafs from sim.
Generally students get ijzah for Hafs via the tarq of the Shtibiyyah.
However, a number of them have received ijzah for Hafs via the tarq of
the Roudah.

This book details the differences found in this tarq of the Roudah
whilst comparing it to the tarq of the Shtibiyyah. In doing so, the two most
noted and studied texts have been chosen to aid the student in
understanding all the differences. These are the poems written by Sheikh
Ibrhm al-Samannd and Sheikh mir al-Sayed Uthmn. By
memorising or studying these texts, the student will know the differences
found in the tarq of the Roudah.

However, a teacher is always aware that students have different
capacities and capabilities. Some thrive and derive enjoyment from the
technicalities of the science, whereas others are satisfied with knowing the
basics. With this consideration in mind, our approaches to the two texts are
different. In the poem of Sheikh Ibrhm al-Samannd, the text is
explained and many of the intricacies of tajwd are discussed in relation to
the other turuq of Hafs. The novice might find it somewhat difficult. On the
other hand, making allowance for those who merely want to know the
differences in the tarq without too many details, Sheikh mirs poem is
explained in a simple manner, making it easy for everyone to understand.

Biographies of both Sheikh Samannd and Sheikh mir are
presented before their works. A brief history is given of qir`t to equip the
student with background knowledge of what a qir`ah, riwyah and tariq are.








5
SYSTEM OF TRANSLITERATION

Nr Arabic English Nr Arabic English
1
|
` 17
1
th
2
,
b 18
_

3
.
t 19
_
gh
4
.
th 20
.
f
5
_
j 21
_
q
6
_
h 22
:
k
7
_
kh 23

l
8
.
d 24

m
9
.
dh 25
,
n
10

r 26
.
h
11

z 27
,
w
12
_
s 28
_
y
13
_
sh 29
|



14
_
s 30
_



15
_
d 31
,



16
.
t 32
_|


ai
33
,|


ou

N.B. Arabic words are italicised except in 3 instances:
1- When they possess a current English usage.
2- When they form part of a heading.
3- When they are proper names of people.

N.B. The sign for [ ] which is [`] will be omitted when the former appears
at the beginning of a word.


6
Brief History of Qir`t
The Qurn was revealed verbally. It was taught in the same
manner preserving both the text and every minutiae of its pronunciation.
During the Prophetic period we find that variant readings of the Qurn
existed. The Companions learnt these readings directly from the Prophet
and passed them on to their successors.

From amongst the Companions those who had memorised the
entire Qurn were: Ubaiyy ibn Kab, Ab Hurairah, Abd al-Allah ibn
Abbs, Umr ibn al-Khattb, Zaid ibn Thbit, Abd al-Allah ibn Umr,
Uthmn, Ali, Ab al-Dard, Abd al-Allah ibn Masd and ishah, Ab
Bakr ibn Siddq, Talhah ibn Ubaid al-Allah, Sad ibn Ab Waqqs,
Hudhaifah ibn al-Yamn, Amr ibn al-s and Abd al-Allah ibn al-Sib .

Those who had memorised the Qurn from amongst the
Successors were: Abd al-Allah ibn Ayysh, Yazd ibn Rmn, Abd al-
Rahmn ibn Hurmuz, Shaibah ibn Nash, Muslim ibn Jundub, Ab Jafar,
Ubaid ibn Umair ibn Qatdah, At ibn Yasr, Mujhid ibn Jabar, Yahy
ibn Yamar, Ab al-liyah al-Rayh, Nasr ibn sim, al-Mughrah ibn
Shihb al-Makhzm, lqamah ibn Qais, Abd al-Allah ibn mir al-
Shm, Ab Abd al-Rahmn al-Sulam, and al-Aswad ibn Yazd al-
Nakha.

It was during the time of the Successors and the period
immediately thereafter that there were illustrious individuals who became
renowned as teachers of the Qurn in the Islamic lands. In Makkah we
find Ibn Kathr. In Mednah were Ab Jafar and Nfi. Ibn mir was from
Shm whilst sim, Hamzah, Kis and Khalaf were from Kfah. Basrah
was the home of Ab Amr and Yaqb.












7




THE LINK OF THE TEACHERS OF MEDNAH TO THE PROPHET
S.A.W.














The Prophet
Ibn Abbs Ab Hurayrah Ubayy ibn Kab
Abd Allh ibn Ayysh
Abd al-
Rahmn ibn
Hurmuz
Ab Jafar Shaybah
ibn Nash
Yazd ibn
Rmn
Muslim ibn
Jundub
Sulaymn
ibn Jammz
Nfi
Ab Amr al-Basr
8


THE LINK OF THE TEACHERS OF MAKKAH TO THE PROPHET
S.A.W.














The Prophet
Umar ibn al-
Khattb
Ubayy ibn
Kab
Abd Allh ibn
Abbs
Zayd ibn
Thbit
Ubayd ibn Umayr
ibn Qatdah
Abd Allh ibn al-
S'ib
Mujhid ibn Jabr At' ibn Yasr
Zayd ibn Aslam Ibn
Muhaysin
Abd Allh ibn
Kathr
Ab Amr al-Basri
9

THE LINK OF THE TEACHERS OF BASRAH TO THE PROPHET
S.A.W.









The Prophet
Zayd
ibn
Thbit
Abd
Allh
ibn
Abbs
Ubayy
ibn
Kab
Uthmn
ibn Affn
Al ibn
Ab
Tlib
Abd
Allh
ibn
Umar
Ab al-Aswad
al-Duwal
Ab al-liyah Yahy ibn
Yamar
Nasr ibn Asim
al-Amash Shuayb
al-Azdi
Mlik
ibn
Dnr
Ab Amr
al-Basr
Abd Allh ibn Ab
Ishq al-Hadram
Yaqb al-
Hadram
10
THE LINK OF THE TEACHERS FROM KFAH TO THE PROPHET
S.A.W.


THE LINK OF THE TEACHERS OF SHM TO THE PROPHET S.A.W.








The Prophet
Ab al-
Dard
ishah Abd Allah
ibn
Uthmn Ali Zayd ibn
Thbit
Ubayy ibn
Kab
Ab Abd al-Rahmn al-Sulam Alqamah ibn
Qays
Al-Aswad ibn Yazd
al-Nakha
Ibrhim al-
Nakha
Ab Ishq al-
Sab
Hasan ibn Ab
Tlib
sim Husayn ibn Ab
Tlib
Hamzah
Al-Kis
Hafs
The Prophet s.a.w.
Uthmn Ab al-Dard
Al-Mughrah ibn Shihb
Abd al-Allah ibn mir al-Shm
11
The Readers (Qurr`)
Each of the above mentioned ten teachers is known as a qri.
1
So
acclaimed were they that readings (qir`t) were even ascribed to them. It
was said that a person was reciting Qurn according to the reading of
Nfi or Yaqb, etc. This did not, in any way, mean that these readings
were made up by them. But rather that they were noted as people who
dedicated all their efforts, abilities, and in fact, their lives to learning and
teaching the Qurn to the extent that their names became synonymous
with these Qurnic readings. In reality all these readings were taught and
passed on to them by the Prophet as is clearly illustrated by the diagrams
above. It should also be noted that they werent the only people teaching or
practising these readings but that there were many others. Invariably, it
was these 10 teachers who outshone the others. These readings became
better known as the qirt asharah or the 10 readings.

The Transmitters (Ruwt)
Similarly those who narrated these readings from these teachers,
whether directly or indirectly, became known as the transmitters, simply
because they transmitted the readings of these qurr. From each one of
these qurr we have two transmitters. It does not mean that only these
transmitters existed, but of the many, these were the most outstanding. For
the sake of brevity only the two narrators of Hamzah and sim will be
shown:


1
Literally a qri is someone who recites the Qurn and technically it refers to one of these ten
teachers. The plural of qri would be qurr. It has become customary to refer to anyone who
is an adept reciter of the Qurn as a qri.
Hamzah
Khalaf
Khalld
sim
Hafs Shubah
Sulaim
12
In the first example, the two transmitters of Hamzah narrate from
him indirectly via Sulaim and in the second example, Hafs and Shubah
narrate directly from sim. Regardless whether they are narrating directly
or indirectly, they are considered as the transmitters.

The Ways (Turuq)
Those who narrated from the transmitters were known as turuq
(ways), whether they narrated directly or indirectly from the transmitters.
The turuq can be divided into the turuq rasiyyah/asliyyah (primary turuq)
and the turuq fariyyah (secondary turuq).
2
From each transmitter of every
qri there are four primary turuq chosen by Ibn al-Jazar. The following
diagram indicates the primary turuq in the narration of Hafs:





All those who narrate from these primary turuq are known as a
tarq far or a secondary tarq. The most well-known reading is the reading
of sim according to the narration of Hafs via the tarq of the Shtibiyyah.
Imm Shtib would thus be a secondary tarq as he narrates the
transmission of Hafs through al-Hshim. Ibn al-Jazar mentions a total of
52 different turuq for Hafs. The following diagram indicates a link of
Shtib to Hafs:






2
Murshid al-ikhwn il turuq Hafs ibn Sulaimn by al-Samannd
Hafs
Ubayd ibn al-Sabbh Amr ibn al-Sabbh
Al-Ushnn
Al-Hshim Ab Thir Fl Zarn
13
Hafs

Ubaid ibn Sabbh

Al-Ushnn

Al-Hshim

Thir ibn Ghalbn

Ab Amr al-Dn

Ab Dwd Sulaimn ibn Najh

Ali ibn Hudhail al-Balansi

Al-Shtib

It should be noted that every link between Shtib and Hafs has the
potential to be a tarq. The tarq of Shtib would be an indirect tarq since he
narrates from Hafs via a number of links. However Ubaid ibn Sabbh
would be considered a direct tarq because he narrates directly from Hafs.
All the differences mentioned in a particular tarq have been documented in
books containing these variant readings. For example, any difference in the
tarq of Shtib for the narration of Hafs would be mentioned in his book
Hirz al-Amn wa Wajhu al-Tahn, better known as al-Shtibiyyah.


