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Nguyen Dinh Kien

a,

, Buntara Sthenly Gan

b

a

Department of Solid Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Viet Nam

b

Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Nihon University, Koriyama, Fukushima-ken 963-8642, Japan

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 5 June 2012

Received in revised form24 September 2013

Accepted 22 November 2013

Available online 15 December 2013

Keywords:

Functionally graded material

Tapered beam

Finite element method

Large deection

a b s t r a c t

The large deections of tapered functionally graded beams subjected to end forces are

studied by using the nite element method. The material properties of the beams are

assumed to vary through the thickness direction according to a power law distribution.

A rst order shear deformable beam element employed the exact polynomials to

interpolate the transverse displacement and rotation, is formulated in the context of the

co-rotational approach. The large deection response of the beams is computed by using

the arc-length control algorithm in combination with the NewtonRaphson iterative

method. The numerical results show that the formulated element is capable to assess

accurately the response of the beams by using just several elements. A parametric study

is given to examine the inuence of the material non-homogeneity, taper ratio as well as

the aspect ratio on the large deection behaviour of the beams.

2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Functionally graded materials (FGMs), which were invented by Japanese scientists in Sendai in 1984 [1], have received

much attention from researchers. The FGMs are formed by varying percentage of constituents in any desired spacial direc-

tion, and as a result the specic physical and mechanical properties of the formed material can be obtained. FGMs are being

used widely as a structural material, and analysis of FGM structures has become an important topic in the eld of structural

mechanics. A comprehensive list of publications on the analysis of FGM structures subjected to different loadings is given in

a review paper by Birman and Byrd [2], contributions that are most relevant to the present work are discussed below.

Sankar [3] proposed an elasticity solution for FGM beams under static transverse loads by assuming the material prop-

erties to vary in the thickness direction by an exponential law.Based on the rst order shear deformation beam theory, Cha-

kraborty et al. [4] formulated a beam element for analyzing the thermoelastic behaviour of FGM beams by using the exact

solution of the governing differential equations of an FGM Timoshenko beam segment to interpolate the displacements and

rotation. Using the spectral nite element method, Chakraborty and Gopalakrishnan [5] studied the wave propagation

behaviour of FGM beams under high frequency impulse loading. Kadoli et al. [6] formulated a beam element to investigate

the static behaviour of metal ceramic beams under ambient temperature by adopting the third order shear deformation

beam theory. Taking the warping effect into consideration, Benatta et al. [7] derived an analytical solution to the bending

problem of a FGM beam. Singh and Li [8] presented a mathematical model for computing the buckling loads of uniform

and non-uniform axially FGM columns. Kang and Li [9,10] proposed closed-form solutions for a nonlinear FGM cantilever

beam with the elastic modulus variation in thickness direction under a tip load or a tip moment by deriving an expression

0307-904X/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2013.11.032

Corresponding author. Tel.: +84 4 3762 8006; fax: +84 4 3762 2039.

E-mail addresses: ndkien@imech.ac.vn, ndkien@yahoo.com (D.K. Nguyen).

Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Mathematical Modelling

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ apm

for the effective bending rigidity. Lee et al. [11] presented a nite element procedure for computing the post-buckling

response of FGM plates under compressive and thermal loads. Huang and Li [12] studied the free vibration of non-uniform

cross-section beams made of an axially FGM. Employing the multilayering method, Kuti et al. [13] presented a nite

element procedure for modelling a FGM beam with spatial variation of material properties. Also using the nite element

method, Alshorbagy et al. [14] investigated the free vibration characteristics of EulerBernoulli beams with material

graduation in both axially and transversally through the beam thickness. Adopting the Ritz method, Wattanasakulpong

et al. [15] investigated the thermal buckling and elastic vibration of the third-order shear deformable FGM beams. Shahba

et al. [16] computed the natural frequencies and buckling loads of tapered Timoshenko beams composed of axially FGM by

using the exact shape functions of a uniformed homogeneous Timoshenko beam segment to derive the mass and stiffness

matrices. Aminbaghai et al. [17] studied the free vibration of FGM beams with continuous spatial polynomial variation of

material properties by a fourth order differential equation of the second order beam theory. Using the nite element method,

Nguyen et al. [18] studied the dynamic behaviour of non-uniform FGM Timoshenko beams subjected to a variable speed

moving load.

