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Plastics in our Life

Plastics in our Life


Food & Beverages
Plastics in our Life Clothings
Plastics in our Life Furniture
Plastics in our Life Building & Construction
Plastics in our Life Household items
Plastics in our Life Medical Equipments
Plastics in our Life
Medical Equipments
Plastics in our Life Footwear
Plastics in our Life Baby Products
Plastics in our Life Electronics
Plastics in our Life
Agriculture
Plastics in our Life Amusement Parks & Entertainment
Plastics in our Life Industrial Use
Plastics in our Life Vehicles
Plastics
Everywhere
Plastics Everywhere We really live in Plastics Era.
The word plastics is from the Greek word Plastikos, meaning able to be shaped and
molded
Plastics
- History
- Introduction
What is a plastic?
Plastics are organic high polymers, consisting
of large chainlike molecules containing carbon.
They are formed when the short-chain
molecules of chemicals and monomers are
blended together by the process of
polymerization to form large chain-like
molecules.
- mostly made from Oil.
Plastics are known for their
*light weight,
*anti-rust and
*good insulation properties and
*are increasingly becoming substitutes for
major commodities such as
-metals, stones, wood, glass and cotton.
Plastics Compared to Metals and Ceramics
Disadvantage
Lower useful thermal range
High creep
Low structural strength
Low heat dissipation
Poor conductivity
UV degradation
Hard to color match
Affected by solvents
May cause fumes/fire hazard
Advantage
Ease of processing
Low brittleness
Lightweight products
Good thermal insulation
Good electric insulation
Utility as clear material
Use without painting
Can be dissolved (some)
Waste can be burned
Characteristic
Low melting point
High elongation
Low density
Low thermal conductivity
Electrical resistance
Optical clarity (some)
Easily colored
Solvent sensitivity
Flammable
Plastics Strengths Compared to Other
Plastics History
History of Polymers
Date

1868
1909
1919
1927
1927
1929
1936
1936
1938
1938
1938
1939
1939
Material

Cellulose Nitrate
Phenol-Formaldehyde
Casein
Cellulose Acetate
Polyvinyl Chloride
Urea-Formaldehyde
Acrylic
Polyvinyl Acetate
Polystyrene or Styrene
Nylon (Polyamide)
Polyvinyl Butyrate
Polyvinylidene Chloride
Melamine-Formaldehyde
Example Use

Figurines
Electrical equipment
Beauty accessories
Cellophane package wrapping
Pipe, Synthetic Leather
Lighting fixtures, Plywood glue
Brush backs, displays
Synthetic flooring
Disposable utensils
Hosiery
Safety glass interlayer
Saran wrap
Countertops, Cabinets
Date
1942
1942
1943
1943
1947
1948
1954
1956
1957
1957
1964
1964


Material
Polyester
Polyethylene
Fluorocarbon
Silicone
Epoxy
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
Polyurethane or Urethane
Acetal
Polypropylene
Polycarbonate
Ionomer
Polyimide

Example Use
Clothing, Boat hulls
Milk Jugs
Industrial gaskets, Non-stick liners
Gaskets, Tubing, Utensils
Glues
Luggage
Foam cushions, Shoe soles, Wheels
Automotive parts, Toilet parts
Living hinges, Safety helmets
Water bottles, Eye protection
Golf balls, Skin packages
Gears

History of Polymers
Developments in Polymers
New types
Electrically conductive
Light sensitive
Bio-degradable
Bio-compatible
Uses
Automobile
Weight (mileage)
Aviation
767, 787
Voyager, Space Ship
One
Everywhere