The Tarq of Al-Muaddil
Similar to the tarq of the Shtibiyyah, the tarq of Muaddil is also a
secondary tarq. It differs from the tarq of Shtib in that Shtib only
narrates from one primary tarq whereas Muaddil narrates from two
primary turuq: Fl and Zarn.

It should be clearly understood that if one is reciting Qurn
according to a particular tarq, the differences mentioned in that tarq must
be strictly adhered to. Therefore firstly, the reciter of any tarq has to have
the knowledge of the differences held in that specific tarq, or else he would
not be able to render an accurate recital of it. A reciter rendering a tarq
without having knowledge of its details stands a huge chance of reciting it
14
inaccurately; resulting in a rendition which has neither been learnt nor
taught. For example, those reciting the narration of Hafs via the tarq of
Shtib would not be allowed to make qasr in madd munfasil. If it is made,
then it will result in a rendition which has not been learnt nor taught by
Hafs in that particular tarq. The consequences of this would be an
inaccurate rendition of the Qurn, which is disastrous and cannot be
allowed for obvious reasons. Similarly the same applies to a transmision
(riwyah) and reading (qir`ah); the reciter must be knowledgeable about a
reading or narration before intending to recite it. Therefore the mere study
of this book will not equip the reader to recite all these differences but they
have to be learnt by a qualified teacher who has received ijzah in them.
3


The book under discussion, Bahjah al-Luhhath, is a book written on
only one of these particular turuq (ways). It details the specifics of the tariq
mentioned in the book Roudah al-Huffth f al-Qirt al-Sab. This book was
authored by Ab Isml Ms ibn al-Husain ibn Isml Ms, or better
known as Muaddil or Ibn al-Muaddil. He wrote the book Roudah al-
Huffth in which he discusses the seven qirt. Similar to the tarq of
Shtib, all the differences according to his tarq will be mentioned in this
book.

Bahjah al-Luhhth particularly discusses the differences in the
narration of Hafs from this tarq of Muaddil. The reason for writing a book
specifically on the tarq of Muaddil and not one of the many other turuq
(plural of tarq) is because the tariq of Muaddil is considered very similar to
the tarq of Shtib. And as stated previously the tarq of Shtib is the most
common way of reading, across the globe. For this reason it has become
one of the most commonly taught turuq of Hafs after the the tarq of Shtib.

Before embarking on any further discussion concerning the details
of the tarq itself, we would like to indicate Muaddils sanad
4
leading to the
Prophet :






3
Some qurr` in South Africa who have received ijzah in the tarq of the Roudah will be
mentioned later in this work.
4
A sanad is a chain of narrators who pass on knowledge from one to the other. The teacher
will pass on whatever he has learnt whilst taking care to preserve the exact wording and
accuracy of the teachings acquired.
15





The Prophet s.a.w.

Zaid ibn Thbit Ubaiyy ibn Kab Ali Uthmn Abd al-Allah ibn Masd




Ab Abd al-Rahmn al-Sulam Zir ibn Hubaish Ab Amr al-Shaibn


sim ibn Ab al-Najd al-Asad al-Kf


Hafs ibn Sulaimn

Amr ibn al-Sabbh

Zarn ibn Ahmad ibn s al-Daqqq Ab Jafar Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Fl

Ab al-Hasan Ali al-Qalnas Ab Bakr Ahmad al-Waliyy

Ab al-Hasan Ali ibn Ahmad al-Hammm

Abd al-Malik ibn Ali Shbr Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hshim Al-Husain ibn Ahmad al-Saffr


Ab Isml al-Muaddil









16







Ibn al-Jazars link to Muaddil is as follows:

Al-Muaddil


Ab Ali Mansr al-Ahdab


Ab Yahy al-Yasa al-Ghfaq


Ab al-Jd Ghayth ibn Fris


Al-Kaml Ali ibn Shuj


Abd al-Khliq al-Sigh


Muhammad ibn al-Sigh Abd al-Rahmn ibn al-Baghdd


Imm al-Jazar








17
After establishing Muaddil and Ibn al-Jazars sanad, we will now
authenticate Samannds link to Imm al-Jazar:
Imm al-Jazar

Al-Umyt Al-Nuwair Al-Qilql Ridwn al-Uqb

Zakariyy al-Ansr

Muhammad al-Samads Jaml ibn Zakariyy al-Ansr Al-Tablw

Shahhdhah al-Yemen

Ibn Ghnim al-Maqdis Ibn Abd al-Haqq al-Sumbt

Abd al-Rahmn al-Yemen

Muhammad al-Baqar

Ahmad al-Baqar

Abd al-Rahmn al-Ujhr

Ibrhm al-Ubaid

Ahmad Salamnah

Ahmad al-Durr al-Tihm

Muhammad al-Mutawall

Khall al-Janyan

Hanaf ibn Ibrhm al-Saq

Ibrhm al-Samannd

Aiman Rushd Suwaid

Ashraf Fu`d Talat

Abd al-Rahmn Ishq
5


5
Qri Abd al-Rahmn Ishqs sanad is only in the narration of Hafs via the tarq of the
Shtibiyyah, though he has read the tarq of the Roudah to Qri Isml Ishq whilst reading the
10 qir`t to him.
18
Ibrhm Ibn Ali Al-Shahhthah

The authors full name is Ibrhm ibn Shahhthah ibn Ali ibn Ali
ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ashr ibn al-saw ibn Shahhdhah al-Samannd
al-Shf al-Khall al-Misr.

He was born in the village of Samannd on 5 July 1915. At the age
of 10 he had memorised the entire Qurn at the hands of Sheikh Ali
Qnn. Thereafter he studied the science of tajwd by Sheikh Muhammad
Ab Halwah. During this period he recited the Qurn from memory to
the Sheikh five times, in the narration of Hafs. Sheikh Halwah, noticing
the brilliance of the Samannd at such a young and tender age, urged him
to memorise the Shtibiyyah. It took him just a year to memorise the
Shtibiyyah. The following year he read to Sheikh Halwah again, according
to all seven qirt contained in the Shtibiyyah. After completing the seven
qirt he met Sheikh Sayyid Abd al-Azz Abd al-Jawwd. Under his
tutelage he studied the three qirt mentioned in al- Durrah al-Mudiyyah of
Imm al-Jazar; the qirah of Ab Jafar, Yaqb and Khalaf. He again
rendered a complete recital of the Qurn to the Sheikh in all 10 qirt.

Besides mastering the science of tajwd and qirt he studied fiqh
and Islmic law under Sheikh Muhammad Ab Rizq, and Arabic grammar
under Sheikh Sayyid Mutawall al-Qitt and Sheikh Muhammad al-Hasan.
At the hands of Sheikh Abd al-Rahm al-Haidar he mastered ilm-al-urd,
the study of Arabic poetry and all its scales and rhyme-schemes. It was his
brilliance in poetry that exhibited most of his written works, in poetry
rather than prose.

After he had studied all that he could in the village of Samannd
he travelled to Cairo in 1944. On his arrival in Cairo, he was tested and
appointed as a teacher in a maqra. At about the same time, the Azhar
University announced that it would be holding a competition in qirt and
tajwd. With the Sheikhs competence in this field it was inevitable that he
would attain the top position in this competition. One of the main judges in
the competition was the famous Sheikh Ali al-Dabb. He was astounded
by Samannds aptitude and talent in that every time he was asked a
question, he answered by quoting directly from the books of qirt. It was
clear that he not only studied these books but that he had also memorised
many of them. Sheikh Ali al-Dabb referred the author to another book of
qirt written by the famous Sheikh Mutawall. Samannd then
memorised this book under Sheikh Hanaf al-Saq. He also spent another
19
four years during which he read all fourteen qirt to Sheikh Saq. In the
course of this period he was also appointed as a teacher in the institute of
qirt in Cairo.

Amongst his contemporaries were mir al-Sayyid Uthmn and
Ahmad Abd al-Azz al-Zayyt. Samannd excelled in the fields of tajwd
and qirt to such an extent that he transcended many of the scholars of his
time. The very first book he wrote in the field of tajwd, Lal al-Bayn was
included in the syllabus of the institute of qirt in Cairo. After writing an
abridged version of this book, in October 1954, the Azhar University
stipulated that it should be taught in all the Islamic institutes throughout
Cairo.

He became so well-known throughout the world for his knowledge
concerning the different readings of the Qurn that his name has become
identified with the science of qirt. To this day people travel from all over
the world to read to Sheikh Samannd.

Samannd was one of the scholars appointed to ascertain that the
printing of the Qurn is done accurately. At the same time he was one of
the scholars to review the recordings of the Qurn done by well known
reciters like Sheikh Mustaf Isml, Sheikh Minshw, and Sheikh Khall
Husr amongst others. Similarly, Qurnic recordings could not be aired
over the radio or sold to the public until it was approved by him. He also
played a major role in scrutanising printed copies of the Qurn. This
meant that the text of the Qurn would not be printed without his
approved assessment.

