Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8


Floor Sommerset Bldg., Lopez Jaena St. Jaro, Iloilo City
Tel No.: (0! 20"2#2$
%mail &ddress: a'n(rsingre)ie*i+,ya-oo.+om
Blood Banking and S!olog"
1. Isoimmunisation to platelet antigen (PI
) and the placental transfer of maternal antibodies would be
xpected to cause newborn:
a. Erythroblastosis
b. eu!ocytosis
c. eu!openia
d. T#!o$%o&"'o(nia
". #ollowing plasmaheresis$ how long must a person wait before being eligible to donate a unit of %hole
a. ( wee!s
b. " wee!s
c. )* #o+!,
d. ") hours
*. Each unit of whole blood will yield approximately how many units of cryoprecipitated A+#'
a. ),
b. *-
c. 1*,
d. "-,
). Addition of which of the following will enhance the shelf. life of whole blood'
a. +eparin
b. Adnin
c. +ydroxyethyl starch
d. actated /inger0s solution
-. Pretransfusion compatibility testing must include:
a. An'i%od" ,&!ning %" an'iglo%+lin ','
b. Autocontrol
c. 1inor crossmatch
d. 2 test on recipient
3. 4e5ere intra5ascular hemolysis is most li!ey caused by antibodies of which blood group system'
a. ABO
b. /h
c. 6ell
d. 2uffy
7. 8nder extreme emergency conditions when there is no time to determine A&9 group for transfusion$ the
technologist should:
a. /efuse to release any blood until the patient0s sample has been typed
b. /elease 9$ /h. negati5e whole bold
c. Rla, O, R#. nga'i/ !d %lood &ll,
d. /elease 9$ /h. positi5e red blood cells
(. An obstetrical patient has had three pre5ious pregnancies. +er first baby was healthy: the second was
;aundiced at birth and re<uired an exchange transfusion$ while the third was stillborn. %hich of the following
is the most li!ely cause'
a. A&9 incompatability
b. Immune deficiency disease
c. =ongenital spherocytic anemia
d. R# in&o$(a'i%ili'"
>. %ith regard to inheritance$ most blood group systems are:
a. 4ex. lin!ed dominant
b. 4ex. lin!ed recessi5e
c. Autosomal recessi5e
d. A+'o,o$al &odo$inan'
1,. ?he optimum storage temperature for =ryoprecipitated A+# is:
a. ""
b. )
c. . 1"
d. . 0-
11. ?he optimum storage temperature for Platelets is:
a. 00
b. )
c. . 1"
d. . ",
1". ?he optimum storage temperature for /ed blood =ells$ #ro@en is:
a. )
b. A 1"
c. A ",
d. 1 *-
1*. ?he optimum storage temperature for %hole &lood is:
a. )
b. A 1"
c. A ",
d. A (,
1). Buality control tests must be performed daily on:
a. Ragn' !d %lood &ll,
b. 9ral thermometers
c. &an!ed whole blood
d. =entrifuge timers
1-. =riteria determining /h immune globulin eligibility include:
a. 1other is /h. negati5e
b. Infant is /h. negati5e
c. Mo'#! #a, no' %n (!/io+,l" i$$+ni2d 'o '# D an'ign
d. Infant has a positi5e direct a antiglobulin test
13. %hich of the following constitutes permanent re;ection status of a donor'
a. A tattoo - months pre5iously
b. /ecent close contactwith a patient with 5iral hepatitis
c. ?wo units of blood transfused ) months pre5iously
d. Con3i!$d (o,i'i/ ',' 3o! HB,Ag 1- "a!, (!/io+,l"
17. ?he ma;or crossmatch will detect a(n):
a. Croup A patient mistyped as group 9
b. Irregular antibody in the donor unit
c. /h. negati5e donor unit mislabelled as /h. positi5e
d. R&i(in' an'i%od" di!&'d again,' an'ign, on '# dono! !d &ll,
1(. =ells of the A* subgroup will :
a. /eact with 2olichos biflorus
b. Dot be agglutinated by anti. A
c. Gi/ a $i4d 3ild !a&'ion 5i'# an'i. A, B
d. Dot be agglutinated by anti. +
1>. 1ixed. field reactions with anti. A and anti. A$ & and negati5e reactions with anti. & and anti. A1 lectin
(2olichos biflorus) are obser5ed. %ithout further testing$ the most li!ely conclusion is that the patient is
a. A1
b. A"
c. A6
d. A)
",. Anti. #y is:
a. 8sually a cold. reacti5e agglutinin
b. 1ore reacti5e when tested with en@yme. treated red blood cells
c. Ca(a%l o3 &a+,ing #$ol"'i& '!an,3+,ion !a&'ion,
d. 9ften an autoagglutinin
"1. A patient recei5ed two units of /ed &lood =ells and had a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction.
