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08 707 POWER SYSTEM LAB L/T/P : 0/0/4 Credits : 4

Hardware Tests

1. Power frequency testing of electrical equipment like insulators, fuses, AB switches,
lightning arresters etc.
2. Determination of string efficiency of string insulators.
3. Calibration of HV measuring equipment using sphere gap
4. Impulse voltage test on insulators, lightning arresters etc.
5. Measurement of dielectric strength of air, solid and liquid insulating materials.
6. Determine the characteristic , pick up time etc. of different types of electromagnetic
relays
7. Determine the characteristic, pick up time etc. of different types of static relays.
8. Measurement of earth resistance and soil resistivity.
9. Testing of insulation of 3 core and 4 core cable
10. Characteristics of Current Transformers and Potential Transformers
11. Power measurement using current transformer & potential transformer.
12. Power factor improvement with capacitor banks.
13. Testing of energy meters
14. Ferranti Effect and its mitigation
15. Transient stability study
Software Simulation Tests

16. Load flow analysis- Gauss Siedal Method ,Newton Raphson Method, Fast
decoupled method, Of test systems with buses not exceeding 6 numbers.
17. Short circuit studies 3 phase LG, LL, LLG fault.
18. Simulation of FACTS devices (Shunt Compensation).
19. Analysis of Transient stability and Voltage stability of power systems (using Power
angle and PV curves respectively).
20. Simulation of AGC for single area and two area systems using SIMULINK.
21. Formulation of Ybus matrix with mutual coupling using MATLAB.

Note: (i) Ten of the twelve Hardware Experiments and all the Six Software Experiments are
to be conducted.
(ii) University Question paper will contain one hardware and one software question for the
exam. Each student must answer both parts.
Note:
For University examination, the following guidelines should be followed regarding award of
marks
(a) Circuit and design -30%
(b) Performance -30%
(c)Result -20%
(d) Viva voce -20%





POWER SYSTEM LAB


Index


Ex.No.

Title


Date

Page No.
1 Power frequency testing of Insulators.
2 Measurement of dielectric strength of air & solid
insulating materials.

3 Measurement of dielectric strength of liquid
insulating materials.

4 Measurement of insulation resistance of 3-core &
4-core cables

5 Testing of Electromagnetic Over Current Relay.
6 Testing of Current Transformer and Potential
Transformer

7 Short Circuit Analysis I - Mi Power
8 Short Circuit Analysis II - Mi Power
9 Short Circuit Analysis III - Power World
10 Study of MATLAB
11 Measurement of Earth Resistance& Soil Resistivity
12 Impulse testing of Insulators.
13 Calibration of High Voltage Equipment
14 Power factor Improvement
15 Power measurement using CT & PT.
16 Testing of Static Over current relay
17 Study of Relay Tester Sverker 760
18 Testing of Earth Fault current relay
19 Automatic Generation Control - Simulation of
Single Area and Two Area System - Simulink

20 Load Flow Analysis I - Mi Power
21 Load Flow Analysis II - Mi Power
22 Load Flow Analysis III - Power World
23 Simulation of FACTS devices (Shunt Compensation).
24 Transient stability and Voltage stability











LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Ex.No. Title
Cycle-I
1 (i) Power frequency testing of Insulators.
(ii) Measurement of dielectric strength of air & solid insulating
materials.
2 (i) Measurement of dielectric strength of liquid insulating
materials.
(ii) Measurement of insulation resistance of 3-core & 4-core cables
3 Testing of Electromagnetic Over Current Relay.
4 (i) Testing of CT
(ii) Testing of PT
5 Mi Power Short Circuit Analysis I
6 Mi Power Short Circuit Analysis II
7 Power World - Short Circuit Analysis III
8 Ybus Formation using MATLAB
Cycle-II
9 (i) Measurement of Earth Resistance& Soil Resistivity
(ii) Impulse testing of Insulators.
(iii) Calibration of High Voltage Equipment
10 (i) Power factor Improvement
(ii) Power measurement using CT & PT.
11 Testing of Static Over current relay
12 Testing of Earth Fault current relay
13 Simulation of single area and two area AGC System.
14 Mi Power Load Flow Analysis I
15 Mi Power Load Flow Analysis II
16 Power World Load Flow Analysis III
Cycle-III
17 Simulation of FACTS devices (Shunt Compensation).
18 Analysis of Transient stability and Voltage stability of power systems (using
Power angle and PV curves respectively).
