Of the books that the Samannd has written consider the following:
1. Tanqhu Fath al-Karm
2. Hal al-Asr f owjuhi al-Takbr
3. Tatimmah f tahrr turuqi Ibn Kathr wa Shubah
4. Lalu al-Bayn
5. Talkhsu lalu al-Bayn
6. Tuhfah al-Samanndiyyah
7. Bahjah al-Luhdh bim li Hafs min Rowdah al-Huffth
8. Riydah al-Lisn f Sharhi Talkhsi lal al-Bayn
9. Al-Mjaz al-Mufd f ilm al-Tajwd
10. Umniyyah al-Walhn
11. Murshid al-Ikhwn
12. Basim al-Thaghr
20
13. yah al-Asr
14. Anshdah al-Asr
15. Diy al-Fajr

The above-mentioned books are a few of his books, which have been
printed. Of those that have not yet been printed consider:

16. Al-Mutamad f martib al-Madd
17. Mawzn al-Ad
18. Al-Manhil al-Mustadhabah
19. Amni al-Talabah
20. Murshid al-Aizzah
21. Tahqq al-Maqm
22. Rislah fm li Hamzah al al-Sakt al-m
23. Ithf al-Suhbah
24. Hidyah al-Akhyr
25. Al-Najm al-Zhir
26. Kashf al-Ghawmid
27. Al-Durr al-Nathm
28. Al-Hasr al-Shmil
29. Al-Muhs liaddi yt al-Hims
30. Daw al-Musirrah
31. Al-Wujh al-Nadrah

Due to the Sheikh Samannds calibre in this field many have studied and
qualified under him. To mention but a few:
1. Sheikh Sad ibn Ysuf al-Samannd
2. Sheikh Rizq Habbah
3. Sheikh Mahmd Amn Tantw
4. Sheikh Aiman Muhammad Suwaid
5. Abd al-Fatth al-Mirsaf
6. Atiyyah Qbil Nasr
7. Muhammad Abd al-Dim Khams
8. Sheikh Muhammad Tamm al-Zub







21
,=,= - | ==- | = ,==.= ,

GRAMMAR
The , of .,


is harf jarr. It is connected to a hidden sentence. According to
the grammarians from Basrah the hidden sentence is .|..,|


_ . According to
the grammarians from Kfah the hidden sentence is |.,|


. The difference
between the two views would be that the grammarians from Basrah would
then consider the sentence to be a nominal sentence, whereas the latter
would deem it a verbal sentence.

The Basris state that the word , is derived from ,` ` , carrying the
meaning of high, or something of status. The Kfis consider it to be from
` , , , meaning an indication or sign.

Many say that = is derived from , ..

after adding the lm al-tarf to it and


dropping the hamzah. However, it is accepted that it is not derived from
another word as is the view of grammarians like Sbway and Khall ibn
Ahmad.

Both ,' - and ,' - , , are derived from - _ , denoting mercy, the difference
is that they are the intense forms of the word ~_ . Their meanings would
therefore not just indicate someone who is merciful (, - _), but someone
who is most merciful or extremely merciful. ~,' is placed before ,,-,'
because the meaning it carries is stronger due to the rule ,` ' ,
' , ; which basically states that the more letters which form the
make-up of the word, the more intense the meaning of that word. Another
reason ~,' is placed before ,,-,' is that ~,' is only used when referring
to Allah, whereas ,,-,' may refer to Allah, but is sometimes used for
creation also as in the verse:
6


, , ` , , - ,' , ` ,, , , ' ,,` _ , . - ' ` ,, - _ ` , . _ ,` '

6
Srah al-Toubah verse 128
22
In this verse ` ,, - _ does not refer to Allah, but to the Prophet .

EXPLANATION
The author has started his book in the same manner that the Qurn starts,
and in accordance with the hadth of our beloved Prophet :

` _ = ' ,` , ,,-,' ~,' = , , ' .` , . , , '
7

Every good deed which is not started with ,,-,' ~,' = , is severed
from blessing.

8


- - _ - , | ` ` .| _ !, - , `= | c | | = | = . , . (1)

TRANSLATION
1. For Thou art all praise, O my Master, in secret and in public, for the
favor of the Qurn which Thou hath eased for memory

GRAMMAR
- is to praise someone with the intent of glorifying him, whether the
person being praised has bestowed acts or gifts of kindness on the person
praising him or not. - can only be done verbally. ,` ' is praising
someone in return for an act of kindness bestowed upon the person doing
the praising. It can be done verbally or by reciprocating the act of kindness.
Thus the difference between the two is that - may be used by a
benefactor of an act of kindness or not, whereas ,' is only used by a
benefactor of kindness. - can only be done verbally whereas ,' can be
done verbally or via action.

The , in : ' is for - (deservedly by rights), similar to the example ` _ '
, , ' ; the house is rightfully Zaids house. In the same way all praise (-)
is rightfully due to Allah, and Allah alone.

7
What is meant by _=' is _,= ,' ; cut or severed from blessing.
8
Tabaqt al-Shfiiyyah al-Kubr vol: 1 p.12. al-Jmi li akhlq al-rw wa db al-smi, vol: 2
p. 87 hadith no: 1231, 1232. al-Adhkr al-Nawaw p. 198
23
The , in - is either for , (all-encompassing) or - (type). If it is
for , it means that all types of praises, directly or indirectly, are for
Allah. Thus by praising another person or creation of Allah we are
indirectly also inferring praise on the creator, Allah. By praising an
invention of man we still incur praise upon Allah as He is the one who has
blessed man with the intellect spawning the invention. If the , is for - it
would mean that type of praise worthy of Him who is the All-Mighty and
All-Powerful; the Creator, Nourisher and Sustainer of the universe and all
that it contains.

. , means protector, many a times used to refer to Allah since He is the
ultimate Protector. Also means master.

, , - ', ` , ' means quietly or openly/in secret or in public.

means blessing, bounty, favour or grace etc.

, ' means remembrance.

EXPLANATION
All Praise is due to Allah and Allah alone, our Master, our Protector,
Nourisher and Sustainer; (we) praise Him at all times in secrecy or
publicly, in times of ease or hardship, in times of abundance or strife. We
also praise Him for the gift of the Qurn, which He has made easy to
memorise, easy to read and easy to practise upon for those who has these
intents conforming with His words , ` , , ' . , ' , , ' ,

And We
have indeed made the Qur`n easy to understand and remember, then is
there any that will remember (or receive admonition)?
9
And Allah burdens
not a person beyond his scope and capabilities: , ` , . , ` ' ` . ` , ..
10




9
Srah al-Qamar Verse 17
10
Srah al-Baqarah Verse 286
24

After ,,-,' ~,' = , the author praises Allah as is done in the Qurn and
in conformity with the saying of the Prophet :

' .` , . , , ' _ = ' ,` , ' - ' ,
11

All good actions not started with the praises of Allah are severed of
blessing.

_= | - , - = =- `-= ! . - - | =` (2)

TRANSLATION
2. It remains as guidance for all of man from every form of darkness.
Its proofs are distinct and clear and of extremely high value.

VOCABULARY
~ means darkness.

. is the plural of ' . . It literally means a sign, an indication, or proof
whilst also hinting to the verses of the Qurn, which are called . ,; also
bearing the meaning of sign or indication.

,. means clear and apparent.

, according the grammarians from Basrah is derived from ,` ` which
has the meaning of high; thus , bears this meaning of highness or being
elevated.

_ ' means grade, standing, or rank, as used in the context of this line of
poetry.



11
Sunan Ibn Mjah, vol 1 p. 610, hadith no: 1894. Sahh Ibn Hibbn vol: 1 p. 173- 175 hadith no:
1, 2. Bayhaq, Sunan al-Kubr, vol: 3 p. 208-209. al-Khatb, al-Ji li akhlq al-rw wa db al-
smi, vol: 2 p. 87 hadith no: 1233. Sunan al-Drqutn vol: 1 p. 229 hadith no: 1. al-Adhkr al-
Nawaw p. 197.
25
EXPLANATION
This Qurn remains a Guidance to all mankind, taking him out of the
darkness of paganism, polytheism and intellectualism towards the light of
believing in the Oneness of Allah, and that the salvation of all mankind lies
in obeying Him.

The verses and proofs of the Qurn are clear and of elevated stature.

- = `. = ,= =- `., = | - , = _ - ,S _ ==`| _ - = (3)

TRANSLATION
3. I salute respectfully and send peace eternally upon the chosen one,
his family along with his radiant Companions

VOCABULARY
,=' literally means to supplicate. If it stems from Allah it bears the
meaning of mercy (~_), from the angels it carries the meaning of seeking
forgiveness (_) and coming from man it, carries the meaning of a good
supplication (, ,. - .).

' means peace.

, means forever or never-ending ( ').

==' means the chosen one.

, is derived from , , ' according to Kis and from ' according to
Sbway. It has the meanings of family, relatives or followers.

. - . is the plural of . - .. Literally it means companion, friend,
associate or follower etc. Technically it refers to the Companions of our
beloved Prophet ; those who saw the Prophet or was seen by him
12
and
they died believing in him and his message.

