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Discussion Week 7

1. Describe your experience of conducting a brief observation and the experience of this
form of data collection including an observational check list.

Once the determination of categorizing a research question, qualitative, quantitative,
correlative, or non-correlative, and completing a proposal, data collection using a check
list (at the end of these questions) may be used. A researcher may experience the
collection of data from this type of observation to be insufficient and does not express
enough to support his or her hypothesis. Additional qualitative surveys or observations
may need to be explored [Antill, L., 1985].

2. Compare this experience with data analysis experiences in biostatistics( i.e.
QUANTITATIVE DATA COLLECTION)
Using a quantitative data collection, this learner discovered similar conclusions. Repeated
surveys and or test needed to be exercised in order to achieve valuable results. Yes,
quantitative data is basically precise calculations, using numbers, as well as, surveys and
observations, however, opinionated outcomes when observing or retrieving data from
surveys is limited if nonexistent [Denzin, Lincoln, 2000].
3. Summarize the strengths and limitations of each type of data collection. ( Qualitative vs.
Quantitative data collection)
Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods
Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods
Methods include focus groups, in-depth
interviews, and reviews
Surveys
Primarily inductive process used to
formulate theory
Primarily deductive process used to test
pre-specified concepts, constructs, and
hypotheses that make up a theory
More subjective: describes a problem or
condition from the point of view of those
experiencing it
More objective: provides observed
effects (interpreted by researchers) of a
program on a problem or condition
Text-based Number-based
More in-depth information on a few Less in-depth but more breadth of
cases information across a large number of
cases
Unstructured or semi-structured
response options
Fixed response options
No statistical tests Statistical tests are used for analysis
Can be valid and reliable: largely
depends on skill and rigor of the
researcher
Can be valid and reliable: largely
depends on the measurement device or
instrument used
Time expenditure lighter on the planning
end and heavier during the analysis
phase
Time expenditure heavier on the
planning phase and lighter on the
analysis phase
Less generalizable More generalizable


The following is a chart which may assist you with determining the differences. You may
use this one I designed using the comparison statements from the cited web site [Kaplan
1998].
Research Strengths Limitations
Qualitative
Focus groups, in-depth
interviews, and reviews
More in-depth information
on a few cases
Describes a problem or
condition from the point
of view of those
experiencing it
Unstructured or semi-
structured response
options
Quantitative
Test pre-specified
concepts, constructs, and
hypotheses that make up a
theory
Provides observed effects
(interpreted by researchers)
of a program on a problem
or condition
Statistical tests are used for
analysis
Fixed response options
More generalizable





4. Which method of data collection and analysis are you most comfortable with? (Qualitative vs.
Quantitative data collection)
This question you have to answer yourself. I am familiar and comfortable with
quantitative data collection. I have used it in my correlated research dissertation.
Check List for Qualitative study observation in a mall.
This check list can be placed into questions when presenting. Naturally my experiences with this
list will be different from yours, but you can use mine if you would like. We all see things from
our formative experiences. Conducting any study, you must refrain from showing any bias
[Agar, Michael, 1996].
1. Race
2. Manner of dress
3. Communication (verbal vs. nonverbal)
4. Shops of interest
5. Social aspects
6. Foods of choice
7. Physical interactions
8. Age groups
9. Gender
10. Facial expressions
11. Body type










References:
Antill, L. (1985). Selection of a Research Method. Research Methods in Information Systems. E.
Mumford, G. Fitzgerald, R. A. Hirschheim and A. T. Wood-Harper. Amsterdam, Elisiver
Science Publishers: 191-204.
Denzin, N. K. and Y. S. Lincoln (2000). The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research.
Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, Sage.
Kaplan, B. and D. Duchon (1988). "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in
Information Systems Research: A Case Study." MIS Quarterly 12(4): 570-586.
Agar, Michael (1996) The Professional Stranger: An Informal Introduction to Ethnography.
Academic Press.