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MANISH

KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
HERONS FORMULA

INTRODUCTION
We are familiar with the shapes of many pane closed figures such as squares, rectangles, quadrilaterals, right
triangles, equilateral triangles, isosceles triangles, scalene triangles, etc. We know the rules to find the perimeters
and area of some of these figures. For example, a rectangle with length 12 m and with 8 m has perimeter equal to
2 (12m +8 ) = 40m. The area of this rectangle is equal to (12 8) m
2
= 96 m
2
. A square having each side of
length 10 m has perimeter equal to 4 10 m = 40 and area equal to 10
2
m
2
= 100 m
2
.
Unit of measurement for length or breadth is taken as meter (m) on centimeter (cm) etc.
Unit of measurement for area of any plane figure is taken as square metre (m
2
) or square centimetre (cm
2
) etc.
In this section, we shall find the areas of some triangles.
AREA OF A TRIANGLE USING BASE AND HIGHT
From you earlier classes, you know that :
Area of a triangle
2
1
= base Corresponding Height
Any side of the triangle may be taken as base and the length o perpendicular from the opposite vertex to the base
is the corresponding height.
In given figure, Area of AABC |
.
|

\
|
= AD BC
2
1
sq. units.
For example, a triangle having base = 10 m height = 6 m has its area equal to
2
1
(10 m 6 m) = 30 m
2
.
Area of a Right Triangle :- When the triangle is right angles, we can directly apply the above motioned formula
by using two sides containing the right angle as base and height.
In given figure, Area of AABC = |
.
|

\
|
AB BC
2
1
sq. units.
A
C
B D
H
y
p
o
t
e
n
u
se
A
B
C
Baase
H
e
i
g
h
t
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MATHEMATICS
For exampe, a right angles triangle having two sides of length 3 m and 7 m (other than the hypotenuse), has its
area =
2
1
(3 m + 7 m) = 10.5 m
2
.
Area of an Equilateral Triangle :- Let ABC be equilateral triangle with side a and AD be the perpendicular from A
on BC. Then D is the mid point of BC i.e. BD =
2
a
.
In right-angles AABD, by Pythagoras theorem, we have
AD
2
= AB
2
- BD
2
AD
2
= a
2
-
2
2
|
.
|

\
| a
= a
2
-
4
3
4
2
=
a
a
2
AD =
2
3
a.
So, area of AABC =
2
1
BC AD =
2
1
a
2
3
a =
4
3
a
2
.
Area of equilateral triangle with side a units
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
4
3
a sq. units.
For example, an equilateral triangle having side 8 cm, has its area
4
3
= (8)
2
cm
2
= 16 3 cm
2
.
Area of an Isosceles Triangle :- Let ABC be an isosceles triangle with AB = AC = a and BC = b, and AD be the
perpendicular from A on BC.
Then, D is the mid-point of BC, i.e. BD =
2
b
.
In right angled AABD, by Pythagoras theorem we have :
AD
2
= AB
2
- BD
2
AD
2
= a
2
-
2
2
|
.
|

\
| b
= a
2
-
4
4
2 2
b a
AD =
2
4
2 2
b a
So, are of AABC =
2
1
BC AD =
2
1
b
2 2
2 2
4
4
1
2
4
b a b
b a
=

A
C
B D
a
a
2
a
2
a
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MATHEMATICS
Area of isosceles AABC with AB = AC a units and BC = b units = |
.
|

\
|

2 2
4
4
1
b a b sq. units.
For example, an isosceles triangle having equal sides of length 5 cm an unequal side of length 8 cm, has its area
=
2 2
8 5 4 8
4
1
) ( = 12 cm
2
.
AREA OF A TRIANGLE BY USING HERONS FORMULA
In A scalene triangle, if the length of each side is given but its height is not known
and it cannot be obtained easily, we take the help of Herons formula or Heros
formula given by Heron to find the area of such a triangle.
Herons formula : If a,b,c denote the lengths of the sides of a triangle ABC. Then,
Area of AABC = ) )( )( ( c s b s a s s
where
2
c b a
s
+ +
= is the semi-perimeter of AABC.
Remark : This formula is applicable to all types of triangles whether it is right-angled o equilateral or
isosceles.
Ex.1. Find the area of a triangle whose sides are 13 cm, 14 cm and 15 cm
Sol. Let a,b,c be the sides of the given triangle and s be its semi-perimeter such that
a = 13 cm, b = 14 cm and c = 15 cm
Now, s =
2
1
(a + b + c) =
2
1
(13 + 14 + 15) = 21
s - a = 21 - 13 = 8, s - b = 21 - 14 = 7 and s - c = 21 - 15 = 6
Hence, Area of given triangle = ) c s )( b s )( a s ( s
=
2 4 2
3 4 7 3 2 7 8 3 7 6 7 8 21 = =
Ex.2 Find the area of a triangle, two sides of which are 8 cm and 11 cm and 11 cm the perimeter is 32 cm.
[NCERT]
Sol. Let a,b,c be the sides of the given triangle and 2s be its perimeter such that
a = 8 cm, b = 11 cm and 2s = 32 m i.e. s = 16 cm
Now, a + b + c = 2s
8 + 11 + c = 32
c = 13.
s - a = 16 - 8 = 8, s - b = 16 - 11 = 5 and s - c = 16 - 13 = 3
Hence, Area of given triangle = ( )( )( )
2
30 8 30 8 8 3 5 8 16 cm c s b s a s s = = =
Ex.3 The perimeter of a triangular field is 450 m and its sides are in the ratio 13 : 12 : 5. Find the area of
triangle.
Sol. It is given that the sides a,b,c of the triangle are in the ratio 13 : 12 : 5 i.e.,
a : b : c = 13 : 12 : 5 a = 13x, b = 12x and x = 5x
Perimeter = 450 13x + 12x + 5x = 450 30x = 450 x = 15
So, the sides of the triangle are
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MATHEMATICS
a = 13 15 = 195 m, b = 12 15 = 180 m and c = 5 15 = 75 m
It is given that perimeter = 450 2s = 450 s = 225
Hence, Area = ( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) 75 225 180 225 195 225 225 = c s b s a s s
Area = 3 2 5 5 3 2 5 3 3 5 150 45 30 225
2 2 2 2
=
Area =
2 3 3 2 6 6
6750 2 3 5 2 3 5 m = =
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MATHEMATICS
Ex.4 The lengths of the sides of a triangle are 5 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm. Find the length of perpendicular from the
opposite vertex to the side whose length is 13 cm.
Sol. Here, a = 5, b = 12 and c = 13.
s =
2
1
(a + b + c) =
2
1
(5 + 12 + 13) = 15
Let A be the area of the given triangle. Then,
A = ( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) 13 15 12 15 5 15 15 = c s b s a s s
A =
2
30 2 3 10 15 cm = .(i)
Let p be the length of the perpendicular from vertex A on the side BC. Then,
A =
2
1
(13) p
From (i) and (ii), we get =
2
1
13 p = 30 p =
13
60
cm.
Ex.5 The triangular side walls of a flyover have been used for advertisements. The sides of the walls are 122 m,
22m and 120 m. The advertisements yield an earning of Rs. 5000 per m
2
per year. A company hired both
walls for 3 months. How much rent did it pay? [NCERT]
Sol. The lengths of the sides of the walls are 122 m, 22 m and 120 m.
We have,
122
2
= 120
2
+ 20
2
So, walls are in the form of a right triangle.
Area of two walls = |
.
|

\
|
Heigth Base
2
1
2
Area of two walls
2
2640 22 120
2
1
2 m x = |
.
|

\
|
=
We have,
Yearly rent = Rs 5000 per m
2
Monthly rent = Rs. |
.
|

\
|
12
5000
per m
2
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MATHEMATICS
Hence, rent paid by the company for 3 months = Rs. |
.
|

\
|
2640 3
12
5000
= Rs. 3300000.
APPLICATIONS OF HERONS FORMULA IN FINDING AREA OF A QUADRILATERAL
Herons formula can be applied to find the area of a quadrilateral by dividing the quadrilateral into two triangular
parts. If we join any of the two diagonals of the quadrilateral, then we get two triangles. Area of each triangle is
calculated and the sum of two areas is the area of the quadrilateral.
Ex.6 Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD, in which AB = 7 cm, BC = 6 cm, CD = 12 cm, DA = 15 cm and AC =
9 cm.
Sol. The diagonal AC divides the quadrilateral ABCD into two triangles ABC and ACD.
Area of quad. ABCD = Area of AABC + Area of AACD.
We have,
cm s 11
2
9 7 6
=
+ +
=
Area of AABC = ( )( )( ) c s b s a s s
Area of AABC = ( )( )( ) 9 11 7 11 6 11 11
Area of AABC = cm . sq 440 2 4 5 11 =
Area of AABC = 20.98 cm
2
For AACD, we have
2
18
2
15 12 9
cm s =
+ +
=
Area of AACD = ( )( )( ) 15 18 12 18 9 18 18
Area of AACD = 3 6 9 18
Area of AACD = 3 6 9 18
Hence, Area of quad. ABCD
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MATHEMATICS
=(20.98 + 54) cm
2
= 74.98 cm
2
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MATHEMATICS
Ex.7 In fig. ABCD is a field in the form of a quadrilateral whose sides are indicated in the figure.
If ZDAB = 90
0
, find the area of the field.
Sol. Clearly, ADAB is a right-angled triangle. Therefore,
DB
2
= DA
2
+ AB
2
[Using Pythagoras Theorem]
DB
2
= 9
2
+ 40
2
DB = 1600 81+ = 41m
In ADAB, we have
2s = DA + AB + BD = (9 + 40 + 41) = 90m
s = 45 m
A
1
= Area of ADAB =
2
41 45 40 45 9 45 45 m ) ( ) ( ) (
A
1
= Area of ADAB =
2
4 5 36 45 m
A
1
= Area of ADAB =
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 6 3 5 4 5 36 9 5 m m =
A
1
= Area of ADAB = (5 3 6 2) m
2
= 180 m
2
In ADCB, we have
2s = DC + CB + BD 2s = 28 + 15 + 41 = 84 s = 42 m.
A
2
= Area of ADCB =
2
m 41) - (42 15) - (42 28) - (42 42
A
2
= Area of ADCB =
2
1 27 14 42 m
A
2
= Area of ADCB =
2
3 3 3 2 7 3 2 7 m
A
2
= Area of ADCB =
2 4 2 2
3 2 7 m
A
2
= Area of ADCB = (7 2 3
2
) m
2
= 126 m
2
Hence, Area of the field = A
1
+ A
2
= (180 + 126) m
2
= 306 m
2
Ex.8 Find the area of trapezium whose parallel sides 25 cm, 13 cm and other sides are 15 cm and 15 cm.
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MATHEMATICS
Sol. Let ABCD be the given trapezium in which AB = 25 cm, CD = 13 cm, BC = 15 cm and AD = 15 cm.
Draw CE || AD.
Now, ADCE is a parallelogram in which AD || CE and AE || CD.
AE = DC = 13 cm and BE = AB - AE = 25 - 13 = 12 cm
In ABCE, we have
cm s 21
2
12 15 15
=
+ +
=
Area of ABCE = ( )( )( ) c s b s a s s
Area of ABCE = ) )( )( ( 12 21 15 21 15 21 21
Area of ABCE = cm . sq 21 18 9 6 6 21 = ...(i)
Let h be the height of ABCE, then
Area of ABCE =
2
1
(Base Height) =
2
1
12 h = 6h ...(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we have,
6h = 18 21 h = 21 3 cm
Clearly, the height of trapezium ABCD is same as that of ABCE.
Area of trapezium =
2
1
(AB + CD) h
Area of trapezium =
2
1
(25 + 13) 21 3 cm
2
= 21 57 cm
2
Ex.9 Sanya has a piece of land which is in the shape of a rhombus. She wants her one daughter and one son to
work on the land and produce different crops to suffice the needs of their family. She divided the land in
to equals parts. If the perimeter of the land is 400 m and one of the diagonals is 160 m, how much area
each of them will get ? [NCERT]
Sol. Let ABCD be the field which is divided by the diagonals BD = 160 m into two equal parts.
Since ABCD is a rhombus of perimeter 400 m. Therefore,
AB = BC = CD = DA =
4
400
m = 100 m
Let s be the semi - perimeter of ABCD.
Then, m m
BD CD BC
s 180
2
160 100 100
2
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
Area of ABCD = ( ) ( ) ( )
2
160 180 100 180 100 180 180 m
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MATHEMATICS
=
2 2
4800 20 80 80 180 m m =
Hence, each of the two children will get an area of 4800 m
2
THINGS OF REMEMBER
1. Area of a triangle, whose base and height are known, is calculated by using the formula :
Area of triangle =
2
1
Base Height
2. Area of a right angled triangle, whose base is b and perpendicular is p, is calculated by using the formula:
Area of triangle =
2
1
bp
3. Area of an equilateral triangle, each of whose side is a, is calculated by using the formula :
Area of triangle
2
a
4
3
=
4. Area of an isosceles triangle, each of whose equal sides is a and the unequal side is b, is calculated by
using the formula:
Area of triangle =
2 2
b 4a
4
b

5. Area of a triangle with its sides as a,b, and c is calculated by using Herons formula :
Area of triangle c) b) ( s a) ( s s( s =
Where
2
c b a
s
+ +
=
6. Area of a quadrilateral whose sides and one diagonal are given, can be calculated by
CBSE Based Some Important Questions
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MATHEMATICS
CBSE BASED SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1 One side of a right triangle measures 126 m and the difference in lengths of its hypotenuse and other side
is 42 m. Find the measures of its two unknown sides and calculate its area. Verify the result using Herons
Formula
[Hint :
C - b = 42 c = 42 + b & c
2
= a
2
+ b
2
(42 + b)
2
= (126)
2
+ b
2
] Ans. 168 m, 210 m, 10584 m
2
Q.2 Using Herons Formula, find the area of an equilateral triangle the length of one side is a.
Ans.
4
3
2
a
Q.3 Find the area of an isosceles triangle, the measure of one of its equal sides being b and the third side a.
Ans.
2 2
4
4
a b
a

Q.4 Find the area of a right angled triangle if the radius of its circumcircle is 3 m and altitude drawn to they
hypotenuse is 2 cm.
[Hint :
Let ABC be the right angled triangle right angled at B. Let O be the centre of the circumcircle. Them by geometry
O is the mid-point of the hypotenuse AC.] Ans. 6 cm
2
Q.5 A regular hexagon has a side 8 cm. Determine its perimeter and area.
[Hint :
Area of hexagon = 6 x area of equilateral triangle OAB] Ans. 48 cm,
2
3 96 cm
Q.6 The perimeter of right triangle is 90 cm. Its hypotenuse is 41 cm. Find the other two sides and the area of
the triangle.
[Hint :
a + b + 41 = 90 a + b = 49 cm
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MATHEMATICS
Also, a
2
+ b
2
= (41)
2
or (49 - b)
2
+ b
2
= (41)
2
] Ans. 40 cm, 9 cm, 180 cm
2
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MATHEMATICS
Q.7 An isosceles right triangle has an area 200 cm
2
. What is the length of its hypotenuse?
[Hint : ] 20 200
2
2
cm a
a
= = Ans. 2 20 cm
Q.8 Radha made a picture of an aeroplane with coloured paper as shown in figure, Find the total
area of the paper used. [NCERT]
Ans. 19.3 cm
2
Q.9 A triangle and a parallelogram have the same base and the same area. If the sides of the triangle
are 26 cm, 28cm and 30 cm, and the parallelogram on the base 28 cm, find the height of the
parallelogram.
Ans. h =12 cm
Q.10 In figure, OPQR is a rhombus, three of whose verticles lie on the circle with centre O. If the area
of the rhombus is
2
3 32 cm , find the radius of the circle.
[Hint :
X RS QR OP
X
SQ OS = = = = = &
2
Area of equitateral AOQR + Area of equitateral AOPQ = ] 3 32 Ans. 8 cm
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MATHEMATICS
Q.11 A parallelogram, the measures of whose sides are 25 cm and 15 cm has one diagonal 20 m long
. Find its altitude on the side 25 cm.
Ans. 12 cm
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MATHEMATICS
Q.12 The base of a triangular field is three times its height. If the cost of cultivqting the field at
Rs. 300 per m
2
is Rs. 181250 , find its base and height. [NCERT]
[Hint : If height = h,. then 3h m. Area of field = Rs.
300
181250
] Ans. 45 m. 15
Q.13 Find the square of the radius of te circle whose area is the sum of the area of two triangles
whose sides 35, 53, 66 and 33, 56,65 measured in centimeters. (Take t = 22/7)
Ans. 588 cm
2
Q.14 Find the area of a quadrilateral field whose diagonals 48 m and 32 m and intersect each other at
right angles. Find also the cost of the land at the rate of Rs/ 7000 per square metre.
[Hint :
Required area = BD OC BD AO +
2
1
2
1
) (
2
1
OC AO BD + =
]
2
1
AC BD = Ans. 768 m
2
, Rs. 5376000
Q.15 A trapezium PBCQ, with parallel sides QC and PB in the ratio of 7 : 5, is cut off from a rectangle
ABCD as shown in the following figure. If the area of the trapezium is
7
4
part of the area of the
rectangle. find the lengths of QC and PB.
Ans. QC = 15 m PB = 10 m
Q.16 The perimeter of an equilateral triangle measure 3 times metres as the area of the equilateral
triangle measures square metres. Find the length of its side.
[ Hint : Let the length of the side be m. Then 3x =