Pretransfusion records indicate a negati5e antibody screen. /epeat testing of the pretransfusion specimen
detected an antibody at the antiglobulin phase. %hat is the most li!ely explanation for the original results'
a. /ed cells were o5erwashed
b. =entrifugation time was prolonged
c. Pa'in'7, ,!+$ 5a, o$i''d 3!o$ '# o!iginal ','ing
d. Antiglobulin reagent was neutrali@ed
"". %hich one of the following is an indicator of polyagglutination'
a. /&=s typing as 2 positi5e
b. Presence of red cell autoantibody
c. 2ecreased serum bilirubin
d. Aggl+'ina'ion 5i'# no!$al ad+l' ABO. &o$(a'i%l ,!a
"*. Anti.4d is strongly suspected if:
a. ?he patient has been pre5iously transfused
b. T# aggl+'ina', a! $i4d. 3ild and !3!a&'il
c. ?he patient is group A or &
d. 9nly a small number of panel cells are reacti5e
"). 1ixed. field agglutination at the anti. human globulin phase of a crossmatch may be attributed to:
a. /ecently transfused cells
b. Intrauterine exchange transfusion
c. An an'i%od" ,+&# a, an'i. Sd
d. #etomaternal hemorrhage
"-. In suspected cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn$ what significant information can be obtained from
the baby0s blood smear'
a. Estimation of %&=$ /&=$ and platelet counts
b. 1ar!ed increase in immature neutrophils (shift to the left)
c. A differential to estimate the absolute number of lymphocytes present
d. D'!$ina'ion o3 '# (!,n& o3 ,(#!o&"', and l/a'd n+$%!, o3 n+&la'd !d %lood
"3. As a pre5enti5e measure against graft. 5ersus. host disease$ red blood cells prepared for infants who ha5e
recei5ed intrauterine transfusions should be:
a. 4aline. washed
b. I!!adia'd
c. #ro@en and deglyceroli@ed
d. Croup and /h compatible with the mother
"7. %hich of the following is the preferred specimen for the initial compatibility testing in exchange transfusion
a. Ma'!nal ,!+$
b. Eluate prepared from infant0s red blood cells
c. Paternal serum
d. Infant0s postexchange serum
"(. %hen the main ob;ecti5e of an exchange transfusion is to remo5e the infant0s antibody. sensiti@ed red blood
cells and to control hyperbilirubinemia$ the blood product of choice is A&9 compatible:
a. 8!,# W#ol Blood
b. /ed &lood =ells washed
c. #resh #ro@en Plasma
d. +eparini@ed /ed &lood =ells
">. %hich one of the following histories represents an acceptable donor'
+ct &P ?emperature Pulse Age 4ex
a. *> 11,E7, >>.( 7- ), #
b. *7 1*-E(- >(.3 (, *- 1
&9 )1 :-;<- ::9) =< =< M
d. )- 11-E(, >(.3 1," 17 1
*,. According to AA&& standards$ 7-F of all Platelet$ Pheresis units tested shall contain how many platelets per
a. -.- x 1,
b. 3.- x 1,
c. 69- 4 1-
d. -., x 1,
*1. #ollowing the second spin in the preparation of Platelet$ Pheresis units tested shall contain how many
platelets per G'
a. Allo5d 'o ,i' +ndi,'+!%d 3o! 1 #o+!