12
This clause is added to include those companions who were blind like Abd Allah ibn Ummi
Maktm.
26

,` ,' means radiant or bright.

EXPLANATION
After starting the book with the Name of Allah and humming the praises of
Allah it is only appropriate that we now praise His Messenger by sending
salutations and peace upon him as He commands:
,` , , , . ,` ' , ' ,' , ', , ;
13
Oh you who believe, send peace and
salutation upon him (the Prophet ).

The Prophet is also referred to as the chosen one (==') since he has
been chosen as the final Messenger to convey Allahs decrees to all of
mankind. As it comes in a narration:

. , , , = . , . , , = . , . , , ' , = . = . ,
_ , - _ , - ` _ , - ' . , = . ,
Verily Allah has chosen (the tribe of) Kannah from the progeny of
Isml, and has chosen (the tribe of) Quraish from Kannah, and
have chosen from the Quraish Ban Hshim (the tribe of Hshim).
So I am the chosen of the chosen of the chosen.

Regarding , there are various opinions as to who exactly is meant here. Of
them are those who say it refers to the tribe of Hshim who believed in his
message, or the direct members of his family ( ' ' . , ). Others say that
every person who fears Allah and practises upon the teachings of the
Prophet , is of his family.

Succeeding the praise of the Prophet , the author sends salutations upon
his family and illustrious Companions .








13
Srah al-Ahzb Verse 56
27
= | .` , | - , | - . = , ,` = -`- ` _ - ==, `=- , (4)

TRANSLATION
4. Now then, this is what Muaddil narrates in his fragrant Roudah
from the Tayyibah al-Nashr

VOCABULARY
` means thereafter. It is used in Arabic to indicate a shift in speech or
writing from one topic to another. In this case, after starting with Allahs
Name, His praise, praise upon His beloved Messenger and those who
follow, our discussion is shifted to the topic that we have at hand; the tarq
of Muaddil.

, _ means to narrate, report or transmit.

. , _ means garden. Here it refers to the book authored by Muaddil.

. - , ' means sweet-smelling, fragrant.

, ' .` , ~ literally means the unfolding of sweet scents. It refers to a book
written by Ibn al-Jazar.

EXPLANATION
This work will discuss what Ab Isml Ms ibn al-Husain ibn Isml
Ms better known as Muaddil or Ibn Muaddil narrates in his book, the
Roudah. He wrote the book Rowdah al-Huffth in which he discusses the
seven qirt.

The sweet scents and fragrances all bear metaphorical meanings, which
refer to knowledge. The Roudah written by Muaddil is but one scent
amongst many others, which have all been gathered in the Nashr written by
Ibn al-Jazar. This means that the Roudah is but a single book (scent)
amongst many other books (scents) included as one of the sources Ibn al-
Jazar used when compiling the Nashr.
14


14
Check the book: Isnd al-Jazar al-Imm il Khair al-Anm by Saleem Gaibie.
28
Ibn al-Jazar wrote the Nashr containing the 10 qirt in prose. After
completing this work Ibn al-Jazar reproduced the book in the form of
poetry and named it Tayyibah al-Nashr. The difference between the two is
that the one was in poetry and the other in prose.

, , | _ `| , , = - _ - : - , | - - . = , , (5)

TRANSLATION
5. With his isnd to the very learned Hafs who recited to sim, he
who is called Ab Bakr

VOCABULARY
`, - ' A very learned person. Also refers to someone who is trustworthy
or precise.

` ' Surnamed. sim was known as Ab Bakr.

EXPLANATION
Muaddil transmits the narration of Hafs through his sanad leading to Hafs
via Fl and Zarn:

In turn, Hafs was extremely precise and accurate in whatever he narrated
from sim. sim learnt from Ab Abd al-Rahmn al-Sulam, Zirr ibn
Hubaish and Ab Amr al-Shaibn. Al-Shaibn learnt from ibn Masd
and Zirr from Ali, Uthmn and ibn Masd. Al-Sulam learnt from Ali,
Uthmn, ibn Masd, Ubaiy ibn Kab and Zaid ibn Thbit . They all
learnt from the Prophet .

= , . | , - . , | , - , | - S , = ,| _ ..`- (6)

TRANSLATION
6. So in starting (of ones recitation) after the beginning of a chapter
(in the various sections thereof) the reciter is not given a choice as
regards basmalah but is requested to recite it for blessings



29
VOCABULARY
' . The beginning, starting.

. , - . The middle or various sections found in the Qur`n. Here, it
particularly refers to the middle of a srah.

, , -` Having the choice or option.

' , ' for blessings i.e. for the attainment of blessings.

, ` To recite/read.

EXPLANATION
From this verse onwards the author starts mentioning specific rules
according to the tarq of the Roudah.

There is agreement amongst qurr that when starting the recitation at the
beginning of a srah; whether it is after waqf or qat, basmalah has to be read.
The qurr also agree that this rule is applicable at the beginning of all the
srahs, except Srah al-Toubah.

However, in the middle of a srah most qurr gives the reciter a choice as
to whether he wants to read the basmalah or not. Imm Shtib says:

_ ,` : , ` . , ' ,, - . , - . , ,
At the beginning of a srah basmalah has to be read excluding
Srah al-Toubah, and in the middle of the srah, the person reciting
has a choice (of reading it or not).
15


Via the tarq of the Roudah, the reciter does not have a choice but will read
the basmalah to attain blessings ( ' , ).

What is meant by the middle of the srah is anywhere in the srah after the
first verse, whether it is the second verse of the srah or the last.


15
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 106
30
= | J`| - ,| , | . = ! `=| = - =` = : = .`- (7)

TRANSLATION
7. And recite the muttasil with tawassut and all munfasil you shorten. And
there is no sakt before a hamzah from any of the paths of qasr (turuq making
qasr).

VOCABULARY
=` means joined. However, here it refers to the joined madd i.e madd
muttasil.

=` , means in between or middle. The author alludes to the duration of
madd muttasil (tawassut).

= means to separate. Here, it refers specifically to the separated madd
i.e. madd munfasil.

,` = means to shorten. Here, it refers to the length of madd munfasil (qasr).

. literally means silence. Technically it is the breaking of sound for
that period of time which is normally shorter than (the breaking of sound)
when making waqf, without renewing the breath.
16


, = ' ` , ~ refers to all the turuq from Hafs who makes qasr in madd
munfasil. The duration of qasr is two harakt or one alif.

EXPLANATION
In the first section of the verse the author mentions two rules for this tarq;
the first is regarding the length of madd muttasil and the second regarding
the length of madd munfasil.

Considering all the turuq from Hafs the length of madd muttasil can be
pulled six harakt, five harakt, four harakt or three harakt.
17
None of the

16
Al-Nashr Vol.1 pg.240
17
Sarh al-Nass pg. 62
31
qirt allows madd muttasil to be read with qasr (two harakt). Ibn al-Jazar
states: I searched for the (allowance of) qasr in muttasil and did not find it
in any of the authentic qirt nor the anomalous (shdh) qirt, but found
texts stating that madd must be made in it.
18


From the tarq of the Shtibiyyah it can be pulled four or five harakt
19
and
from the tarq of the Roudah, tawassut will be made, which is four harakt
only. During waqf on madd muttasil six harakt will be allowed according to
both turuq, since tl is also allowed in madd rid.

Gauging by all the turuq narrating from Hafs, the length of madd munfasil
can be pulled two, three, four or five harakt. None of the qurr will allow it
to be pulled six harakt for Hafs.
20
Madd munfasil will be pulled the same
length as madd muttasil according to the tarq of the Shtibiyyah. Via the tarq
of the Roudah, qasr will be made.

The length of a harakah would be the time it takes a person to open or close
his finger without too much haste or delay in it.
21


In the second part of the verse the author addresses the sakt. Sakt is divided
into two types:
1) Sakt lafth ( = ')
2) Sakt manaw ( , )
Sakt lafth is that sakt which is made before the hamzah ( . ). Hamzah is
regarded as a difficult letter to read in the Arabic language. For this reason,
in many qirt, we find changes taking place in the hamzah e.g. tashl, ibdl
etc. In securing a proper pronunciation of the hamzah, sakt is made before it.
Therefore it is called sakt lafth; lafth (which means to articulate) indicating
the pronunciation or proper articulation of the hamzah e.g. , . . , _ . , , ,
, ' = , , .


18
Al-Nashr Vol.1 pg. 315
19
Imm Shtib does not mention the duration of any of the mudd in his book. However his
student Ab al-Hasan al-Sakhw informed us of Imm al-Shtibs practice when lengthening
these mudd. Check Sarh al-Nass pg. 63
20
Sarh al-Nass pg. 63
21
Doctor Aiman Suwaid considers this method of counting to be for the beginner. Check his
explanation on the Talkhs Sarh al-Nass of Abd al-Azz Uyn al-Sd.
32
On the other hand sakt manaw is made to secure the meaning; hence the
name manaw which alludes to the reason for this sakt.
22


Sakt is a phenomenon which is restricted to sam (_ ).
23
This means that
it can only be made in those places where it is narrated via authentic
transmissions.