Non-prismatic beams with variable cross section are of great important in engineering because of their ability in optimiz-

ing the weight and strength of structures. Analytical methods are often encountered difculties in analyzing the non-pris-

matic beams due to the presence of variable coefcients in the governing differential equations, and a numerical methods is

necessarily employed instead of. In this line of work, Wood and Zienkiewicz [19] computed the large displacement response

of a non-uniform column subjected to an eccentric axial compressive force by using the nite element method. In [20], Cleg-

horn and Tabarrok employed the homogeneous solution of a tapered Timoshenko beam segment to formulate the mass and

stiffness matrices for computing the vibration characteristics of the beams. Baker [21] used the weight residual method in

solving the governing differential equation of a slender tapered cantilever beam under arbitrarily distributed loads. Lee et al.

[22] presented a RungeKutta based numerical method to solve the governing differential equations of tapered cantilever

beams under large displacements, and then veried the computed results by performing an experiment on a width tapered

steel beam. Brojan et al. [23] developed an exact momentcurvature formula for determining deformed shape of non-pris-

matic cantilever beams obeying the generalized Ludwick law under a tip moment. Attarnejad et al. [24] derived the displace-

ment functions for studying the free vibration of non-prismatic beams by solving the governing equations of motion of a

tapered Timoshenko beam element. Shahba et al. [25] introduced the basic displacement functions and then constructed

the shape functions for derivation of an efcient 2D beam element for the free vibration analysis of rotating tapered Timo-

shenko beams.

To the authors best knowledge, the large deection of tapered FGMbeams subjected to end forces has not been studied in

the literature and this topic will be the subject of investigation by using the nite element method in the present work. The

material properties of the beams are assumed to be described by a power law distribution through the beam thickness. A

nonlinear beam element based on the rst order shear deformation beam theory, employing the polynomials obtained from

the solution of the governing differential equations of a uniform homogeneous Timoshenko beam segment to interpolate the

transverse displacement and rotation, is formulated in the context of the co-rotational approach. Using the formulated ele-

ment, the large deection response of a cantilever FGM beam with different taper cases is computed with the aid of the arc-

length control algorithm in combination with the iterative NewtonRaphson method. Numerical examples are presented to

show the accuracy and efciency of the proposed element. The inuence of the material distribution, taper ratio as well as

the aspect ratio on the large deections of the beams is numerically investigated in detail.

2. Tapered FGM beams

Consider a tapered FGM beam with length of L. Three following taper cases are considered in the present work

Case A: A A

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

, I I

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

Case B: A A

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

, I I

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

3

Case C: A A

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

2

, I I

0

1 a

x

L

_ _

4

where A

0

; I

0

denote the area and moment of inertia of the section at x 0, respectively; 0 6 a < 1 is the taper ratio. Fig. 1

shows the geometry of the three considered cases of the beam in a co-ordinate system, x; y; z, where the z axis directs along

the thickness direction of the beam.

The beam is assumed to be formed from two different materials with volume fractions to be varied according to a power

law as

V

1

z

h

1

2

_ _

k

; V

2

1 V

1

; 1

where the subscript 1 and 2 indicate the material 1 and material 2 the constituents of the FGM, respectively; k is the non-

negative power law exponent, dictating the material variation through the beam thickness; h is the section height, which

longitudinally varies for the case B and case C. According to the rule of mixture, the effective Youngs modulus E, and the

effective shear modulus G of the FGM beam are given by

D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066 3055

Ez E

1

E

2

z

h

1

2

_ _

k

E

2

;

Gz G

1

G

2

z

h

1

2

_ _

k

G

2

;

2

where E

1

; E

2

and G

1

; G

2

denote the Youngs and shear moduli of the constituents. It is evident from Eq. (2) that when

z h=2; E E

2

; G G

2

, and thus the bottom surface contains purely material 2; when z h=2; E E

1

; G G

1

, and the

top surface contains only material 1. Fig. 2 shows the variation of the effective Youngs modulus and the shear modulus

through the thickness of a FGM beam formed from steel and alumina. The Youngs and shear moduli of the alumina and steel

are as follows [4]: E

a

390 GPa, E

s

210 GPa, G

a

137 GPa, G

s

80 GPa, where the subscript a and s stand for alumina

and steel, respectively.