b. Agitated immediately
c. Pooled immediately
d. ?ransfused within )( hours
*". %hich of the following is proper procedure for preparation of Platelets$ from whole blood'
a. Lig#' ,(in 3ollo5d %" a #a!d ,(in
b. ight spin followed by two hard spins
c. ?wo light spins
d. +ard spin followed by a light spin
**. ?he purpose of a low. dose irradiation of blood components is to:
a. Pre5ent posttransfusion purpura
b. P!/n' g!a3'. /!,+,. #o,' >GVH? di,a,
c. 4terili@e components
d. Pre5ent noncardiogenic pulmonary edema
*). Platelets prepared in a polyolefin type container$ stored at ""
=. ")
= in -, m of plasma and gently
agitated can be used for up to:
a. ") hours
b. )( hours
c. * days
d. < da",
*-. ?he en@yme responsible for conferring + acti5ity on the red cell membrane is alpha:
a. Calactosyl transferase
b. D. acetylgalactosaminyl transferase
c. L. 3+&o,"l '!an,3!a,
d. Clucosyl transferase
*3. /efer to the following data:
8o!5a!d G!o+( R/!, G!o+(
An'i. A An'i. B An'i. A1 L&'in A1. &ll, A0. Cll, B&ll,
)@ ng )@ ng 0@ )@
?he A&9 discrepancy seen abo5e is most li!ely due to:
a. Anti. A1
b. /oleaux
&9 An'i. H
d. 8nexpected IgC antibody present
*7. A "-. year. old =aucasian woman$ gra5ida *$ para "$ re<uired two units of %hole &lood. ?he antibody
screen was positi5e and the results of the antibody panel are shown abo5e. %hich of the following
antibodies may be the cause of the positi5e antibody screen'
a. Anti. 1 and anti.6
b. An'i.& and an'i. E
c. Anti. s and anti.c
d. Anti. #y
and anti.c
*(. A "-. year. old =aucasian woman$ gra5ida *$ para "$ re<uired two units of %hole &lood. ?he antibody
screen was positi5e and the results of the antibody panel are shown abo5e. %hat is the most probable
genotype of this patient'
a. rr
b. r0r0
c. /or
d. R1R1
*>. A "-. year. old =aucasian woman$ gra5ida *$ para "$ re<uired two units of %hole &lood. ?he antibody
screen was positi5e and the results of the antibody panel are shown abo5e. %hich common antibody has
D9? been ruled out by the panel'
a. Anti. 4
b. Anti. e
c. Anti. H!
d. An'i. A
),. A patient0s serum reacted wea!ly positi5e (1I
) with 13 of 13 group 9 panel c*ells at the A+C test phase.
?he autocontrol was negati5e. ?ests with ficin. treated panel cells demonstrated no reacti5ity at the A+C
phase. %hich antibody is most li!ely responsible for these results'
a. An'i. C#
b. Anti.!
c. Anti.e
d. Anti. Hs
)1. 8se of E2?A plasma pre5ents acti5ation of the classical complement pathway by:
a. =ausing rapid decay of complement components
b. =helating 1g
ions$ which pre5ents the assembly of =3
c. C#la'ing Ca
ion,, 5#i&# (!/n', a,,$%l" o3 C1
d. Pre5enting chemotaxis
)". A 6leihauer. &et!e stain of a postpartum blood film re5ealed ,.*F fetal cells. %hat is the estimated 5olume
(m) of the fetomaternal hemorrhage expressed as whole blood'
a. -
b. 1<
c. "-
d. *-
)*. ?he most effecti5e component to treat a patient with fibrinogen deficiency is:
a. #resh #ro@en Plasma
b. Platelets
c. #resh %hole &lood
d. C!"o(!&i(i'a'd AH8
)). An assay of plasma from a bag of cryoprecipitated A+# yields a concentration of > international units (I8) of
factor JIII per m of cryoprecipitated A+E. If the 5olume is >m$ what is the #actor JIII content of the bag in
a. >
b. 1(
c. "7
d. *1
)-. ?he approximate percentage of the original plasma content of #actor JIII reco5ered in cryoprecipitate A+#
a. 1,F. ",F
b. ",F. ),F
c. )-B. *-B
d. (,F. 1,,F
)3. A newborn demonstrates petechiae$ ecchymosis$ and mucosal bleeding. ?he preferred blood component for
this infant would be:
a. /ed blood cells
b. #resh fro@en plasma
c. Pla'l',
d. =ryoprecipitated A+#
)7. A 3-.year.old woman experienced sha!ing$ chills and a fe5er of 1,*
# approximately ), minutes following
the transfusion of a second unit of /ed &lood =ells. ?he most li!ely explanation for the patient0s symptoms
a. ?ransfusion of bacterially contaminated blood
b. =ongesti5e heart failure due to fluid o5erload
c. Anaphylactic transfusion reaction
d. S/! 3%!il '!an,3+,ion !a&'ion
)(. An acid elution stain was made using a 1. hour post deli5ery maternal blood sample. ?wo thousand cells
were counted and thirty of these cells appeared to contain fetal hemoglobin. It is the policy of the medical
center to add one 5ial of /h immune globulin to the calculated dose when the estimated 5olume of the
hemorrhage exceeds ", m of whole blood. =alculate the number of 5ials of /h immune globulin to that
would be indicated under these circumstances.