Experiment No. 1

(i) Power frequency testing of Insulators.
(ii) Measurement of dielectric strength of air & solid insulating materials

(i) Aim: Power frequency testing of Insulators:-
a) To study the power frequency test set up.
b) To find the power frequency with stand voltage of the given 11 kV disc
insulator.
c) To find the power frequency flashover voltage of the given 11 kV disc insulator.


(ii) Aim: Measurement of dielectric strength of air & solid insulating materials
a) To measure the breakdown voltage of air in uniform and none uniform fields.
b) To measure the breakdown voltage of solid insulation in uniform fields.



THEORY

The main focus of high voltage engineering is that to design a reliable and economic
insulation system. It is therefore important to know how an insulating material turns itself
in to a conducting one (i.e. breakdown of insulating material). Breakdown theory in gases
can be explained by using Townsends breakdown theory. Townsends mechanism is
based upon
(i) Ionization by collision in the gas and
(ii) Ionization on the surface of cathode

Townsend used a parallel plated electrode system enclosed in a glass chamber
containing a gas at low pressure. An U.V light source was used to irradiate the cathode
surface to emit photoelectrons in the gaseous medium. A variable source of potential was
connected externally across the electrodes in series with an electrometer to measure small
current. There are four distinct regions in the current growth curve.
Townsends mechanism can be explained as follows (Fig)



In region 1 current through the air gap increases proportionally with gap voltage till it
reaches V
1
. This is because with increasing gap voltage more and more emitted photo
electrons from cathode reach the anode .

In region 2 current remains essentially constant between V
1
and V
2,
all the
photoelectron emitted per second from the cathode reach the anode per second giving a
saturation current. , N
0
is number of photoelectron liberated per second.

In region 3 current gross exponentially beyond v2 and up to v3,with the increase in
gap voltage, the electric field stress E, in the gap increases and hence an electron leaving
the cathode experience more force and acceleration. This result in higher kinet ic energy
of the electrons as it travels to the anode. Therefore probability of ionization increases
due to the collision of electrons with uncharged particle.
Anode current .
Towsons introduces a quantity called (Townsends first ionization constant). It is
defined as the average number of ionizing collision made by one electrode per cm drift in
the duration of electric field. Here is the electron avalanche and represents
the number of electrons produced by one electron while travelling from cathode to anode.
N
A
is number of electron reaching anode per second.
In region 4 as the voltage reaches V
4
the anode current increases very sharply and is
limited only by the external resistance. The current doesnt change even if the u.v light
source is removed. The gas is now said to have broken down Townsends postulated that a
second mechanism in addition to the primary process must be affecting the current.
There may be three secondary processes as follows.
1. The positive ions liberated in an avalanche may cause ionization by collision
while moving towards the cathode.
2. The positive ion may liberate electron from the cathode surface when they
impinge on it.
3. The excited atoms or molecules in the avalanche may emit photons when these
atoms returns to normal state and these photon may cause photo ionization.

The steady state current may derived as



Where and are both dependent on electric field stress
Townsends criterion for spark breakdown:
If and reaches such a values so that the denominator become zero, the current
become independent on N
0
and indeterminate (1 to )
Townsends criterion for the breakdown gases is , is very large and
hence reduce to .
For voltages above V
3
and below V
4,
. Hence the condition for
breakdown is not satisfied but the current is contributed by the electrons produced by
both and processes, the later being significant beyond V
3
.At V
4, the
denominator tends
to be zero and steady state electron flow ceases. V
4
is denoted as breakdown voltage (V
b
)


of the gap and the corresponding field stress is known as the electron field stress, E
b
.For
voltages equal to or more than V
4
,the circuit current is determined by resistance.

Factors affecting breakdown voltage:

Electrode separation.
Electrode effects.
Frequency of applied voltage.
Pressure effects.
Time lags.
Eternal circuits.
Recovery of insulating property.
Non metallic electrodes and surface coating.