3. Finite element formulation

3.1. Large deection analysis

A convenient way to formulate a geometrically nonlinear element is to introduce a local coordinate system which con-

tinuously moves and rotates during the element deformation process. The element formulation is rstly derived in the local

system then transferred into the global one with the aid of transformation matrices dened from the relationship between

the local and global nodal displacements. The method is known in the literature as the co-rotational method [26,27], and will

be adopted herein.

Fig. 1. FGM beam with three considered taper cases.

200 250 300 350 400

0.5

0.25

0

0.25

0.5

E (GPa)

z

/

h

k = 1

k = 2

k = 3

k = 5

k = 0.2

k = 0.5

80 90 100 110 120 130 140

0.5

0.25

0

0.25

0.5

G (GPa)

z

/

h

k = 0.5

k = 0.2

k = 1

k = 2

k = 3

k = 5

Fig. 2. Variation of Youngs and shear moduli through the thickness of FGM beam formed from steel and alumina.

3056 D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

Fig. 3 shows a two-node beam element and its kinematics, where x;

systems, respectively. The local system is chosen as that its original is always at node 1, and the x axis directs to node 2. By

choosing such a local system, the local axial displacement at node 1 and the local transverse displacements at both the two

nodes are always zeros. Thus, the vector of nodal displacements in the local system contains only three components as

d f

u

h

1

h

2

g

T

; 3

where and hereafter the superscript T denotes a transpose of a vector or a matrix; a bar sufx is used to distinguish a local

quantity from its corresponding global one. The global nodal displacements are general non-zeros, and the vector of the

nodal displacements in the global system, in general contains six components

d fu

1

w

1

h

1

u

2

w

2

h

2

g

T

: 4

The local displacement and rotations in Eq. (3) can be computed as [27]

u l

n

l;

h

1

h

1

h

r

;

h

2

h

2

h

r

: 5

where l; l

n

and h

r

, respectively are the initial length, current length and rigid rotation of the element, which can be obtained

from geometric consideration of Fig. 3 as

l x

2

x

1

; l

n

x

2

u

2

x

1

u

1

2

w

2

w

1

2

_

;

h

r

arctan

w

2

w

1

x

2

u

2

x

1

u

1

_ _

:

6

In Eq. (6), x

1

and x

2

are the abscissas of the node 1 and node 2 with respect to the global system, respectively.

The internal virtual work for the element can be written in both the local and global systems as

dU dd

T

f

in

d

d

T

f

in

dd

T

T

T

1

f

in

; 7

where

f

in

and f

in

are the local and global element nodal force vectors associated with the nodal displacements given by Eqs.

(3) and (4), respectively; T

1

@

d=@d is the transformation matrix, which can be computed from Eqs. (5) and (6). Eq. (7) must

apply for any arbitrary virtual displacement dd, hence the global element internal nodal force vector f

in

is given by

f

in

T

T

1

f

in

: 8

The element tangent stiffness matrix, k

t

is obtained by differentiating the global element nodal force vector with respect to

the global nodal displacements as

k

t

@f

in

@d

T

T

1

k

t

T

1

f

u

T

2

f

h1

f

h2

T

3

; 9

where

f

u

;

f

h1

;

f

h2

are the nodal forces corresponding to the nodal displacements u;

h

1

;

h

2

, respectively;

k

t

@

f

in

=@

d is the

local tangent stiffness matrix; T

2

; T

3

are the transformation matrices dened as

T

2

@

2

u

@d

2

; T

3

@

2

h

1

@d

2

@

2

h

2

@d

2

@

2

h

r

@d

2

: 10

Eqs. (8)(10) completely dene the global element nodal force vector f

in

and tangent stiffness matrix k

t

when the local

element nodal force vector

f

in

and tangent stiffness matrix

k

t

are known.

Fig. 3. Beam element and its kinematics in local and global coordinate systems.