\
|
|
|
.
|
2
4
3
3 x ] Ans. 4 m
Q.17 In an equilateral triangle of side 2 a units. Find the length of its altitude.
Ans. a 3 units
Q.18 A like in the shape of a square with a diagonal 40 cm and an idosceles triangle of base 10 cm
and sides 13 cm each is to be made of three different shades as shown in fig. How paper of each
shade has been used in making the kite?
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MATHEMATICS
Ans. 400 cm
2
; 400 cm
2
; 60 cm
2
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MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
SUBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. Write the area of a triangle having 5 cm base and height 6 cm.
2. Write the area of an equilateral triangle whose side is 6 cm.
3. State Herons Formula for area of a triangle.
4. In AABC, BC = a, CA = b and AB = c. Write the semiperimeter s.
5. Find the area of isosceles triangle ABC in which AB = AC = 5 cm and BC = 8 cm.
6. Find the area of isosceles triangle having each side of length a cm.
7. Find the area of triangle having three sides given as 5 cm, 6 m and 7 cm.
(B) SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. A triangular park in a city has dimensions 100 m 90 m 110 m. A contract is given to a company for planting
grass in the park at the rate of Rs. 4000 per hectare. Find the amount to be paid to the company. (Take 2 =
1.414) (one hectare = 10,000 m
2
)
2. There is a slide in a children park. The front side of the slide has been painted and a message ONLY FOR
CHILDREN is written on it as whose in fig. If the sides of the triangular front wall of the slide are 9 m. 8 m and 3
m, then find the area which is paint in colour.
3. The perimeter of a triangular park is 180 m and its sides are in the ratio 5 : 6 : 7. Find the area of the park.
4. A triangle has sides 35 mm, 54 mm and 61 mm long. What is its area. Find also the smallest altitude of the
triangle.
5. The perimeter of a right triangle is 12 cm and its hypotenuse is of length 5 cm. Find the other two sides and
calculate its area. Verify the result using Herons Formula.
6. Using herons Formula, find the area of an isosceles triangle, the measure of one of its equal sides being a units
and the third side 2b units.
7. The sides of triangle are 39 cm, 42 cm, and 45 c m. A parallelogram stands on the greatest sides of the triangle
and has the same area as that the triangle. Find the height of the parallelogram.
8. From a point in the interior of an equilateral triangle perpendiculars drawn to the three sides are 8 cm, 10 cm and
11 cm respectively. Find the area of the triangle to the nearest cm. (use 73 1 3 . = )
9. A municipal corporation wall on road side has dimensions as shown in fig. The wall is to be used for
advertisements and it yields an earning or Rs. 400 per m
2
in a year. Find the total amount of revenue earned in a
year.
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10. ABCD is quadrilateral such that AB = 5 cm, BC = 4 cm, CD = 7 cm, AD = 6 cm and diagonal BD = 5 cm. prove
that the area of the quadrilateral ABCD is ( ) 6 3 4 + cm
2
.
11. Find the area of the quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 7 cm, BC = 6 cm, CD = 12 cm, DA = 15 cm and AC = 9 cm.
(Take 110 = 10.5 approx.)
12. A rhombus has perimeter 64 m and one of the diagonals is 22 m. Prove that the area of the rhombus is
2
15 66 m
13. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB }} CD ; BC and AD are non-parallel sides. It is given that AB = 75 cm, BC = 42
cm, CD = 30 and AD = 39 cm. Find the area of the trapezium.
14. OABC is a rhombus whose three vertices A, B and C lie on a circle with centre O. If the radius of the circle is 10
cm. find the area of the rhombus.
15. The cross-section of a canal is in the shape of a trapezium. If the canal is 12 m wide at the top and 8 m wide at
the bottom and the area of its cross-section is 84 m
2
, determine its depth.
16. Students of a school stages a rally for cleanliness campaigns. They walked through the lanes in two groups. One
group walked through the lanes AB, BC and CA ; while the other through AC, CD and DA. Then they cleaned the
area enclosed within their lanes. If AB = 9 m, BC = 40 m. CD = 15 m, DA = 28 m and ZB = 90
0
, which group
cleaned more area and by how much ? Find the total area cleaned by the students.
17. Find the perimeter of a square, the sum of lengths of whose diagonals is 144 cm.
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MATHEMATICS
18. Find the area of a quadrilateral piece of ground one of whose diagonals is 60 metres long and the perpendiculars
from the other two vertices are 38 and 22 metres respectively.
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MATHEMATICS
(C) LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. In figure, AB = 28 m, AC = 24 m, BC = 20 m, CG = 32 m, AG = 40 m and D is mid-point of AG. Find the area of
the quadrilateral ABCD.
2. White and grey coloured triangular plastic sheets are used to make a toy as shown in fig. Find the total areas of
white and grey coloured sheets for making the toy.
3. Suman made an arrangements with white and black coloured paper sheets as showing in fig. Find the total areas
of the white and black paper sheets used in making the arrangement.
4. A floral design on a floor is made up of 16 tiles which are triangular, the sides of the triangular tiles are 26 cm, 20
cm, and 10 cm. The tiles are polished at the rate of 20 p per cm
2
. Find the cost of polishing the tiles. (Take 14 =
3.74)
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MATHEMATICS
5. Suman made a picture with some white paper and a single coloured paper as showing in fig. White paper is a
available at her home and free of cost. The cost of coloured paper used is at the rate of 10 p per cm
2
. Find the
total cost of the coloured paper used. (Take 3 = 1.732 and 11 = 3.31)
6. In figure, P and Q are two lamp posts. If the area of the APBC is same as that of the rectangle ABCD, find the
distance between the two lamp posts.
7. A triangle and parallelogram has same base and same area. If the sides of the triangle are 20 cm, 25 cm and 35
cm, and the base side is 25 cm for the triangle as well as the parallelogram, find the vertical height of the
parallelogram.
8. A triangle and a parallelogram has a common side and are of equal areas. The triangle having sides 26 cm, 28 cm
and 30 cm stands on the parallelogram. The common side of the triangle and the parallelogram is 28 cm. Find the
vertical height of the triangle and that of the parallelogram.
9. A farmer has two triangular fields in the form of AABC and AACD in which the side AC is common as shown in
figure. AB = 840 m, BC = 600 m, AC = 480 m, AD = 800 m, AD = 800 m and CD = 640 m. He has marked mid-
points E and F on the sides AB and AD respectively. By joining CE and CF, he has made a field in the shape of
quadrilateral AECF. He grew in the quadrilateral plot AECF, potatoes in ACFD and onions in ABEC. How much
are has been used for each crop ? (Take 6 = 2.45 ; one hectare = 10000 m
2
).
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MATHEMATICS
10. A field in the form of quadrilateral ABCD whose sides taken in order are respectively equal to 192, 576, 288 and
480 dm has the diagonal equal to 672 dm. Find its area to the nearest square metre.
11. A trapezium with its parallel sides in the ratio 16 : 15 is cut from a rectangle whose sides measure 63 m and 5 m
respectively. The area of the trapezium is
15
4
of the area of the rectangle. Find the lengths of the parallel sides of
the trapezium.
12. Find the cost, at Rs. 25 per 10 square metres, of turning a plot of land in the form of parallelogram whose adjacent
sides and one of the diagonals measure 39 m, 25 m and 56 m respectively.
(D) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1. There is a slide in a park. One of its side walls has been painted in some colour with a message KEEP THE
PARK GREEN AND CLEAN. If the sides of the wall are 15 m, 11 m and 6 m, find the area painted in colour.
2. Find the area of a triangle two sides of which are 18cm and 10cm and the perimeter is 42 cm.
3. An isosceles triangle has perimeter 30cm and each of the equal sides is 12cm. Find the area of the triangle.
4. A park, in the shape of a quadrilateral ABCD, has AC = 90
0
, AB = 9m, BC = 12m, CD = 5m and AD = 8m. How
much area does it occupy ?
5. Find the area of a quadrilateral ABCD in which AB = 3cm, BC = 4cm, CD = 4cm, DA = 5cm and AC = 5CM.
6. A rhombus shaped field has green grass for 18 cows to graze. If each side of the rhombus is 30m and its longer
diagonal in 48m, how much area of grass field will each cow be getting ?
7. An umbrella is made by stitching 10 triangular pieces of cloth of two different colours, each piece measuring
20cm, 50 cm and 50 cm. How much cloth of each colour is required for the umbrella ?
8. A kite in the shape of square with a diagonal 32 cm and an isosceles triangle of base 8cm and sides 6cm each is
to be made of three different shades as shown in fig. How much paper of each shade has been used in it ?
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. The base of a right angles triangle Is - 5 metres and hypotenuse is 13 metres. Its area will be
(A) 25 m
2
(B) 28 m
2
(C) 30 m
2
(D) None of these
2. The sides of a triangular board are 13 metres, 14 metres and 15 metres. The cost of painting it at the rate of Rs.
8.75 per m
2
is
(A) Rs. 688.80 (B) Rs. 735 (C) Rs. 730.80 (D) Rs. 722.50
3. The area of an equilateral triangle whose side is 8 cms, is
(A) 64 cm
2
(B) 3 16 cm
2
(C) 21.3 cm
2
(D) 3 4 cm
2
4. The length of each side of an equilateral triangle having an area of 3 4 cm
2
, is :
(A) 4 cm (B)
3
4
(C)
4
3
(D) 3 cm
5. If x is the length of a median of an equilateral triangle, then its area is :
(A) x
2
(B)
2
3
2
x
(C)
3
3
2
x
(D)
2
2
x
6. The altitude of an equilateral triangle of side 3 2 cm is :
(A)
2
3
cm (B)
2
1
cm (C)
4
3
cm (D) 3 cm
7. In a triangle ABC, BC = 5 cm, AC = 2 cm and AB = 13 cm. The length of the altitude drawn from B on AC is:
(A) 4 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 2 cm (D) 7 cm
8. A triangle of area 9 xy cm
2
has been drawn such that its area is equal to the area of an equilateral triangle of side
6 cm. The, the value of y is
(A) 2 cm (B) 3 cm (C) 2 cm (D) 3 cm
9. In APQR, side QR = 10 cm and height PM = 4.4 cm. If PR = 11 cm, then altitude QN equals :
(A) 4 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 5.5 cm (D) 5.6 cm
10. The area of a right angles triangle is 30 cm
2
and the length of its hypotenuse is 13 cm. The length of the shorter
leg is :
(A) 4 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 6 cm (D) 7 cm
11. Area of a square with side x is equal to the area of a triangle with base x. The altitude of the triangle is :
(A)
2
x
(B) x (C) 2x (D) 4x
12. A plot of land is in the shape of a right angled isosceles triangle. The length of the hypotenuse is 2 50 m. The cost
of fencing it at Rs. 3 per metre will be :
(A) less than Rs. 300 (B) less than Rs. 400 (C) more than Rs. 500 (D) More than Rs. 600
13. The perimeter of an isosceles triangle is equal to 14 cm, the lateral side is to the base in the ratio 5 : 4. The area
of the triangle is
(A) 21
2
1
cm
2
(B) 21
2
3
cm
2
(C) 21 cm
2
(D) 21 2 cm
2
14. If the area of an equilateral triangle is 3 24 sq. m, then its perimeter is :
(A 96 m (B) 6 12 m (C) 6 4 m (D) 6 2 m
15. The ratio of the area of square of side a and equilateral triangle of side a, is :
(A) 2 : 1 (B) 2 : 3 (C) 4 : 3 (D) 4 : 3
16. If every side of a triangle is doubled, then increase in the area of the triangle is :
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
(A) )% ( 100 2 (B) 200 % (C) 300 % (D) 400 %
17. If the altitude of a equilateral triangle is 6 , then its area is :
(A) 3 3 (B) 3 2 (C) 2 2 (D) 2 6
18. A surveyor in his field book has drawn the plot as shown in the given figure. The area of the plot is :
(A)
2
1
(az + by + ct + dx) (B)
2
1
(bt + cx + ay + az)
(C)
2
1
(cx + bt + by + az) (D)
2
1
(d + t) (c + x)
2
1
(a + b) (y + z)
19. If an equilateral triangle of area X and a square of area Y have the same perimeter, then :
(A) X > Y (B) X = Y (C) X < Y D) X s Y
20. A square and an equilateral triangle have equal perimeters. If the diagonals of the square is 2 12 cm, then the
area of the triangle is :
(A) 2 24 cm
2
B) 3 24 cm
2
C) 3 48 cm
2
D) 3 64 cm
2
HERONS F ORMULAR ANSWER KEY EXERCISE
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. 15 cm
2
2.
2
3 9 cm 4.
2
c b a + +
5. 12cm
2
6.
2
4
3
a 7.
2
6 6 cm
(B) SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. Rs. 1696.8 2.
2
35 2 m 3.
2
6 600 m 4. mm , mm
61
5 840
5 420
2
5. 3 cm. 4 cm. 6 cm
2
6. units . sq b a b
2 2
7. 16.8 cm 8. 485 cm
2
9. Rs. 50400
11. 75 cm
2
(approx) 13. 1764 m
2
14.
2
3 50 cm 15. 8.4 m
16. I group cleaned more area by 54 m
2
; 306 m
2
17. cm 2 144 18. 1800 m
2
(C) LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. 96 ) ( 2 6 + m
2
2. 16 2 cm
2
; 16 2 cm
2
3. 55
4
3
cm
2
;
2
55
4
9
cm 4. Rs. 287.23
5. Rs. 14.92 6. cm 14 2 7. cm 6 4 8. 24 cm ; 12 cm
9. Area for wheat = 14.736 hectares, Area for potatoes = 7.68 hectares, Area for onions = 7.056 hectares.
10. 1111 m
2
11. 25.6 m, 8 m 12. Rs. 2100
(D) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1.
2
2 20 m 2.
2
11 21 cm 3.
2
15 9 cm 4. 65.5 m
2
(approx) 5. 15.2 cm
2
(approx)
6. 48 m
2
7. 1000 6 cm
2
, 1000 6 cm
2
8. Area of shade I = Area of shade II, = 256 cm
2
and area of shade III = 17.92 cm
2
ANSWER KEY
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ans. C B B A C D B B A B
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ane. C C D B D C B B C D
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
SURFACE AREAS & VOLUMS
INTRODUCTIONS
Up till now we have been dealing with figures that can be drawn on the page of our notebook or on the
blackboard. These are called plane figures. In this chapter, we shall study about some solid figures like cuboids,
cube, cylinder and sphere. These figures are three dimensional figures. We shall also learn to find the surface
areas and volumes of these figures.
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT OF AREA AND VOLUME
The inter-relationships between various units of measurement of length, are and - volume are listed below for
ready reference :
LENGTH
1 Centimetre (cm) = 10 milimietre (mm)
1 Decimetre (dm) = 10 centimetre
1 Metre (m) = 10 dm = 100 cm = 1000 mm
1 Decametre (dam) = 10 m = 1000 cm
1 Hectometre (hm) = 10 dam = 100 m
1 Kilometre (km) = 1000 m = 100 dam = 10 hm
1 Myriametre = 10 Kilometre
AREA
1 cm
2
= 1 cm 1 cm = 10 mm 10 mm = 100 mm
2
1 dm
2
= dm 1 dm = 10 cm 10 cm = 100 cm
2
1 m
2
= 1 m 1 m = 10 dm 10 dm = 100 dm
2
1 dam
2
= 1 dam 1 dam = 10 m 10 m = 100 m
2
1 hm
2
= 1 hectare = 1 hm 1 hm = 100 m 100 m = 10000 m
2
= 100 dm
2
1 km
2
= 1 km 1 km = 10 hm 10 hm = 100 hm
2
or 100 hectare
VOLUME
1 cm
3
= 1 ml = 1 cm 1 cm 1 cm = 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm = 1000 mm
3
1 litre = 1000 ml = 1000 cm
3
1 m
3
= 1 m 1 m 1 m = 100 cm 100 cm 100 cm = 10
6
cm
3
= 1000 litre = 1 kilolitre.
1 dm
3
= 1000 cm
3
1 m
3
= 1000 dm
3
1 km
3
= 10
9
m
3
CUBOID
A rectangular solid bounded by six rectangular plane faces is called a cuboids. A match box, a tea-packet, a
brick, a book, etc., are all examples of a cuboid.
A cuboids has 6 rectangular faces, 12 edges and 8 vertices.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
The following are some definitions of terms related to a cuboid :
(i) The space enclosed by a cuboid is called its volume.
(ii) The line joining opposite corners of a cuboid is called its diagonal.
A cuboid has four diagonals.
A diagonal of a cuboid is the length of the longest rod that ban be placed in the cuboid.
(iii) The sum of areas of all the six faces of a cuboid is known as its total surface area.
(iv) The four faces which meet the base of a cuboid are called the lateral faces of the cuboid.
(v) The sum of areas of the four walls of a cuboid is called its lateral surface area.
Formula
For a cuboid of length = units, breadth = b units and height = h units, we have :
Sum of length of all edges = 4 ( + b + h) units.
Diagonal of cuboid =
2 2
h b + + units
Total Surface Area of cuboid =( b + bh + h ) sq. units
Lateral Surface Area of a cuboid = [2( b + b) h] sq. units
Area of four walls of a room = [2( + b) h] sq. units.
Volume of cuboid = ( b h) cubic units
REMARK : For the calculation of surface area, volume etc. of a cuboid, the length, breath and height must
be expressed in the same units.
CUBE
A cuboid whose length, breadth and height are all equal is called
Ice - cubes, Sugar cubes, Dice etc. are all examples of a cube.
Each edge of a cube is called its side.
Formulae
For a cube of edge = a units, we have :
Sum of lengths of all edges = 12 a units.
Diagonal of cube = ) 3 ( a units.
Total Surface Area of cube = (6a
2
) sq. units.
Lateral Surface Area of a cube = (4a
2
) sq. units.
Volume of cube = a
3
cubic units.
CROSS SECTION
A cut which is made through a solid perpendicular to its length is called its cross section. If he cut has the
same shape and size at very point of its length, then it is called uniformcross-section.
Volume of a solid with uniform cross section = (Area of its cross section) (length).
Lateral Surface Area of a solid with uniform cross section
= (Perimeter of cross section) (length).
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.1 Parveen wanted to make a temporary shelter for her car, by making a box-like structure with tarpaulin that
covers all the four sides and the top of the car (with the front face as a flap which can be rolled up).
Assuming that the stitching margins are very small, and therefore negligible, how much tarpaulin would
be required to make the shelter of height 2.5 m, with base dimensions 4 m 3 m? [NCERT]
Sol. For shelter
length, = 4 m, breadth, b = 3, height, h 2.5 m
Total surface area of the shelter 2( + b) h + b
= 2 (4 + 3) (2.5) + (4) (5)
= 2 (7) (2.5) + 12 = 47 m
2
Hence, 47 m
2
of tarpaulin will be required.
Ex.2 Find the surface area of a cube whose edge is 15 cm.
Sol. The edge of the cube = 15 cm, i.e., a = 15 cm.
Surface area of the cube = 6a
2
= 6 (15)
2
= 1350 cm
2
.
Ex.3 The paint in a certain container is sufficient to paint an area equal to 9.375 m
2
. How many bricks of
dimensions 22.5 cm 10 cm 7.5 cm can be painted out of this container ? [NCERT]
Sol. For a brick
length, = 22.5 cm, breadth, b = 10 cm, height, h = 7.5 cm
Total surface area of a brick = 2( b + bh + h )
= 2(22.5 10 + 10 7.5 + 7.5 22.5) = 2(225 + 75 + 168.75)
= 2(468.75) = 937.5 cm
2
= 09375 m
2
Number of brick that can be painted out =
09375
375 9
.
.
= 100
Hence, 100 bricks can be pained out of the given container.
Ex.4 A small indoor greenhouse is made entirely of glass sheets (including the base) held together with tape. It
is 40 cm long, 30 cm wide and 30 cm high. Find
(i) the area of the glass sheet required and
(ii) the total length of the tape required for all the 12 edges.
Sol. The dimensions of the greenhouse are as under :
Length ( ) = 40 cm, Width (b) 30 cm, Height (h) = 30 cm
The area of the glass sheet required
= The total outer (or inner) surface area of the greenhouse
= 2 [ b + b h + h ]
= 2 [40 30 + 30 30 + 30 40] cm
2
= 2 [1200 + 900 + 1200] cm
2
= 2 3300 cm
2
= 6600 cm
2
Hence, 6600 cm
2
of glass sheet is required.
Length of the tap required = Sum of the length of the 12 edges.
= 4 ( + b + h)
= 4 [40 + 30 + 30] cm = 400 cm
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Hence, 400 cm of the tape is required.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.5 A matchbox measures 4 cm 2.5 cm 1.5 cm. What will be the volume of a packet containing 12 such
boxes ?
Sol. Volume of a matchbox = 4 2.5 1.5 cm
3
= 15 cm
3
Volume of a packet containing 12 such boxes = 15 12 cm
3
= 180 cm
3
.
Ex.6 A wall of length 10 m was to be built across an open ground. The height of the wall is 4 m and thickness of
the walls is 24 cm. If this wall is to be built up with bricks of dimensions 24 cm 12 cm 8 cm, then find
the number of bricks which are required.
Sol. We know that, the volume of the wall and the sum of the volumes of the required number of bricks is same.
Length of the wall = 10 100 cm = 1000 cm
Breadth or the thickness of the wall = 24 cm
Height of the wall = 4 100 cm = 400 cm
The wall is in the shape of a cuboid and its volume = 1000 24 400 cm
3
Now, a brick is also a cuboid having length = 24 cm, breadth = 12 cm and height = 8 cm.
Volume of one brick = 24 12 8 cm
3
The required number of bricks = 6 4166
12
5000
8 12 24
400 24 1000
.
brick one of Volume
wall the of Volume
= =