In this part of the verse the author elaborates concerning the sakt lafth and
later, in verse number 11 he discusses sakt manaw. Both sakt lafth and sakt
manaw are narrated for Hafs via different turuq. Sakt lafth is narrated for
Hafs via Ushnn from the Tajrd of Ibn al-Fahhm and the Roudah of Ab
Ali al-Mlik.
24


None of the turuq which makes qasr in madd munfasil will narrate sakt lafth.
This is because all the turuq which narrate qasr in madd munfasil narrate
from Hafs via the tarq of Amr ibn al-Sabbh and all those who mention
sakt lafth from Hafs narrate via Ushnn, who narrates tawassut in madd
munfasil.
25
Therefore sakt lafth can only be made for Hafs whilst reading
madd munfasil with tawassut.

Since Muaddil narrates qasr through Fl and Zarn and sakt lafth is
narrated from Ushnn, it becomes obvious that sakt lafth will not be read
according to the tarq of the Roudah.

. - - ! , , `-- , , _ , , | , - ,, =- .| = - - (8)

TRANSLATION
8. There is no madd of tathm (madd of respect or grandeur) from it
(the tarq of the Roudah) and neither is there any form of takbr (at
the beginning or between srahs) as well as no ghunnah that is
applied (on the . and ._)

22
Al-Fawid al-Tajwdiyyah pg. 58 and Jmi al-Waqf pg. 14
23
Al-Nashr Vol.1 pg. 243
24
Al-Nashr Vol.1 pg. 423. Sheikhs Azmr and Mutawall has also added al-Tidhkr of Ibn Sht.
Check al-Roud
25
Al-Nashr Vol. 1 pg. 427. If we consider that Sheikh Mutawall has added al-Tidhkr also, then
sakt lafth will also be transmitted from Zarn for Hafs. Most turuq from Zarn will make
madd in munfasil except al-Roudah of Ab Ali al-Mlik, al-Jmi of al-Khayyt, and the Roudah
of Muaddil which will make qasr. Check al-Roud and Sarh al-Nass.
33
VOCABULARY

, , , the pronoun in both refers to the tarq of Muaddil.

, , saying ` , ' = .

literally means a humming sound. Technically it refers to the nasal
sound which accompanies the pronunciation of every . and .

, to apply something or bring something into effect.

EXPLANATION
In this verse the author discusses three different issues, the first being madd
al-tathm.
The asbb (causes) for madd are of two types:
1) lafth (literal)
2) manaw (metaphorical)
The literal sababs are the hamzah and the sukn. The hamzah is the sabab for
madd muttasil, madd munfasil (which have been discussed in line number 7)
and madd badal. The sukn is the sabab for madd rid and lzim.

The metaphorical sabab is the lengthening of ' . , to emphasise the
negating of something. Madd al-tathm is made when the ' . , is followed
by ..|

.
26
This madd is made to emphasise that there is no other deity (..|

)
besides Allah e.g.
-| , ! , , - ' `, , , ' ,` . , , -| , ! : - ` . ' . , , -| , ! = . ,
Madd al-tathm is narrated only by those who make qasr in madd munfasil;
they will then allow madd al-tathm to be made to the duration of tawassut.
Madd al-tathm is narrated for Hafs from the tarq of Ab al-Qsim al-
Hudhal in his book, al-Kmil.
27

It is not allowed according to the tarq of the Roudah nor the Shtibiyyah.


26
Another madd made due to a metaphorical sabab is madd al-tabri`ah in the qir`ah of Hamzah.
It is also made to emphasize the negating of something e.g. , .,_ . . , ' ~ . . ,,- . etc.
27
Al-Nashr Vol. 1 pg. 344
34
The second matter the author adressess is the takbr. Some qurr generally
allow takbr to be made after Srah al-Duh for attaining blessing ( ' , ).
However, takbr is narrated for Hafs via sanad according to the Kmil of al-
Hudhal, Ghyah al-Ikhtisr of Ab al-Al and the Misbh if Ab al-Karam
al-Mubrak. It is not mentioned according to the tarq of the Roudah, nor the
Shtibiyyah and therefore will not be allowed by them.
28


The third matter discussed by the author is the ghunnah. It is known that
when making idghm into the letters of ,` , that it will be made with
ghunnah. In the , and _ idghm will be made without ghunnah e.g. . _
.` ' , . However idghm is also narrated with ghunnah in , and _ according to
the Kmil of al-Hudhal and al-Wajz of al-Ahwz for Hafs.
29
When ghunnah
is mentioned in this verse by the author it refers to the ghunnah made with
idghm into the , and _ ; idghm will then be nqis (incomplete).

According to the tarq of the Roudah, and the Shtibiyyah, idghm will be
made into , and _ without ghunnah. Imm Shtib says:

|...| ,..|, _...| ,..,

;.-. |.|, ;.| _ ... ;,




And all of them (qurr`) make idghm of the tanwn and the nn into
the lm and r` without ghunnah to beautify it (the idghm).
30


,| . ` = | _ - ,| =, | = _ - , =| . ! _ - =, - _ (9)

TRANSLATION
9. In the two places that ... , ,,'. and =. appears, substitute it (ie.
the second hamzah) with a completely lengthened madd (recite with
,,~)





28
Al-Roud al-Nadr, explanation of line 52, discussion on takbr at the end of the book.
29
Al-Roud al-Nadr, explanation of lines 31-33
30
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 286
35
VOCABULARY
, , ' To increase or in excess. It describes the madd i.e. the madd will be
pulled to the duration of tl (six harakt).

EXPLANATION
The words .|.

. _.

, ..|.

_.


and . = can be read with tashl or ibdl considering
the turuq of Hafs. In these words two hamzahs appear together; the first is a
hamzah al-qat
31
and the second is a hamzah al-wasl.
32
If the word containing
the hamzah al-wasl is joined to what is before it then the hamzah al-wasl is not
read but remains in writing. In this case the hamzah al-wasl is preceded by
hamzah al-qat and should be dropped. However, if it is dropped confusion
will arise as to whether the clause is giving news (, -) or asking a question
( , ). Therefore the hamzah al-wasl is still read but with some change in
it; the change being either tashl or ibdl.

Tashl is to read between an actual hamzah and the letter of madd which
agrees with the harakah on the hamzah. In this case the hamzah has a fathah
and will be read between a hamzah and an alif.
33
With tashl no madd is
possible since there is no letter of madd. Ibdl is to substitute the hamzah for
a letter of madd. In these examples the hamzah al-wasl is substituted with an
alif. Because the letter of madd (alif) is then followed by a permanent sukn,
madd lzim will take place. Its duration is six harakt.

According to the tarq of the Shtibiyyah, tashl or ibdl can be made, and
from the Roudah, only ibdl is allowed. Imm Shtib says:

_:.. \ _, _., ~ ,|,

\.,. ..... .,...\| .~,



_,| |. _:...

_..| ....,

|. _. _. _,...

;.:.. ,

And if a temporary hamzah (appears) between a lm skinah and


the hamzah of istifhm then lengthen it whilst making ibdl (in the
temporary hamzah).

31
Literaly a permanent hamzah
32
Literaly a temporary hamzah
33
If the hamzah had a dammah it would be read between a hamzah and a ww, and if it had a
kasrah it would be read between a hamzah and a y.
36
This is preferred for all (the qurr`), and make qasr for that person
who makes tashl for all (the qurr`) like | \

has been given as


example.
34


_` ! , | , . _ _ - -. | . , , -| . , , = | (10)

TRANSLATION
10. Apply , in ' whilst in .,, and ._ apply idghm (with the
letters following them) and complete the idghm of - , and do not
leave it weak or incomplete

VOCABULARY
_ ,` . not to diminish or lessen something. It refers to the idghm
mentioned before it i.e. the idghm should not be incomplete (nqis) but
complete (tm).
EXPLANATION
In this line two issues are discussed; ishmm in the word ' of Srah Ysuf
and idghm in the words : ' . , , of Srah al-Anfl, . _ of Srah Hd
and , - , ' ' of Srah Mursalt.

Ishmm is the rounding of the lips like when reciting a dammah. It is more
commonly found in waqf when stopping upon the last letter with a sukn
and then rounding the lips to indicate that the last letter bears a dammah. It
is not a sound, and therefore cannot be heard but must be seen.

The word ' was originally ` ' with two nns. Therefore with idghm,
ishmm is made to indicate that the nn with a dammah has been
incorporated into the second nn.

In this verse of poetry the author indicates that via the tarq of the Roudah
ishmm will be made in ' .


34
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 192 and 193
37
According to the tarq of the Shtibiyyah, roum will also be allowed in ' .
Roum is to read the harakah partially. Some qurr have also referred to this
as ikhtils, and as ikhf. Imm Shtib says:

. . . ..-. _:.. .....|.,


;..... _


,.. _-,.| ..:| . ..|,

. . .
And in .....|.

for all the qurr` roum is made separating (the two nns).
And idghm with ishmm is made from the qurr` by some
shuykh.
35


In : ' . , , and . _ idghm and ith-hr are allowed from the turuq of
Hafs. Acording to the tarqs of the Roudah and the Shtibiyyah only idghm
will be made. From the tarq of al-Kmil when transmitting from al-
Khabbz and from al-Tajrd, ith-hr will also be allowed in : ' . , ,. Via the
tarq of al-Kmil when not transmitting from al-Hshim, al-Wajz, al-
Mustanr when transmitting from al-Tabar via al-Waliyy from Fl, and al-
Jami of Ibn Fris as well as al-Dns recitation to Ab al-Fath, ith-hr will
be allowed in . _ also.
36


Imm Shtib says:

.- ,.| _,

,..-, , , _

;,- |. .. ,,. .- _.. .