Flashover test on air gaps

Adjust the air gap at suitable gas distance (say 3cm). Make sure that all
connections between various elements like control unit, HV transformer, test specimen
and earth are ok. Keeping the control knob at minimum position, switch on the control
unit. Increase the voltage across the air gap using the control knob at 2KV/sec. When the
breakdown of the air gap occurs, not down the voltage from the peak voltmeter, bring
back the knob to zero position and wait for 2 minutes. The experiment can be repeated in
the same way and take 5 set of readings. From this the average value of the breakdown
strength of air can be calculated.

Arrangement of disc insulator for test set up.

i) String insulated unit is suspended from an earthed metal cross arm.
ii) The length of cross arm should be at least 1.5 the length of the string being tested
and should be at least equal to 0.9m on either side of the axis of string.
iii) No other earthed objects should be nearer the insulator string than 0.9m and 1.5
times the length of sting whichever is greater
iv) A conductor of actual size to be in use in service or diameter not less than1.0 cm
and length 1.5 times the length of the string is secured in the suspension.
v) The high voltage of the transformer is connected to the conductor and capacitance
voltage divider using insulated wire.

Power Frequency Testing of HV equipment

The HV equipment is connected at the test position as in service (figure 1). To do
the withstand test, specified value of voltage is applied across the equipment by means of
the HV test set up, the voltage is raised in steps of 2kV/second the voltage is maintained
for 1 minute. For conducting break down test, the voltage is raised in steps of 2kV/second
till there is a breakdown across the equipment.






Figure 1
Determination of Dielectric Strength of air

The test circuit is done as given in the figure. The electrodes are connected
instead of across the HV equipment. If the electrodes are both flat, the field between the
electrodes is uniform. The field is non uniform when the electrodes are either rod or flat
and rod. Sphere gap also can be used. The voltage is gradually raised as done for the
power frequency test and the value of voltage at which, the breakdown occurs is
determined. The ratio of the breakdown voltage to the distance between the electrodes in
cm, will give the dielectric strength of air.


PROCEDURE:

(i) Power frequency voltage is applied to the insulator and the voltage is increased to
specified value and maintains it for one minute.
(ii) The voltage is increased gradually till flashover occurs.
(iii) The experiment is repeated for 5 times.
(iv) The mean of 5 consecutive flashover voltages must be less than the specified
value.










Observations


Uniform field (Plane to Plane)


Air Gap (cm)


Breakdown voltage (KV)

Mean (KV/cm)


1cm










2cm








Non Uniform field ( Point to Plane)


Air Gap (cm)


Breakdown voltage (KV)

Mean (KV/cm)


2cm









3cm









Withstand voltage of _ _ _ KV disc insulator :_ _ _ _ _ _KV

Flashover voltage of _ _ _ KV disc insulator :_ _ _ _ _ _KV


Result:
Inference:






Experiment No. 2

(i) Measurement of insulation resistance of 3-core & 4-core cables.
(ii) Measurement of dielectric strength of liquid insulating materials.

(i) Aim: Measurement of insulation resistance of 3-core & 4-core cables.

a) To study the Insulation resistance Test Megger BM11D.
b) To measure the insulation resistance of the given under ground cables-
(i) HT 11 kV (ii) LT 1100 V cables.
c) To measure the insulation resistance and polarization index of the given
transformer.

(ii) Aim: Measurement of dielectric strength of liquid insulating materials.
a) To study the transformer oil test kit.
b) To measure the dielectric strength of the given samples of transformer oil.

Measurement of Insulation Resistance of Cables

Procedure for measurement

1. Open the Meggering Instrument BM11D and connect the red, blue and
black leads as specified in the manual: Red to the positive and black
lead to the negative terminals. Blue lead is required when guard
connection is required.
2. Switch On the Megger using the ON/OFF switch and wait till is ready
to use.
3. Check the status of the battery and choose the test voltage using the
select keys, required for the cable under test.
4. To start test process, the red button is pressed for more than 1second.
The red LED will be flashing indicating that the test is in progress.
5. When the timer reads 60seconds, press red button again and note the
final reading.
6. Polarization index is the ratio of Insulation resistance in 60 seconds to
the Insulation Resistance in 10 seconds.