D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066 3057

3.2. Local formulation

Adopting the rst order shear deformation beam theory, the axial and transverse displacements at any point of the beam

can be expressed in the local system as

u

x;

z u

0

zh

x; w

x;

z w

0

x; 11

where u

0

and w

0

, respectively are the axial and transverse displacements of the point on the mid-plane, chosen as the ref-

erence plane; hx is the cross-sectional rotation. The axial strain, , and the shear strain, c, for the large deection analysis

are deduced from Eq. (11) as

u

0;x

1

2

w

2

0;x

_ _

zh

;x

m

zv;

c w

0;x

h;

12

where a coma denotes the derivative with respect to the followed variable;

m

is the membrane strain, and v h

;x

is the

beam curvature. It is noted that in the co-rotational method, a linear denition can be used for the local axial strain [26,27],

but as the rst author has shown in [28] that by adding the nonlinear term

1

2

w

2

0;x

, the convergency of the element can be

improved considerably.

Assuming the material of the FGM beam obeys the Hooks law, the axial stress, r, and shear stress, s, associated with the

axial and shear strains in Eq. (12) are given by

r E

z; s wG

zc; 13

where E

z; G

z; w denotes the shear correction factor,

equals to 5/6 for a rectangular section. The virtual work of the internal force for the element can be expressed as

dU

_

l

0

_

A

rd sdc dAd

x; 14

where d and dc are the small arbitrary virtual strains; A denotes the cross section area, which longitudinally varies herein. In

order to express the virtual work in term of the local nodal displacements, interpolation schemes are necessary to introduce

for the kinematic variables. Noting that u

1

w

1

w

2

0, one can write

u

0

N

u

u; w

0

N

T

w

h; h N

T

h

h; 15

where

h f

h

1

h

2

g

T

; N

w

and N

h

are the matrices of interpolating functions for w

0

and h, respectively. Linear and cubic Hermite

polynomials derived purely from mathematical consideration can be employed to interpolate the displacement eld of a

FGM beam element [14]. The use of exact shape functions for uniform homogeneous beam elements to interpolate the trans-

verse displacement and rotation of the tapered FGM Timoshenko beam leads to a beam element with high accuracy [16]. In

the present work, linear function is adopted for the axial displacement, N

u

x=l, and the exact polynomials derived by

Kosmatka [29] as solutions of the governing differential equations for a uniform homogeneous Timoshenko beam element

are used for the transverse displacement and rotation as

N

w

l

1 /

x

l

_ _

3

2

/

2

_ _

x

l

_ _

2

1

/

2

_ _

x

l

_ _

x

l

_ _

3

1

/

2

_ _

x

l

_ _

2

/

2

x

l

_ _

_ _

16

and

N

h

1

1 /

3

x

l

_ _

2

4 /

x

l

_ _

1 /

3

x

l

_ _

2

2 /

x

l

_ _

_ _

: 17

In Eqs. (16) and (17), / is the ratio of the bending stiffness to the shear stiffness as [29]

/

12

l

2

E

h

I

h

wG

h

A

h

_ _

18

where the subscript h designates the value of the parameters in the homogeneous and isotropic uniform beam. It should be

noted that if the notation / E

h

I

h

=l

2

wG

h

A

h

is used instead of (18), the interpolation functions in Eqs. (16) and (17) resume

the same forms as that formulated by Reddy in [30], and used by Shahba et al. in [16]. Present work uses the area and

moment of inertia of the cross section at the left node of the element as A

h

and I

h

, and the Youngs and shear moduli of

the material at the bottom surface of the beam as E

h

and G

h

, respectively.

Due to the unbalance interpolations adopted for the axial and transverse displacements, the formulated element might

suffer from the membrane locking [26]. To overcome this problem, it is necessary to replace the membrane strain in Eq. (12)

by the effective strain, dened as [26]

3058 D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

eff:

1

l

_

l

0

u

0;x

1

2

w

2

0;x

_ _

d

x: 19

Using Eq. (16), we can write the effective strain (19) in the form

eff:

b

u

u

1

2l

h

T

_

l

0

b

w

b

T

w

d

x

h; 20

where b

u

N

u;x

1=l, and

b

w

N

w;x

1

1 /

3

x

l

_ _

2

4 /

x

l

_ _

1

/

2

_ _

3

x

l

_ _

2

2 /

x

l

_ _

/

2

_ _

: 21

With the introduction of the effective strain, the virtual work given by Eq. (14) reads

dU

_

l

0

Nd

eff:

Mdv Qdcd

x; 22

where, with the aid of Eqs. (15)(17), the resultants N; M and Q are given by

N A

11

eff:

A

12

v A

11

eff:

A

12

b

T

h

h;

M A

12

eff:

A

22

v A

12

eff:

A

22

b

T

h

h;

Q wA

33

c wA

33

b

T

w

N

T

h

h:

23

In Eq. (23), b

h

N

h;x

; A

11

; A

12

; A

22

and A

33

denote the extensional, coupling, bending and shear rigidities, respectively and

dened as follows

A

11

; A

12

; A

22

_

A

E

z 1;

z;

z

2

dA; A

33

_

A

G

zdA: 24

The virtual strains and virtual curvature in Eq. (22) can be computed from Eqs. (15) and (20) as

d

eff:

b

u

d

u c

T

w

d

h; dv b

T

h

d

h; dc b

T

w

N

T

h

d

h; 25

where

c

w

eff:;

h

1

601 /

2

5/2 /

h

1

h

2

24

h

1

h

2

5/2 /

h

1

h

2

2

h

1

4

h

2

_ _

: 26

Substituting Eq. (25) into Eq. (22), one gets

dU

_

l

0

Nb

u

d

u Nc

T

w

Mb

T

h

Qb

T

w

N

T

h

_ _

d

h

_ _

d

x 27

So that the components of the local element nodal force vector are given by

f

u

_

l

0

Nb

u

d

x;

f

h

f

h

1

f

h

2

_ _

T

_

l

0

Nc

w

Mb

h

Qb

w

N

h

d

x:

28

The local tangent stiffness matrix can be divided into sub-matrices as

k

t

k

uu

k

uh

k

T

uh

k

hh

_ _

; 29

where, the sub-matrices can be computed from Eq. (28) with the aid of Eqs. (23)(26) as follows

k

uu

f

u; u

_

l

0

A

11

b

2

u

dx

1

l

2

_

l

0

A

11

d

x;

k

uh

f

u;

h

_

l

0

b

u

A

11

c

T

w

A

12

b

T

h

d

x;

k

hh

f

h;

h

_

l

0

A

11

c

w

c

T

w

ND 2A

12

b

h

c

T

w

A

22

b

h

b

T

h

wA

33

b

w

N

h

b

T

w

N

T

h

_ _

d

x;

30

D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066 3059

where D is a symmetric matrix with the following form

D c

T

w;

h

1

601 /

2

8 10/ 5/

2

2 10/ 5/

2

2 10/ 5/

2

8 10/ 5/

2

_ _

: 31

The terms containing c

w

and N in Eq. (30) stemming from the nonlinear part of the local strain,

1

2

w

2

0;x

, and they are functions

of the current local nodal displacements. Eqs. (28) and (30) together with Eqs. (8)(10) completely dene the element

formulation. In order to improve convergency of the numerical result, the rigidities A

11

; A

12

; A

22

and A

33

in the local element

nodal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix, and previously dened by Eq. (24), are computed by using the exact variation

of the section prole herein.

In case of homogeneous beams, E

1

E

2

E

h

and G

1

G

2

G

h

, where E

h

and G

h

are the Youngs and shear moduli of the

homogeneous beam, respectively, and thus Eq. (2) gives constant effective moduli. As a result, the coupling rigidity A

12

dened in Eq. (24) is vanished, and the formulated element can be employed to analyze the tapered homogeneous beams

just by assigning E

1

E

2

E

h

and G

1

G

2

G

h

.

3.3. Discrete system equations

The derived formulation is assembled into structural nodal force vector and tangent stiffness matrix to construct the equi-

librium equations, which can be written in the form [26]

gp; k q

in

p kf

ef

0; 32

where the residual force vector g is a function of the current structural nodal displacements p, and the load-level parameter

k; q

in

is the structural nodal force vector, assembled from the formulated element force vector f

in

; f

ex

is the xed external

loading vector. For the beam under the end forces considered in the present work, the loading vector contains zero compo-

nents except for the ones corresponding to the end forces. The boundary conditions for a cantilever beam used in the numer-

ical examples below constrain the displacements and rotation at the left end to zeros.