=
Hence, the required number of bricks = 4167.
Ex.7 Akriti playing with plastic building blocks which are of identical cubical shapes. She makes a structure as
shown in fig. If the edge of each cube is 5 cm, then find the volume of the structure. built by Aakriti.
Sol. In fig. the structure is made with 10 cubes.
Length of an edge of each block = 5 cm.
Volume of one block = (5)
3
cm
3
= 125 cm
3
Volume of the structure = Volume of the ten blocks
= 10 125 cm
3
= 1250 cm
3
Hence, the volume of the structure is 1250 cm
3
.
RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Solid like circular pillars, circular pipes, circular pencils, measuring
jars road rollers and gas cylinders, etc., are said to be in cylindrical
shape.
In mathematical term, a right circular cylinder is a solid
generated by the revolution of a rectangle about its sides.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Let the rectangle ABCD revolve about its side AB, so as to
describe a right circular cylinder as shown in the figure.
You must have observed that the cross-section of a right circular cylinder are circles congruent and parallel to
each other.
Cylinder Not Right Circular
There are two cases when the cylinder is not a right circular cylinder.
Case - I: In the following figure, we see a cylinder, which is certainly circular, but is not at right angles to the base,
So we cannot say it is a right circular cylinder.
Case-II: In the following figure, we see a cylinder with a non-circular base as the base is not circular. So we
cannot call it a right circular cylinder.
REMARK : Unless stated otherwise, here in this chapter the word cylinder would mean a right circular
cylinder.
The following are definitions of some terms related to a right circular cylinder:
(i) The radius on any circular end is called the radius of the right circular cylinder.
Thus, in the above figure, AD as well as BC in a radius of the cylinder.
(ii) The line joining the centres of circular ends of the cylinder, is called the axis of the right circular cylinder.
In the above figure, the line AB is the axis of the cylinder. Clearly, the axis is perpendicular to the circular
ends.
RAMERK: If the line joining the centres of circular ends of a cylinder is not perpendicular to the
circular ends, then the cylinder is not a right circular cylinder.
(iii) The length of the axis of the cylinder is called the height or length of the cylinder.
(iv) The curved surface joining the two bases of a right circular cylinder is called its lateral surface.
Formulae
For a right circular cylinder of radius = r units & height = h units, we have :
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Area of each circular end =
2
r t sq. units.
Curved (Lateral) Surface Area = ( rh t 2 ) sq. units.
Total Surface Area = Curved Surface Area
+ Area of two circular ends.
= (
2
2 2 r rh t + t ) s. units.
= [ r t 2 (h + r)] sq. units.
Volume of cylinder = h r
2
t cubic units.
The above formulae are applicable to solid cylinder only.
Hollow Right Circular Cylinders
Solids like iron pipes, rubber tubes, etc, are in the shape of hollow cylinders.
A solid bounded by two coaxial cylinders of the same height and different radii is called a hollow cylinder
Formulae
For a hollow cylinder of height h and with external and internal radii R and r respectively, we have
Thickness of cylinder = (R - r) units.
Area of a cross-section = (
2 2
r R t ) sq. nits.
= t ( R
2
- r
2
) sq. units.
Curved (Lateral) Surface Area = (External Curbed Surface Area)
+ (Internal Curbed Surface Area)
= ( rh Rh t + t 2 2 ) q. units = h t 2 (R + r) sq. units.
Total Surface Area = (Curbed Surface Area) + 2 (Area of Base Ring)
= [ ( rh Rh t + t 2 2 )+2(
2 2
r R t t ) ] sq. units
= t 2 (Rh + rh + R
2
- r
2
) sq. units.
Volume of Material = t(R
2
- r
2
) h cubic units
Volume of Hollow region = h r
2
t cubic units
Ex.8 In a hot water heating system, there is a cylindrical pipe of length 28 m, and diameter 5 m. Find the total
radiating surface in he system. [NCERT]
Sol. Here the length, h of the cylindrical pipe = 28 m and radius, r =
2
5
cm =
100 2
5

m =
200
5
m =
40
1
m
Total radiating surface in the system = . m . rh
2
4 4 28
40
1
7
22
2 2 = = t
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.9 A cylindrical block of wood has radius 70 cm and length 2 m is to be painted with blue coloured enamel.
The cost of painting is Rs. 1.25 per 100 cm
2
. Find the cost of painting the block. Take
7
22
= t .
Sol. Here, the radius r of the cylindrical block of wood = 70 cm and the length h = 200 cm
The total surface area of the cylindrical block = ) h r ( r + t 2
= 2
7
22
70 (70 + 200)cm
2
= 440 270 cm
2
= 11800 cm
2
Cost of painting 100 cm
2
= Rs. 1.25 = Rs.
4
5
Cost of painting 1 cm
2
= Rs.
400
5
Then, cost of painting 118800 cm
2
= Rs.
400
5
118800 = Rs.
4
5
1188 = Rs. 1485.
Hence, cost of painting the block of wood = Rs. 1485.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.10 The curbed surface area of a right circular cylinder of height 14 cm in 88 cm
2
. Find the diameter of the
base of the cylinder. [NCERT]
Sol. Let the radius of the base of the cylinder be r cm.
height, h = 14 cm
Curbed surface area = 88 cm
2
rh t 2 = 88
2
7
22
r 14 = 88
r =
14 22 2
7 88


r = 1
2 = 2
Hence, the diameter of the base of the cylinder is 2 cm.
Ex.11 A cylindrical vessel, without lid, has to be tin-coated including both of its sides. If the radius of its base is
2
1
m and its height is 1.4 m, calculate the cost of tin-coating at the rate of Rs. 50 per 1000 cm
2
(Use t =
3.14)
Sol. Radius of the base (r) =
2
1
m =
2
1
100 cm = 50 cm
Height (h) = 1.4 m = 1.4 100 cm = 140 cm
Surface area to be tin-coated = 2(
2
2 r rh t + t )
= 2(2 3.14 50 140 + 3.14 (50)
2
]
Cost of tin-coating at the rate of Rs. 50 per 1000 cm
2
= Rs.
1000
50
103620 = Rs.5181.
Hence, the cost of tin-coating in Rs. 5181.
Ex.12 The diameter of a roller is 84 cm and its length is 120 cm. It takes 500 complete revolutions to move once
over to level a playground. Find the area of the playground in m
2
. [NCERT]
Sol. Radius of the roller (r) =
2
84
cm = 42 cm
length of the roller (h) = 120 cm
Area of the playground leveled in taking 1 complete revolution = rh t 2 = 2
7
22
42 120 = 31680 cm
2
Area of the playground
= 31680 500 = 15840000 cm
2
= . m m
2 2
1584
100 100
15840000
=

Hence, the area of the playground is 1584 m


2
.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.13 The pillars of a temple are cylindrical shaped. If each pillar has a circular base of radius 20 cm, and height
7m, then find the quantity of concrete mixture used to build 20 such pillars. Also find the cost of the
concrete mixture at the rate of Rs. 200 per m
3
.

\
|
|
.
|
=
7
22
t Take
Sol. Concrete mixture used for making each pilar = Volume of each = tr
2
h
Radius of base of pillar, r=20 cm = m m
5
1
100
20
=
Height of mixture used for 1 pillar
Volume of mixture used for 1 pillar

\
|
= |
.
|
=
3 3
2
25
22
7
5
1
7
22
m m
Volume of mixture used for 20 pillars
3 3 3
6 . 17
5
88
25
22
20 m m m = = =
Hence, volume of mixture required to make 20 pillars = 17.6 m
3
Now , cost of mixture at the rate of Rs. 200 per m
3
= Rs. 200 17.6 = Rs. 3520.
Hence, the cost of concrete mixture is Rs. 3520.
Ex.14 The circumference of the base of a cylindrical vessel is 132 cm and its height is 25 cm. How many litres of
water can it hold? (1000 cm
3
= 1 l)
Sol. Let the base radius of the cylindrical vessel be r cm.
Then circumference of the base of the cylindrical vessel = 2tr cm.
cm r r 21
22 2
7 132
132
7
22
2 =

= =
Height of the cylindrical vessel. H = 25 cm
Capacity of the cylindrical vessel = tr
2
h =
3 2
) 25 ( ) 21 (
7
22
cm
= 34650 cm
3
l l 65 . 34
1000
34650
= =
Hence. the cylindrical vessel can hold 34.65 l of water.
Ex.15 The inner diameter of a cylindrical wooden pipe is 24 cm and its outer diameter is 28 cm. The length of the
pipe 35 cm. Find the mass of the pipe. If 1 cm
3
of wood has a mass of 0.6 g. [NCERT]
Sol. Inner diameter = 24 cm
Innar radius (r) = cm
2
24
= 12 cm
Outer diameter = 28 cm
Outer radius (R) = cm
2
28
= 14 cm
Length of the pipe (h) = 35 cm
Outer volume = tR
2
h =
3 2
21560 35 ) 14 (
7
22
cm =
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Inner volume = tr
2
h =
3 2
15840 35 ) 12 (
7
22
cm =
Volume of the wood used = Outer volume Inner volume = 21560 cm
3
15840 cm
3
= 5720 cm
3
Mass of the wood used = Outer volume Inner volume = 21560 cm
3
= 5720 cm
3
Hence, the mass of the pipe is 3.432 kg.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE
Solids like an ice-cream cone, a conical tent, a conical vessel, a clown cap etc. are said to in conical shape.
In mathematical terms, a riht circular cone is a solid generated by revolving a right-angled triangle about
one of the sides containing the right angle.
Let a triangle AOC revolve about its side OC, so as to describe a right circular cone, as shown in the figure.
Cones Not Right Circular
There are two cases when we cannot call a cone a right circular cone.
Case-I : The figure shown below is not a right circular cone because the line joining its vertex to the centre of its
base is not at right angle to the base.
Case-II : The figure shown below is not a right circular cone because the base is not circular.
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MATHEMATICS
REMARK : Unless stated otherwise, by cone in this chapter, we shall meana right circular cone
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MATHEMATICS
The following area definitions of some terms related to right circular cone :
(i) The fixed point O is called it vertex of the cone.
(ii) The fixed line OC is called the axis of the cone.
(iii) A right circular cone has a plane end, which is in circular shape. This is called the base of the cone.
The vertex of a right circular cone is farthest from its base.
(iv) The length of the line segment joining the vertex to the centre of the base is called the height of the cone.
Length OC is the height of the cone.
(v) The length of the line segment joining the vertex to any point on the circular edge of the base, is called the
slant height of the cone.
Length OA is slant height of the cone.
(vi) The radius AC of the base circle is called the radius of the cone.
Relation Between Slant Height, Radius and Vertical Height.
Let us take a right circular cone with vertex at O, vertical
height h, slant height and radius r. A is any point on
the rim of the base of the cone and C is the
centre of the base. Here, OC = h, AC = r and OA =
The cone is right circular and therefore, OC is at right
angle to the base of the cone. So, we have OC CA,
i.e., AOCA is right angled at C.
Then by Pythagoras theorem, we have :
2 2 2
h r + =
Formulae
For a right circular cone of Radius = r, Height = h & Slant Height = , we have :
Area of the curved (lateral) surface = (r) sq. units =
|
.
|

\
|
+ t
2 2
r h r sq. units
Total Surface Area of cone = (Curved surface Area + Area of Base)
= (r + r) sq
2
units = r ( r t ) sq. units.
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MATHEMATICS
Volume of cone |
.
|

\
|
t = h r
2
1
2
cubic units.
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MATHEMATICS
Hollow Right Circular Cone
Suppose a sector of a circle is folded to make the radii coincide, then we get a hollow right circular. In such a
cone;
(i) Centre of the circle is vertex of the cone.
(ii) Radius of the circle is slant height of the cone.
(iii) Length of arc AB is the circumference of the base of the cone.
(iv) Area of the sector is the curved surface area of the cone.
Ex.16 Diameter of the base of a cone is 10.5 cm and its slant height is 10 cm. Find it curbed surface area.
[NCERT]
Sol. Diameter of the base = 10.5 cm
Radius of the base (r) =
2
5 10.
cm = 5.25 cm
Slant height ) ( = 10 cm
Curved surface area of the cone =
7
22
= t r 5.25 10 = 165 cm
2
.
Ex.17 The radius of the base of a conical tent is 12 m. The tent is 9 m high. Find the cost of the canvas required
to make the tent, if one square metre of canvas costs Rs. 120. (Take t = 3.14)
Sol. Here, r = 12 m and h = 9 m. Let be slant height of the conical tent.
Now,
2
= r
2
+ h
2
= (12)
2
+ (9)
2
= 144 + 81 = 225
= 15 m
The curved surface area of the tent = r t = 3.14 12 15 m
2
= 3.14 180 m
2
= 565.2 m
2
Hence, the canvas required = 565.2 m
2
Cost of the canvas at the rate of Rs. 120 per m
2
= Rs. 120 565.2 = Rs. 67824
Ex.18 Curved surface area of a cone is 308 cm
2
and its slant height is 14 cm. Find
(i) radius of the base and (ii) total surface area of the cone. [NCERT]
Sol. (i) Slant height ) ( = 14 cm
Curved surface area = 308 cm
2
r t = 308
7
22
r 14 = 308

14 22
7 308

= r r = 7 cm.
Hence, the radius of the base is 7 cm.
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MATHEMATICS
(ii) Total surface area of the cone =
2
462 21 7
7
22
7 14 7
7
22
cm ) ( ) r ( r = = + = + t
Hence, the total surface area of the cone is 462 cm
2
.
Ex.19 How many metres of cloth of 1.1 m width will be required to make conical tent whose vertical height is 12
m and base radius is 16 m? Find also the cost of the cloth used at the rate of Rs. 41 per metre.
Sol. Here, h = 12 m, r = 16 m
m h r 20 400 144 256 ) 12 ( ) 16 (
2 2 2 2
= = + = + = + =
Curved surface area =
2
7
7040
20 16
7
22
m r = = t
Width of cloth 1.1 m
Length of cloth = m
. 7
6400
77
70400
1 1
7
7040
= =
Cost of the cloth used @ Rs. 14. per metre = Rs.
7
6400
14 Rs. 12800.
Ex.20 A conical pit of top diameter 3.5 m is 12 m deep. What is its capacity in kilolitres ? [NCERT]
Sol. For conical pit
Diameter = 3.5 m
Radius (r) = m . m
.
75 1
2
5 3
=
Depth (h) = 12 m
Capacity of the conical pit =
2 2 2
12 75 1
7
22
3
1
3
1
m ) . ( h r = t
= 38.5 m
3
= 38.5 1000
= 38.5 kl.
Ex.21 The curbed surface of a right circular cone is 198 cm
2
and the radius of its base is 7 cm. Find the volume
of the cone. |
.
|

\
|
= = t 41 1 2
7
22
. and Take
Sol. Radius of the base of the cone = 7 cm.
Let h cm be the vertical height and cm be the slant height. Here, r = 7 cm.
r t = 198 cm 9 198 7
7
22
= =
Now, h
2
+ r
2
= 32 49 81 9 7
2 2 2 2
= = = + h ) ( ) ( h
h = 32 cm = 2 4 cm = 4 1.41 cm = 5.64 cm
Volume of the cone =
3 2 2
64 5 7
7
22
3
1
3
1
cm . ) ( h r = t
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MATHEMATICS
= 27 7 1.88 cm
3
= 289.52 cm
3
Hence, the volume of the cone = 289.52 cm
3
.
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MATHEMATICS
Ex.22 Find the capacity in litres of a conical vessel with (i) radius 7 cm, slant height 25 cm. (ii) height 12 cm,
slant height 13 cm.
Sol. (i) r = 7 cm, = 25 cm
r
2
+ h
2
=
2

(7)
2
+ h
2
= (25)
2
h
2
= (25)
2
- (7)
2
h
2
= 625 - 49 h
2
= 576
h = 576 h = 24 cm
Capacity = . . cm ) ( h r 232 1 1232 24 7
7
22
3
1
3
1
3 2 2
= = = t
(ii) h= 12 cm , = 13 cm
r
2
+ h
2
=
2

r
2
+ (12)
2
= (13)
2
r
2
+ 144 = 169
r
2
169 - 144 r
2
= 25
r = 25 r = 5 cm
Capacity = . cm ) ( h r
35
11
7000
2200
7
2200
12 5
7
22
3
1
3
1
3 2 2
= = = = t
SPHERE
Objects like football, volleyball, throw-ball etc. are said to have the shape of a sphere.
In mathematical term, a sphere is a solid generated by revolving a circle about any of its diameters. Let a
thin circular disc of card board with centre O and radius r revolve about its diameter AOB to describe a sphere as
shown in figure.
Here, O is called the centre of the sphere and r is radius of the sphere. Also, the line segment AB is a diameter
of the sphere.
Formulae
For a solid sphere of radius = r, we have :
Surface area of the sphere = ) r (
2
4t sq. units.
Volume of the sphere = |
.
|

