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University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2

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Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Overview of Project Management for Civil Engineering Infrastructures
Civil engineers can practice the profession in several industries. Services of civil engineers are employed to develop, construct, and operate
infrastructures. In this course, infrastructures refer to the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to
enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions. These infrastructures are included in the partial list of industries below.


Industries

Examples
1. Energy construction of geothermal, hydropower, wind, and coal power plants
2. Water and Sanitation water resources development, and water supply, wastewater and sewerage projects
3. Transportation construction and operation of airports, ports, and highways
4. Environmental Services
water quality assessment; environmental compliance and investigations; air pollution, solid waste
management, contaminant transport studies
5. Universities research and development activities for new models and methods in engineering
6. Manufacturing
supply and construction of structures for physical production facilities of construction materials: steel,
cement, aggregates; and other goods: soap, cigarette, and semiconductors, etc.
7. Banking
provision of technical assistance to determine funding merits of project proposals for infrastructure
development of public and private institutions
8. Insurance development of risk models based on disasters and catastrophe models
9. Soil Engineering provision of soil testing and site assessment works
10. Mapping surveying and mapping works for project sites
11. Land Development / Urban Planning development and construction of industrial parks, residential areas, and commercial establishments
12. Process Plants construction of main and support structures of process plants (e.g. oil and gas)
13. Communication construction of steel towers for communication facilities
14. Logistics management of information, resources, and materials required for projects
15. Building Construction construction of huge buildings, towers, and other vertical structures
16. Power Distribution construction and monitoring of power lines and transmission towers
17. Irrigation, Flood Control, and Drainage construction and operation of water channels and hydraulic structures
18. Government Service formulation of policies related to public works, facilities, and projects
19. Mining development of water balance in mining sites and geotechnical investigations
20. Agriculture construction of farm structures, access roads, and water related studies
21. Offshore: Oil and Gas construction of steel structures and platforms for oil and gas exploration in the sea
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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However, some functions of civil engineers across these industries are the following:
Design and Consulting Facility Operation Construction
Management and
Administration

Note:

The list of functional
areas is a partial list of
possible roles of a civil
engineer in any industry.
Software Development
Surveying and GIS

Community Development
or Stakeholder Relations
Procurement and Cost
Engineering
Research and
Development
Sales and Marketing Entrepreneurship
Supply Chain
Management
Asset Management Quantity Surveying
Contract Administration
and Specifications
Geotechnical Works

In this course, a project is required for submission. It is a documentation of basic
construction engineering components and project management processes involved
in development and construction of an infrastructure.

It is recommended to choose an infrastructure depending on your choice so that
this course will be relevant to students future endeavor as a civil engineer.

Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by
balancing project scope, time, and cost goals.

However, quality is
the quadruple
constraint.



Notes:

Civil Engineering civilization building and maintenance.
Infrastructure physical structures needed for the operation of a society or the
services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.
Industry unit or sector of an economy where exchange of products and services with
cashflow occurs
Project temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
Project management the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to
project activities to meet project requirements
Operations work done to sustain the business


Assignment: submit a short CV (one-page) containing your top 3 industries and functional areas of choice in your first five years as Civil Engineer

University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Examples of Infrastructure Systems
Transport infrastructure
Road and highway networks including structures
(bridges, tunnels, culverts, retaining walls)
Railway transit systems (e.g. commuter
rail systems, subways)
Canals and navigable waterways requiring continuous
maintenance (dredging, etc.)
Seaports and lighthouses
Airports, including air navigational systems
Energy infrastructure
Electrical power network, including generation plants, electrical
grid, substations, and local distribution.
Natural gas pipelines, storage and distribution terminals, as well as the
local distribution network.
Petroleum pipelines, including associated storage and distribution
terminals.
Specialized coal handling facilities for washing, storing,
and transporting coal.
Water management infrastructure
Drinking water supply, including the system of pipes,
storage reservoirs, pumps, valves, filtration and treatment
equipment and meters, including buildings and structures
to house the equipment, used for the collection,
treatment and distribution of drinking water
Sewage collection, and disposal of waste water
Drainage systems
Major irrigation systems (reservoirs, irrigation canals)
Major flood control systems (dikes, levees, major
pumping stations and floodgates)
Coastal management, including structures such
as seawalls, breakwaters, and floodgates
Communications infrastructure
Television and radio transmission stations
Cable television physical networks including receiving stations and
cable distribution networks
Communications satellites and Undersea cables
Solid waste management
Municipal garbage and recyclables collection
Solid waste landfills
Solid waste incinerators and plasma gasification facilities
Materials recovery facilities
Hazardous waste disposal facilities
Coal mines, oil wells, and natural gas wells may be classified as being part of the Mining and Resources Infrastructures
Buildings for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes are classified under the Building and Property Infrastructures
NOTE: You may use this as guide in selecting a project. All the structures across all the infrastructures listed are all civil engineering
structures. The development and construction of these structures need the services of a civil engineer. Likewise, the
construction of these structures requires the knowledge and skills of a civil engineer as project manager.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Phases of Infrastructure Management (Concept Diagram)