The system of nonlinear equations (32) can be solved by an incremental/iterative method. In the method, a new iterative

displacement vector dp can be obtained from a truncated Taylor expansion of gp; k around an equilibrium point p

0

; k

0

f

ef

as

gp; k g

0

K

t0

dp 0; so that dp K

1

t0

g

0

; 33

where K

t

is the structural tangent stiffness matrix assembled from the element tangent stiffness matrix k

t

; K

t0

and g

0

are the

values of the matrix K

t

and vector g evaluated at the equilibrium point, p

0

; k

0

f

ef

. The arc-length control algorithm in com-

bination with the NewtonRaphson method described by Criseld in [26] is adopted in the present work.

4. Numerical result and discussion

The large deection of a cantilever FGM beam is investigated by using the formulated element and described numerical

algorithm in this Section. Except for Sub-section 4.6, the beam is assumed to be formed from the steel and alumina with the

Youngs and shear moduli given in Section 2. Otherwise stated, the beam is assumed having an aspect ratio L=h

0

50, where

h

0

is the height of the clamped section. A shear correction factor w 5=6 is used in all analyses. To facilitate the presentation

of numerical results, the following dimensionless parameters are introduced

u

u

L

L

; w

w

L

L

; h

h

L

p=2

; P

P

L

L

2

E

s

I

0

; M

M

L

L

E

s

I

0

; 34

where u

L

; w

L

; h

L

are the displacements and rotation at the free end; P

L

and M

L

are the external load and moment, respectively.

4.1. Formulation validation

The large deections of a homogeneous cantilever beam with linearly varying bending stiffness (case A) subjected to an

end transverse or/and an end moment are investigated. The numerical result of the problem obtained by Lee et al. [22] for

Table 1

Absolute values of tip response for case A homogenous beam under a transverse load or/and a moment (I

0

=I

L

3).

P

u w h u w h

5 0 0.1671 0.4919 0.5407 0.1678 0.4926 0.5428

0 2 0.1414 0.4135 0.6993 0.1411 0.4136 0.6994

5 2 0.3578 0.6402 0.9962 0.3640 0.6433 0.9969

3060 D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

the case I

0

=I

L

3 is used to verify the accuracy of the formulated element. Table 1 lists the absolute values of the free end

displacements and rotation of the beam computed by four elements formulated in the present work. In the table,

P

P

L

L

2

=E

s

I

L

and M

M

L

L=E

s

I

L

are introduced for consistent with the work in [22]. The table shows a good agreement

between the numerical result obtained in the present work with that of Ref. [22].

The next example is a uniform FGM beam subjected to a tip moment M

L

. The relation between the displacements and the

applied moment of the beam computed by one and four elements is shown in Fig. 4, where the analytical solutions derived

by Kang and Li [10] are depicted by small circles. The expressions for the axial displacement u

L

and the transverse displace-

ment w

L

at the free end derived by Kang and Li in [10] are as follow

u

L

D

M

L

sin

M

L

D

L

_ _

L; w

L

D

M

L

1 cos

M

L

D

L

_ _ _ _

; 35

where D is the effective bending rigidity of the FGM beam, which can be computed when the geometry and material data as

well as the power law index k are given (cf. Eq. (14) of Ref. [10]). With a section area A 0:006 and a moment of inertia

I 1:8 10

6

used herewith, the effective bending rigidity D 6:3294 10

5

; 5:2380 10

5

; 4:3701 10

5

is obtained for

k 0:2; 1; 10, respectively. Excellent agreement between the numerical result obtained by four elements in the present work

with that of Ref. [10] is seen from the gure. The obtained numerical results show the good accuracy and convergency of the

formulated element. Since four elements can give good accuracy, otherwise stated a mesh of four elements is used in the

computation reported below. It has to be noted that the computation in this sub-section has been performed with / dened

by Eq. (18) using section property at the right node of the element and Youngs and shear moduli of the material on the top

surface, but the same numerical result is obtained.

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

1

2

3

4

Free end displacements, u & w

T

i

p

m

o

m

e

n

t

,

M

Kang & Li [10]

present 1 element

present 4 elements

u

w

k:

10

1

0.2

k:

0.2

1

10

Fig. 4. Relation between tip displacements and tip moment of uniform FGM beam.

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

2

4

6

8

10

Free end displacements, u & w

T

r

a

n

s

v

e

r

s

e

l

o

a

d

,

P

pure steel pure steel

pure alumina

k=0.5

k=1

k=5

P

case B

u

w

u

w

Fig. 5. Loaddisplacement curves for case B beam under a transverse load (a 0:5).