a. "
b. *
c. )
d. -
)>. ?he iley method of predicting the se5erity of hemolytic disease of the newborn is based on the amniotic
a. &ilirubin concentration by standard methods
b. C#ang in o('i&al dn,i'" $a,+!d a' )<-n$
c. /h determination
d. /atio of lecithin to sphingomyelin
-,. A unit of #resh #ro@en Plasma was inad5ertently thawed and then immediately refrigerated at )
= on
1onday morning. 9n ?uesday e5ening this unit may still be transfused as a replacement for:
a. All coagulation factors
b. #actor J
c. #actor JIII
d. 8a&'o! IC
-1. %hich of the following statements about immunoglobulins is true'
a. Immunoglobulins are produced by ? lymphocytes
b. ?he IgA class is determined by the gamma hea5y chain
&9 T# IgA &la,, 4i,', a, ,!+$ and ,&!'o!" $ol&+l,
d. ?here are two subclasses of IgC
-". ?he classic antibody response pattern following infection with hepatitis A is:
a9 In&!a, in IgM an'i%od"D d&!a, in IgM an'i%od"D in&!a, in IgG an'i%od"
b. 2etectable presence of IgC antibody only
c. 2etectable presence of Ig1 antibody only
d. 2ecrease in Ig1 antibody: increase in IgC antibody of the IgC* subtype
-*. %hich of the following is the ma;or residual split portion of =*'
a. =*a
%9 C6%
c. =)
d. =1<
-). %hich of the following releases histamine and other mediators from basophils'
a9 C6a
b. Properdin factor &
c. =1<
d. =)
--. ?he component associated only with the alternati5e pathway of complement acti5ation is:
a. =)
b. =1<
&9 P!o(!din 3a&'o! B
d. =*a
-3. %hich of the following is clea5ed as a result of acti5ation of the classical complement pathway'
a. Properdin factor &
b. =1<
&9 C)
d. =*b
-7. ?he en@yme lin!ed immunosorbent assay (EI4A) techni<ue for the detection of +&sAg:
a. /e<uires radiolabeled =1<
b. Is <uantitated by degree of fluorescence
&9 E,, an'i. HB, linkd 'o #o!,!adi,# (!o4ida,
d. 8ses beads coated with +bsAg
-(. /heumatoid factor is:
a. An antigen found in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis
b. Identical to the arthritis precipitin
&9 IgG o! IgM a+'oan'i%od"
d. =apable of forming circulating immune complexes only when Ig1. type autoantibody is present
->. ?he presence of immune complexes indicates:
a. Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia
b. Inflammatory tissue in;ury
c. Protection from complement. dependent neutrophil chemotaxis
d9 No!$al #o,' !,(on, 'o an'igni& 4(o,+!
