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Sec. 3, Art.

XIII The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and
unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all.

It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to selforganization, collective bargaining and
negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law.
They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They
shall also participate in policy and decisionmaking processes affecting their rights and benefits as
may be provided by law.

The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and
the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes, including conciliation, and shall
enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. The State shall regulate the
relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the
fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments, and to
expansion and growth.

Sec. 9, Art. II The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will ensure the
prosperity and independence of the nation and free the people from poverty through policies that
provide adequate social services, promote full employment, a rising standard of living, and an
improved quality of life for all.
Sec. 10, Art II The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.

Sec. 11, Art II The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for
human rights.
Sec. 13, Art. II The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nationbuilding and shall
promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social wellbeing. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and
civic affairs.
Sec. 14, Art. II The State recognizes the role of women in nationbuilding, and shall ensure the
fundamental equality before the law of women and men

Sec. 18, Art. II The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the
rights of workers and promote their welfare.
Sec. 20, Art. II The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages
private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.

Sec. 1, Art. III No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of
law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
Sec. 4, Art. III No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the
press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of
Sec. 8, Art. III The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private
sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be
Sec. 1, Art. XIII The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that
protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and
political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political
power for the common good.

To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property
and its increments.

Sec. 2, Art. XIII The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create
economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and selfreliance.

Sec. 14, Art. XIII The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful
working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and
opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the
service of the nation.

What is the State policy on labor as found in the constitution (Sec. 3, Art. XIII)?

1. Afford full protection to labor
2. Promote full employment
3. Ensure equal work opportunities regardless of sex, race, or creed
4. Assure the rights of workers to self organization, security of tenure, just and humane
conditions of work, participate in policy and decisionmaking processes affecting their
right and benefits
5. Regulate the relations between workers and employers

Art. 1700. The relations between capital and labor are not merely contractual. They are so
impressed with public interest that labor contracts must yield to the common good. Therefore,
such contracts are subject to the special laws on labor unions, collective bargaining, strikes and
lockouts, closed shop, wages, working conditions, hours of labor and similar subjects.

Art. 1701. Neither capital nor labor shall act oppressively against the other, or impair the interest
or convenience of the public.

Art. 1702. In case of doubt, all labor legislation and all labor contracts shall be construed in favor
of the safety and decent living for the laborer.

Art. 1703. No contract which practically amounts to involuntary servitude, under any guise
whatsoever, shall be valid.

Art. 1704. In collective bargaining, the labor union or members of the board or committee signing
the contract shall be liable for non-fulfillment thereof.

Art. 1705. The laborer's wages shall be paid in legal currency.

Art. 1706. Withholding of the wages, except for a debt due, shall not be made by the employer.

Art. 1707. The laborer's wages shall be a lien on the goods manufactured or the work done.

Art. 1708. The laborer's wages shall not be subject to execution or attachment, except for debts
incurred for food, shelter, clothing and medical attendance.

Art. 1709. The employer shall neither seize nor retain any tool or other articles belonging to the

Art. 1710. Dismissal of laborers shall be subject to the supervision of the Government, under
special laws.

Art. 1711. Owners of enterprises and other employers are obliged to pay compensation for the
death of or injuries to their laborers, workmen, mechanics or other employees, even though the
event may have been purely accidental or entirely due to a fortuitous cause, if the death or
personal injury arose out of and in the course of the employment. The employer is also liable for
compensation if the employee contracts any illness or disease caused by such employment or as
the result of the nature of the employment. If the mishap was due to the employee's own notorious
negligence, or voluntary act, or drunkenness, the employer shall not be liable for compensation.
When the employee's lack of due care contributed to his death or injury, the compensation shall be
equitably reduced.

Art. 1712. If the death or injury is due to the negligence of a fellow worker, the latter and the
employer shall be solidarily liable for compensation. If afellow worker's intentional malicious act
is the only cause of the death or injury, the employer shall not be answerable, unless it should be
shown that the latter did not exercise due diligence in the selection or supervision of the plaintiff's
fellow worker.