4-core cable
















Observations
HT Cable
Test
Voltage

Description
Insulation
Resistance
5000






LT Cable

Test Voltage Description Insulation
Resistance
1000








Inference

























Experiment No. 3

Testing of Electromechanical Over Current Relay.
Aim:
a) To study the relay test unit Sakova.
b) To study Electromechanical Over current relay Type CDG11
c) To conduct the pick up test on all taps and determine the percentage error.
d) To obtain the time current characteristics (Operating time characteristics)
with time multiplier settings at 0.1, 0.5 & 1.0.

THEORY

A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of
circuit breaker to isolate the defective section from the rest of system. In some cases it
may give an alarm or visible indication to alert operator. Protective relays are broadly
classified in to three depending on the technology they use for their construction and
operation as electromagnetic relay, static relay and microprocessor based relay.
Electromagnetic relay operate on electromagnetic principle i.e. an electromagnet attracts
the magnetic moving part or a force is exerted on a current carrying conductor when
placed in a magnetic field or a force is produced by principle of induction. Moving ion,
moving coil, attracted armature, induction disc and induction cup type relays come under
this group of relay.
A protective relay which operates when the load current exceeds a preset value is
called an overcurrent relay. The value of prt current above which the relay operate is
known as its pick-up value. An overcurrent relay is used for protection of distribution
lines, large motors, power equipments etc. A scheme which incorporate overcurrent
relays for the protection of an element of power system is known as an over current
scheme. At present electromagnetic relays are widely used for this. A wide verity of time
current chara is available for over current relay.
A definite time overcurrent relay operates after a predetermined time when the
current exceeds its pick up value. The operating time is constant irrespective of
magnitude above pick-up value.
An instantaneous relay operates in definite time when the current exceeds its pick-
up value and there is no intentional delay. It operates in 0.1s or less. An inverse time
overcurrent relay operates when the current exceeds its pick-up value. The operating time
depends on the magnitude of operating current. Operating time decreases as current
increases.




Current setting

The current above which an overcurrent relay operates can set. If the relay is set at
5A, it will then operate when current exceeds 5A. An overcurrent relay which is used for
phase to phase protection can be set at 50% to 100% of rated current in steps of 25. The
current at which it can set are 2.5, 3.75, 5, , 10A. The actual rms relay current is


expressed as multiple of the setting current (pick up current) which is known as plug
setting multiplier.



Time setting

The operating time of a relay can be set at a desired value. In induction disc type
relay the angular distance by which the moving part of the relay travels for closing the
contact can be adjusted to get different operating time. There are 10 steps in which
current can be set.Time multiplier setting is used for these steps. The value of TMS
are0.1, 0.2,.,0.9, 1.0. Suppose that at a particular value of current or PSM,the
operating time is 4s with TMS as 1, the operating time for same PSM with TMS as 0.5
will be 4 0.5 = 2 sec.

Relays and Relay Testers




Tests for Relays
Relays are devices used in systems especially in power systems for preventing or
avoiding unintended situations that may lead to the damage of equipments or personnel.
Relays can be Analog or Digital based on the measurement methods. They can be
Electromagnetic, Electromechanical, Static or Numeric based on the method by which
the trip signal is produced to be sent to the Circuit breakers. All these relays have to go
through a routine testing procedure to ensure security during their operating life time.
Some tests are specific for each relay as specified by the corresponding manufacturers.
But a few are common to each and every relay irrespective of their operating nature.
Only those tests are conducted in this laboratory to test the relays. These tests are



1. Pick up Test
2. Drop out Test
3. Operating Time Determination Test


Basic operation of a relay



Relay Testers

All relays can be tested by certain universal testers capable of supplying the
actuating quantity (current or voltage). For an overvoltage or undervoltage relay, the
tester should be capable of supplying voltages ( ac or dc depending on the type of relay)
with capability to change the magnitude of voltage. This can be very easily achieved by
a variable voltage source. Whereas for current actuated relays (overcurrent relays, earth
fault relays, impedance relays etc.) the relay tester should be a current injection unit. In
this laboratory, two types of relay testers are used. They are capable of current injection
and voltage injection. Read the details of each relay testers from the corresponding
manuals SAKOVA model RTS 03 and Sverker 760.





