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HOMEWORK 1 SOLUTIONS

Due at beginning of class on January 22, 2014

Conceptual understanding answer briefly

1. Define a closed system and compare to an open system.

Closed system: no mass can be added or removed. As the mass moves or changes shape, the boundary

moves with it. Otherwise, its an open system.

2. Define an extensive (extrinsic) system property, and give two examples

Extensive property: depends on the size of the system. Includes transport properties such as mass, volume,

heat, momentum, energy, and electrical charge.

3. Define an intensive (intrinsic) system property, and give two examples

Intensive property: independent of the size of the system; e.g., pressure, temperature, and density.

4. Briefly describe the fundamental scales for transport of momentum, energy, mass, and charge, and give an

example of each that is related to biological or biomedical systems

- Molecular scale: looks at interactions at the nano scale among molecules, such as DNA.

- Microscopic scale: looks at variations in space and time. Empirical relationships relate fluxes of heat,

mass, momentum, and electrical charge (extrinsic variables) through the microsystem to gradients of

driving forces such as temperature, concentration, pressure, or electrical potential (intrinsic variables).

The microscopic scale treats the system as composed of material continuously distributed in space, such

as the tissue of a basement membrane.

- Macroscopic scale: looks at variation in time (not space) of average momentum, heat, mass, and

electrical charge inside the system as a whole, such as whole organs like the lungs or the liver.

5. Define the study of Biotransport in terms of extensive properties

Biotransport involves the study of the movement of extensive properties across the boundary of a biological

or biomedical system.

6. Briefly describe the steps in formulating a Biotransport problem

First step: identify the system and its boundaries

Second step: apply appropriate conservation principles governing the movement of extensive properties.

7. State in words the conservation principle governing the movement of an extensive property

Rate of accumulation of the quantity within a system = Net rate the quantity is produced within the system +

Net rate the quantity enters through the system boundary

8. State as a formula the rate of accumulation of an extensive property P within a system

0

( ) ( )

lim

t

P t t P t P

t t

A

+ A c

=

`

A c

)

9. Explain when a system is in equilibrium in terms of extensive properties

A system is in equilibrium with its environment if it has not net exchange of any extensive property (e.g.,

mass, energy) with the environment.

10. What are the two most common mechanisms through which Biotransport occurs?

BE 310 Biotransport Phenomena

Transport occurs mainly through molecular random motion or bulk mass motion.

11. Define in words the flux of an extensive property X

Flux of extensive property X (e.g., mass, momentum in the n-direction, heat, charge) at a point in space is a

vector representing the rate at which X passes through a unit area A that is perpendicular to the n-direction

per unit time.

12. Explain why the flux of transport quantities such as mass, momentum charge, and heat are in the opposite

direction as the gradient of the potential

In order to generate a transport flow with a positive vector, it is necessary to apply a negative potential

gradient (from high to low).

13. State Ficks first law of diffusion in one-dimensional Cartesian coordinates, and explain the meaning and the

units for each term in the equation.

d

d

x

A

A AB

c

J D

x

=

where J

A

(mol / (s m

2

)) is molar flux of species A, c

A

(mol / m

3

) is molar concentration of species A in

solution, and D

AB

(m

2

/ s) is the diffusion coefficient of species A in the mixture.

14. What are the two components that make up the net rate by which a quantity can enter through a system

boundary

Net rate the quantity enters through the system boundary = sum of molecular fluxes + bulk mass motion

fluxes

15. Name two challenges in studying Biotransport phenomena, and how they could be addressed.

- Transport in irregular-shaped geometries: requires simplifying assumptions, and approximations to

mathematical solutions

- Biotransport processes are nonlinear, i.e., not just a simple function of the inputs. Constitutive relations

introduce mathematical functions difficult to incorporate into analytical functions (solvable by power

series at a point in space). Need numerical and approximation methods.

- Biological materials are composite, with differing properties in space. Boundary conditions need to

include continuity of potential (e.g., temperature and concentration) and flow (e.g., molecules and heat).

16. Define the study of Rheology.

Branch of mechanics that studies the deformation and flow of materials.

17. Define the study of Fluid Mechanics.

Studies the rheology of fluids.

18. Compare the behavior of a fluid to an ideal solid when subjected to constant shear stress.

Ideal solids subjected to shear will deform rapidly and remain deformed until the shear is changed.

Fluid continues to deform when subjected to a constant shear stress

19. Define a Newtonian fluid in terms of shear stress and shear rate

For a Newtonian fluid, the shear stress (the flux of momentum) is directly proportional to the shear rate (the

velocity gradient).

20. Define the wall shear stress

BE 310 Biotransport Phenomena

Wall shear stress is the applied force per unit contact surface (force per area)

21. What is the no slip boundary condition in a sliding plate viscometer?

The fluid layer (film) directly in contact with the moving plate does not move with reference to the plate.

Problem solving please show all the steps

22. Rheology of fluids. In lecture we derived that the instantaneous shear rate for a fluid element subjected to

a constant shear stress is equal to the velocity gradient:

0

d ( ) ( )

lim

d

x

t

v t t t

t y

A

+ A

=

`

A

)

where the angle characterizes the deformation of the fluid element. Using the same coordinate system and

nomenclature as in class, please show all the steps taken to arrive to this conclusion.

We know that

| | ( / )( ) ( / )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

tan

x x

l t y y l t y t v y y t v y t l y y l y

y y y

A A + A A A A + A A A A + A A

~ = = =

A A A

Then

( ) ( )

0 0

0

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

lim lim

( ) ( ) d

lim

d

x x x x

t y

x x x

y

v y y t t v y t t v y y t v y t

t t t

t t y

v y y v y v

y y

A A

A

+ A + A + A + A A A

+ A

= =

`

A A A

)

+ A

= =

A

23. Sliding Plate Viscometer. A sliding plate viscometer is used to measure the viscosity of an unknown

Newtonian fluid, and it measures 2x10

-2

Pa s. The velocity of the wall is measured to be 3 cm/s. The

viscometer plate area is 0.15 m

2

and the distance between the plate and the stationary wall is 0.5 mm. From the

data find the value (with proper units) for the fluid shear stress in the system.

Since for a sliding plate viscometer

Fh

AV

= (as derived in the example in class), we can solve for the force to

be F = 0.18 N.

We can then calculate the wall shear stress from

w

F

A

t =

, which gives 1.2 N/m

2

.

For a sliding plate viscometer, the fluid shear stress is the negative of the wall shear stress:

yx w

t t = , which

gives

2

1.2 N/m

yx

t =

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