Project Drivers: are the reasons why we have projects
1. Market Demand public need for goods and services
2. Organizational Need expansion or operational
changes in a company or enterprise
3. Customer Request (Complaint) address public
concerns or business need
4. Technological Advance employment of new method
or technique in infrastructure development or operation
5. Legal Requirement mandates of law or public rules
6. Social Need due to social concerns and public health

Source: Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project
Management Body of Knowledge 3rd Edition. Page 81
Development
1. Feasibility Study checks social, environmental, and economical merits of project
2. Alternatives and Scenarios exploration of possible options and combinations of a
project structure
3. Concept Design initial design of a project
4. Detailed Design project design that is ready for construction
5. Land Acquisition identification and finalization of project constuction sites
6. Stakeholder Management public consultation, survey for willingness to pay,
consumer perception, and management of suppliers, government support
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Dimensions of Project Feasibility
1. Social society and political situations
2. Environmental land, air, and water
conditions
3. Economical financial, business, and
investment climate

Project vs. Operation
Project = development + construction
(attain objectives and then terminate)

Operation = facility operation or maintenance
(sustain the business, adopt new objectives,
continue work)
Forms of Project Feasibility
1. Bearable socially and environmentally acceptable
2. Equitable economically and socially acceptable
3. Viable environmentally and economically acceptable
4. Sustainable bearable, equitable, and viable (acceptable in all 3 dimensions)

Source: Dr. Mark Neff of Arizona State University, AGS 2010, Tokyo Japan


Construction
1. Site Condition identified in actual site visits and land survey
2. Design Condition design condition based on construction plans
3. Construction Planning identification of necessary items such as:
a. Components and Phasing
b. Methods and Systems: technology and approach
c. People and Resources: tools, equipment, and labor
d. Temporary Structures: access road, warehouse, bunkers
e. Other requirements: permits
Items b, c, and d are the elements of construction.
Goal of Construction: Site Condition = Design Condition

Notes:
Projects end when their
objectives have been reached or
the project has been terminated.

Construction is considered
finished if the site condition
reached the design condition.

Construction stops when
permanent structures are installed
and temporary structures are
removed.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Operations more commonly called as O&M or operations and maintenance (an alternative term is
facilities management). A facility or an operating infrastructure is commissioned right after a project
has been completed, turned-over to operators, and accepted by project owners.

Modes of Service Life Extension of Facilities or Infrastructures
1. Refurbishment parts replacement, repairs, etc.
2. Renovation facility components are improved
3. Restoration reconstruction back to original design
4. Rehabilitation major improvement with revised design
Note: the modes of service life extension which is based on time requirement to finish the task is
proportional to added value to the facilitys life span.


Decommissioning is the final stage of an
infrastructures service life.

Coordinations in Construction Management
The figure on the right shows the elements, groups,
and people that a project manager in a construction
site has to manage. The given illustration shows the
internal coordinations within the company or
organization that a project manager is commonly
engaged on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis.

Note: Stakeholder management is mapping of all
possible coordinations in construction and project
management activities


Stakeholders people involved in or affected by
project activities

Workshop: Illustrate the groups, people, and
institutions that a project manager has to deal with
for both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL parties to the
company or organization.

Stakeholders include: project sponsor, project
manager, project team, support staff, customers,
users, suppliers, even - opponents to the project!












Figure: George Ritz (1994). Total
Construction Project Management.
McGraw-Hill. page 11.

