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Dec. 8, 2009
Masayuki TAKADA
NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories
Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting
ISDB-T,
outline and transmission scheme
22
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Transmission scheme of ISDB-T
Digital modulation
OFDM
Interleaving
Hierarchical transmission
3. Comparison of 3 DTTB systems
4. Current services of ISDB-T in Japan
5. ISDB-T receivers on the market
6. Summary
3
1. Introduction
Requirements for DTTB, and features of ISDB-T
History and schedule of ISDB-T
DTTB (Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting)
ISDB-T (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial)
4
Requirements for DTTB
For success of DTTB introduction
Requirements for DTTB
Attractive broadcasting service
High quality TV and sound (HDTV, 5.1 surround)
Anytime information access (Data, Internet)
Robustness against interference
Mobile and portable reception
Anytime, anywhere TV service (HD mobile and One-Seg)
Effective Frequency Utilization
SFN (Single Frequency Network)
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What is ISDB-T ?
One of the DTTB systems in the world
There are 3 systems recommended in ITU-R BT1306.
ISDB-T, DVB-T and ATSC
The most flexible system
HDTV, multi-SDTV, EPG, data-casting, internet-access,
mobile reception, Cellular phone TV, etc.
The most robust system
OFDM, time-interleaving, etc.
Brazilian comparison test results proved it.
Developed in Japan
ISDB-T is ...
ISDB-T transmission
from the broadcaster to the receivers
One TV channel
13 Segments
Fixed
Reception
1 segment
13 or 1 segment
Handheld
Reception
Handheld terminal

Home Receiver
Support 3 reception types
by one channel
13 segment
Receiver in Vehicle
TV station
diversity
reception
Mobile
Reception
Internet / Telephone modem
6
7
ISDB-T realizes these services
HDTV
Merits
Multiple programs
2
Mobility
Data broadcasting
Interactive TV
Advanced caption etc.
8
History and schedule of DTTB in Japan
1994 Technical requirements for DTTB studied at Council
1999 ISDB-T technical standard established in Japan
Dec. 2003 ISDB-T launched! (Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka)
Apr. 2006 One-Seg service started
Dec. 2006 ISDB-T started
(at main cities of the whole country)
Jul. 2011 Analog TV Switched off
End of 1980' OFDM study started in NHK Labs.
2000 ISDB-T recommended in ITU-R
12
2. Transmission scheme of ISDB-T
Features and key technologies of ISDB-T
Digital modulation
OFDM
Interleaving
Hierarchical transmission
ISDB-T (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting - Terrestrial)
13
Channel coding
Outline of digital transmission
Source coding
Video/Audio
Source
(Analog)
Digita-
lization
Com-
pression
Error
correction
coding
Digital
modulation
Trans-
mission
Digital
demodulation
Error
correction
decoding
Source decoding
Video/Audio
Signal
(Analog)
Noise, Multipath,
Fading, etc
15 15
Receiving environment
for terrestrial TV broadcasting
Fixed reception
Multipath interference
Fading interference
Impulse, manmade noise
Shadowing
Handheld reception
Mobile reception
Receiving environment is very severe.
16 16
Key technologies of ISDB-T
Key technologies adopted in ISDB-T
To overcome the terrestrial severe receiving
environment
OFDM
Time-interleaving (Freq.&Time interleave)
To realize the effective and smart transmission
Hierarchical transmission by segmented OFDM
Realization of One-Seg service for handheld reception
17
Digital modulation
In the case of digital modulation, amplitude,
frequency or phase of carrier changes
digitally depend on digital data
ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)
modulate carrier amplitude
FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)
modulate carrier frequency
PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
modulate carrier phase
0 0 1 1
18
PSK and QAM
BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying)
uses two phases of carrier
QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
uses four phases of carrier
8PSK (8 Phase Shift Keying)
uses eight phases of carrier
16QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
uses 4 levels in orthogonal phases (in-phase and
quadrature phase)
64QAM (16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
uses 8 levels in orthogonal phases (in-phase and
quadrature phase)
Constellations
I
Q
[0]
[1]
[ C ]
-A A
I
Q
[00]
[01]
[11]
[10]
[C1 C0]
A
A
-A
-A
I
Q
[000]
[001]
[011]
[010]
[100]
[101]
[111]
[110]
[C2 C1 C0]
A
-A
-A A
BPSK QPSK 8PSK
1bit/symbol 2bits/symbol 3bits/symbol
16QAM
4bits/symbol
Q
I
64QAM
6bits/symbol
I
Q
19
BPSK modulation
input
pulses
cosine
BPSK
signal
=0 = = =0 =0
= =0
Signal space diagram
input data
0 1 0 0 1
20
21
QPSK modulation