And in ..-. ,.|


Bazz, Qln and Khalld with an option, Ibn mir,


Khalaf and Warsh (without an option) will make ith-hr. In ... ,,.


Hishm, Ibn Kathr and Warsh will make ith-hr.
37



In , - , ' ' all the turuq agree on making idghm but differ on whether
idghm should be tm or nqis. The author states that the according to the
Roudah, idghm tm will be made. The same will apply in the tarq of the

35
Al-Shtibiyyah line 773, 774
36
Al-Roud al-Nadr, explanation of lines 393-395 and 432-435, Sarh al-Nass pg. 81, 82
37
Al-Shtibiyyah line 284. The remaining qurr` including Hafs will make idghm.
38
Shtibiyyah. Makk ibn Ab Tlib and Ab Bakr ibn Mihrn will allow
idghm nqis also.
38


It should be remembered that idghm nqis will not be allowed for Hafs at
all since Makk and Ibn Mihrn are not counted amongst the turuq of
Hafs.
39


` `-| _ ,_ S _ . = ! - , - `- | = = | - J _ - . _ , (11)

TRANSLATION
11. There is no sakt (via this tarq) in the four luminous (places)
namely, ._ , (Al-Mutaffifn), _ (Al-Qiymah), , (Ysn) and
-, (Kahf)

VOCABULARY
,` ' literally means shining, bright or luminous. It describes the four sakts
for Hafs i.e. they shine brightly because they are so well-known amongst
the reciters of the Qurn.

EXPLANATION
In verse number seven the author discussed sakt lafth. This verse elaborates
upon sakt manaw. As sakt lafth is made to protect the pronunciation, sakt
manaw is made to protect the meaning. It is only found in the narration of
Hafs in four places:
1) ' . _ in Srah al-Mutaffifn
2) ' _ in Srah al-Qiymah
3) , ' in Srah Ysn
4) - , ' ` , in Srah al-Kahf






38
Al-Roud al-Nadr, explanation of lines 743-749, Sarh al-Nass pg. 98
39
Check Isnd al-Jazar al-Imm il Khair al-Anm by Saleem Gaibie.
39
Sakt manaw will be made via the tarq of the Shtibiyyah and according to
the Roudah, no sakt is mentioned in these four places. Imm Shtib states:

...L. L ,,. _.- ..:.,

_.

_ _...| ..|

;., .-.

\, ...., _| _. ,. _,

;.. ,:.\ ,.,.|, ,| _,






And the slight sakt of Hafs without stopping (recitation) upon the
alif of the tanwn in .-.

, the nn of _| _.


and ....


, with the lm
of ,| _,

No sakt is transmitted by the remaining (qurr`).


40


Sakt lafth will be treated as wasl and sakt manaw will be treated as waqf.
This means that when making sakt on , ' = , , the tanwn will be read same
as when making wasl. When making sakt on - , ' ` , the tanwn will not be
read as in wasl but sakt will be made as when stopping on the word; the alif
of - , will thus be read. Hence the rule that sakt lafth follows the rule of
wasl and sakt manaw follows the rules of waqf.

This division makes it easy for the student to understand how sakt should
be made e.g. if reciting any qirah which makes sakt lafth and basmalah is
not read between the two srahs, like Hamzah, then when joining Srah al-
Qriah to Srah al-Takthur ( , - ` _ ' ` , ' ` , , ' ' ) the tanwn will be read.
And if reciting a qirah which does not make sakt lafth, between these two
srahs the round t will be changed into a h during sakt because it will be
treated as sakt manaw which follows the rules of waqf.

Similarly between Srahs al-Anfl and al-Toubah the sakt is manaw.
Therefore the tanwn is not read when making sakt between these two
srahs, instead the mm will be recited with a sukn, the same as during
waqf.
41





40
Al-Shtibiyyah line 830, 831
41
The sakts being divided into lafth and manaw is only found in books written by qurr from
the Indian subcontinent. Other qurr dont have this division. As stated above these two
divisions makes it easy for the student to understand how sakt should be made. These two
divisions however are not all encompassing (jmi), as there are sakts which dont fall in either
of the two divisions e.g. the sakt on the hurf maqattat in the qirah of Ab Jafar.
40

,| - , = | J _ `,, `. _ , - _ ` = | =,`= `- - (12)

TRANSLATION
12. And from him (ie. Hafs via this tarq) it is necessary to shorten the
madd in the letter . And (it is also necessary) to apply tafkhm to
the ._ of the word , (appearing) in the verse `of the ocean`

EXPLANATION
In the ain ( , ) found at the beginning of Srah Maryam and Srah Shr,
tawassut and tl are allowed from the Shtibiyyah. From the Roudah, only
qasr will be made. Imm Shtib states:

. . . ;. L.|, ,.,-.| _. _,



42
. is preferred l t two ways, whilst ) there are ( ain And in the

The yah of bahr refers to the verse , . , - ' = . , . in Srah
Shuar
43
. According to the Shtibiyyah the r of , can be read with
tafkhm and tarqq. Imm Shtib states:

,..- ,

.| _, _- _..,

. ;... _.:.


And their difference in , has remained between shuykh with
ongoing continuity.
44


From the Roudah only tafkhm will be allowed.

=| , = : = - = =- . | S = | ,| = =- . (13)

TRANSLATION
13. Delete the letter ., when stopping on the word .. appearing in
Srah al-Naml. It is likewise compulsory for the reciter to delete the

42
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 177
43
Verse 63
44
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 351
41
.'' at the end of the word :: in Srah al-Dahr (when stopping on
it).

VOCABULARY
- to leave or drop something.

EXPLANATION
In . . of Srah al-Naml there is a difference of opinion as to how waqf
can be made. Some stop whilst reading the y skinah after the nn ( .
), and others stop making the nn skin ( . . ). The Shtibiyyah allows
both. According to the Roudah, waqf will only be allowed by dropping the
y skinah and making the nn skin. Imm Shtib says:

| _...| _,

_,| _. _.., _..

;. _- _, ..| .;-, _~

And in |

_..

of (Srah) al-Naml Hafs, Warsh and Ab Amr will read


(the y`) with a fathah (during wasl), and there is difference of
opinion during waqf between Ab Amr and Hafs.
45


Similarly in the first of Srah al-Dahr, waqf can be made on the alif or
by dropping the alif and reading the lm as skin ( ). Again the
Shtibiyyah will allow both whereas the Roudah will only allow the
dropping of the alif during waqf. Imm Shtib says:

.

|,, .| ,.

... .

,..- _.- _. _. . ...,,






. . .
Read .

with a tanwn for Nfi, Kis`, Shubah and Hishm, and


stop with qasr (without the alif) for Ibn Dhakwn, Hafs and Bazz
with an option (of stopping with the alif also).
46







45
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 429
46
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 1093
42

, ,- ,| , .` == =, =`| `,` ; | . =| , ! ,` .| , | . _ (14)
- | = ;`_ .-`= .,` , = , - == , | _ _ |S =`=, , _ (15)

TRANSLATION
14. And with a not with a . recite the word .,,=,~' and with two
options ( or . recite) its singular and indefinite form (ie. ,=,~s in
Srah al-Ghshiyah)
15. Likewise (the reciter has the option of or .) in the first =~,
and in the word =~,. The reciter also has two options in the nn of
, and ., (that of Srah al-Qalam) and (in the) word .. of Srah al-
Rm

VOCABULARY
, means single or alone. Refers to . ,` , = , =` ' of Srah al-Tr when it
appears in its singular form i.e. , = , ~` which is in Srah al-Ghshiyah.

, '' means indefinite.

, , - , ' literally means two faces. Here, it refers to a word that can be read
in two different ways.

EXPLANATION
The author addresses various issues in these two lines. Firstly he states that
. ,` , = , =` ' of Srah al-Tr should be read with a sd () from the tarq of the
Roudah. The Shtibiyyah will allow it to be read with a sd () and a sn (
). Imm Shtib says:

. . . ......|,

;. ..-..., ,.. ,... ,,L.







And .|

. ,,L..

(with a sn) for Hishm and Hafs, with an option (for


Hafs).
47


47
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 1048
43
Thereafter the author says that in , = , =` which he refers to as , '' , it can
be read in two ways; with a sd or a sn according to the tarq of the Roudah.
The Shtibiyyah will only allow it to be read with a sd. Imm Shtib states:

. . . ;. ..-..|, _.. .:| L..


|,.. _...,,

. . . . . .
Make ishmm in L..,

for Khalaf (without an option) and for Khalld


with an option, while Hishm reads with a sn.
48


In the next line he explains further that in =` = , in Srah al-Baqarah and
= = - ' in Srah al-Arf , two ways are also allowed via the tarq of the
Roudah; a sd or a sn. The Shtibiyyah will only permit it to be read with a
sn in both these words. Imm Shtib states:

. . . ,.. i.,,

;..| _,. .

.L., _.-..| _, ,., _...,,



. . .
And i.,,


(with a sd) from these qurr` (Shubah, Ibn Kathr, Nfi
and Kis`) besides Qumbul, and with a sn for the remaining qurr`
as well as in .L., _.-..| _


49


In _

and ,

, two ways are also allowed. It can be joined to what follows it


with idghm or it could be read with ith-hr according to the Roudah. The
Shtibiyyah will only allow ith-hr. If idghm is made it will follow the rules
of nn skinah and tanwn i.e. if followed by one of the letters of ` , , then
idghm will be made with ghunnah. During waqf on _

and ,

, both turuq
will make ith-hr.