\
|
t
3
3
4
r cubic units.
SPHERICAL SHELL
The solid enclosed between two concentric spheres is called a spherical shell.
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MATHEMATICS
Formulae
For a spherical shell with external radius = R and internal radius = r, we have :
Thickness o shell = (R - r) units.
Outer surface area =
2
4 R t sq. units.
Inner surface area =
2
4 r t sq. units.
Volume of material = t 3 4 / (R
3
- r
3
) cubic units.
HEMISPHERE
When a plane through the centre of a sphere cuts it into two equal pars, then each part is called a
hemisphere.
For a solid sphere, the obtained hemisphere is also a solid and it has a base as shown in fig.
Formulae
For a hemisphere of radius r, we have :
Curved surface area =
2
2 r t sq. units.
Total Surface Area = ) r r (
2 2
2 t + t =
2
3 r t sq. units.
Volume =
3
3
2
r t cubic units.
HEMISPHERICAL SHELL
The solid enclosed between two concentric hemispheres is called a hemispherical shell.
Formulae
For a hemispherical shell of external radius = R and internal radius = r, we have :
Thickness of the shell = (R - r) units.
Outer curved surface area = (
2
2 R t ) sq. units.
Inner curved surface area = (
2
2 r t ) sq. units.
Total surface area = ) r R ( ) r R ( r R
2 2 2 2 2 2
3 2 2 + t = t + t + t sq. units.
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MATHEMATICS
Volume of the material = t
3
2
(R
3
- r
3
) cubic units.
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KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.23 Find the surface area of a sphere of diameter 14 m. [NCERT]
Sol. Diameter = 14 cm
Radius (r)
2
14
cm = 7 cm
Surface area = . cm ) ( r
2 2 2
616 7
7
22
4 4 = = t
Ex.2 Find the radius of sphere whose surface area is 314 cm
3
. (Use t = 3.14)
Sol. Let r cm be the radius of the sphere whose surface area = 314 cm
3

2
4 r t = 314 4 3.14 r
2
= 314

314 4
100 314
14 3 4
314
2

=
.
r r
2
= 25
r = 5 cm.
Ex.25 Find the total surface area of a hemisphere of radius 10 cm. (Use t = 3.14) [NCERT]
Sol. r = 10 cm.
Total surface area of the hemisphere =
2
3 r t = 3 3.14 (10)
2
= 942 cm
2
.
Ex.26 A hemispherical bowl is made from a metal sheet having thickness 0.3 cm. The inner radius of the bowl is
24.7 cm. Find the cost of polishing its outer surface at the rate of Rs. 4 per 100 cm
2
. (Take t= 3.14)
Sol. The outer radius of the bowl = (24.7 + 0.3) cm, i.e. m R = 25 cm
The outer surface area of the bowl =
2
2 R t = 2 3.14 (25)
2
cm
2
= 2 3.14 25 25 cm
2
= 157 25 cm
2
= 3925 cm
2
Cost of polishing the outer surface at the rate of Rs. 4 per 100 cm
2
= Rs.
100
4
3925 = Rs. 157.
Ex.27 Find the amount of water displaced by a solid spherical ball of diameter 28 cm. [NCERT]
Sol. Diameter = 28 cm
Radius (r) =
2
28
cm = 14 cm
Amount of water displaced = . cm cm ) ( r
3 3 3 3
3
2
11498
3
34496
14
7
22
3
4
3
4
= = = t
Ex.28 There are 42 hemispherical bowls, each of radius 3.5 cm. Find the quantity of water in litres which is just
sufficient to fill these 42 bowls. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
Sol. Here, r = 3.5 cm =
2
7
cm.
Volume of one bowl i.e., capacity of one bowl =
3
3
2
r t
3 3
6
49 11
2
7
2
7
2
7
7
22
3
2
cm cm

= =
Capacity of 42 bowls =
3 3
3773 42
6
49 11
cm cm =

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MATHEMATICS
Thus, the required quantity of water to fill the 42 bowls =
1000
3773
litres = 3.773 litres.
Therefore, 3.773 litres of water is just sufficient.
Ex.29 A hemispherical tank is made up of an iron sheet 1 cm thick. If the inner radius is 1 m, then find the
volume of the iron used to make the tank. [NCERT]
Sol. Inner radius (r) = 1 m
Thickness of iron sheet = 1 cm = 0.01 m
Outer radius (R) = Inner radius (r) + Thickness of iron sheet = 1 m + 0.01 m = 1.01 m
Volume of the iron used to make the tank ) r R (
3 3
3
2
t =
). Approx ( m . } ) . {(
3 3 3
06348 0 1 01 1
7
22
3
2
= =
Ex.30 Find the volume of a sphere whose surface area is 55.44 cm
2.
|
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
Sol. Let r cm be the radius of the sphere. Its surface area = 55.44 cm
2
.

2
4 r t = 55.44 4
7
22
r
2
= 55.44
r
2
=
22 4
7 44 55

.
= 4.41 = (2.1)
2
r = 2.1 cm
Now, volume of the sphere =
3 2 3
1 2 44 55
3
1
4
3
1
3
4
cm . . r ) r ( r = t = t
= 55.44 0.7 cm
3
= 38.808 cm
3
.
Hence, the volume of the sphere = 38.808 cm
3
.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
1. Surface area of a cuboid =2 ( b =bh = h )
2. Surface area of a cube =6a
2
3. Curved surface area of a cylinder = rh t 2
4. Total surface area of a cylinder = ) h r ( r + t 2
5. Curved surface area of a cone = r t
6. Total surface area of a right circular cone = ) r ( r ., e . i , r r + t t + t
2
7. Surface area of a sphere so radius r =
2
4 r t
8. Curved surface area of hemisphere =
2
2 r t
9. Total surface area of a hemisphere =
2
3 r t
10. Volume of a cuboid = h b
11. Volume of a cylinder =a
3
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MATHEMATICS
12. Volume of a cylinder = h r
2
t
13. Volume of a cone = h r
2
3
1
t
14. Volume of a sphere of radius
3
3
4
r r t =
15. Volume of a hemisphere =
3
3
2
r t
CBSE BASED SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1 Three equal cubes are placed adjacently in a row. Find the ratio of the total surface of the new cuboid to
that of the sum of the surface areas of three cubes.
[Hint :
Let the side of a cube be a units. Then, for the resulting cuboid, we have,
Length ) ( = a + a + a = 3a units.
Breadth (b) = a units.
Height (h) = a units.] Ans. 7 : 9.
Q.2 The floor of a rectangular hall has a perimeter 250 m. If the cost of painting the four walls at the rate of Rs.
10 per m
2
is Rs. 15000, find the height of the hall. [NCERT]
[Hint : Let the height of the hall be h m.
Area of 4 walls = 2( + b) h = perimeter h
Then, 250 h 10 = 15000] Ans. 6 m.
Q.3 Ajay has built a cubical water tank in his house. The top of the water tank is covered with lid. He wants to
cover the inner surface of the tank including the lid with square tiles of side 25 cm. If each inner edge of
the water tank is 2 m long and the tiles cost Rs. 360 per dozen, then find the total amount required for
tiles.
[Hint : No. of tiles required =
tile square a of Area
tank the of area surface Total
Total cost = Rs.
12
360
No. of tiles ] Ans. Rs. 11520.
Q.4 The length of the hall is 20 m breadth 16 m. The sum of the areas of the floor and the flat roof is equal to
the sum of the areas of the four walls. Find the height of the hall.
[Hint : ( b) + ( b) = 2 ( + b) h] Ans. 8.88 m (approx).
Q.5. Shanti Sweets Stall was placing an order for making cardboard boxes for packing their sweets. Two sizes
of boxes were required. The bigger of dimensions 25 cm 20 cm 5 cm and the smaller of dimensions 15
cm 12 cm 5 cm. For all the overlaps, 5% of the total surface area is required extra. If the cost of the
cardboard is Rs. 4 for 1000 cm
2
, find the cost of cardboard required for supplying 250 boxes of each kind.
[NCERT]
Sol. Surface area of one box of size 25 cm 20 cm 5 cm = 2[25 20 + 20 5 + 5 25) cm
2
= 1450 cm
2
Surface area of 250 such boxes = 250 1450 m
2
= 362500 cm
2
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MATHEMATICS
Surface are of one box of size 15 cm 12 m 5 cm = 2[15 12 + 12 5 5 15) cm
2
= 630 cm
2
Surface area of 250 such boxes = 250 630 m
2
= 157500 cm
2
Total surface area of the boxes of two types = 362500 m
2
+ 157500 cm
2
= 520000 cm
2
Area of sheet required for making 250 boxes of each including extra required area of 5% for overlaps etc.
2 2
546000
100
5
520000 520000 cm cm = |
.
|

\
|
+ =
Total cost of sheet at the rate of Rs. 4 for 1000 cm
2
= Rs.
1000
4
546000 = Rs. 2184
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Q.6 The sum of the length, breadth and height of a cuboid is 21 cm and the length of its diagonal is 13 cm.
Find the surface area of the cuboid. Also find the cost of painting the surface at the rate of Rs. 1.40 per
cm
2
.
[Hind : + n + h = 21 &
2 2 2
h b + + = 13 or
2
+ b
2
+ h
2
= 169
( + b + h)
2
=
2
+ b
2
+ h
2
+ 2( b + bh + h )
2( b + bh + h ) = ( + b + h)
2
- (
2
+ b
2
+ h
2
)] Ans. 272 cm
2
; Rs. 380.80
Q.7 The cost of papering the four walls of a room at 70 paise per square metre is Rs. 157.50. The height of the
room is 5 metres. Find the length and the breadth of the room if they are in the ratio 4 : 1.
[Hint : Let length be 4x m and breadth be x m.
2(4x + x) (5)
100
70
= 157.50] Ans. 18 m ; 4.5 m
Q.8. The capacity of a cubical tank is 50000 litres of water. Find the breadth of the tank, if its length and depth
are respectively 2.5 m and 10 m. [NCERT]
[Hint : 50,000 litres = 50 m
3
] Ans. 2 m.
Q.9 A rectangular water reservoir is 10.8 m by 3.75 m at the base. Water flows into it at the rate of 18 m per
second through a pipe having cross section 7.5 cm 4.5 cm. Find the height to which the level of water
reach in 15 minutes.
Sol. The base of the reservoir is 10.8 m 3.75 m.
Let the height of water reached in 15 minutes be h metres.
The cross section of the pipe is 7.5 cm 4.5 cm
Speed of water = 18 m/sec. = 18 60 m/min = 1080 m/min.
Cross section of the pipe is 7.5 cm 4.5 cm, i.e., m m ., e . i m
.
m
.
1000
45
1000
75
100
5 4
100
5 7

Volume of water that flows in 15 minutes
3
15 1080
1000
45
1000
75
m =
Now, we have volume of water in reservoir equal the volume of water that flows into it through the pipe in 15
minutes.
Thus, we have 10.8 3.75 h =
1000
45
1000
75
1080 15

1000 1000
15 1080 45 75
100
375
10
108


= h
. m . m m m h 35 1
100
135
375 100
15 45 75
375 108 1000
15 1080 45 75
= =


=


=
Hence, the height of the water level in the reservoir in 1.35 m.
Q.10 A solid cube of side 12 cm is cut into eight cubes of equal volume. What will be the side of the new cube ?
Also, find the ratio between their surface areas. [NCERT]
[Hint : Let the side of new cube be a cm.
Volume of bigger cube = 8 volume of a smaller cube] Ans. 6 cm ; 4 : 1
Q.11 The areas of three adjacent faces of a cuboid are p,q and r. If its volume is v, prove that v
2
= pqr.
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MATHEMATICS
[Hint p = h h ; q = b ; r = xh pqr =
2 2 2
h b ]
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MATHEMATICS
Q.12 In figure, you see the frame of a lampshade. It is to be covered with decorative cloth. The frame has a base
diameter of 20 cm and height of 30 cm. A margin of 2.5 cm is to be given for folding it over the top and
bottom of the frame. Find how much cloth is required for covering the lampshade.
[Hint : r = 10 cm, h = (30 + 2.5 + 2.5) cm = 35 cm] Ans. 2200 cm
2
.
Q.13 If the radius of the base of a right circular cylinder is halved, keeping the height same , what is the ratio of
the volume of the reduced cylinder to that of the original one ?
[Hint : let r be the radius, h be the height & v
1
, be the volume of the original cylinder. The, for reduced cylinder, we
have radius =
2
r
, height = h and volume = v
2
] Ans. 1 : 4.
Q.14 If costs Rs. 2200 to paint the inner curved surface of a cylindrical vessel 10 m depp. If the cost of painting
is at the rate of Rs. 20 per m
2
, find
(i) Inner curved surface area of the vessel,
(ii) Radius of the base,
(iii) Capacity of the vessel. [NCERT]
[Hint : Inner curved surface area Rs. 20 = Rs. 2200]
Ans. (i) 110 m
2
; (ii) 1.75 m ; (iii) 96.25 m
3
(or 96.25 kl).
Q.15 Water is supplied to a city population for general use (not for drinking) from a river through a cylindrical
pipe. The radius of the cross-section of the pipe is 20 cm. The speed of water through the pipe is 18 km
per hour. Find the quantity of water in litres which is supplied to the city in two hours. (Take t = 3.14 and
1 m
3
= 1000 litres.)
[Hint : 18 km/hr = 18000 m /hr
distance covered by water in 2 h = 36000 m
Radius of cross section = 20 cm =
5
1
m
Volume of water which flows in two hours = 3.14
25
1
18000 2 m
3
=
25
2 180 315
1000 litres] Ans. 4521600 litres.
Q.16. The capacity of a closed cylindrical vessel of height 1 m is 15.4 litres. How many square metres of metal
sheet would be needed to make it ? [NCERT]
[Hint : Let the radius of the vessel be r m.
Volume of vessel = 15.4 = 0.154 m
3