010100011010010101
binary input

QPSK out (I+Q)

Modulated : I
Modulated : Q

0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
I data
Q data
-A
+A
-A
+A
Level Conv.
01 01 00 01 10 10 01 01 01 11
=5/4 = 7/4
=3/4 = /4
(00)
(01)
(11) (10)
I
Q
QPSK 8PSK BPSK
Comparison of PSK modulations
-2 -1 0 1 2
-1
0
1
I
Q
(10) (11)
(01) (00)
-2 -1 0 1 2
-2
-1
0
1
2
I
Q
(011)
(001)
(111)
(010)
(000) (100)
(101)
(110)
overlap
-2 -1 0 1 2
-2
-1
0
1
2
I
Q
(0) (1)
Noise
Transmission capacity
High Low
Robustness
Strong
Weak
22
23
Bit Error Rate / Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
10
-1
5 10 15 20
10
-7
10
-5
10
-3
BER
C/N (Nyquist)
QPSK BPSK
Good
Good
8PSK
16QAM
24
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Multicarrier modulation method
500 8000 carriers
Modulation method of each carrier is
BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, etc.
25
Features of OFDM
Robustness against multipath interference
symbol duration is longer than single carrier modulation
guard interval is provided
Robustness against frequency-selective fading
OFDM uses many carriers
SFN (Single Frequency Network)
frequency effective usage
Signal process using IFFT/FFT
Poor against non-linearity
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OFDM waveform and spectrum
Frequency domain signal
Time domain signal
+
+
+
=
+
+
+
+
+
=
GI Effective symbol duration
transmitting symbol S(t)
Transmitting
Signal
FFT/
IFFT
Carrier #k
Carrier #2
Carrier #1

1
0
) ) ( 2 (
) (
N
n
t f n j
n
n
e c t S

Addition of
various carriers !!
Frequency
27
Fast Fourier Transform
Time Domain Frequency Domain
1KHz
wave (1KHz)
FFT
IFFT
FFT
IFFT
wave (containing
various frequency)
Enables Frequency Analysis
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Overview of OFDM modulation
FFT
Transmission
Time domain
freq
n=N
n=N-1
n=
n=2
IFFT
freq
n=N
n=N-1
n=
n=2
Modulation
Frequency domain
Demodulation
Frequency domain
QAM Mapping QAM Demapping
time
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Multipath Echo Interferences
NHK
Main path
Multipath echo
= Delayed wave
Multipath echo interferes the receiving performance
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Signal Distortion by Multipath Echo
Transmitted signal
10MHz 10MHz
Received signal
= includes Main path and
Multipath Echo
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Why signal distorted ?