3,. ?he complement component =*:
a. Is increased( in plasma le5els) when complement acti5ation occurs
%9 Can % $a,+!d %" i$$+no(!&i'in a,,a",
c. /eleases histamine from basophils or mast cells
d. Is D9? in5ol5ed in the alternate complement pathway
31. =hronic carriers of +&J:
a. +a5e chronic symptoms of hepatitis
%9 Con'in+ 'o &a!!" '# HBV
c. 2o not transmit infection
d. =arry the +&J but are not infectious
3". ?he antigen mar!er most closely associated with transmissibility of +&J infection is:
a. +&s
%9 H%
c. +&c
d. +&J
3*. +epatitis = (nonenteric form of non. A$ non. & hepatitis) differs from hepatitis A and hepatitis & because it:
a. +as highly stable incubation period
b. Is associated with a high incidence of icteric hepatitis
&9 I, a,,o&ia'd 5i'# a #ig# in&idn& o3 '# &#!oni& &a!!i! ,'a'
d. Is seldom implicated in cases of posttransfusion hepatitis
3). %hich of the following mediators is released during ? cell acti5ation'
a. Immunoglobulins b. ?hymosin
c. 4erotonin d9 L"$(#okin,
3-. ?he H. chain is associated with which of the following immunoglobulins'
a9 IgA
b. IgC
c. IgE
d. Ig2
33. Initiation of the acti5ation mechanism of the alternati5e complement pathway differs from that of the classical
pathway in that:
a. Antigen. antibody complexes containing Ig1 or IgC are re<uired
b. Endotoxin alone cannot initiate acti5ation
c. =1 component of complement is in5ol5ed
d9 An'ign. an'i%od" &o$(l4, &on'aining IgA o! IgE $a" ini'ia' a&'i/a'ion
37. ?he =*b component of complement:
a. Is undetectable in pathologic sera
b. Is a component of the =* clea5ing en@yme of the classical pathway
&9 I, &la/d %" C6 ina&'i/a'o! in'o C6& and C6d
d. 1igrates farther toward the cathode than =*
3(. ?he serum hemolytic complement le5el (=+-,):
a. i, a $a,+! o3 'o'al &o$(l$n' a&'i/i'"
b. pro5ides the same information as a serum factor & le5el
c. is detectable when any component of the classical system is congenially absent
d. can be calculated from the serum concentrations of the indi5idual component
3>. A "3. year old nurse de5eloped fatigue$ a low grade fe5er$ polyarthritis and urticaria. ?wo months earlier she
had cared for a patient with hepatitis. %hich of the following findings are li!ely to be obser5ed in this nurse'
a9 negati5e hepatitis & surface antigen test
b. l/a'd AST and ALT l/l,
c. a positi5e rheumatoid factor
d. a positi5e 1onospot
7,. ?he #?A. A&4 test for the serologic diagnosis of syphilis is:
a. less sensiti5e and specific than the J2/ is properly performed
b. likl" 'o !$ain (o,i'i/ a3'! adF+a' an'i%io'i& '#!a("
c. currently recommended for testing cerebrospinal fluid
d. preferred o5er dar!field microscopy for diagnosing primary syphilis
71. ?he hyper5iscosity syndrome is most li!ely to be seen in monoclonal disease of which of the following
immunoglobulin classes'
a. IgA
%9 IgM
c. IgC
d. Ig2
7". Antibody class and antibody subclass are determined by ma;or physiochemical differences and antigenic
5ariation found primarily in the:
a9 &on,'an' !gion o3 #a/" &#ain
b. constant region of light chain
c. 5ariable regions of hea5y and light chains
d. constant regions of hea5y and light chains
7*. %hich of the following complement components is a strong chemotactic factor as well as a strong
a. =*a
b. =*b
c9 C<a
d. =)a
7). %hich of the following complement components or pair of componets is a 5iral neutrali@er'
a. =1
b9 C1, )
c. ="b
d. =*a
7-. %hich of the following acti5ities is associated with =*b'
a. o(,oni2a'ion
b. anaphylaxis
c. 5asoconstriction
d. chemotaxis
73. Immediate hypersensiti5ity is most commonly associated with:
a. transfusion reaction
b. ana(#"la&'i& !a&'ion
c. contact dermatitis
d. bacterial septicemia
77. A transfusion reaction to erythrocyte antigens will acti5ate which of the following immunopathologic
a. immediate hypersensiti5ity
b. arthus reaction
c. delayed hypersenti5ity
d. i$$+n &"'ol",i,
7(. 2elayed hypersensiti5ity is related to:
a. &on'a&' ,n,i'i/i'" 'o ino!gani& &#$i&al,
b. transfusion reaction
c. anaphylactic reaction
d. bacterial septicemia
7>. +igh titers of antimicrosomal antibodies are most often found in:
a. rheumatoid arthritis
b. systemic lupus erythematosus
c. chronic hepatitis
d. '#"!oid di,a,
(,. 4E patients often ha5e which of the following test results'
a. #ig# 'i'!, o3 DNA an'i%od"
b. decreased serum immunoglobulin le5els
c. high. titers of anti. smooth muscle antibodies
d. high titers of antimichondrial body
(1. Anti. /DA antibodies are are often present in indi5iduals ha5ing an antinuclear antibody
immunoflourescent pattern that is:
a. spec!led
b. rim
c. diffuse
d. n+&lola!