7
22
r
2
h = 0.0154] Ans. 0.47 m
2
.
Q.17 A corn cob, shaped like a right circular cone, has the radius of its broadest end as 2.1 cm and length
(height) as 20 cm. If each 1 cm
2
of the surface of the cob carries an average of four grains, find the
number of grains of the entire cob.
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MATHEMATICS
[Hint: Number of grains on the entire cob =4 curved surface area.]
Q.18 What length of tarpaulin 3 m wide will be required to make conical tent of height 8 m and base radius 6 m?
assume that the extra length of material that will be required for stitching margins and wastage in cutting
is approximately 20 cm (Use t = 3.14) [NCERT]
[Hind : Area of Tarpaulin required = Curved surface of the conical tent
i.e., b = r t ] Ans. 63 m.
Q.19 A right triangle ABC with sides 5 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm is revolved about the side 12 cm. Find the volume
of the solid so obtained. [NCERT]
[Hint : Radius, r = 5 cm ; height, h = 12 cm & slant height, = 13 cm ] Ans. 100 t cm
3
Q.20 If the triangle ABC in the question 19 above is revolved about the side 5 cm, than find the volume of the
solid so obtained. Find also the ratio of the volumes of the two solids obtained in Questions 19 and 20.
[NCERT]
[Hint :
Radius, r = 12 cm ; height, h = 5 cm & slant height , = 13 cm] Ans. 240 t cm
2
; 5 : 12.
Q.21 The base radii of the two right circular cones of the same height are in the ratio 3 : 5. Find the ratio of their
volumes.
[Hint : Let r
1
and r
2
be the radii of two cones ; v
1
and v
2
be their respective volumes and h be their height.
Then,
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
5
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
t
= =
r
r
r
r
h r
h r
v
v
;
r
r
] Ans. 9 : 25
Q.22 If h, c and v be the height, curved surface and volume of a cone, show that . v h c vh 0 9 3
2 2 2 3
= + t
[Hint : h = height of cone ; c = curved surface of cone = ; r t ; v = volume of cone = h r
2
3
1
t
Substitute the values of LHS to obtain RHS]
Q.23 The radius of a spherical balloon increases from 7 cm to 14 cm as air is being pumped into it. Find the
ratio of surface areas o the balloon in the two cases. [NCERT]
[Hint : r
1
= 7 cm & r
2
= 14 cm and let S
1
and S
2
be the surface areas of respective spheres.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
4
4
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
t
t
=
r
r
r
r
r
r
S
S
] Ans. 1 : 4
Q.24 The diameter of the moon is a approximately one fourth of the diameter of the earth. Find the ratio of their
surface areas. [NCERT]
[Hint : Let d
1
and d
2
be the diameters of the moon and the earth respectively and S
1
and S
2
be their respective
surface areas. ]
r
r
r
r
d
d
d d
4
1
4
1
2
2
4
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1
= = = = Ans. 1 : 16.
Q.25 A right circular cylinder just encloses a sphere of radius r. Find
(i) Surface area of the sphere,
(ii) Curbed surface area of the cylinder,
(iii) Ratio of the areas obtained in (i) and (ii). [NCERT]
[Hint : Radius of cylinder = radius of sphere = r
Height of cylinder = 2 radius of sphere = 2r] Ans. (i)
2
4 r t (ii)
2
4 r t (iii) 1 : 1.
Q.26 A shot-put is a metallic sphere of radius 4.9 cm. If the density of the metal is 7.8 g per cm
3
, find the mass
of the shot-out. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take .
[Hint : Mass of 1 m
3
of metal = 7.8 g
Mass of the shot put = volume of shot-put 7.8 g] Ans. 3.845 kg (approx).
Q.27 The diameter of the moon is approximately one-fourth the diameter of the earth. What fraction of the
volume of the earth is the volume of the moon ? [NCERT]
[Hint : Let d
1
and d
2
be the diameters of the moon and the earth respectively. Then, d
1
=
4
1
d
1
]
r
r
r
r
earth of Volume
moon of Volume
;
r
r
3
2
1
3
2
3
1
2
1
3
4
3
4
4
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
t
= = Ans.
64
1
Q.28 If the number of square centimetres of the surface of a sphere is equal to the number of cubic centimetres
in its volume what is the diameter of the sphere ?
[Hint : ]
r
r r
3
1
3
4
4
3 2
= t = t
Q.29 A cone and hemisphere have equal bases and equal volumes. Find the ratio of their heights.
Sol. Let the radius of base of hemisphere and cone, each be r cm. Let the height of the cone be h cm.
Volume of the cone
3 2
3
1
cm h r t =
Volume of the hemisphere =
3 3
3
2
cm r t
According to the question,
3 2
3
2
3
1
r h r t = t
h = 2r
Height of the cone = 2r cm.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Height of the hemisphere = r cm.
Ratio of their heights = 2r : = 2 : 1
Q.30 Twenty seven solid iron spheres, each of radius r and surface area S are melted to form a sphere with
surface area S. Find the (i) radius r of the new sphere, (ii) ratio of S and S. [NCERT]
[Hint : Volume of 27 solid iron sphere each of radius r = volume of new sphere of radius R.
R = 3r
S =
2
4 r t
S = ] ) r (
2
3 4t Ans. 3r ; 1 : 9
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
EXERCISE
SUBEJCTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS.
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. Write the lateral surface area of a cuboid having length units, breadth b units and height h. units.
2. Write the total surface area of a cuboid having three edges of length as 10 cm, 5 cm and 3 cm.
3. Write the curved surface area of a right circular cylinder whose radius is 3 cm and height is 5 cm.
4. The volume of right cylinder having base radius 10 cm is 600 t cm
3
. Find the height of the cylinder.
5. Write the curved surface area of a right circular cone having radius 7 cm and slant height 10 cm. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
6. Write the total surface area of a right circular solid cone having radius 10 cm and slant height 25
cm. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
7. Find the vertical height of a right circular cone whose radius is 6 cm and slant height is 10 cm.
8. Find the volume of a right circular cylinder having radius 8 cm and height 10.5 cm. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
9. Write the volume of a right circular cone having radius r and height h.
10. Find the quantity of water in litres in a hemispherical bowl of radius 21 cm. The bowl is completely filled with water.
|
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Take
11. The volume of a cuboid is 440 cm
3
and the area of its base is 88 m
2
. Find its height.
12. The volume of cube is 1000 cm. Find its total surface area.
13. How many 3 metre cubes can be cut from a cuboid measuring 18 m 12 m 19 m ?
(B) SHORT ANSWR TPE QUESTIONS :
QUESTIONS ON CUBOID & CUBE
1. The dimensions of cuboid are in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 and its total surface are is 88 m
2
. Find the dimensions.
2. Three cubes each of side 5 m are joined end to end. Find the surface are of the resulting cuboid.
3. A swimming pool is 20 m in length, 15 m in breadth, and 4 m in depth. find the cost of cementing its floor and walls
at the rate of Rs. 12 per square metre.
4. A cuboid has total surface area of 40 m
2
and its lateral surface area is 26 m
2
. Find the area of its base.
5. The length of a cold storage is double its breadth. Its height is 3 metres. The area of its four walls (including
doors) in 108 m
2
. find its volume.
6. The sum of length, breadth and depth of a cuboid is 19 cm and the length of its diagonal is 11 cm. Find the
surface area of the cuboid.
7. An open box is made of wood 3 cm thick. It external length, breadth and height are 1.48 m, 1.16 m and 8.3 dm.
Find the cost of painting the inner surface at Rs. 50 per sq. metre.
8. A cube of 9 cm edge is immersed completely in a rectangular vessel containing water. If the dimensions of the
base are 15 cm and 12 cm. Find the rise in water level in the vessel.
9. A solid cube is cut into two cuboids of equal volumes. Find the ratio of the total surface area of the given cube and
that of one of the cuboids.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
10. Three metal cubes whose edges measure 3 cm, 4 cm and 5 cm respectively are melted to form a single cube.
Find its edge. Also, find the surface area of the new cube.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
QUESTIONS OF RIGHT CURCULAR CYLINDER.
11. The area of the base of right circular cylinder is 154 cm
2
and its height is 15 cm. Find the volume of the cylinder.
12. The thickness of a hollow wooden cylinder is 2 cm. It is 35 cm long and its inner radius is 12 cm. Find the volume
of the wood required to make the cylinder, assuming it is open at either end.
13. The radius and height of a cylinder are in the ratio 5 : 7 and its volume is 550 cm
3
. Find its radius. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Use
14. The volume of metallic cylindrical pipe is 748 cm
3
. Its length is 14 cm and its external radius is 9 cm. Find its
thickness.
QUESTIONS OF RIGHT CIRULAR CONE
15. The diameter of a cone is 14 cm and its slant height is 9 cm. Find the area of its curved surface.
16. Find the total surface area of a cone, if its slant height is 9 m and the radius of its base is 12 m.
17. The radius of a cone is 3 cm and vertical height is 4 cm. Find the area of the curved surface.
18. The radius and slant height of a cone are in the ratio 4 : 7. It its curved surface are is 792 m
2
, find its radius.
|
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Use
19. The lateral surface of a cylinder is equal to the curved surface of a cone. If the radius be the same, find the ratio of
the height of the cylinder and slant height of the cone.
20. Find the volume of a right circular cone 1.02 m high, if the radius of its base is 28 cm.
21. The diameter of a right circular cone is 8 cm and its volume is 48
3
cm t . What it its height ?
22. A right circular cone is 3.6 cm high and radius of its base is 1.6 cm. It is melted and recast into a right circular cone
with radius of its base as 1.2 cm. Find its height.
23. A conical vessel whose internal radius is 5 cm and height 24 cm is full of water. The water is emptied into a
cylindrical vessel with internal radius 10 cm. Find the height to which the water rises.
24. A cone a cylinder are having the same base. Find the ratio of their heights if their volumes are equal.
QUESTIONS ON SPHERE
25. Find the surface are and total surface area of a hemisphere of radius 21 cm.
26. A sphere, a cylinder and a cone are of the same radius and same height. Find the ratio of their curved surface.
27. Sow that the surface area of a sphere is the same as that of the lateral surface of a right circular cylinder that just
encloses the sphere.
28. The internal and external diameters of a hollow hemi-spherical vessel are 24 cm and 25 cm respectively. The cost
of paint one sq. cm of the surface is 7 paise. Find the total cost to paint the vessel all over. (ignore the area of
edge).
29. Find the volume of a sphere whose surface area is 154 square cm.
30. A solid sphere of radius 3 cm is melted and then cast into small spherical balls each of diameter 0.6 cm. Find the
number of balls thus obtained.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
31. How many spherical bullets can be made out of a solid cube of lead whose edge measures 44 cm, each bullet
being 4 cm in diameter.
32. A solid lead ball of radius 7 cm was melted and then drawn into a wire of diameter 0.2 cm. Find the length of the
wire.
(C) LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
QUESTION ON CUBE & CUBOID
1. Length of class-room is two times its height and breadth is
2
1
1 times its height. The cost of white-washing the
walls at the rate of Rs. 1.60 per m
2
is Rs. 179.20. Find the cost of tilling the floor at the rate of Rs. 6.75 per m
2
.
2. The dimensions of a rectangular box are in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4 and the difference between the cost of covering it
with sheet of appear at the rate of Rs. 4 and Rs. 4.50 per square metre is Rs. 416. Find the dimensions of the box.
3. Find the number of bricks, each measuring 25 cm 12.5 cm 7.5 cm required to construct a wall 6 m long, 5 m
high and 0.5 m thick, while the cement and sand mixture occupies 1/20 of the volume of the wall.
4. A class room is 7 m long, 6.5 m wide and 4 m high. It has one door 3 m 1.4 m and three windows, each
measuring 2 m 1 m. The interior walls are to be colour washed. The contractor charges Rs. 525 per sq. m. Find
the cost of colour washing.
5. A room is half as long again as it is broad. The cost of carpeting the room at Rs. 3.25 per m
2
is Rs. 175.50 and the
cost of papering the walls at Rs. 1.40 per m
2
is Rs. 240.80. If 1 door and 2 windows occupy 8 m
2
, find the
dimensions of the room.
6. A wooden bookshelf has external dimensions as follows : Height = 110 cm, Depth = 25 cm, Breadth = 85 cm. The
thickness of the plank is 5 cm everywhere. The external faces are to be polished and the inner faces are to be
painted. If the rate of polishing is 20 paise per cm
2
and the rate of painting is 10 paise per cm
2
. Find the total
expenses required for polishing and painting the surface of the bookshelf.
7. In fig. the shape of a solid csopper piece (made of two pieces with dimensions as shown in the figure) is shown.
The face ABCDEFA is the uniform cross section. Assume that the angle at A, B, C, D, E and F and are right
angles. Calculate the volume of the piece.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
8. A plot of land in the form of a rectangle has dimension 240 m 180 m. A drain let 10 m wide is dug all around it
(on the outside) and the earth dug out is evenly spread over the plot, increasing its surface level by 25 cm. Find
the depth of the drain let.
9. A metallic sheet is of the rectangular shape with dimensions 48 cm 36 cm. From each one of its corners, a
square of 8 cm is cutoff. An open box is made of the remaining sheet. Find the volume of the box.
10. Water in a canal, 30 dm wide and 12 dm depp, is flowing with a velocity of 20 km per hour. How much area will it
irrigate in 30 min, if 9 cm of standing water is desired ?
QUESTIONS ON RIGHT CIRCULAR CYLINDER
11. A cylindrical road roller made of iron is 1 m wide. Its inner diameter is 54 cm and thickness of the iron sheet rolled
into the road roller is 9 cm. Find the weight of the roller it 1 c.c. of iron weights 8 g.
12. A solid cylinder has total surface area of 462 square cm. Its curved surface area is one-third of its total surface
area. Find the volume of the cylinder (Take t = 22/7)
13. A well with 10 m inside diameter is dug 14 m deep. Earth taken out of it is spread all around to a width of 5 m to
form an embankment. Find the height of embankment.
QUESTIONS ON RIGHT CIRCULAR CONE
14. A tent is of the shape of right circular cylinder upto a height of 3 metres and then becomes a right circular cone
with a maximum h eight of 13.5 metres above the ground. Calculate the cost of painting the inner side of the tent
at rate of Rs. 2 per square metre, if the radius of the base is 14 metres.
15. A solid cube of side 7 cm is melted to make a cone of height 5 cm, find the radius of the base of the cone.
16. From a right circular cylinder with height 10 cm and radius of base 6 cm, a right circular cone of the same height
and base is removed. Find the volume of the remaining solid.
QUESTIONS ON SPHERE
17. The internal and external diameters of a hollow hemispherical vessel are 24 cm and 25 cm respectively. The cost
to paint 1 cm
2
surface is Rs. 0.05. Find the total cost to paint the vessel all over. |
.
|

\
|
= t
7
22
Use
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
18. A wooden toy is in the form of a cone surmounted on a hemisphere. The diameter of the base of the cone is 6 cm
and its height is 4 cm. Find the cost of painting the toy at the rate of Rs. 5 per 1000 cm
2
.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
19. The front compound wall of a house is decorated by wooden spheres of diameter 21 cm, placed on small
supports as whose in fig. Eight such spheres are used for this purpose, and are to be painted silver. Each support
is cylinder of radius 1.5 cm and height 7 cm and is to be painted black. Find the cost of paint required if silver paint
costs 25 paise per cm
2
and black paint costs 5 paise per cm
2
.
20. A cylindrical container of radius 6 cm and height 15 cm is filled with ice-cream. The whole ice-cream has to be
distributed to 10 children in equal cones with hemispherical tops. If the height of the conical portion is four times
the radius of its base, find the radius of the ice-cream cone.
(D) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1. A plastic box 1.5 m long, 1.25 m wide and 65 cm deep is to be made. It is opened at the top. Ignoring the
thickness of the plastic sheet, determine :
(i) The area of the sheet required for making the box.
(ii) The cost of sheet for it, if a sheet measuring 1 m
2
costs Rs. 20.
2. The length, breadth and height of a room are 5 m, 4 m and 3 m respectively. Find the cost of white washing the
walls of the room and the ceiling at the rate of Rs. 7.50 per m
2
.
3. A cubical box has each edge 10 cm and another cuboidal box is 12.5 cm long, 10 cm wide and 8 cm high.
(i) Which ox has the greater lateral surface area and by how much ?
(ii) Which box has the smaller total surface area and by how much ?
4. A small indoor greenhouse (herbarium) is made entirely of glass panes (including base) held together with tape. It
is 30 cm long, 25 cm wide and 25 cm high.
(i) What is the area of the glass ?
(ii) How much of tape is needed for all the 12 edges ?
5. It is required to make a closed cylindrical tank of height 1 m and base diameter 140 cm from a metal sheet. How
many square metres of the sheet are required for the same ?
6. A metal pipe is 77 cm long. The inner diameter of a cross section is 4 cm, the outer diameter being 4.4 cm. Find
its :
(i) inner curved surface area,
(ii) outer curved surface area,
(iii) total surface area.
7. A cylindrical pillar is 50 cm is diameter and 3.5 m in height. Find the cost of painting the curved surface of the pillar
at the rate of Rs. 12.50 per m
2
.
8. Curved surface area of a right circular cylinder is 4.4 m
2
. If the radius of the base of the cylinder is 0.7 m, find its
height.
9. The inner diameter so a circular well is 3.5 m. It is 10 m deep. Find
(i) its inner curved surface area,
(ii) the cost of plastering this curved surface at the rate of Rs 40 per m
2
.
10. Find the total surface area of a right circular cone of base radius 7 cm and height 24 cm. Find the area of the
sheet required t make 10 such caps.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
12. A bus stop is barricaded from the remaining part of the road, by using 50 hollow cones made of recycled
cardboard, Each cone has a base diameter of 40 cm and height 1 m. If the outer side of each of the cones is to be
painted and the cost of painting is Rs 12 per m
2
, what will be the cost of painting all these cones ?
(Use t = 3.14 and take 04 1. = 1.02)
13. Find the surface are of a sphere of radius :
(i) 10.5 cm (ii) 5.6 cm (iii) 14 cm
14. A hemispherical bowl made of brass has inner diameter 10.5 cm. Find the cost of tin-plating it on the inside at the
rate of Rs. 16 per 100 cm
2
.
15. A cuboidal water tank is 6 m long, 5 m wide and 4.5 m deep. How many litres of water can it hold ?
(1 m
3
= 1000 )
16. Find the cost of digging a cuboidal pit 8 m long, 6 m broad and 3 m deep at the rate of Rs. 30 per m
3
.
17. A godown measures 40 m 25 m 10 m. Find the maximum number of wooden crates each measuring 1.5 m
1.25 m 0.5 m that can be stored in the godown.
18. A river 3 m deep and 40 m wide is flowing at the rate of 2 km per hour. How much water will fall into the sea in a
minute ?
19. A soft drink is available in two packs - (i) a tin can with a rectangular base of length 5 cm and width 4 cm, having a
height of 15 cm and (ii) a plastic cylinder with circular base of diameter 7 cm and height 10 cm. Which container
has greater capacity and by how much ?
20. If the lateral surface of a cylinder is 94.2 cm
2
and its height is 5 cm, then find
(i) radius of its base (ii) its volume. (Use t = 3.14)
21. A lead pencil consist of a cylinder of wood with a solid cylinder of graphite filled in the interior. The diameter of the
pencil is 7 mm and the diameter of the graphite is 1 mm. If the length of the pencil is 14 cm, find the volume of the
wood and that of the graphite.
22. A patient in a hospital is given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm. If the bowl is filled with soup to a
height of 4 cm, how much soup the hospital has to prepare daily to serve 250 patients ?
23. Find the volume of the right circular cone with
(i) radius 6 cm, height 7 cm (ii) radius 3.5 cm, height 12 cm
24. The height of a cone is 15 cm. If its volume is 1570 cm
3
, find the radius of the base. (Use t = 3.14)
25. If the volume of a right circular cone of height 9 cm is 48 t cm
3
, find the diameter of its base.
26. The volume of a right circular cone is 9856 cm
3
. If the diameter of the base is 28 cm, find
(i) height of the cone (ii) slant height of the cone (iii) curbed surface area of the cone
27. A heap a wheat is in the form of a cone whose diameter is 1 0.5 m and height is 3 m. Find its volume. The heap its
to e covered by canvas to protect it from rain. Find the area of the canvas required.
28. Find the volume of a sphere whose radius is
(i) 7 cm (ii) 0.63 m
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
29. How many litres of milk can a hemispherical bowl of diameter 10.5 cm hold ?
30. Find the volume of a sphere whose surface area is 154 cm
2
.
31. A capsule of medicine is in the shape of a sphere of diameter 3.5 mm. How much medicine (in mm
3
) is needed to
fill this capsule ?
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. A rectangular sand box is 5 m wide and 2 m long. How many cubic metres of sand are needed to fill the box upto
depth of 10 cm ?
(a) 1 (b) 10 (c) 100 (d) 1000
2. A beam 9 m long, 40 cm wide and 20 cm deep is made up of iron which weight 50 kg per cubic mer. The weight of
the beam is :
(a) 27 kg (b) 36 kg (c) 48 kg (d) 56 kg
3. The maximum length of a pencil that can be kept in a rectangular box of dimensions 8 cm 6 cm 2 cm is:
(A) 13 2 cm (B) m 14 2 (C cm 26 2 (D) cm 2 10
4. How many bricks, each measuring 25 cm 12.5 cm 7.5 cm will be needed to construct a wall 15 m long 1.8 m
high and 37.5 cm thick ?
(a) 4400 (b) 4660 (c) 4320 (d) 4575
5. A wooden box of dimensions 8 m 7 m 6 m is to carry rectangular boxes of dimensions 8 cm 7 cm 6 cm.
The maximum number of boxes that can be carried in the wooden box, is :
(a) 9800000 (b) 7500000 (c) 1000000 (d) 1200000
6. The surface area of a cube of side 27 cm is :
(a) 2916 cm
2
(b) 729 cm
2
(c) 4374 cm
2
(d) 19683 cm
3
7. The perimeter of one face of a cube is 40 cm. The volume of the cube (in cm
3
) is :
(a) 1600 (b) 1000 (c) 800 (d) 160
8. The volume of a cube with surface area 384 sq. cm, is :
(a) 216 cm
3
(b) 256 cm
3
(c) 484 cm
3
(d) 512 cm
3
9. The length of the longest rod that can fit in a cubical vessel of side 10 cm, is
(a) 10 cm (b) 2 10 cm (c) 3 10 cm (d) 20 cm
10. If the length of diagonal of a cube is 3 4 cm, then the length of its edge is :
(a) 2 cm (b) 2 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 6 cm
11. If the diameter of the base of a cylindrical pillar is 4 m and its height is 21 m, then the cost of construction of the
pillar at Rs. 1.50 per cubic metre is :
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
(a) Rs. 396 (b) Rs. 400 (c) Rs. 410 (d) Rs. 420
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
12. The volume of the cylinder whose height is 14 cm and diameter of base 4 cm, is :
(a) 176 cm
3
(b) 196 cm
3
(c) 276 cm
3
(d) 2 cm
2
13. Given that 1 cm
3
of a metal weighs 5 gms, the weight of a cylindrical metal container with base radius 10.5 cm and
height 60 cm, is :
(a) 97.65 kg (b) 48.75 kg (c) 103.95 kg (d) 102.45 kg
14. If the diameter of a cylinder is 28 cm and its height is 20 cm, then total surface area (in cm
2
) is :
(a) 2993 (b) 2992 (c) 2292 (d) 2229
15. If the curved surface area of a cylinder is 1760 sq, m and its base radius is 14 cm, then its height is :
(a) 10 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 20 cm (d) 40 cm
16. The volume (in cm
3
) of a right circular cone of height 12 cm and base radius 6 cm, is :
(a) t 12 (b) t 36 (c) t 72 (d) t 144
17. If the radius of the base of a right circular cone is 3r and its height is equal to the radius of the base, then its
volume is :
(a)
3
3
1
r t (b)
3
3
2
r t (c)
3
3 r t (d)
3
9 r t
18. The lateral surface area (in cm
2
) of a cone with height 3 cm and radius 4 cm, is :
(a)
7
6
62 (b)
7
6
52 (c)
7
3
31 (d)
7
5
15
19. A cone of height 8 m has a curved surface area 188.4 m
2
. The radius of the base is : (Take t = 3.14):
(a) 4m (b) 4.5 m (c) 5 m (d) 6 m
20. The length of canvas 1.1 m wide required to build a conical tent of height 14 m and the floor area 346.5 m
2
, is
(a) 655 m (b) 525 m (c) 490 m (d) 860 m
21. The volume of a sphere is 38808 cu. cm. The curved surface area of the sphere (in cm
2
) is :
(a) 5544 (b) 1386 (c) 8316 (d) 4158
22. The volume of a spherical shell whose internal and external diameters are 8 cm and 10 cm respectively (in cubic
cm) is :
(a)
3
122t
(b)
3
244t
(c) 212 (d) 257
23. If the ratio of volumes of two spheres is 1 : 8, then the ratio of their surface areas is :
(A) 1 : 2 (B) 1 L 4 (C) 1 : 8 (D) 1 : 16
24. If a hemi-spherical dome has an inner diameter of 28 m, then its volume (in m
3
) is :
(a) 6186.60 (b) 5749.33 (c) 7099.33 (d) 7459.33
25. Three solid spherical beads of radii 3 cm, 4 cm 5 cm are melted into a spherical bead. Its radius is :
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
(A) 6 cm (B) 7 cm (C) 8 cm (D) 9 cm
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
SURFACE AREAS & VOLUMES ANSWER KEY EXERCISE
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. 2 ( + b)h 2. 190 cm
2
3. 30
2
cm t 4. 6 cm 5. 220 cm
2
6. 1100 cm
2
7. 8 cm
8. 2112 cm
3
9. h r
2
3
1
t 10. 19.404 litres 11. 5 cm 12. 600 cm
2
13. 72
(B) SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. 2 m, 4 m and 6 m 2. 350 cm
2
3. Rs. 6960 4. 7 m
2
5. 216 m
3
6. 240 cm
2
7. Rs. 279.70 8. 4.05 cm 9. 3 : 2 10. 6 cm, 216 cm
2
11. 2310 cm
3
12. 5720 cm
3
13. 5 cm 14. 1 cm 15. 198 cm
2
17. 62.85 cm
2
18. 12 cm 19. 1 : 2
20. 83776 cm
3
21. 9 cm 22. 6.4 cm 23. 2 cm 24. 3 : 1
25. 2772 cm
2
; 4158 cm
2
26. 4 : 4 : 5 28. Rs. 132.11 29. 179.66 cm
3
30. 1000
31. 2541 32. 457.33 m
(C) LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. Rs. 324 2. 8m, 12 m and 16 m 3. 6080 4. Rs. 513.45
5. length = 9 m, breadth = 6m and height = 6 m 6. Rs. 6275 7. 880 cm
3
8. 1.227 m
9. 5120 cm
3
10. 4,00,000 m
2
11. 1424.304 kg 12. 539 cm
3
13. 4.66 m 14. Rs. 2068
15. 8.09 cm 16. 754.28 cm
3
17. Rs. 96.28 18. 51 paise 19. Rs. 382.80 20. 3 cm
(D) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1. (i) 5.45 m
2
(ii) Rs. 109 2. Rs. 555 3. (i) Lateral surface area of cubical box is greater by 40 cm
2
(ii) Total surface are of cuboidal box is greater by 10 cm
2
4. (i) 450 cm
2
(ii) 320 cm
5. 7.48 m
2
6. (i) 968 cm
2
(ii) 1064.8 cm
2
(iii) 2038.08 cm
2
7. Rs. 68.75 8. 1 m
9. (i) 110 m
2
(ii) Rs. 4400 10. 1244.57 cm
2
11. 5500 cm
2
12. Rs. 384.34 (approx)
13. (i) 1386 cm
2
(ii) 394.24 cm
2
(iii) 2464 cm
2
14. Rs. 27.72 15. 135000 litres
16. Rs 4320 17. 16000 18. 4000 m
3
19. The cylinder has the greater capacity by 85 cm
3
20. (i) 3 cm (ii) 141.3 cm
3
21. Volume of wood = 5.28 cm
3
, Volume of graphite = 0.11 cm
3
22. 38500 cm
3
or 38.5 litre of the soup. 23. (i) 264 cm
3
(ii) 154 cm
3
24. 10 cm 25. 8 cm
26. (i) 48 cm (ii) 50 cm (iii) 2200 cm
2
27. 86.625 m
3
; 99.825 m
2
28. (i) 11498
3
2
cm
3
(ii) 0.004851 m
3
29. 0.303 litre (approx) 30. 179
3
2
179 cm
3
31. 22.46 mm
3
(approx)
ANSWER KEY
ue. 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Ane. A B C C C C B D C C
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. A A C B C D D A D B
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MATHEMATICS
Que 21 22 23 24 25
Ans. A B B B A
TRIANGLES