Why use plastics?
Plastics are not simply replacement materials, whereas it is based on
technical merits, cost and other benefits makes plastics suitable due
to the following:
ECONOMY
WEIGHT REDUCTION
STYING ASTHETICS
FUNCTIONAL DESIGN
DESIGN FLEXIBILITY
PROPERTIES
EASE OF MANUFACTURING
REDUCED MAINTENANCE
CORROSION AND CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
Types of Plastics
vs
Steel
53%
Plastics
14%
Aluminium
5%
Glass
2%
Elastomers
4%
Fluids
13%
Cast iron
3%
Others
6%
RM % used in Cars
by Weight
Plastics being Used as Alternate Material to many components to reduce vehicle weight like:
Fuel Tank : Use of plastic in place of conventional steel in select models of Maruti Suzuki, Ford,
Honda
Fenders: Use of plastic fenders in place of conventional steel by M&M
Body : Fibre bodies in place of steel bodies in scooters - Pleasure, Dio, Scooty
Wheel Covers: Usage of ABS plastic grade (having lower density) in place of PC+ABS material by
Maruti Suzuki in Wheel Covers
Applications of Plastics
Plastics in automotive engineering
PLASTICS CONSUMPTION IN A CAR - ABOUT 162 Kg
11.6% of Total Weight of the car
TYPE OF PLASTICS Kg
Polypropylene (PP) 29
Polyurathane (PUR) 34
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 5
Acrylonitrile butadiene-
styrene (ABS)
6
PP+ EPDM 18
Polyamides (PA, Nylon) 22
Polyethelene 12
TYPE OF PLASTICS Kg
Polycarbonate (PC) 10
ABS + PC 10
Polyformaldehyde (POM, acetal) 2
Polymethyl methacrylate
(PMMA)
2
Thermoplastics Polyesters (PET
and PBT)
2
Others 10
TOTAL 162
Applications of Plastics
PLASTICS IN AUTOMOBILES
UNDER THE BONNET SYSTEMS
Fuel Systems Fuel Delivery,
Fuel Tanks
Air/ Water induction System
engine cooling and climate
control systems
INTERIOR SYSTEMS :
Cockpit Systems
Door Systems
Interiors Hard Trims
Overhead Systems
EXTERIOR SYSTEMS
Bumper Systems (Lately
integrated into Front-end
systems)
Body side claddings and
cowl grills
Spoilers, capping and
exterior trims
Body panels (Moving from
sheet metal to plastics)
OTHER SYSTEMS
Safety related parts impact
zones
Electrical & Electronics
Lighting Systems
Power train & chasis
systems steering, pedal &
braking system
Soft Trim Systems
Headliners, acoustics &
carpets
Applications of Plastics
ADVANTAGES

More complex assemblies can be easily produced as one unit
Improved performance by reduction of vibration and noise
Improved Impact Resistance
Improved power to weight ratio
Improved aesthetics
Reduced Maintenance
No corrosion
Applications of Plastics
Speedo meter Housing
PP Talc Filled
Door Trim
PP Talc Filled
Applications of Plastics
Reflector Housing
PP Talc Filled
Hyundai Car Bumper
PP Talc Filled
Applications of Plastics
Seat Components
PP Unfilled
Applications of Plastics
Wheel Chair Base
PP Unfilled
Mixie Body
PP Unfilled
Applications of Plastics
Switch Frame
ABS
Instrument Holder
Ford
ABS
Applications of Plastics
Engine Manifold Nylon 6 GF 30
Applications of Plastics
Toyota Tray Nylon 6 GF 25
Applications of Plastics
Honda Tray Nylon 6 GF 45
Applications of Plastics
Radiator Fan
Nylon 6 GF 30
Fuel Sub Tank
Nylon 66 GF 30
Applications of Plastics
Timing Chain Cover & Engine Oil Filter
Nylon 66 GF 30
Applications of Plastics
Glove Rail
Nylon 66 GF 45
Seat Belt Anchor
Nylon 6
Applications of Plastics
Lever Combination
Switch
Nylon 6 GF 30
Relay Box
Nylon 6 Alloy
Applications of Plastics
Wire Harness
Connector
PBT
ECU Case
PBT GF 30
Applications of Plastics
Switch Base
PBT GF 40%
Actuator Case
PBT GF 30%
Applications of Plastics
Air Conditioner Fin
PBT GF 45%
Mirror Housing
PBT GF 30 Alloy
Applications of Plastics
Alternator Parts
PPS GF/ MD 30
Power Module
PPS GF/ MD 50
Neutral Start Switch
PPS GF 40 Alloy
Applications of Plastics
Engine Mounting parts
PPS GF 40
Lamp Reflector PPS
GF/ MD 60
Lamp Socket
PPS 40
Applications of Plastics
Applications of Plastics
Wheel Frame
Cabling
Pillars & Panels
Processing Techniques
Polymers are processed in a number of ways, to arrive at the end products. The
different types of processing include:
1. Injection Moulding
1. GAM
2. Insert moulding
2. Extrusion
1. Pipe Extrusion
2. Sheet Extrusion
3. Film Extrusion
3. Blow Moulding
1. Injection Blow Moulding
2. Injection Stretch Blow Moulding
3. Extrusion Blow Moulding
4. Roto Moulding
5. FRP processing
6. Compression Moulding
7. Pultrusion
8. Reaction Injection Moulding
9. Resin Transfer Moulding
10. Calendering
11. Thermoforming
1. Vaccum Thermoforming
12. Foam Molding
Popular (majority) processing methods include:
Extrusion Typical extruded products include films, sheets, piles and filaments
Injection moulding This is largely used for industrial applications and making moulded
luggage
Blow moulding Bottles, containers, toys, etc, are manufactured using the blow moulding
process
Rotomoulding Large circular containers such as water tanks are made using this process
Extrusion
76%
Rotomoulding
1%
Injection
moulding
18%
Blow
moulding
5%
Flexible
Packaging
42%
Rigid
Packaging
14%
Construction
12%
Household
9%
Appliances
7%
Cables
6%
Others
10%
Processing Techniques
1. Injection Molding Process