University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Project:
has a unique purpose and temporary.
specifications of the project are initially broad and then
refined and more detailed as the project progresses.
requires resources, often from various areas.
should have a primary customer or sponsor: the project
sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for
the project.
involves uncertainty: unclear objectives, difficult to
estimate time to complete and cost, dependence on
external factors.

The Sample Project Profile
Instruction: each group will choose a project of your choice. It can be any project
(existing or a concept design) on development and construction of an infrastructure.

Description identify components, industry category, and project drivers. Brief
discussion about the project is requested. The reasons why the project
is planned for construction must be clearly outlined and stated.

Locations mention the location of the project site as well as adjacent and affected
areas in order to describe the extent and impact of the project to the
community. Most projects in conflict areas have problems over political
jurisdiction. Permits are also based on project site location.

Benefits it must be mentioned in the project who are the major beneficiaries of the
project, use of the project, and benefits of the project to be quantified
(if possible) in terms of capacity, service level, and standards complied .

Site Sketch and Layout the construction site of the project must be sketched for
discussion purposes. Imaginations on how the site looks like and
concept design must be itemized together. Indicative locations of
various project components is requested to be drawn in project profile.

Note: Please avoid plagiarism, when in doubt, just cite and acknowledge the sources used.
The Project Profile is requested to have final concept design before Christmas vacation of 2013.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Project Components and the Construction Site
Project Title: __________________________ Location: __________________________

Categories Site Condition
Methods and
Systems
People and
Resources
Temporary
Structures
Design Condition
C
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p
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P
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Tests and
Survey



Land cover
conditions




Temporary
Structures





Permanent
Structures




Rule:
1. First, identify the existing site conditions.
2. Next, identify the required design conditions.

3. Then, determine the necessary methods and systems, people and resources, and temporary
structures in order to have the site conditions reach the design conditions.
4. List all applicable and doable items as many as possible.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Planning Example of Project Components and the Construction Site for illustration purpose ONLY

Categories Site Condition Methods and Systems People and Resources Temporary Structures Design Condition
C
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p
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s

a
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P
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Tests and
Survey
Area not surveyed Topographic survey Surveyor / Total station device Control stations
Mapped project site with 5-
meter contour interval
Unknown water level Water level measurement Groundwater Hydrologist Observation test wells No water level at basement
Unknown flora-fauna Environmental impact assessment Forester / Consultant Plots and transects Complied DENR rules
Land cover
conditions
Hilly terrain Excavation and backfilling Contractor / excavator N/A
Paved 1% gradeline
Forested area Land clearing Contractor / bulldozers N/A Parking paved area
Flooded area Dewatering Contractor / pumps N/A Parking paved area
Loose soil Compaction Contractor / compactor N/A Compacted soil
Informal settlers Eviction Police / bulldozers CCTV cameras Landscaped garden
Temporary
Structures
Access roads Road Contractor N/A
Prior to project completion, all
temporary structures must be
removed.

Warehouse Warehouse construction Contractor N/A
Staff housing Housing construction Contractor N/A
Site office Office construction Contractor N/A
Formworks Concrete building construction Contractor N/A
Permanent
Structures
No structure Foundation-Frames Construction
Contractor / tower cranes /
pile drivers
Formworks / Scaffoldings
Buildings
No road asphalting MMDA / asphalt mixer Lights during night Flexible pavement road
No towers Steel frame construction Contractor / tower cranes N/A Tower
No drainage River diversion installation Contractor / dredger cofferdams Drainage channels
Site Condition: determined based on maps, previous studies, site reconnaisance,
field visits and surveys
Design Condition: plotted in construction drawings and blueprint plans, written
in construction guidelines and other project documents

The site and design conditions are site specific and project specific. The
knowledge of project managers is essential in contruction planning.
List all required elements of construction for each PAIR of site and design
conditions on both sides.