48
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 1109
49
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 514, 515. The remaining qurr` will include Hafs.
44
Imm Shtib states:

,

..

|., ..- _. _.

;- ,:, _. ..-..| ., ,.,



And make ith-hr in _



and ,

for Hafs, Hamzah, Ibn Kathr, Ab


Amr and Qln whilst there is an option from Warsh (in the
latter).
50


In the verse . , - , , . . - , . . , - ' , , of
Srah al-Rm the word . . appears three times. The dd () can be read
with a fathah or a dammah. This will be according to the Roudah and the
Shtibiyyah. Imm Shtib says:

_. ..- _. .. ,.| _,

. . . . . .
And ( -.

) of (Srah) al-Rm (with a fathah on the dd) by Shubah,


Hamzah (without an option) and Hafs with an option (allows a
dammah also).
51


In line 15 it can be understood that all these words are read in two ways
when he says , - ' ; meaning that in the same way the verse above may
be read in two ways, similarly it will be allowed here also (in Srah al-Rm).

From these lines it seems that these words can be recited in any one of the
two ways at any given time. However, in the following two lines the
author explains some rules regarding when these changes are to be made.

,| =`=, , = `, = - == , _ =, =`- `. = _ , , _ - | (16)
. -_ _ - -| , `. _ , | - .-`= = | `_. - - | (17)

TRANSLATION
16. But (when reciting) with ith-hr (in Srah Ysn and Srah al-Qalam
one should recite with) in ,=,~ and with a in (the words) =~,
and =~, (where the word ) ,, (is found)

50
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 281
51
Al-Shtibiyyah, line 723
45
17. (likewise when reciting with ith-hr one should recite with) fathah
in the word ... (These are all) narrated by al-Fl whilst the
opposite is narrated by Zarn and both (these methods) are
narrated from Amr.

VOCABULARY
' Means the opposite.

referring to the srah where :, \, _. \

is found in i.e. Srah al-


Baqarah

EXPLANATION
When making ith-hr in . ., ' , , , and , ' , . ,` then , = , =` has to be read
with a sd, =` = , and = = has to be read with a sn while the dd of . . has
to be read with a fathah. This is all narrated from Fl.

The opposite is narrated from Zarn; he will make idghm in . ., ' , , ,
and , ' , . ,` . Whilst making idghm he will read , = , =` with a sn, =` = ,
and = = with a sd and . . with a dammah.

Fl and Zarn both narrate these differences from Amr ibn al-Sabbh who
in turn narrate from Hafs.

` ,| _ | , =`,| = | ; . - _ - .`- ; . | _ _ : = =| (18)
, , | ` .| _ !, - , `= | c | | , | . = (19)

TRANSLATION
18. In conclusion, I send my salutations and greetings (of peace) upon
the seal of all messengers, those who guided toward righteousness

19. And (upon his) family and companions,(So accept my salutations
upon them O Allah) whenever anyone says: For Thou art all
praise, O my Master, in secret and in public


46
VOCABULARY
' to present something as a gift, send.
` , ' those who lead or guide.
', ' goodness righteousness.

EXPLANATION
The author ends his book by sending salutations and peace upon the seal of
all Prophets, upon those who guide towards righteousness, upon his
family, and Companions.

























47
mir Al-Sayed Uthmn
He was born in Egypt on 16 of May 1900. From a young age he already
started memorizing the Qur`n in his village at the hands of Sheikh
Atiyyah Salmah. Thereafter he left for the Talln where he read the
narration of Hafs, the sabah and asharah qir`t via the tarq of the Durrah to
Sheikh Ibrhm Mars Bakr al-Bins, from whom he received ijzah. Sheikh
Ibrhm was a student of Ghunaim Muhammad Ghunaim, who, in turn,
was a student of the famous Hasan al-Jurais al-Kabr.

Sheikh mir later travelled to Cairo where he read the asharah qir`t to
Sheikh Abd al-Rahmn Subaiyyi, a direct student of Hasan al-Jurais al-
Kabr. However, he was unable to complete his rendition of the Qur`n to
this sheikh; on reaching the verse: ,` _ , , ,` , , - ' , ,,
his teacher unexpectedly passed on. He resumed his recitation of the
asharah qir`t by Sheikh Subaiyyis student, Hammm Qutb, from whom
he eventually also received ijzah.

He became a prominent figure and teacher in the field of tajwd and qir`t.
People travelled from far and wide to recite and study under his auspices,
so much so that even whilst he was walking from one place to another
students were seen walking alongside him and reciting.

Positions held by Sheikh mir
The Sheikh and Qri` of Masjid al-Sultn al-Hanaf
The Sheikh of maqra` al-Imm al-Shfi
A teacher at the Azhar University in qir`t, tajwd, rasm, dabt,
counting of verses etc.
A teacher in the faculty of qir`t at the Azhar University
Associate in checking the printing of the Mashif in Egypt
Associate in checking the printing of the Mashif in Saudi Arabia
Reviewer of recitals of renowned qurr` to be aired over the radio
and/or recorded in Egypt
Reviewer of recordings made in Saudi Arabia
Overseer to many international qir`t competitions held
worldwide
Inspector to all the maqri` (places of recitation) in all Egypt
Chief Sheikh to all the maqri` in Egypt (this is the highest position
any sheikh could wish to achieve in Egypt)

48
His Students
Mahmd Khall Husri
Mustaf Isml
Kmil Ysuf Bahtm
Abd al-Bsit Abd al-Samad
Aiman Rushd Suwaid
Muhammad Tamm al-Zub
Muhammad Slim Muhaisin
Abd al-Rahmn Hudhaif, previous Imam of the mosque of the
Prophet
Abd Allah al-Jouhar al-Sayed

His Literary Works
Fath al-Qadr
Nathm Tanqh Fath al-Karm (co-authored with Sheikh Ibrhm
Shahhth and Abd al-Azz al-Zayyt)
Rislah on the riwyah of Ruwais via the tariq of Ibn Mihrn
Editor of Lat`if al-Ishrt of al-Qastalln
Kaifa Yutl al-Qur`n al-Karm

The Sheikh passed away on the eve of Jumuah in Medinah. On that Friday
morning after fajr salh, salh al-janzah was performed and he was buried
in Jannah al-Baq, in the city of our beloved Prophet













49
Sheikh mirs sanad to Sheikh Mutawall
52
and our links to him:
53


Sheikh Mutawall

Hasan al-Jurais al-Kabr

Ali Subayyi

Hammm Qutb

mir al-Sayyid Uthmn

Al-Nahhs Abd Allah al-Jouhar Aiman Rushd Suwaid Abd al-Halm M.Farmw

Salaf Warrq Ismail Londt Salh al-Dn Ashraf Talat Majdi al-Bsh


Ihsn Davids S.Gaibie Husain Dalvie Hrn Moos Abd al-Rahmn Ishq Abdul Karm Davids Slim Peck

















52
The rest of the sanad can be checked on page 18.
53
Many have read the tarq of the Roudah but with varying sanads. Only those in South Africa
who are linked to Sheikh mir are mentioned, though there are others who do have ijzah in
this particular tarq. Some include Ali Davids, Moulana Ihsn Smith and any of the students
who have read the asharah kubr to Qri Ayyb Ishq or Qri Isml Ishq.
50
,=,= - | ==- | = ,==.= ,

EXPLANATION
The author starts his poem with the basmalah, in accordance with the
Qur`n (which also starts with the basmalah) and the hadth of the Prophet
which states that every good action not started with the name of Allah is
void of blessings.

(1) ! ,| . =| ,S _ ==' _ - .`- _ : = _ - _ ,=| , == -

VOCABULARY
'. - I praised
_,..|


my deity, God, Rabb, all referring to Allah
_ - with
. my salutations
` someone who sends peace
upon
= = ' the chosen one i.e. the Prophet
, and
,. the family
. -=' the Companions (of the Prophet )
. , ' those who follow i.e. those who come after the companions

EXPLANATION
The author praises Allah, as the Qur`n also starts by praising Allah and in
agreement with the hadth of the Prophet which says that every good
action not started with the praises of Allah is devoid of any blessings.

Thereafter, the author sends salutations and peace upon the Prophet , the
chosen one (Mustaf) as commanded by Allah in the verse:
, ,` , , , . ,` , ' ,' , ' ,
O you who believe, send salutations and peace upon him (the Prophet )

51
He also sends peace and salutations upon the family of the Prophet , the
Sahbah and those who follow ( . , ' ,).

(2) _ .` , = -`| , ! - = _ ; = | , = - - - - - =` `=- ,

VOCABULARY
` thereafter. After praising Allah and sending salutations and peace
upon His beloved Prophet .
` - so take, grab hold of
that which
. - came (comes)
from
' by, via, according to
. , _ refers to the book written by Ibn Muaddil
-` which is clear

EXPLANATION
After Praising Allah and His Prophet , the author states: Take heed of
what is transmitted for Hafs from sim via the tarq of the Roudah of Ibn
al-Muaddil.

(3) ,,`= | = = : ,=` .S , ==, | == .` | = = , -

VOCABULARY
, = . so make qasr
, ,` = ' in that which is separated. It refers to the separated madd i.e madd
munfasil.
, as in the ain (_). Refers to the ain which appears at the beginning of
Srah Maryam (_-,.

) and Srah Shr ( -

,', _..