INTRODUCTION
You have leant about triangles and some of their properties in your previous classes. In this chapter, we will study
about the congruency of triangles and some more properties. We many had some idea about these properties in
lower classes but here, we will study these properties in greater details.
CONGRUENCE OF TRIANGLES
Congruent figures : Two geometrical figures, having exactly the same shape and size are known as congruent
fig. For congruence, we use the symbol ~ .
Thus, two line segments are congruent, if they have the same length.
Two angles are congruent, if they have the same measure.
Congruent Triangles : Two triangles are congruent, if and only if one of them can be made to superpose on the
other, so as to cover it exactly.
Thus, Thus, congruent triangles are exactly identical, i.e., their corresponding three sides and the three angles are
equal.
If AABC is congruent of ADEF, we write AABD~ ADEF. This happens when AB = De, BC = EF, AC = DF and ZA
= ZD, ZB = ZE, ZC = ZF.
In this case, we say that the sides corresponding to AB, BC and AC are DE, EF and DF respectively. And, the
angles corresponding to ZA, ZB and ZC are ZD, ZE and ZF respectively.
Thus, the corresponding parts of two congruent triangles are equal. We show it by the abbreviation C.P.C.T.,
which means corresponding parts of congruent triangles.
Congruence Relation in the Set of All Triangles : From the definition of congruence of two triangles, we obtain
the following results:
(i) Every triangle is congruent to itself i.e. AABC~ AABC.
(ii) If AABC~ AADEF, then ADEF ~ AABC.
(iii) if AABC~ ADEF, and ADEF~ APQR, then AABC~ APQR.
CRITERIA FRO CONFRUENCE OF TRIANGLES
In earlier classes, we have leant some criteria from congruence of triangles. Here, in this class we will learn the
truth of these either experimentally or by deductive proof.
In the previous section we have studied that two triangles are congruent if and only if there exists a
correspondence between their vertices such that the corresponding sides and the corresponding angles of two
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
triangles are equal i.e. six equalities hold good, three of the corresponding sides and three of the corresponding
angles.
In this section, we shall prove that if three properly chooses conditions out of the six conditions are satisfied, then
the other three are automatically satisfied. Let us now discuss those conditions which ensure the congruence of
two angles.
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MATHEMATICS
I. SIDE-ANGLES(SAS)CONGRUENCE CRITERION
AXIOM : Two triantgles are congruent if two sides and included angle of one triangle are equal to the
sides and the included angle of the other triangle.
In the given figure, in AABC and ADEF, we have :
AB = DE, AC = DF and . D A Z = Z
DEF ABC A ~ A [By SAS-criteria]
REMARK : SAS-Congruence rule holds but ASS or SSA or SSA rule does not hold.
II. ANGLE (ASA) CONGRUENCE CRITERION
THEOREM-1 : Two triangles are congruent, if two angles and the included side of the one triagle are equal
to two angles and the included side of the other triangle.
Given : Two triangles ABC and DEF such that F C E B Z = Z Z = Z , and BC = EF.
To prove : . DEF ABC A ~ A
Proof : To prove . DEF ABC A ~ A we need to consider three possible situations :
Case 1. Let AB = DE.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
In ABC and DEF
(i) AB = DE
(ii) E B Z = Z
(iii) BC = EF
DEF ABC A ~ A
Supposed
Given
Given
By SAS criteria
Case2. Let AB > DE.
Construction : Take a point H on AB such that HB = DE.
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MATHEMATICS
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In AHBC and ADEF
(i) HB = DE
(ii) E B Z = Z
(iii) BC = EF
DEF HBC A ~ A
DFE HCB Z = Z
DFE ACB Z = Z
ACB HCB Z = Z
By Construction
Given
Given
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T
Given
From (3) and (4)
It can be possible only if H coincides with A. In other words, AB = DE.
Case 3. Let AB < DE.
Contruction : Take a point M on DE such that ME = AB.
By repeating the same arguments as in Case 2, we prove that AB = DE, and so . DEF ABC A ~ A Hence.
proved
III. ANGLE-ANGLE-SIDE (AAS) CONGRUENCE CRITERION
THEOREM-2 : Two triangles are congruent if any two pairs of angles and one pair of corresponding sides
are equal.
Given : Two A s ABC and DEF such that . , , EF BC E B D A = Z = Z Z = Z
To prove : DEF ABC A A
Proof :
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
D A Z = Z
E B Z = Z
E D B A Z + Z = Z + Z
F C Z = Z
0 0
180 180
F C Z = Z
InA ABC and ADEF
(i) E B Z = Z
(ii) BC = EF
(iii) F C Z = Z
DEF ABC A ~ A
Given
Given
Addint (1) and (2)
0
180 = Z + Z + Z C B A
C B A Z = Z + Z
0
180
Similarly. F E D Z = Z + Z
0
180
Given
Given
From(3)
By ASA criteria
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MATHEMATICS
IV SIDE-SIDE-SIDE (SSS) CONGRUENCE CRITERION
Two triangles are congruent, if the three sides of one triangle are equal to the corresponding three sides
of the other triangle.
If the given figure, in AABC and ADEF, we have :
AB = DE, BC = EF and AC = DF.
AABC~ ADEF [By SSS-criteria]
V RIGHT ANGLE-HYPOTENUSE-SIDE (RHS) CONGRUENCE CRITERION
Two right angles are congruent, if the hypotenuse and one side of one triangle are respectively equal to
the hypotenuse and one side of the other triangle.
In the given figure, AABC and ADEF are right - angled
triangles in which Hyp. AC = Hyp. DF and BC = EF.
AABC~ ADEF [By RHS-criteria]
Ex.1 In fig. OA = OB and OD = OC. Show that [NCERT]
(i) AAOD ~ ABOC and (ii) AD || BC.
Sol. Given : In fig. OA = OB and OD = OC.
To prove : (i) AAOD ~ ABOC and (ii) AD || BC.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
Ex.2 IN AABC, AB = AC. If P is a point of AB and Q is
a point on AC such that AP = AQ. Prove that
(i) AAPC ~ AAQB (ii) ABPC ~ ACQB.
Sol. Given : In AABC, AB = AC. P is a point on AB and Q is
a point on AC such that AP = AQ.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
In AAOD and ABOC
(i) OA = OB
(ii) OD = OC
(ii) ZAOD = ZBOC
AAOD ~ ABOC
ZOAD = ZOBC
ZOAD = ZOBC
AD || BC.
Given
Given
Vertically opposite angles
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
ZOAD and ZOBC from a pair of alternate angles
and are equal.
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MATHEMATICS
To prove : (i) AAPC ~ AAQB (ii) ABPC ~ ACQB.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
Ex.3 In figure, AC = AE, AB = AD and ZBAD = ZEAC, prove that BC = DE. [NCERT]
Sol. Given : In figure, AC = AE, AB = AD and ZBAD = ZEAC.
To prove : BE = DE.
Construction : Joint DE.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In AAPC and AAQB
(i) AP = AQ
(ii) AC = AB
(iii) ZCAP = BAQ
AAPC ~ AAQB
AB = AC and AP = AQ
(AB - AP) = (AC - AQ)
BP = CQ
In ABPC and ACQB
(i) BP = CQ
(ii) PC = QB
(iii) BC = CB
ABPC ~ ACQB
Given
Given
Common
By SAS criteria
Given
From (3)
C.P.C.T. APC and AQB
Common
By SSS criteria
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MATHEMATICS
Hence, proved.
Ex.4 In figure, diagonal AC of a quadrilateral ABCD bisects the angles A and C. Prove that AB = AD and CB =
CD/
Sol. Given : In figure, diagonal AC of a quadrilateral ABCD
bisect the angles A and C.
To prove : AB = AD and CB = CD
Hence, proved.
Ex.5 AB is a line segment and P is its mid-point. D and E are points on the same side of AB such that ZBAD =
ZABE and ZEPA = ZDPB. Show that (i) ADAP ~ AEBP (ii) AD = BE. [NCERT]
Sol. Given : AB is a line segment and P is its mid-point. D and E are points of the same side of AB such that ZBAD =
ZABE and ZEPA = ZDPB.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
3.
3.
In AABC and AADE
(i) AB = AD
(ii) AC = AE
(iii) ZBAD = ZEAC
BAD + ZDAC = ZDAC + ZEAC
ZBAC ~ ZDAE
AABC ~ AADE
BC = DE
Given
Given
Given
Adding ZDAC to both sides
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.
In AABC and AADC
(i) ZBAC = ZDAC
(ii) ZACB = ZACD
(iii) AC = AC
AABC ~ AADC
AB = AD
BC = CD
Given
Given
Common
ASA Axiom
C.P.C.T.
C.P.C.T.
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MATHEMATICS
To prove : (i) ADAP ~ AEBP
(ii) AD = BE
Proof :
Hence, proved
Ex.6 AB is a line-segment. As and By are two equal line - segments drawn on opposite sides on line AB such
that AX || BY. if AB and XY intersect each other at P. Prove that :
(i) AAPX ~ ABPY (ii) AB and XY bisect each other at P.
Sol. Given : AB is a line-segment. AX and BY are to equal line-segments drawn on opposite sides of line AB such that
AX || BY.
To prove : (i) AAPX ~ ABPY (ii) AB and XY bisect each other at P.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.
In ADAP and AEBP
(i) AP = BP
(ii) ZDAP = ZEBP
(iii) ZEPA = ZDPB
ZEPA + ZEPD
ZAPD = ZAPE
ADAP ~ AEBP
AD = BE
P is the mid point of AB.
Given
Given
Adding ZEPD to both sides.
By ASA criteria
C.P.C.T.
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MATHEMATICS
Hence, proved.
Ex.7 In fig., AD is a median and BL, CM are perpendiculars drawn from B and C respectively on AD and AD
produced. Prove that BL = CM.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.

AX || BY
ZPAX = ZPBY
and ZPXA = ZPYB
In AAPX and ABPY
(i) ZPAX = ZPBY
(ii) ZPXA = ZPYB
(iii) ZAX = BY
AAPX ~ ABPY
PX = PY and PA = PB.
AB and XY bisect each other at P.
Alternate Interior Angles
Alternate Interior Angles
From (1)
From (1)
Given
By ASA criteria
C.P.C.T.
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MATHEMATICS
Sol. Given : In fig., AD is a median and BL, CM are perpendiculars drawn from B and C respectively on AD and AD
produced.
To prove : BL = CM
Hence, proved.
Ex.8 AD and BC are equal perpendiculars to a line segment AB. Show that CD bisects AB. [ NCERT]
Sol. Given : AD and BC are equal perpendiculars to a line segment AB.
To Prove : CD bisects AB.
Hence, proved.
Ex.9 If fig. ZBCD = ZADC and ZACB = ZBDA. Prove that AD = BC and ZA = ZB/
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.
In AABDL and ACDM
(i) ZBLD = ZCMD
(ii) ZBDL = ZCDM
(iii) BD = DC
ABDL ~ ACDM
BL = CM
Each equal to 90
0
Vertically Opposite Angles
D is the mid point of BC
By AAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
STATEMEN REASON
1.
2.
3.

In AOAD and AOBC


(i) AD = BC
(ii) ZOAD = ZOBC
(iii) ZAOD = ZBOC
AOAD ~ AOBC
OA = OB
CD bisects AB
Given
Each = 90
0
Vertically Opposite Angles
By AAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
MANISH
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MATHEMATICS
Sol. Given : In fig ZBCD = ZADC and ZACB = ZBDA
To prove : (i) AD = BC (ii) ZA = ZB
Hence, proved.
Ex.10 In the fig. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AB = AD and BC = DC. Prove that :
(i) AC bisects each of the angles A and C.
(ii) BE = ED.
(iii) ZABC = ZADC. Can we say that AE = EC ?
Sol. Given : In the fig. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which
AB = AD and BC = DC.
To prove : (i) AC bisects each of the angles A and C.
(ii) BE = ED.
(iii) ZABC = ZADC. Can we say that AE = EC ?
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
In AAPC and ABPC
(i) ZACP = ZBDP
(ii) ZAPC = ZBPD
(iii) Third ZA = Third ZB
In AACD and ABDC
(i) CD = CD
(ii) ZA = ZB
(iii) ZBCD = ZADC
ZACB = ZBDA
ZACD = ZBDA
ZACD = ZBDC
AADC ~ ABDC
AD = BC
Given
Vertically Opposite Angles
The sum of the three angles of a A is 180
0
Common
From (1)
Given
Given
By AAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
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MATHEMATICS
No. AE = EC. From AE to be equal to EC, it is necessary that AAED ~ ACED for which Z2 must be equal to Z4.
Hence, proved.
Ex.11 AB is a line segment, P and Q are points on opposite sides of AB such that each of them is equidistant
from the points A and B. Show that the line PQ is the perpendicular bisector of AB. [NCERT]
Sol. Given : AB is line segment. P and Q are points on opposite sides of AB such that each of them is equidistant from
the points A and B.
To prove : PQ is the perpendicular bisector of AB.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In AABC and AADC
(i) AB AD
(ii) BC = DC
(iii) AC = AC
AABC ~ AADC
Z1 = Z2 and Z4 =Z4
AC bisects each of the angle A and C
In AABE and AADE
(i) AB = AD
(ii) Z1 = Z2
(iii) AE = AE
AABE ~ AADE
BE = ED
AABC ~ AADC
ZABC = ZADC
Given
Given
Common
By SSS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Given
From (3)
Common
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
C.P.C.T.
MANISH
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MATHEMATICS
From (6) and (7) we conclude that PQ is the perpendicular bisector of AB.
Hence, proved.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In APAQ and APBQ
(i) AP = BP
(ii) AQ = BQ
(iii) PQ = PQ
APAQ ~ APBQ
ZAPQ = ZBPQ
in APAC and APBC
(i) AP = BP
(ii) ZAPC = ZBPC
(iii) PC = PC
APAC ~ APBC
AC = BC and ZACP = ZBCP
ZACP + ZBCP = 180
0
2ZACP = 180
0
ZACP = 90
0
Given
Given
Common
By SSS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Given
ZAPQ = ZBPQ, from (3)
Common
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Linear pair of angles
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MATHEMATICS
Ex.12 AABC and APBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC and vertices A and P are on the same
side of BC. A and P are joined, show that :
(i) AABP ~ AACPand (ii) AP bisects ZA of AABC.
Sol. Given : AABC and APBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC and vertices A and P are on the same
side of BC.
To prove : (i) AABP ~ AACP and (ii) AP bisects ZA of AABC.