D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066 3061

4.2. Effect of material non-homogeneity

The material non-homogeneity of the beams is governed by the power law index k in Eq. (2). The large deection re-

sponse of the case B beam subjected to a transverse load or an eccentric axial force is computed with different values of

the index k and with a taper ratio a 0:5. The eccentric load is assumed acting at the highest point of the free end section

as considered in [19]. The loaddisplacement curves of the beam under the transverse load and the eccentric axial force are

shown in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. The effect of the index k is clearly observed from the gures, where the lower the index k

is, the smaller displacements are, regardless of the loading type. This due to the fact that, as seen from Eqs. (1) and (2), the

beam with a smaller index k contains more alumina, and thus it is stiffer. The inuence of the power law index k on the re-

sponse of the beam is also clearly seen from the deformed congurations depicted in Fig. 7, where the higher index k is, the

more strongly the beam deforms. The congurations have been computed by using a mesh of 16 elements in order to ensure

the smoothness of the curves.

4.3. Effect of taper ratio

Table 2 lists the tip response of the FGM beam subjected to a transverse load with different values of the taper ratios for

the case B beam with an index k 3. The table shows an increase in the tip displacements and rotation when increasing the

taper ratio, regardless of the external load level. A careful examination of the table shows that the tip axial displacement is

the most sensitive to the taper ratio, while the transverse displacement is least affected by this parameter. In addition, the

effect of the taper ratio on the tip response of the beam tends to lessen at the higher external load.

4.4. Effect of taper case

Fig. 8 shows the loaddisplacement curves of the beam with different taper cases under a transverse load for an index

k 3 and a taper ratio a 0:5. As seen from the gure, at a given value of the transverse load, the tip displacements of

1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.4 0.8

0

2

4

6

8

10

Free end displacements, u & w

E

c

c

e

n

t

r

i

c

a

x

i

a

l

l

o

a

d

,

P

pure alumina

pure steel

pure steel

P

u

w

u w

k=0.5

k=1

k=5

case B

Fig. 6. Loaddisplacement curves for case B beam under an eccentric axial force (a 0:5).

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1+u

w

k: 5

1

0.5

case B, =0.5

0.1 0 0.2 0.4

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1+u

w

k:

0.5

1

5

case B, =0.5

Fig. 7. Deformed congurations corresponding to P 5 for case B beam with different values of index k.

3062 D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

the case C beam, which has been tapered in both the width and height directions, are considerably higher than that of the

case A and case B beams. The case A beam, which has been tapered in the width direction only, is the most stiff under the

load, and its tip displacements are the smallest among the three considered cases. The deformed congurations correspond-

ing to a load parameter P 5 for the beam with different taper types are shown in Fig. 9. As expected, the case C beam is

weakest in bearing the load, and at the given external load its conguration deforms much larger than that of the case A

and case B beams, regardless of the loading type.

Table 2

Tip response of case B beam under a transverse load with different taper ratios (k 3).

P Response a

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

2 juj 0.1483 0.1898 0.2448 0.3118

w 0.4680 0.5120 0.5544 0.5865

h 0.4971 0.5950 0.7295 0.9056

4 juj 0.3083 0.3522 0.3993 0.4459

w 0.6427 0.6651 0.6820 0.6930

h 0.7156 0.7989 0.8929 0.9778

6 juj 0.4108 0.4478 0.4846 0.5193

w 0.7191 0.7305 0.7384 0.7442

h 0.8199 0.8843 0.9478 0.9916

8 juj 0.4799 0.5107 0.5403 0.5679

w 0.7614 0.7678 0.7723 0.7761

h 0.8777 0.9274 0.9712 0.9952

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

2

4

6

8

10

Free end displacements, u & w

T

r

a

n

s

v

e

r

s

e

l

o

a

d

,

P

case A

case B

case C

P

u

w

w

u

k=3, =0.5

Fig. 8. Loaddisplacement curves for FGM beam under a transverse load with different taper cases.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1+u

w

taper case:

A

B

C

k=3, =0.5

0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1+u

w

taper case: A

B

k=3, =0.5

C

Fig. 9. Deformed congurations corresponding to P 5 for FGM beam with different taper cases.