: /
/
Frequency
Power
Carrier combined with same phase
C/N=large
Carrier combined with opposite phase
C/N=small
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Why Signal Distorted ?
Case of same phase composition
Main path
Looking on
one carrier
Delay path
Received
Signal
=Main path
+Delay path
Freq
Power
Amplitude increase
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Why Signal Distorted ?
Case of opposite phase composition
Main path
Looking on
one carrier
Delay path
Received
Signal
=Main path
+Delay path
Freq
Power
Amplitude decrease
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Guard Interval
In transmittingAdd partial copy of Effective Symbol
In demodulationextract only effective symbol duration
length from transmitting symbol and execute FFT
Able to eliminate the effects of multipath echo interference
within delay time of Tg [sec]
Guard
Interval
Tg Ts
ISDB-T Signal
Time Domain
Effective
Symbol
copy signal copy signal
1008ms (*) 126ms (*)
(*) figure of NHK
actually its flexible
Transmitting Symbol
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Effect of Guard Interval
Main path
Looking on
one carrier
Delay path
Received
Signal
=Main path
+Delay path
Transmitting symbol
Symbol #N
Symbol #N-1 Symbol #N+1
Time
Effective symbol
Guard
Interval
Only use here for
demodulation (FFT)
Non Continuous !!
Delay time
Able to eliminate
non continuous part
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Performance of OFDM
under multipath distortion
10
-5
10
-4
10
-3
10
-2
10
-1
Delay time [usec]
B
i
t

E
r
r
o
r

R
a
t
e
50 100 0 150
D/U = 0 dB
6 dB
10 dB
64QAM-OFDM
C/N = 30 dB
guard interval
1
D/U Ratio of Desired wave (mainpath)
and Undesired wave(echo)
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Interleaving
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Interleaving
Randomization of data symbols
Carrier arrangement
time-sequence of symbols
An order is randomly changed.
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What is interleaving ?
Error
Correction
Transmit after interleaving
Deinterleave after receiving
Mass Data error
in specified area or frequency
Data
Frequency or time duration
Error
Correction
Error
Correction
Error
Correction
Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data k
Able to fix the mass data error
by Interleaving !!
Shuffle order of data
Transmitting
data
Actual
data
Received
data
Reorder
Data after
error
correction
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Effect of frequency interleaving
Good
10
-2
10
-1
90
92
94
96
98
100
Bit error rate
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

c
o
r
r
e
c
t

r
e
c
e
p
t
i
o
n

r
a
t
e

(
%
)
3.5MHz
500kHz
1.5MHz
100kHz
Time interleave length : 48msec
Maximum Doppler frequency : 15Hz
Spectrum
(Multipath distorted)
41 41
Effect of time interleaving
flat fading,DQPSK,Mode=1,GI=1/8,FEC=1/2,RS=OFF
1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.00E-03
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
1.00E+00
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
C/N[dB]
B
E
R
Fd = 70 Hz
Fd = 20 Hz
Fd = 7 Hz
Without
time interleaver
Fd = 7 Hz
Fd = 20 Hz
Fd = 70 Hz
With time interleaver
of 440 ms
Laboratory test results
Without time-interleaver
(Error remains even in
high C/N)
B
e
t
t
e
r
Far from Tx Near to Tx
With time-interleaver
(No error at more than C/N=20dB)
42 42
Hierarchical transmission
ISDB-T adopts hierarchical transmission system
by FDM (frequency division multiplexing) of Segment
Hierarchical transmission is realized by changing following
parameters
Modulation : QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, (DQPSK)
Error correction : Coding rate of convolutional code (1/2 - 7/8)
1/2 2/3 3/4 5/6 7/8
More robust
Higher capacity
QPSK 16QAM 64QAM
More robust
Higher capacity
43 43
Flexible hierarchical transmission
by segmented OFDM
Examples
1 layer
ISDB-T
- Consists of 13 OFDM segments
- Hierarchical transmission
by segmented OFDM
- Up to 3 layers

For fixed receivers
For mobile receivers
For handheld receivers
frequency
6MHz
(13 segments)
2 layers
3 layers
44 44
Example of hierarchical transmission
Example
(2 layers transmission)
frequency
1 channel
(13 segments)
LDTV, Audio, Data
Layer A
Handheld reception
(One-Seg service)
Layer A
QPSK
FEC=2/3
For handheld
service
Robust
transmission
mode
Fixed reception, Mobile
reception (HDTV,etc)
Layer B
64QAM
FEC=3/4
For HDTV
or Multi-SDTV
service
High capacity
transmission
mode
Layer B