(". Antibodies to which of the following immunoglobulins are !nown to ha5e produced anaphylactic
reactions following blood transfusion'
a9 IgA
b. Ig2
c. IgE
d. IgC
(*. ?he latex agglutination titer commonly considered as the lower limit of positi5ity for diagnosis of
rheumatoid arthritis is:
a. 1:"
b. 1:),
c. 1G 1=-
d. 1: 3
(). A 13.year. old boy with infectious mononucleosis has a cold agglutinin titer of 1: ",,,. An important
consideration of this antibody0s clinical rele5ance is the:
a. '#!$al !ang
b. titer at )
c. specificity
d. light chain type
(-. %hich of the following is an important cellular mediator of immune complex tissue in;ury'
a. monocyte
b. n+'!o(#il
c. basophil
d. eosinophil
(3. A serologic test for syphilis that depends upon the detection of cardiolipin. lecithin. cholesterol antigen is:
a. #?A. A&4
b9 RPR
c. 1+A. ?P
d. ?PI
(7. In the #?A. A&4 test$ the presence of beaded pattern of fluorescence along the treponeme indicates:
a. positi5e identification of treponema pallidum
b. presumpti5e diagnosis of acti5e syphilis
c. presence of nontreponemal antibody (D?A)
d9 3al,. (o,i'i/ !a&'ion
((. ?he most important use of nontreponemal antibody (D?A) test alone is in:
a. establishing the diagnosis of acute acti5e syphilis
b. establishing the diagnosis of chronic syphilis
c. /al+a'ing '# ,+&&,, o3 '#!a("
d. determining the pre5alence of disease in the general population
(>. ?he serologic test for syphilis recommended for detecting antibody in cerebrospinal fluid is:
a. nontreponemal antibody
b. CS8. VDRL
c. #?A. A&4
d. 1+A. ?P
>,. ?he initial immune response following fetal infection with rubella is the production of which class(es) of
a. IgC b. IgA
c. IgM d. both IgC and IgA
>1. %ithin one wee! after exposure to rash illness$ a maternal serum rubella titer that is e<ual to or greater
than 1:( indicates:
a9 (!o%a%l i$$+ni'" 'o !+%lla
b. e5idence of acute rubella infection
c. susceptibility to rubella infection
d. absence of acute rubella
>". %hich IgC subclass is most efficient at crossing the placenta'
a9 IgG1
c. IgC*
>*. ?he area of the immunoglobulin molecule referred to as the hinge region is located between which
a. J+ and J
b9 CH1 and CH0
c. =+" and =+*
d. =+* and J
>). %hich class of immunoglobulin is thought to function as an antigenic receptor site on the surface of
immune & lymphocytes'
a. Ig2
%9 IgM
c. IgA
d. Ig2
>-. %hich of the following terms describes a graft between genetically unidentical indi5iduals belonging to
the same species'
a. autograft
b. isograft
&9 allog!a3'
d. xenograft
>3. %hich of the following is the Krecognition unitL in the classical complement pathway'
a9 C1F
b. =*a
c. =)
d. =-
>7. A series of eight tubes are set. up with ,.7> m of diluent in each. A serial dilution is performed by adding
1,u of serum to the first tube$ and then transferring 1, u through each remaining tube. %hat is the serum
dilution of tube 7'
a. 1:".)*1 x 1,
b. 1:" 3"1 x 1,
c9 1G19:0- 4 1-
d. 1:".,>7 x 1,
>(. Patients suffering from %aldenstrom0s macroglobulinemia demonstrate excessi5ely increased
concentrations of which of the following'
a. IgC
b. IgA
c. Ig1
d9 IgD
>>. ?he presence of +bsAg$ anti. +&c and often +beAg is characteristic of:
a. early acute phase +&J hepatitis
b. early con5alescent phase +&J hepatitis
c. reco5ery phase of acute +&J hepatitis
d9 &a!!i! ,'a' o3 a&+' HBV #(a'i'i,
1,,. ?he disappearance of +bsAg and +beAg$ the persistence of anti. +&c$ the appearance of anti. +&s
and often of anti. +&e indicate:
a. early acute +&J hepatitis
b. early con5alescent phase +&J hepatitis
c9 !&o/!" (#a, o3 a&+' HBV #(a'i'i,
d. carrier state of acute +&J hepatitis