).
= , and make tawassut
=. ` ' referring to madd muttasil
, . ' make ibdl i.e to change a hamzah into a letter of madd
52
.. as in the example ..
.` which has been accepted

EXPLANATION
54

The author explains four matters in this line:
1) The length of madd munfasil which will be pulled for the duration of two
harakt (qasr).

According to the Shtibiyyah, tawassut will be made for the duration of four
or five harakt.

2) The duration of the ain in (_-,.

) and ( -

,', _..

), which will be the
same like madd munfasil i.e. qasr.

Via the Shtibiyyah, tawassut and tl will be allowed.

3) The duration of madd muttasil which will be tawassut i.e. four harakt.

The Shtibiyyah, will allow four or five harakt in madd muttasil.

4) Ibdal will be made in the words _..|.




, _...|.



and .|.

.

Via the tarq of the Shtibiyyah tashl will also be allowed in these words.

(4) ! = : =`| _ ,= = , | . _ , ; -. , , . , ,

VOCABULARY
. , , , - : ' . , , found in Srah Anfl
, will be recited with idghm
. _ . _ of Srah Hd
' , complete. Indicating that idghm tm (complete idghm) should be
made instead of idghm nqis (incomplete idghm).

54
Sheikh mir does not discuss any rules regarding the basmalah as done by Sheikh
Samannd in his poem. He does not discuss madd al-tathm either as deliberated by
Samannd.
53
, . - . refers to , - , ' ' (in Srah Mursalt)
in
. ,` ' Srah Mursalt
., sent down i.e. Srah Mursalt

EXPLANATION
In this line those words in which ith-hr and idghm are made are
discussed. Three words are mentioned in this verse viz. : ' . , , , . _
and , - , ' '; in all three idghm will be made.

In , - , ' ' there is a difference as to whether idghm tm or idghm nqis
should be made. Via the Roudah, idghm tm will be made.

In these three words there is no differences between the tarq of the
Shtibiyyah and the Roudah; according to both it will read the same.

(5) _ , , , .,` :` | ; :| _ - - _ . ; _ = | , = ,

VOCABULARY
. ,` , the nn refers to at the start of Srah Qalam
_ , ~ , will be read with idghm
, , as in

, at the start of Srah Ysn
verily
, _ transmitted, narrated
_ , and leave (dont make)
nasal sound
` - to be beautiful, appropriate


EXPLANATION
At the beginning of Srah Nn and Srah Ysn, ith-hr will be made via the
Roudah, the same as the Shtibiyyah.

54
No ghunnah will be made in the lm and the r` when idghm is being made
from the Roudah e.g. . _ , .` ' . The Shtibiyyah also transmits idghm
without ghunnah, same as the Roudah.

Other turuq will allow idghm with gunnah.

(6) ! | .`=,`,= , -| .= , , = | - _ ,_ : ,| , | . = !

VOCABULARY
. no
. sakt/ saktah
before
, , ' the (letter) hamzah
_ _ as in the four. Refers to the four places in the Qur`n where Hafs
makes sakt.
know (this) well
, ' , make ishmm. Ishmm means to give an indication towards the
harakah of the dammah.
' . in ' (of Srah Ysuf)
.` ,` ,. in Srah Ysuf
. , ' has been sent down (revealed)

EXPLANATION
No sakt will be made for Hafs on a proper skin before hamzah for Hafs as
commonly found in the qir`ah of Hamzah e.g. . . , , , , _ . , , , ' = , , .
Similarly, the tarq of the Shtibiyyah will also not allow this type of sakt.

Via the Roudah sakt will also not be made in the following four places:
1) - , ' ` , in Srah al-Kahf
2) , ' in Srah Ysn
3) ' _ in Srah al-Qiymah
4) ' . _ in Srah al-Mutaffifn

55
According to the Shtibiyyah sakt will be made in these four places.

(7) : ,=` -= := .| _ `,= = . ` =, .`- =`., , = - | - =. ,

VOCABULARY
= , refers to = = - ' in Srah Arf
, ' in Srah Arf
=` , as in the word , =` , of Srah Baqarah
. ,` , = , ` . ,` , = , =` ' of Srah Tr
. . ' the three

EXPLANATION
Via the Roudah a sn will be read in = = , , =` , and ' . ,` , = , =` .

The Shtibiyyah will allow the first two to be read with a sn and . ,` , = , =` '
can be read with either a sn or a sd.

(8) : - |= .`- ,= , -- _ . =, =` , _ `. =| = | _

VOCABULARY
' refers to Srah Ghshiyah
- , way, method
, ,. reciting takbr i.e. , ' =
be
'. ` someone who is aware, attentive



EXPLANATION
Be aware that via the tarq of the Roudah a sd will be read in =` , = , and no
takbr (recitating of , ' = ) will be made between two srahs after Srah
Duh.

56
The Shtibiyyah will read the same.

(9) : = : = = = .| ; = | , =- . ,, . , J

VOCABULARY
, , in the word ,
, , - with tafkhm
. , in the word . , (of Srah Naml)
- so drop i.e. do not read
in Srah Naml
similarly
in the word of Srah Dahr

EXPLANATION
In , of Srah Shuar` the r` will be read with tafkhm.

The Shtibiyyah will allow it to be read with tafkhm or tarqq.

When stopping on the words . . of Srah Naml the y` will not be read.
Similarly, whilst stopping on of Srah al-Dahr the alif will not be read.

Via the Shtibiyyah waqf can be made with the y` ( . ) or without it (
. .). In waqf can be made with the alif ( ) or without it ( ).

(10) ` , - = .- = _ _ . , : `- - , | =, | - . , -

VOCABULARY
_ , , means read with a fathah
, ,` , Its (these examples in) Srah Rm
, short for
` from him i.e. from Muaddils Roudah
transmit
57
EXPLANATION
In the verse , , . , - , , . . - , . . , - ' of
Srah al-Rm the word . . appears three times. The dd () can be read
with a fathah from the Roudah. All these differences mentioned above is
what Muaddil transmits from Fl.

In the next line the differences which he (Muaddil) transmits from Zarn
are mentioned.

(11) _ . , ; | _ . -_ _ ; = | ,`= ' . ,' .,` , -` , = , ; -. , , _ .

VOCABULARY
,` . , read with a dammah
. _ _ ' according to Zarn
,' ,' in Srah Rm
, o lad, student
, ' . ,' . ,` , referring to the start of Srah Qalam
` which is high

EXPLANATION
The dd in . . and . of Srah Rm will be read with a dammah.

Via the Shtibiyyah the dd in these three places can be read with a dammah
or a fathah.

In

and

idghm will be made.



(12) .`- _ - `, = _,=| _ . = , =`., , = - | - == , ! ` =,

VOCABULARY
, ' = = , the word = = of Srah Arf
=` , , the word , =` , of Srah Baqarah
_ , =' , in Srah Tr. Refers to the word . ,` , = , =` '
58
, = , ` , = , =` which is found in Srah Ghshiyah
. ,` has been sent down/revealed

EXPLANATION
Both = = and , =` , will be read with a sd. In . ,` , = , =` ' and , = , =` a sn will
be read.

(13) =,`| _ ==`| _ , - , _ - : = _ - _ : = =| : =`- | _ , ;

VOCABULARY
' to present something as a gift
. my salutations
my peace
, - as greetings
, to
,` ' the gift
' man, mankind
,` as a messenger

EXPLANATION
The author ends his book by sending salutations and peace as greetings
upon the chosen one, Muhammad , who is the gift given to all mankind
in the form of a Messenger of Allah.

(14) . - _, | _ ,` : = - ; = = | , ! = -

VOCABULARY
, , the family
. - . ' , the companions
- leaders
_ ` in context of the verse it would mean to spread, fill
_ , ,' winds, air
59
musk
. , sweet scents, d (particular aromatic smell commonly considered as
coming from India)


EXPLANATION
He also sends greetings to the family of the Prophet , the noble and
leading Sahbah ; in such abundance that these greetings would fill the
air with the sweet smells of musk and d.

































60
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61
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62
Differences Between Shtibiyyah And Roudah


Difference Shtibiyyah Roudah

Fl Zarn
1
Basmalah in the
middle of a srah
Choice of reading it
or leaving it
Basmalah will be read to attain
blessing ( )
2 Takbr No Takbr No Takbr
3 Madd Muttasil 4/5 harakt 4 harakt
4 Madd Munfasil 4/5 harakt Qasr (2 harakt)
5
Ghunnah in lm
and r`
No ghunnah No ghunnah
6 =~, - Baqarah
7 =~, Arf
8 .,,=,~' -Tr /
9 ,=,~, -
Ghshiyah

10 '. . /,,'. /=. Tashl/Ibdl Ibdl
11 4 sakts Sakt No sakt
12
Sakt before hamzah
No sakt No sakt
13 ._ Idghm Idghm
14 :' .,, Idghm Idghm
15 ,- ,'' Idghm Tm Idghm Tm
16 ,' ' : Idghm/Sakt Idghm/Sakt
17 ain (,) Tl/Tawassut Qasr (2 harakt)
18 , / . Ith-hr Ith-hr Idghm
19 ' Ishmm/Roum Ishmm
20 , Tafkhm/Tarqq Tafkhm
21 ../. Fathah/Dammah Fathah Dammah
22 = .
Stops with or without
the y`
Stops without the y`
23 ::
Stops with or without
the alif
Stops without the alif






63
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