Elements of Construction:
a. Methods and Systems process, technology, or approach
b. People and Resources tools, equipment, and labor
c. Temporary Structures access road, warehouse, bunkers
Note: This example is an illustration only. Planners can modify the categories such as infrastructure components: land cover condition, buildings, road, etc.
Every civil engineer can determine project components that is specific for a given project site. Prior to project completion, all permanent structures are constructed
and passed quality standards.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Components Phasing
1. Field tests and Survey: topographic survey, field measurements (e.g. meteorological
measurements, water level tests, flow measurements), site reconnaissance, hydro-geological
survey, geo-resistivity tests, and geotechnical investigations, etc.
2. Site and Land Cover Conditions: improvement of land terrain, soil quality as foundation
material
3. Permanent Structures: construction and installation; buildings, facilities, process units, and
prefabricated components.
4. Auxiliary Installations (MEPF)
Mechanical machines in the structure and HVAC components such as heating, ventilation,
and air-conditioning units
Electrical power and energy systems, switchboards, lights, etc.
Plumbing pipes for water, sewage, and drainage inside the building
Fire Protection sprinkler systems water
5. Architectural: structural finishing, claddings, paints, landscaping, etc.
6. Inspections and Tests: structural integrity tests, dimension tests, space clearances, removal
of temporary structures, commissioning of facilities (e.g. test runs, operational checks, etc,)


Projects can be divided into phases according to:

1. Staging: e.g. tailing dams of mining sites, land
conversion for housing development, road construction
per town

2. Repeating components: tall and long span structures
Roads and bridges divided into sections (network)
Buildings or Towers e.g. Tower 1, Tower 2, etc.
Pipes divided into sections (sizes or branches)

3. Separable Units: independent unit of construction
(e.g. massive prefabrication), special construction (e.g.
surveys, wells construction, delivery of pre-ordered units
such as pumps, filtration units, etc.)
People and Resources Temporary Structures

Physical resources: include plant and equipment, distribution networks, proximity of supplies,
availability of a raw material, land, and labor.

Human Resources: knowledge, skills, capabilities, and talent of project team members.

Organizational Resources: Organizational resources are the glue that holds all of the other
resources together (e.g. lease contracts, employment bonds, insurances, supply agreements, service
agreements, project contracts, etc.)

Financial Resources: Financial resources are the firms borrowing capability, credit lines, credit
rating, ability to generate cash, and relationship with investment bankers.

Intangible Resources: There are also intangible resources that include the organizational culture,
reputation, brand name, patents, trademarks, know-how, and relationships with customers and
suppliers. Intangible resources do not have the visibility that tangible resources possess, but it can
lead to a sustained competitive advantage.



Supports: scaffoldings, formworks, and shorings
Singages: warnings, location information, hazard areas
Flow and Supply: access roads, pipeworks
Storage: warehouse, bunkers, etc.
Housing: staff, workers, visitors, warehouse
Services: canteen

NOTE:
Categorizing the elements and components of
construction is a prerogative of the project management
team. The project manager is responsible to determine
the suitable outline for a particular project or site.
Source: Harold Kerzner (2001). Strategic Planning for Project Management using Project Management Maturity Model. John Wiley and Sons. page 34 38.
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Coordinations for Project Management in Construction Site


Source: Harold Kerzner (2001). Strategic Planning for Project Management using
Project Management Maturity Model. John Wiley and Sons. page 24

The figure shown on the left are the stakeholders (groups or
individuals) in a macroscopic business environment. It can be
used as general guide in mapping the coordinations of a
project manager in a construction site.

In order to guide the future project managers in planning.
Let us consider these 2 things: inputs and impacts. Inputs
are the needs while the Impacts are the effects of the
project site to the environment, economy, and society.

Inputs
Law/Standards
Permits
Design
Water
Fuel
Electricity
Food
Tools/Equipment
Housing

Impacts
Media
Accidents
Water/wastewater
Noise
Chemical hazards
Air emissions
Security
University of the Philippines Los Baos College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology Department of Civil Engineering 2
nd
Sem AY 2013-2014

Prof. Melvin Blanco Solomon CE 162 Construction Engineering and Project Management Class Handouts and Instructions

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Coordinations for Project Management in Construction Site (Result of Workshop done in CE 162 Class)
The figure below is an illustration of stakeholders (groups, individuals, or institutions) that a project manager has to deal with in a construction
site. The project manager is in charge of coordinating all the information to the management team or project owners. Communication of project
updates and escalation of problems is a major role that a project manager has to play.


Note: The illustrated model above is proposed by MBS that seems applicable to most
infrastructure projects in a construction site. A separate or new model for another
project site is requested in order to map out project and site specific requirements
that a project manager has to coordinate while the project is on-going.