Link
1.1 Gas Assisted Injection Molding Process

Link
1.2 Insert Injection Molding Process

Link
55
2. Extruder
56
2.1 Pipe Extrusion
Link
2.2 Sheet Extrusion
Link
2.3 Film Extrusion
3.1 Injection Blow Moulding
Link
3.2 Injection Stretch Blow Moulding
Link
3.3 Extrusion Blow Moulding
Link
4 Roto moulding
Link
Method - 1 Method - 2
5 FRP Processing
64
5.a. Processing of Composites
Open Mold processes
Hand lay-up and Spray-up










Filament winding
6. Compression Molding Process
7. Pultrusion
Link
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8. RIM (Structural)
Fiber preform is placed into mold.
Polyol and Isocyanate liquids are injected into a closed mold and
reacted to form a urethane.

9. Resin Transfer Molding Process
Materials :Thermosets: Polyester, Vinyl ester, or Epoxy resins with glass fiber
10. Calendering
11. Thermoforming
Link
11.1. Vaccum Thermoforming
Link
12. Foam (PU) Processing
Polyurethane can be processed by
Casting, painting, foaming
Reaction Injection Molding (RIM)
Future of Plastics Industry in India
As we already know, Plastics is widely used in Automobile industry, Lets take a look on
Auto industry.
5
th
in the World
Commercial Vehicles
3
rd
in the World
Small Cars
2
nd
in the World
Two-Wheelers
15 manufacturers of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles,
9 manufacturers of commercial vehicles,
16 manufacturers two/ three wheelers,
14 manufacturers tractors,
5 manufacturers of engines.
Future of Plastics Industry in India
Some growth forecasts for Indian auto industry
The Passenger Vehicle market of India will even cross Japan by selling about 5 million
Vehicles by 2017-18.
The Indian auto exports will be upto $9.62 billion in the year ending March 2013 and
the same will grow to $17.64 billion in 2015-16.
Indias share in global auto exports may also triple by 2016.
Indias passenger vehicle production projections :
In 2010 2.6 million Vehicles
By 2015 5.1 million Vehicles
By 2020 9.7 million Vehicles
Sources : -SIAM, ACMA & FICCI
Future of Plastics Industry in India
The Future of Plastics ?
As we saw, PLASTICS are used for almost all of the products we use in our daily
lives. The food packaging, medical, automotive, electronics, building construction,
and textile industries all make extensive use of plastics and elastomers. The
developments in new materials and process technologies that have occurred over
the past 150 years have been very significant. Exciting new developments and
discoveries related to plastics are happening all of the time.

What is the future in PLASTICS ? No one knows for sure. However, one thing is for
sure. It is the PLASTICS ENGINEERS of tomorrow that will shape the future of
the plastics industry. The future is limited only by their imagination and creativity.