Testing Procedures

1. Pick up Test

This test is done to find out the minimum value of the actuating quantity for
which the relay is about to start the process of tripping. For overcurrent relays, the
current is injected to the current carrying terminals and the value of current is gradually
increased by the current varying knob of the relay tester. The picking up of the relay
can be identified by any of the following methods. For an electromagnetic relay, the
Pick up value is the value corresponding to which the Aluminum disc begins to rotate.
Whereas for a static relay, pick up value is the value corresponding to which, the trip
LED gives the first blink.

2. Drop Out Test

This test is done to find out the maximum value of the actuating quantity for
which the relay stops the tendency to trip. For this test, initially the relay is made to
pick up as done in the pick up test. The current injection to the overcurrent relay is
reduced gradually till the disc stops rotating or till the LED stops blinking. It is quite
obvious that in both these tests, the speed of current variation certainly affects the
value. So, utmost care should be taken to change the value of current injection at the
slowest pace.

The relays should be supplied with the DC voltage to energies the tripping
circuit by connecting the 110V DC from the relay tester to the voltage point of the
relays. This is done by rotating the knob of auxiliary DC supply in Sakova to
110V. The trip circuit of the relay and the tester are also to be connected.




3. Operating Characteristics Determination Test

This is the most important test for determining the quality of a relay. Each
Manufacturer will provide a set of operating characteristics for different time multiplier
settings. Current injection should be given to the relay as given in the circuit below for
few specified values of current or voltage and the time taken by the relay to trip in each
case is determined.

First, set the DC Voltage to 110V. Then switch off the DC supply. Set the time
multiplier to the required value by rotating the disc of CDG11. Now slowly inject the
currents by the ON and OFF push buttons alternately till it reaches the specified values
of currents for overcurrent relays as CDG 11, MCT12A or TSA 111. Then switch on
the DC supply, switch On the Timer and then press the ON push button. The relay will
trip after some time. Note the time shown in the timer (AT).



Points to be noted: The N/C N/O switch should be in the N/O position for testing
CDG11. The timer switch should be in INT position. Dont inject the current with DC
ON for doing the current setting for the Operating time determination.

Observations


Pick Up and Drop Out Test

Pick Up test should be done for each tap setting for CDG11


Current
Setting
Is (A)

Pick Up
Current
Ip (A)

Percentage Error
((Ip Is)/Is)*100

Drop Out
Current
Id (A)

Percentage Error
((Id Is)/Is)*100



Operating Time Characteristics

Find the Curve time (CT), the time set by the manufacturer for each value of current from
the manual. It is also given on the front panel of CDG11. Few values are given in the
table.

Plot the graph for Operating Characteristics with Plug Setting Multiplier on X axis
(Multipliers of Is) and Tripping Time on Yaxis.


Current
setting Is
(A)
Time
Multiplier
Setting
Tripping Time in Seconds
2Is 4Is 6Is 8Is 10Is
CT AT CT AT CT AT CT AT CT AT

2.5A

0.1 1 0.3
0.5 5 1.5
1.0 10 3








Typical time current chara of a relay






















Experiment No. 4

Testing of Current Transformer and Potential Transformer

Aim
a) CT testing
i) To obtain the magnetizing characteristics of the give CT and to
determine the knee point voltage.
ii) To determine the CT ratio
iii) To determine the polarity of the primary and secondary
windings.
iv) To measure the resistance of the secondary winding.
v) To measure the CT burden when feeding the given relay.

b) PT testing
i) To determine the insulation resistance of the given PT.
ii) To determine the polarity of the primary and secondary
windings of the given PT.
iii) To determine the PT ratio.