Hence, proved
Ex.13 In fig. P is a point equidistant from the lines and m intersecting at point A. Show that the line n (along
AP) bisects the angle between and m. [NCERT]
Sol. Given : In fig. P is a point equidistant from the lines and m intersecting at point A.
To prove : line n (along AP) bisects the angle between and m.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
In AABP and AACP
(i) AB = AC
(ii) PB = PC
(iii) AP = AP
AABP ~ AACP
ZBAP = ZCAP
AP bisect ZA.
AABC is isosceles
APBC is isosceles
Common
By SSS criteria
C.P.C.T.
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MATHEMATICS
Hence, proved.
Ex.14 AD, BE and CF, the altitudes of AABC are equal. Prove that AABC is an equilateral triangle.
Sol. Given : AD, BE and CF are the altitudes of AABC and are equal.
To prove : AABC is an equilateral triangle
Hence AABC is an equilateral triangle.
Ex.15 In a AABC, the internal bisectors of ZB and ZC meet at O. Prove that OA is the internal bisector of ZA.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
In right APAB and APAC
(i) PB = PC
(ii) Hyp PA = Hyp PA
APAB ~ APAC
ZBAP = ZCAP
Line n bisects angle between and m.
Given
Common
By RHS criteria
C.P.C.T.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In right ABCE and ACBF
(i) Hyp. BC = Hyp. CB
(ii) BE = CF
ABCE ~ ACBF
ZB = ZC
AC = AB
Similarly, AABD ~ ABAE
ZB = ZA
AC = BC
AB = BC = AC
Common
Given
By RHS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Sides opposite to equal angles are equal
C.P.C.T.
Sides opposite to equal angles are equal
From (3) and (4)
MANISH
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MATHEMATICS
Sol. Given : In a AABC, the internal bisectors of ZB and ZC meet at O.
To prove : OA bisects ZA.
Construction : Draw OD BC, OE, CA and OF AB.
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MATHEMATICS
Proof :
Hence, proved.
PROPERTIES OF AN ISOSCELES TRAINGLE
In this section, we will learn some properties related to a triangle whose two sides are equal. We know that a
triangle whose two sides are equal is called an isosceles triangle. Here, we will apply SAS congruence criteria and
ASA (or (AAS) congruence criteria to study some properties of an isosceles triangle.
THEORM - 3 : Angles opposite to equal sides of an isosceles triangle are equal.
Given : AABC is an isosceles triangle and AB = AC.
To prove : ZB = ZC.
Construction : Draw AD the bisector of ZA. AD meets BC at D.
Proof :
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
In AODC and AOEC
(i) ZOCD = ZOCE
(ii) ZODC = ZOEC
(iii) OC = OC
AODC ~ AOEC
OD = OE
OD = OF
OE = OF
In right AOEA and AOFA
(i) OE = OF
(ii) Hyp. OA = Hyp, OA
AOEA ~ AOFA
ZOAE = ZOAF
OA bisects ZA.
OC bisects ZC.
Each = 90
0
(by construction).
Common
By AAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Similarly, (AODB ~ AOFB).
From (3) and (4)
From (5)
Common
By RHS criteria
C.P.C.T .
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MATHEMATICS
Hence, proved.
COROLLARY each angle of an equilateral triangle is of 60
0
.
Given : AABC is an equilateral triangle.
To prove : ZA = ZB = ZC = 60
0
.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
THEOREM-4 : The sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle equal.
Given : AABC in which ZB = ZC.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
In ABAD and ACAD
(i) AB = AC
(ii) ZBAD = ZCAD
(iii) AD = AD
ABAD ~ ACAD
ZB = ZC
Given
Construction
Common
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AB = AC = BC
ZB = ZC
ZA = ZC
ZA = ZB = ZC
ZA + ZB + ZC = 180
0
ZA = ZB = ZC =
3
1
180
0
= 60
0
AABC is an equilateral triangle.
AB = AC
AB = BC
From (2) and (3)
Angle sum property.
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MATHEMATICS
To prove : AB = AC.
Construction : Draw AD BC. AD meets BC in D.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
Ex.16 In the adjoining fig, find the value of x.
Sol. We have,
ZCAD + ZADC + ZDCA = 180
0
[Angle sum property]
ZCAD + ZADC + 64
0
= 180
0
ZCAD + ZADC = (180
0
- 64
0
) = 116
0
But CD = CA ZCAD = ZADC [Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal]
So, ZCAD = ZADC =
2
116
0
= 58
0
Now, ZADC = ZABD + ZDAB [Ext. Z of a A = sum of int. opp. Zs]
But, AD = BD ZABD = ZDAB.
So, ZADC = 2ZDAB ZDAB =
2
1
ZADC

0 0 0
29 58
2
1
= = x
Hence, x = 29
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
In AABD and AACD
(i) ZABD = ZACD
(ii) ZADB = ZADC
(ii) AD = AD
AABD ~ AACD
AB = AC
Given
Each = 90
0
Common
By AAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Ex.17 AABC is a isosceles triangle is which AB = AC. Side BA is produced to D such that AD = AB. Show that
ZBCD is a right angle.
Sol. Given : AABC is an isosceles triangle is which AB = AC. Side BA is produced to D such that AD = AB
To prove : ZBCD = 90
0
Proof :
Hence, proved.
Ex.18 In a right angled triangle, one acute angle is double the other. Prove that the hypotenuse is double the
smallest side.
Sol. Given : A AABC in which ZB = 90
0
and ZACB = 2 ZCAB.
To prove : AC = 2BC.
Construction : Produce CB to D such that BD = BC. Join AD.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AB = AC
ZABC = ZACB
AB = AD
AC = AD
ZCDA = ZACD
or ZCDB = ZACD
ZABC + ZCDB = ZACB + ZACD
ZABC + ZCDB = ZBCD
In ABCD
ZBCD + ZDBC + ZCDB = 180
0
ZBCD + ZABC + ZCDB = 180
0
ZBCD + ZBCD = 180
0
2 ZBCD = 180
0
ZBCD = 90
0
ZBCD is a right angle.
Given
Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal
Given
From (1) & (2)
Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal
Adding (1) & (3)
Angle sum property
Using (4)
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MATHEMATICS
Proof :
Hence, proved.
INEQUALITIES IN A TRIANGLE
THEOREM-5 : If two sides of a triangle are unequal, then the greater side has greater angle opposite to it.
Given : A AABC in which AC > AB.
To prove : ZABC > ZACB.
Construction : Mark a point D on AC such that AD = AB. Join BD.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In AABD and AABC
(i) BD = BC
(ii) ZABD = ZABC
(iii) AB = AB
AABD ~ AABC
AD = AC, ZDAB = ZCAB = x
0
ZDAC = ZACB
AD = DC
AC = DC
AC = 2BC
By construction
Each = 90
0
Common
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Side opposite to equal Zs are equal.
AD = AC, from (3)
DC = BD + BC = 2BC, as BD = BC.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
AB = AD
ZABD = ZBDA
ZBDA > ZDCB
ZABD > ZDCB
ZABC > ZABD
ZABC > ZDCB
ZABC > ZACB
By construction
Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal
(Ext. Z of ABCD) > (Each of its int. Opp. Zs)
Using (2)
ZABD is a part of ZABC.
Using (5)
ZDCB = ZACB.
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MATHEMATICS
THEOREM-6 (Converse of Theorem-5) : If two angles of a triangles are unequal, then the greater angle has
greater side opposite to it.
Given : A AABC in which ZABC > ZACB.
To prove : AC >AB.
Proof :
Hence. proved.
THEOREM-7 : The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than its third side.
Given : A AABC.
To prove : (i) AB + AC > BC
(ii) AB + BC > AC
(iii) BC + AC > AB.
Construction : Produce BA to D such that AD = AC. Join CD.
Proof :
STATEMENT REASON
1. We may have three possibilities only
(i) AC = B
(ii) AC < AB
(iii) AC >AB
Out of these exactly one must be true.
Case-I. AC = AB.
ZABC = ZACB.
This is contrary to what is given.
AC = AB is not true
Case -II AC < AB
AB > AC
ZACB > ZABC
This is contrary to what is given
AC < AB is not true.
Thus, we are left with the only possibility
AC > AB which must be true.
Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal
Greater side has greater angle opp. to it.
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Hence, proved.
REMARK : (i) The largest side of a triangle has the greatest angle opposite to it and converse is also true
(ii) The smallest side of triangle has the smallest angle opposite to it and converse in also true
Ex.19 In fig, show that : (i) AB > AC (ii) AB > BC and (iii) BC > AC.
Sol. Given : A AABC in which ZB = 40
0
and ZACD = 100
0
.
To prove : (i) AB > AC
(ii) AB > BC
(iii) BC > AC.
Proof :
Hence, proved.
Ex.20 Show that of all the line segments that can be drawn to a given straight line from a given point outside it,
the perpendicular is the shortest. [NCERT]
Sol. Given : A straight line AB and a point P outside it; PM AB and N is any other point of b.
To prove : PM < PN.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
AD = AC
ZACD = ZADC
ZBCD > ZACD
ZBCD > ZADC
BD > BC
BA + AD > BC
BA + AC > BC
or AB + AC > BC.
Similarly, AB + BC > AC
and BC + AC > AB
By construction
Zs opposite to equal sides of a A are equal
Using (1) & (2)
Greater angle has greater side opp. to it.
BAD is a straight line, BD = BA + AD.
AD = AC, by construction.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ZA + ZB = 100
0
ZA + 40
0
= 100
0
ZA = 60
0
ZC + 100.0 = 180
0
ZC = 80
0
ZC > ZB
AB > AC
ZC > ZA
AB > BC
ZA > ZB
BC > AC
Ext. Z = sum of int. opt. Zs
Linear pair of angles.
ZC = 80
0
and ZB = 40
0
Greater angle has greater side opp. to it.
ZC = 80
0
and ZA = 60
0
Greater angle has greater side opp. to it.
ZA = 60
0
and ZB = 40
0
Greater angle has greater side opp. to it.
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Proof :