D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066 3063

4.5. Effect of aspect ratio

The tip responses of the case A and case C beams with different values of the aspect ratio, L=h

0

, subjected to a transverse

load are given in Tablse 3 and 4 for the case k 3 and a 0:5, respectively. While both the tip axial and transverse displace-

ments increase when reducing the aspect ratio, the tip rotation reduces, regardless of the external load level and the taper

case. Examining the tables in more detail, one can see that while the tip axial displacement of the case A beam is more sen-

sitive to the aspect ratio comparing to the case C beam, the tip transverse and rotation of the case A beam are much less

sensitive to the aspect ratio than that of the case C beam.

4.6. Beam with different materials

To study the large deection behaviour of the FGM beam formed from different materials, in addition to the beam formed

from steel and alumina (SA) examined above, two other cantilever FGM beams, one formed from aluminum and steel (AS),

and the other from aluminum and alumina (AA) are considered in this Sub-section. The Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio

of aluminum are 70 GPa and 0.3, respectively [31].

Table 3

Tip response of case A beam under a transverse load with different aspect ratios (k 3; a 0:5).

P Response L=h

0

50 25 20 15 10

4 juj 0.3042 0.3047 0.3050 0.3056 0.3071

w 0.6393 0.6394 0.6394 0.6398 0.6417

h 0.7099 0.7082 0.7073 0.7056 0.7020

8 juj 0.4766 0.4769 0.4772 0.4777 0.4791

w 0.7601 0.7603 0.7607 0.7618 0.7659

h 0.8737 0.8711 0.8697 0.8673 0.8618

Table 4

Tip response of case C beam under a transverse load with different aspect ratios (k 3; a 0:5).

P Response L=h

0

50 25 20 15 10

4 juj 0.5152 0.5154 0.5155 0.5159 0.5170

w 0.7547 0.7552 0.7558 0.7574 0.7626

h 0.9626 0.9592 0.9575 0.9544 0.9479

8 juj 0.6346 0.6348 0.6350 0.6355 0.6369

w 0.8242 0.8259 0.8274 0.8310 0.8420

h 0.9903 0.9858 0.9834 0.9795 0.9710

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

2

4

6

8

10

Free end displacements, u & w

T

r

a

n

s

v

e

r

s

e

l

o

a

d

,

P

Beam material:

AS

AA

SA

w

u

P

Case C, k=3, =0.5

Fig. 10. Loaddisplacement curves for case C beam formed from different materials under a transverse load.

3064 D.K. Nguyen, B.S. Gan/ Applied Mathematical Modelling 38 (2014) 30543066

Fig. 10 shows the loaddisplacement curves for the case C beam formed from the different materials under a transverse

load for the case k 3 and a 0:5. It is necessary to note that for the purpose of comparison, the load P of all the curves in

the gure is normalized by the Youngs modulus of steel according to Eq. (34). At a given value of the external load, the AA

beam with the Youngs modulus of the bottom surface material is just one third of that of the SA beam, deforms much larger

than the SA beam. The AS beam with the Young moduli of the materials on both the top and bottom surfaces are lower than

that of the SA beam is the most exible. The deformed congurations of the beams at two values of the load parameter,

namely P 5 and P 10, as depicted in Fig. 11 also conrm the inuence the materials on the large deection behaviour

of the beam.

5. Conclusions

The large deections of tapered FGM beams subjected to the end forces have been studied by the nite element method. A

nonlinear rst order shear deformable beam element, using the polynomials as solutions of a uniform homogeneous Timo-

shenko beam segment to interpolate the transverse displacement and rotation, has been formulated in the context of the co-

rotational formulation. The large deection response of a cantilever FGM beam with various taper cases has been computed

by using the arc-length control algorithm in combination with the NewtonRaphson method. The numerical examples have

shown that the formulated element is capable to give accurate response by using just several elements. A parametric study

has been given to examine the effect of the non-homogeneity material, the taper ratio as well as the aspect ratio on the large

deection behaviour of the beams.

Though the numerical examples in the present work were presented for the cantilever beam, the element formulated in

the present work is independent of the boundary conditions, and thus the nite element procedure described in this paper

can be employed to analyze the beams with other boundary conditions.

Acknowledgement

The nancial support from Vietnam NAFOSTED to the rst author is gratefully acknowledged.

Appendix A. Supplementary data

Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.apm.2013.11.032.

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