Procedure:
i) To obtain the magnetizing characteristics
Wire up the circuit as shown in figure. Initially connect the ammeter to
one of the CT secondaries. Also connect the digital voltmeter across
output of autotransformer. Supply a small voltage using autotransformer.
Note the meter reading. Repeat this procedure until a small rise in voltage
leads to a sudden/large increase in current. Repeat the procedure until
saturation is reached. Perform the procedure in second set of CT
secondaries.

a) Measuring CT





b) Protection CT




c) CT ratio



5 . 2
50
2
1
I
I
Ratio

ii) To obtain CT/PT ratio.
Wire up the circuit as shown in the figure. The circuit that injects current
at CT primary is obtained from the relay test set. Keep the circuit dc off.
Apply a current of 50A into the primary. Note the digital primary
ammeter reading (I
2
) when the primary current is 50 A(I
1
). CT ratio is I
1
/
I
2
. For PT, 230 (V
1
) 1- ac supply is given at primary and secondary
voltage is observed V
2
. The PT ratio is V
2
/V
1
.

iii) Polarity test.
For CT, the secondary is connected to centre zero ammeter with
S
1
connected to +ve and S
2
connected to ve. A battery is connected
across P
1
,P
2
terminals of CT primary. Now when CT primary is
connected on ammeter. A +ve deflection indicates that selection of S
1
and
S
2
is correct. In case of ve deflection reverse the connections of S
1
and
S
2
for the +ve deflection. For PT the connection are made as shown in
figure. For subtractive polarity meter should real (V
1
- V
2
) voltage and for
additive polarity meter should read (V
1
+ V
2
) voltage. If both conditions
are satisfied the polarity is correct.

iv) To measure the resistance of secondary winding of CT.


A multimeter is set in ohms range and the probes are placed across S
1
and
S
2
of Ct secondary winding. The digital display given winding resitance.

v) To determine CT circuit burden.
The relay test set was made to inject current to CT. Hence burden of this
circuit is to be measured. For this, one end of the digital ammeter is
connected to relay trip circuit and the circuit is completed through relay
trip circuit and ammeter. A 5A current is not injected into circuit and
voltmeter reading is noted. The product of current and voltage given
burden of CT circuit.

vi) To measure insulation rsistance.
Insulation resistance can be measured using BM 11D Megger.

iii) Polarity



iv) CT Burden Measurement




v) Polarity (PT)


vi) PT Ratio




2 . 237
1 . 140
Ratio



a) Measuring CT b) Protection CT

Injection
Voltage (V)
Current
(mA)
Injection
Voltage (V)
Current
(mA)






`







c) Insulation Resistance

Test Voltage (V) Description Insulation Resistance
(M )




Result:

Inference:

Questions:


1 2
3 4
G1 T1 T2 G2
TL
L
Experiment No. 5

Mi Power Short Circuit Analysis I Simple System

Aim

(i) To Study the Power System Simulation Software Mi Power
(ii) To Draw the Single Line Diagram of the given system in Mi Power
(iii) Obtain the fault current and fault MVA for a symmetrical three phase fault at
bus no. 3 analytically and verify it using Mi Power
(iv) Obtain the fault contributions for a line to line fault on the transmission line at
60 % distance from bus no. 2










Single line diagram
G1,G2: 100 MVA, 11 kV, Xd=0.15 p.u.
T1,T2: 100 MVA, 11/110 kV, X=0.1 p.u., R negligible
TL: X=0.02 p.u.
L: P=20 MW, Q= 10 MVAR



MiPOWER
Power System Simulation Software

How to draw single line diagram


Click Mipower on desktop. Then open power system network editor. Select menu
option Database configure. Configure Database dialog is popped up as shown below.
Click Browse button.















Browse the desired directory and specify the name of the file. Open it verify.
Click ok in the configure database dialog box. Another window appears. Uncheck the
power system libraries and standard relay libraries. Now a GUI pattern will get displayed.
Select grid from the top shown tool bar.

To draw Bus

Click on bus icon provided on power system tool bar on the RHS. Draw a bus and
a dialog appears prompting to give the bus ID and bus name. Click OK. Data base
manager with corresponding Bus Data form will appear. After entering data click save
which invokes Network Editor. Follow the same procedure for remaining buses. (Here
Bus1, Bus2 & Bus3).
If ratings (11kV for Bus1, 110kV for Bus2 & Bus3) are other than the default one,
modify them. After entering data, click save. The right clicks to avoid bus option.