PM is the shortest of the line segments from P to AB.
Hence, proved.
Ex.21 Show that the sum of the three altitudes of a triangle is less than the sum of the three sides of the triangle.
Sol. Given : A AAC in which AD, BE and CF are its altitudes.
To prove : AD + BE + CF < AB + BC + CA
Proof :
Hence, Proved.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
ZPMN = 90
0
ZPNM < 90
0
ZPNM < ZPMN
PM < PN
PM AB
In a right A, one angel measures 90
0
and each one of the remaining two is acute.
From (1) and (2)
Side opp. the smaller angle is smaller.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
In AABD , ZADB = 90
0
ZADB > ZABD
AB > AD
Similarly , BC > BE and CA > CF
AB + CB + CA > AD + BE + CF
or AD + BE + CF < AB + BC + CA
Given
Side opp greater angle is longer.
From (2) and (3)
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MATHEMATICS
THINGS TO REMEBER
1. Two figures are congruent , if they are of the same shape and of the same size.
2. Two circles of the same radii are congruent.
3. Two squares of the same sides are congruent.
4. If two triangle ABC and PQR are congruent under the correspondence A P, B Q and C R, then
symbolically, it is expressed as AABC ~ APQR.
5. If two sides and the included angle of one triangle re equal to two sides and the included angle of the
other triangle, then the two triangle are congruent (SAS congruence rule).
6. If two angles and the included side of one triangle are equal to two angles and the included side of the
other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent (ASA congruence rule).
7. If two angles and one side of one triangle are equal to two angles and the corresponding side of the other
triangle, then the two triangles are congruent (AAS Congruence rule)
8. Angle opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal.
9. Sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal.
10. Each angle of an equilateral triangle is of 60
0
.
11. If three sides of one triangle are equal to three sides of the other triangle, then the two triangles are
congruent (SSS congruence rule).
12. If in two right triangles, hypotenuse and one side of a triangle are equal to the hypotenuse and one side of
other triangle, then the two triangles are congruent (RHS congruence rule).
13. In a triangle, angle opposite to the longer side is larger (greater).
14. In a triangle, side opposite to the larger (greater) angle is longer.
15. Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
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MATHEMATICS
CBSE BASED SOME IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
Q.1 In fig, DP = BQ, ZDPB = ZBQD and ZADP = ZCBQ, Show that AADP ~ ACBQ.
[Hint : ZDPB = ZBQD
180
0
- ZDPB = 180
0
- ZBQD ZAPD = ZCQB]
Q.2 and m are two parallel lines intersected by another pair of parallel lines p and q. Show that
AABC ~ ACDA. [NCERT]
[Hint: (i) ZBAC = ZDCA
(ii) ZACB = ZCAD
(iii) AC = CA]
Q.3 Ram wishes to determine the distance between two objects A and B, but there is an obstacle between
these two objects as shown in fig, which prevents his from making a direct measurement. He devises an
ingenious way to overcome this difficultly. First, he fixes a pole at a convenient point O so that from O,
both A and B are visible. Then he fixes another pole at the point D on the line AO (produced) such that AO
= DO. In a similar way, he fixes a third pole at the point C on the line BO (produced) such that BO = CO.
Then he measures CD and finds that CD = 170 m. Prove that the distance between the object A and B is
also 170 m.
Q.4. In right triangle ABC, right angled at C, M is the mid-point of hypotenuse AB. C is joined to M and
produced to a point D such that DM = CM. Point D is joined to point B. Show that :
(i) AAMC ~ ABMD
(ii) ZDBC is a right angle.
(iii) ADBC ~ AACB
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MATHEMATICS
(iv) CM =
2
1
AB. [NCERT]
[Hint : (i) By SAS congruence rule, AAMC ~ ABMD
(ii) ZACM = ZBDM (CPCT)
CA || BD
ZBCA + ZDBC = 180
0
ZDBC = 90
0
(iii) By SAS congruence rule, ADBC ~ AACB
(iv) ADBC ~ AACB CD = AB
AAMC ~ ABMD CM = DM CM =
2
1
CD
CM =
2
1
AB]
Q.5 In fig AB||QR, BC||PR and AC = PQ. Prove that AABC ~ AQRP.
[Hint : ZBAC = ZRQP (alternate interior angles)
AC = PQ
ZBCA = ZRPQ (alternate exterior angles)]
Q.6 E and F are respectively the mid-points of equal sides AB and AC of AABC. Show that BF = CE.
[NCERT]
[Hint : To show BF = CE, prove AABF ~ AACE.]
Q.7 In fig, BL AC, AM LN, AL = CN and BL = CM. Prove that AABC ~ ANML.
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MATHEMATICS
[Hint : By SAS congruence rules, AALB ~ AANCM
AB = NM and ZLAB = ZCNM
In AABC and ANML, AB = NM, ZCAB = ZLNM,
AL = CN AL + LC =CN + LC AC = NL.]
Q.8 In an isosceles triangle ABC with AB = AC, D and E are points of BC such that BE = CD. Show that AD =
AE. [NCERT]
[Hint : AB = AC ....(i)
ZB = ZC ....(ii)
BE = CE BE - DE = CD - DE BD = CE ....(iii)
Q.9 If two isosceles triangle have a common base, the line joining their vertices bisects them at right angles.
[Hint : There can be two possible situations :
By SSS congruence rule, AABD ~ AACD Z1 = Z2
By SSS congruence rule, ABAE ~ ACAE Z3 = Z4 & Be = EC.]
Q.10 In an isosceles triangle ABC, with AB = AC, the bisectors of ZB and ZC interest each other at O. Join A to
O. Show that :
(i) OB = OC (ii) AO bisects ZA [NCERT]
[Hint : (i) AB = AC ZB = ZC
2
1
ZB =
2
1
ZC ZOBC = ZOCB
Ob = OC
(ii) By SAS congruence rule, AAOB ~ AAOC
ZOAB = ZOAC]
Q.11 Prove that any two sides of a triangle are together greater than twive the median drawn to the third side.
[Hint :
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MATHEMATICS
In AABC, AD is the median. Produced AD to E such that AD = DE. Join EC.
AADB ~ AEDC AB = EC
In AAEC, AC + EC > AE AC + AB > 2AD]
Q.12 AABC and ADBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC and vertices A and D are on the same
side of BC. If AD is extended to intersect BC at P, show that :
(i) AABD ~ AACD
(ii) AABP ~ AACP
(iii) AP bisects ZA as well as ZD.
(iv) AP is the perpendicular bisector of BC. [NCERT]
[Hint : (i) By SSS congruence rule, AABD ~ AACD
(ii) ZBAP = ZCAP
In AABP & AACP, AB = AC, AP = AP, ZBAP = ZCAP
(iii) To show AP bisects ZD, prove ADBP ~ ACDP]
Q.13 A point O is taken inside an equilateral four sides figure ABCD such that its distances from the angular
points D and B are equal. Show that AO and OC are is one such the same straight line.
[Hint :
AAOD ~ AAOD Z1 = Z2
ADOC ~ ABOC Z3 = Z4
Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + Z4 = 360
0
Q.14 Two sides AB and BC and median AM of one triangle ABC are respectively equal to sides PQ and QR and
median PN of APQR. Show that :
(i) AABM ~ APQN
(ii) AABC ~ APQR [NCERT]
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[Hint : (i) By SSS congruence rule, AABM ~ APQN
(ii) By SSS congruence rule, AABC ~ APQR]
Q.15 In a right angled triangle, one acute angle is double the other. Prove that the hypotenuse is double the
smallest side.
Sol. Given : A right angled AABC with ZABC = 90
0
, ZBAC = x and ZBCA = 2x.
To prove : CA = 2BC.
Construction : Produce CB to point P such that BP = BC. Joint PA.
Hence, proved.
Q.16. ABC is a triangle in which altitudes BE and CF to sides AC and AB are equal. Show that :
(i) AABE ~ AACF (ii) AB = AC, i.e., ABC is an isosceles triangle. [NCERT]
[Hint : ZA = ZA, ZAED = ZAFC, BE = CF]
Q.17 In fig. AABC is right angled at C, APQR is right angled at R. If AB = PQ and BC = PR, prove that AACP ~
AQRB.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In AABP and AABC
(i) BP = BC
(ii) ZABP = ZABC
(iii) AB = AB
AABP ~ AABC
PA = CA
ZPAB = ZBAC =
ZPAC = x + x = 2x
PA = PC
PA = 2BC
CA = 2BC
By construction
Each = 90
0
Common
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
C.P.C.T.
ZPAC = ZPCA = 2x
BP = BC
From (3) and (5)
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[Hint : By RHS congruence rule, AACB ~ AARP
AC = QR
Now, BC = RP
BC + CR = CR + RP
BR = CP]
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Q.18 In fig. AB = AC, AD BC, BE = DE and CF = DF. Prove that :
(i) AABE ~ AACF
(ii) ZBAE = ZCAF
[Hint : By RHS congruence rule, AADB ~ AADC
BD = DC and ZB = ZC
Now, BD = DC
2
1
BD =
2
1
BC BE = FC]
Q.19 In fig, ZAOB = ZPOQ = 90
0
, OB = OQ and AB = PQ. Prove that :
(i) AOAB ~ AOPQ.
(ii) Z1 = Z2
Q.20 Show that in a right angled triangle, the hypotenuse is the longest side. [NCERT]
[Hint : In a right angled AABC with ZC = 90
0
, ZA + ZB = 90
0
ZA < 90
0
, ZB < 90
0
AB > BC, AB > AC]
Q.21 Show that the difference of any two sides of a triangle is less than the third side.
Sol. Given : A AABC
To prove : (i) AC - AB < BC
(ii) BC - AC < AB
(iii) BC - AB < AC
Construction : Take a point D on AC such that AD = AB. Join BD.
Proof :
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Z3 < Z1
Z2 > Z4
Z2 = Z1
Z3 > Z1 = Z2 > Z4
Z3 > Z4
BC > CD
or CD < BC
AC - AD < BC
AC - AB < BC
Ext. Z of a A is greater than each of int. opp. Zs.
Ext. Z of a A is greater than each of int. opp. Zs.
By construction AB = AD
From (1) (2) and (3)
Side opp to greater angle is larger
By construction AB = AD
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Similarly BC - AC < AB and BC - AB < AC.
Hence, proved.
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Q.22 In fig. ZB < ZA and ZC < ZD. Show that AD < BC. [NCERT]
[Hint: ZB < ZA OA < OB ...(i)
ZC < ZD OD < OC ...(ii)
Add (i) & (ii)]
Q.23 In fig. AP and PR > PQ. Show that AR > AQ.
Sol. Given : In fig. AP and PR > PQ.
To prove : AR > AQ.
Construction : Mark a point S on PR such that PS = PQ. Join AS.
Proof :
Hence, proved
Q.24 In fig. PR > PQ and PS bisects ZQPR. Prove that ZPSR > ZPSQ. [NCERT]
[Hint : PR > PQ ZQ > ZR
and ZPS = ZRPS
ZQ + ZQPS > ZR + ZRPS ZPSR > ZPSQ]
Q.25 In fig. AB > AC, PB and PC are bisectors of ZB and ZC respectively. Show that PB > PC.
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
In AAPQ and AAPS
(i) AP = AP
(ii) ZAPQ = ZAPS
(iii) PQ = PS
AAPQ ~ AAPS
Z2 = Z3
Z3 > Z2
Z1 > Z2
AR > AQ
Common
Each = 90
0
By construction
By SAS criteria
C.P.C.T.
Ext. Z of a A is greater than each of int. opp. Zs
From (3) and (4)
Side opp. to greater angles is larger.
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Q.26 In fig. O is an interior point of AABC. BO meets AC at D. Show that OB + OC < AB + AC.
Sol. Given : O is an interior point of AABC. BO meets AC at D.
To prove : OB + OC < AB + AC
Proof :
Hence, proved
Q.27 In fig, ABCD is a quadrilateral in which diagonals AC and BD intersect at O. Show that 2(AC + BD) > AB +
BC + CD + DA.
[Hint : OA + OB < AB
OB + OC > BC
OC + OD > CD
OD + OA > DA]
STATEMENT REASON
1.
2.
3.
In AABD, AB + AD > BD
AB + AD > BO + OD
In ACOD, OD + DC > OC
AB + AD + OD + DC > BO + OD + OC
AB + AD = DC > BO + OC
AB + (AD + DC) > OB + OC
AB + AC > OB + OC
or OB + OC < AB + AC
Sum of two sides of a A is greater than the third
side.
Sum of two sides of a A is greater than the third
side.
Adding (1) and (2).
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EXERCISE
SUBEJCTIVE TYPE QUESTINS
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. Whish of the following pairs of triangles are congruent ?
(a) AABC and ADEF in which : BC = EF, AC = DF and ZC = ZF.
(b) AABC and APQR in which : AB = PQ BC = QR and ZC = ZR.
(c) AABC and ALMN in which : ZA = ZL = 90
0
, AB = LM, ZC = 40
0
and ZM = 50
0
.
(d) AABC and ADEF in which : ZB = ZE = 90
0
and AC = DF.
2. Answer the following as per the exact requirement :
(a) In As ABC and PQR, AB = PQ, AC = PR
and ZBAC = ZQPR.
Here, AABC ~ APQR.
Justify the statement by writing the congruence
criteria applicable in this situation.
(b) In fig. ZBAC = ZQRP.
Justify that AABC ~ ARQP.
3. In AABC, AB = AC. OB and OC are bisectors of ZB and ZC respectively. Show that OB = OC.
4. In fig. Z1 > Z2. Show that AB > AC.
5. In AABC, we have, ZA > ZB > ZC, then determine the shortest and the longest side of the triangle.
6. If AABC ~ APQR, ZB = 40
0
and ZC = 95
0
, find ZP.
7. In AABC, AB = BC = 5 cm and ZA = 55
0
, find AB.
8. State the angle angle-side congruence criteria for triangles.
9. In fig, AB = AC and ZACD = 115
0
. Find ZA.
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10. In AABC, BC = AC and ZB = 64
0
, find ZC.
11. In APQR, ZP = 50
0
and ZR = 70
0
, Name (i) the shortest side (ii) the longest side of the triangle.
(B) SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. In the given fig, the line segments AB and CD intersect at a point M in such a way that AM = MD and CM = MB.
Prove that, AC = BD but AC many not be parallel to BD.
2. In the given fig. AY ZY and BY XY such that AY = ZY and BY = XY. Prove that AB = ZX.
3. If the bisector of the exterior vertical angles of a triangle is parallel to the base, show that the triangle is isosceles.
4. In each of the following figures, find the value of x :
5. In each of the following figures, find the value of x:
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6. In the given fig, BD || CE; AC = BC, AABD = 20
0
and ZECF = 70
0
. Find ZGAC.
7. In the given figure, AB || CD and CA = CE. Find the value of x, y and z.
8. In the given figure, AB = AD; CD; ZA = 42
0
and ZC = 108
0
, find ZABC.
9. In the given figure, side BA of AABC has been produced to D such that CD = CA and side CB has been produced
to E. If ZBAC = 106
0
and ZABE = 128
0
, find ZBCD.
10. In the given figure, AB = BC and AC = CD. Show that ZBAD : ZADB = 3 : 1.
11. In the given figure, AD is the internal bisector of ZA and CE || DA. If CE meets BA produces at E, prove that
ACAE is isosceles.
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12. In the given figure, AD bisects ZA. Arrange AB, BD and DC in ascending order.
13. In the given fig. AB = AC. Prove that : AF > AE.
14. In the given figure, side AB of AABC is produced to D such that BD = BC.
IF ZA = 60
0
and ZB = 50
0
prove that :
(i) AD > CD
(ii) AD > AC
15. In the given figure, AD bisect ZA. If ZB = 60
0
, Z = 40
0
, then arrange AB, BD and DC in ascending order of their
lengths.
(B) LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. In the given fig. ABCD is a square and APAB is an equilateral triangle.
(i) Prove that AAPD ~ ABPC.
(ii) Show that ZDPC = 15
0
.
2. In the given fig. in AABC, ZB = 90
0
. if ABPQ and ACRS are squares,
prove that :
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(i) AACQ ~ AABS.
(ii) CQ = BS.
3. Squares ABPQ and ADRS are drawn on the sides AB and AD of a parallelogram ABCD. Prove that :
(i) ZSAQ = ZABC
(ii) SQ = AC.
4. In the given fig, ABCD is a square and P, Q, R are points on AB, BC and CD respectively such that
AP = B = CR and ZPQR = 90
0
. Prove that : (i) PB = QC, (ii) PQ = QR (iii) ZQPR = 45
0
.
5. In the given fig, ABCD is a square, EF||BD and R is the mid-point of EF. Prove that :
(i) BE = DF
(ii) AR bisects ZBAD
(iii) If AR is produced, it will pass through C.
6. In a AABC, AB = AC and BC is produced to D. From D, DE is drawn perpendicular to BA produced and DF is -
drawn perpendicular to AC produced. Prove that BD bisects ZEDF.
7. Prove that the perimeter of a triangle is greater than the sum of its three medians.
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8. In the adjoining figure, prove that :
(i) AB + BC + CD > DA
(ii) AB + BC + CD + DA > 2AC
(iii) AB + BC + CD + DA > 2BD
(iv) AB + BC + CD + DA > AC + BD
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9. In the adjoining figure, O is the centre of a circle, XY is a diameter and XZ is a chord. Prove that XY > XZ.
10. In the given figure, AD = AB and AE bisects ZA. Prove that :
(i) BE = ED
(ii) ZABD > ZBCA.
(C) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1. In quadrilateral ACBD, AC = AD and AB bisects ZA. Show that ZABC ~ ZABD. What can you say about BC and
BD ?
2. ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AD = BC and ZDAB = ZCBA. Prove that
(i) AABD ~ ABAC
(ii) BD = AC
(iii) ZABD = ZBAC.
3. Line is the bisector of an angle ZA and B is any point of . BP and BQ are perpendicular from B to the arms of
ZA. Show that :
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(i) AAPB ~ AAQB
(ii) BP = BQ or B is equidistant from the arms of ZA.
4. In AABC, AD is the perpendicular bisector of BC. Show that AABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC.
5. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which altitudes BE and CF are drawn to equal sides AC and AB respectively. Show
that these altitudes are equal.
6. ABC is a right angled triangle in which ZA = 90
0
and AB = AC. Find ZB and ZC.
7. AD is an altitude of an isosceles triangle ABC in which AB = AC. Show that :
(i) AD bisects BC
(i) AD bisects ZA.
8. BE and CF are two equal altitudes of a triangle ABC. Using RHS congruence rule, prove that the triangle ABC is
isosceles.
9. ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. Draw AP BC to show that ZB = ZC.
10. AB and CD are respectively the smallest and longest sides of a quadrilateral ABCD. Show that ZA > ZC and ZB
> ZD.
11. D is a point on side BC and AABC such that AD = AC. Show that AB > AD.
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(D) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT AE TRUE (T) AND WHICH ARE FALSE (F) :
(a) Angles opposite the equal sides of a triangle are equal.
(b) Each angle of an equilateral triangle is 60
0
(c) Side opposite the equal angles of a triangle may be unequal.
(d) The bisectors of the two equal angles of a triangle are equal.
(e) Two right triangles are congruent, if hypotenuse and a side of one triangle are respectively equal to the
hypotenuse and a side of the other triangle.
(f) If any two sides of right triangle are respectively equal to two sides of other right triangle, then the two
triangles are congruent.
(g) The two altitudes corresponding to two equal sides of a triangle need not be equal.
(h) If two sides and an angle of a triangle are respectively equal to two sides and an angle of other triangle,
the two triangles are congruent.
(i) If two sides and the included angle of a triangle are respectively equal to two sides and the included angle
of the other triangle, the two triangles are congruent.
(j) If two angles and the included side of one triangle are respectively equal to the two angles and the
included side of the other triangle, the two triangles are congruent.
(k) If AABC ~ APRQ, then AB = PQ.
(l) If two angles and a side of a triangles are respectively equal to two angles and a side of the other triangle,
then the two triangles are congruent.
(m) If ADEF ~ ARPQ, then ZD = ZQ.
(n) If APQR ~ ACAB, then PQ = CA.
(o) If two sides of a triangle are unequal, then larger side has the smaller angle opposite to it.
(p) If two angles a triangle are unequal, then the grater angle has the larger side opposite to it.
(q) Sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
(r) Difference of any two sides of a triangle is equal to the third side.
(s) Of all the line segments that can be drawn from a point to a line not containing it, the perpendicular line
segment is the shortest.
(t) Sum of the three sides of a triangle is less than the sum of its three altitudes.
(E) FILL IN THE BLANKS :
(a) Sides opposite the equal angles of a triangles are _____.
(b) Angles Opposite the equal sides of a triangles are ___.
(c) In an isosceles triangle ABC with AB = AC, if BD and CE are its altitudes, then BD is ____ CE.
(d) If altitudes CE and BF of a triangle ABC are equal, then AB = ____.
(e) In right triangles PQR and DEF, if hypotenuse PQ = hypotenuse EF and side PR = DE, then
APQR ~ A ____.
(f) In a triangle ABC, if BC = AB and ZC = 80
0
, then ZB = ____.
(g) In a triangle PQR, if ZP = ZR, then PQ = ____.
(h) If two sides and the ___ angle of one triangle are respectively equal to two sides and the included angle of
the other triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
(i) If ____ sides of a triangle are respectively equal to the three sides of the other triangle, then the triangles
are congruent.
(j) If in two triangles ABC and PQR, AB = QR, ZA ZQ and ZB = ZR, then AABC ~ A ____.
(k) If in two triangles ABC and DEF, AB = DF, BC = DE and ZB = ZD, then AABC ~ A ____.
(l) If in two triangles PQR and DEF, PR = EF, QR = DE and PQ = FD, then APQR ~ A_____.
(m) Sum of any two sides of a triangle is ____ than the third side.
(n) If two angles of a triangle are unequal. then the smaller angle has the ___ side opposite to it.
(o) Of all the line segments drawn from a point to a line not containing it, the ___ line segment in the shortest.
(p) Difference of any two sides of a triangle is ____ than the third side.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
(q) If any two sides of a triangle are unequal, then the larger side has the ___ angle opposite to it.
(r) The sum of the three altitudes of a triangle is ____ than its perimeter.
(s) In a right triangle, the hypotenuse is the ___ side.
(t) The perimeter of a triangle is ___ than the sum of its medians.
OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. For a triangle ABC, the true statement is :
(A) AC
2
= AB
2
+ BC
2
(B) AC = AB + BC (C) AC > AB + BC (D) AC < AB + BC
2. The internal bisectors of the angles B and C of a triangle ABC meet at O. The, ZBOC is equal to :
(A) 90
0
+ A (B) 2A (C) 90
0
+
2
1
A (D) 180
0
- A
3. If the sides of triangle are produced, then the sum of the exterior angles i.e. Za + Zb + Zc is equal to :
(A) 180
0
(B) 360
0
(C) 90
0
(D) 270
0
4. In a AABC, the sides AB and AC have been produced to D and E. Bisectors of ZCBD and ZBCE meet at O. If
ZA = 64
0
, then ZBOC is :
(A) 52
0
(B) 58
0
(C) 26
0
(D) 112
0
5. D is the mid point of the base BC of a triangle ABC, DM and DN are perpendiculars on AB and AC respectively. If
DM = DN, the triangle is :
(A) Isosceles (B) Equilateral (C) Right angled (D) Scalene
6. The distance between the top of two trees 20 m and 28 m high is 17 m. The horizontal distance between the trees
is :
(A) 11 m (B) 31 m (C) 15 m (D) 9 m
7. Consider the following statements :
(i) If three sides of a triangle are equal to three sides of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
(i) If three angles of a triangle are equal to three angles of another triangle respectively, then the two
triangles are congruent.
Of these statements,
(A) (i) is correct and (ii) is false. (B) Both (i) and (ii) are false.
(C) Both (i) and (ii) are correct. (D) (i) is false and (ii) is correct.
8. In a triangle, the perpendicular from vertex to the base bisects the base. The triangle is :
(A) Isosceles (B) Right angled (C) Equilateral (D) Scalene
9. In the adjoining figure,
AB = AC and AP BC. Then,
(A) AB = AP
(B) AB < AP
(C) AB > AP
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
(D) AB s AP
10. The measures of three angles of a triangle are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3 Then the triangle is :
(A) Right angled (B) Equilateral (C) Isosceles (D) Obtuse angled
11. The hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is 25 cms. The other two sides are such that one is 5 cm longer than the
other. Their lengths (in cm) are :
(A) 10 , 15 (B) 20, 25 (C) 15, 20 (D) 25, 30
12. In the given figure, AM BC and AN is the bisector of ZA. Then ZMAN is :
(A)
2
1
32
0
(B)
2
1
16
0
(C) 16
0
(D) 32
0
13. For a triangle ABC, which of the following is true ?
(A) BC
2
- AB
2
= AC
2
(B) AB - AC = BC (C) (AB - AC) > BC (D) (AB - AC) < BC
14. ABC is a triangle in which AB = AC. The base BC is produced to D and ZACD = 130
0
. Then, ZA equals :
(A) 80
0
(B) 60
0
(C) 50
0
(D) 40
0
15. If ABCD is a square and DCE is an equilateral triangle in the given figure, then ZDAE is equal to :
(A) 45
0
(B) 30
0
(C) 15
0
(D)
2
1
22
0
16. In the adjoining figure, AD = BD = AC ; ZCAE = 75
0
and ZACD = x
0
. Then, the value of x is :
(A) 45
0
(B) 50
0
(C) 60
0
(D)
2
1
37
0
17. O is any point on the bisector of the acute angle ZXYZ. The line OP is parallel to ZY. Then, AYPO is :
(A) Scalene
(B) Isosceles but not right angled
(C) Equilateral
(D) Right Zd & isosceles.
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
18. One side other than the hypotenuse of a right angled isosceles triangle is 4 cm. The length of the perpendicular on
the hypotenuse from the opposite vertex is :
(A) 8 cm (B) 2 4 cm (C) 4 cm (D) 2 2 cm
19. ABC is a triangle such that AB = 10 and AC = 3. The side BC is :
(A) Equal to 7 (B) Greater than 7 (C) Less than 7 (D) None of these
20. In a AABC, ZA = 90
0
, AB = 5 cm and AC = 12 cm. If AD BC, then length of AD is :
(A) cm
2
13
(B) cm
13
15 2
(C) cm
13
60
(D) cm
60
13
TRIANGLES ANSWER KEY EXERCISE
(A) VERY SHORT ANSWR TYPE QUESTIONS :
1. (a), (c) 2. (a) SAS congruence criteria 5. Shortest side is AB and the longest side is BC.
6. 45
0
7. 70
0
9. 50
0
10. 52
0
11. (i) QR, (ii) PQ
(B) SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS :
4. (i) 110, (ii) 55 5. (i) 22, (ii) 40 6. 130
0
7. x = 36, y = 68, z = 44
8. 105
0
9. 54
0
12. BD < AB < DC 15. BD = DC < AB
(D) NCERT QUESTIONS :
1. They are equal 6. Each of 45
0
(E) TRUE & FALSE :
(a) T (b) T (c) F (d) T (e) T (f) F (g) F (h) F (i) T (j) T (k) F (l) F (m) F (n) T
(o) F (p) T (q) T (r) F (s) R (t) F
(F) FILL IN THE BLANKS :
(a) Equal (b) Equal (c) Equal to (d) AC (e) EFC (f) 20
(g) RQ (h) Included (i) Three (j) QRP (k) FDE (l) EFE
(m) Greater (n) Smaller (o) Perpendicular (p) Less (q) Greater (r) Less
(s) Largest (t) Greater
ANSWER KEY
Que. 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Ans. D C B B A C A A C A
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ane. C C D A C B B D B C
MANISH
KUMAR
MATHEMATICS
Important Notes