To draw transmission line

Select transmission line from tool bar. To draw the line click between the two
buses (here Bus 2 & Bus 3) to connect the from bus double click on the from bus and
do the same for to bus. Now an element ID dialog box will appear.
Enter element ID number and Click OK. Database manager with corresponding
Line/Cable Data form will be open.
Enter the details of that line as shown below.
Enter Structure Reference number as 1 and click on Transmission Line Library. Line
& cable library form will appear. Enter the data (X=0.02 pu other values are set to zero).
Then save and close the library. Click save.
If there is more than one transmission lines with same parameters enter Structure
Reference number as 1 for all transmission lines. If there is more than one transmission
lines with different parameters (R, X &B/2) use different Structure Reference number (2,
3, 4 etc).








To draw Generator



Click on Generator icon provided on power system tool bar. Connect it to bus 1
by clicking the left mouse button on Bus 1. The Element ID dialog will appear Enter ID
number and click OK. Data base with corresponding Generator Data form will appear.
Enter details as :- Give De-Rated MVA as 100 and Scheduled Power as 80 MW
(assume power factor as 0.8).
Note: If specified voltage is given, click Compute Volt button and enter that value.
Voltage will be calculated and appear in the specified voltage field.
At slack bus, only voltage and angle are mentioned. Schedule power, real power
minimum and maximum constraints do not have much importance.
If the bus is a PV bus, then scheduled power, specified voltage, minimum and
maximum real & reactive power data is must.
Enter Manufacturer Reference number as 1 and click on Generator Library
button. Generator Library form will appear.
Enter MVA Rating as 100,MW Rating as 80 and kV Rating as 11.
Also give Direct Axis Transient Reactance (Xd) as 0.15 pu.
After entering data save and close. In Generator Data form click save. Network Editor
screen will be invoked.
If there is more than one generator with different data, give different
Manufacturer Reference number otherwise give the same Manufacturer Reference
number.












To draw Transformer

Click on Two Winding Transformer icon provided on power system toolbar. To
draw the transformer click in between two buses (here bus 1 and bus 2) and to connect to
the From Bus, double click left mouse button on the from bus and join to another bus by
double clicking the mouse button on the To Bus. Element ID dialog will appear Click
OK.
Note: - Care should be taken to connect the two winding transformer between buses.
High Voltage side should be connected to From Bus ( Here From Bus (HV side-
primary ) is bus 3).
Transformer Element Data form will be open. Enter the Manufacturer
Reference Number as 1. Enter transformer data in the form as shown below. Click on
Transformer Library.
Transformer Library form will be open. Enter the data. Save & close library
screen.
Transformer element data form will appear. Click save button, which invokes
network editor.














To draw the Load

Click on Load icon provided on power system toolbar which is also shown by the
position of the arrow in the figure shown above. Connect it to bus 3 by clicking the left
mouse button on Bus 3. The Element ID dialog will appear Enter the details of the load,
the real and reactive power, click OK and save to return to the editor.

Attach Transformer T2, Generator G2 as described before to complete the single
line diagram given. Since the ratings of the two generators are same, one need to save
only one generator library with one manufacturer reference number. The same can be
done for the transformers also.

Options for short circuit analysis

To solve the short circuit analysis, click Solve on Menu bar and choose short
circuit studies from the scroll menu. Now there is choice for fault on bus and fault on
line. There is choice for different types of faults also. All types of faults can be selected
from the scroll menu provided. In the case of fault on line, the distance at which the fault
occurs can also be selected.
By giving proper output options, now the short circuit study can be executed and
the result can be observed in the standard format.




































Experiment No.8

Y
BUS
FORMULATION

Aim:-
Form the Y
BUS
of the given network by transformation method. Display the
matrices A, Yprimitive and Y
BUS .


(a) Without mutual coupling
(b) With mutual coupling
(c) Also find E
BUS
of the system if J=[ -0.6+j3.0
0
-0.4+j5.0
0
0 ];















| Ele | From | To | X |
| No | Bus | Bus | pu |
linedata = [ 1 ref 1 j0.3
2 2 ref j1.0
3 ref 3 j0.2
4 1 2 j0.03
5 3 2 j0.02];


| Ele | From | To | X | Mutual Cop. | X |
| No | Bus | Bus | pu | with element | p.u |

linedata = [ 1 ref 1 j0.3 - -
2 2 ref j1.0 - -
3 ref 3 j0.2 - -
4 1 2 j0.03 5 -j0.01
5 3 2 j0.02 4 -j0.01];

3 2 1
1
1
2
1
3
1
5
4