HDTV or
Multi-SDTV
programs with Data
RS(204,188)
20.1 dB
16.85 Mbps
215 ms
3/4
64 QAM
12
B
1/8 (126 s)
1008 s
0.992 kHz
5.572 MHz
5617 (8k FFT)
Transmission parameters used in Japan
6.6 dB Required CN ratio for AWGN
416 kbps Information bit rate
430 ms Time interleaving length
RS(204,188) Outer error correction code
2/3 Coding rate of inner code (convolutional code)
QPSK Carrier modulation
1 Number of segments
A Hierarchical transmission
Guard interval ratio (length)
Usable symbol duration
Carrier spacing
Used bandwidth
Number of carriers
46 46
Features of ISDB-T transmission system
1. Robustness against interference
(1)Adopt OFDM transmission system
(2)Adopt time interleaving; very effective for various kinds of interference
(3)Adopt concatenated error correction with plural interleaver
2. HDTV for fixed/mobile and One-Seg for portable/handheld
can be transmitted simultaneously in one TV channel
(1)Hierarchical transmission by segmented OFDM
(2)Partial reception of center one-segment for handheld service
3. Efficient frequency utilization
(1)Adopt OFDM transmission system; SFN operation
(2)Adopt hierarchical transmission; service for different type of reception in one
frequency channel
4. Flexibility for several type of service/reception style
47
3. Comparison of 3 DTTB systems
Features of 3 DTTB systems
Results of comparison tests
Summary of comparison
48 48
Key parameters of 3 DTTB systems
3.65 -23.2 Mbps 3.69 -23.5Mbps 19.39 Mbps Information bit rate
time
Frequency
Bit/Symbol
TMCC TPS - Configuration
6 / 7 / 8 MHz 6 / 7 / 8 MHz 6 / 7 / 8 MHz
Channel
bandwidth
1/4, 1/8,1/16,1/32 1/4,1/8,1/16,1/32 11.5%
Excess Bandwidth/
Guard Interval
0s, 0.1s,0.2s,0.4s - -
Yes Yes Yes
Inter-
leaving
Yes Yes -
Segmented
OFDM
(DQPSK,QPSK,
16QAM,64QAM)
OFDM
(QPSK,
16QAM,64QAM)
8VSB
Modulation
ISDB-T DVB-T ATSC System
50 50 50
Results of Brazilian Tests
Comparison tests for three DTTB systems
- ATSC, DVB-T, ISDB-T
Carried out from Aug. 1999 to April 2000
Selected transmission parameters
- Almost same transmission bit rate
ATSC
Fixed, 8VSB FEC=2/3 (19,39 Mbit/s)
DVB-T
DVB-2K : 64QAM FEC=3/4 GI=1/16 2K (19,75 Mbit/s)
ISDB-T
ISDB-4k : 64QAM FEC=3/4 GI=1/16 4K 0,1s (19,33 Mbit/s)
(From the presentation of the Brazilian SET/ABERT study group at NAB2000)
51 51
Impulse noise
Better performance of the ISDB-T system, by introducing
time interleaving
(From the presentation of Brazilian SET/ABERT study group at NAB2000)
Relation between the noise pulse width & interference to signal ratio
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 100 200 300 400
Pulse width (us)
"
I
"
/
C

(
d
B
)
ATSC - Chip A
DVB - NDS - 3/4 1/16 2K
ISDB - NEC - 3/4 1/16 4K 0,1s
B
e
t
t
e
r
ISDB-T
ATSC
DVB-T
52 52
Outdoor : Coverage
(From the presentation of Brazilian SET/ABERT study group at NAB2000)
Success on Receiving - Cumulative Function
Criterion: Number of Errors < 5
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Distance (km)
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

S
i
t
e
s
ATSC DVB-2k ISDB-T
B
e
t
t
e
r
ISDB-T
DVB-T
ATSC
55 55
Essence of comparison test results
The OFDM modulation scheme is suitable
for DTTB in real broadcast circumstances.
Time interleaving scheme, adopted in ISDB-
T, is a key technology for mobile digital
transmission and is also effective to cope
with impulse noise degradation.
ISDB-T showed the best results in Brazils
comparison tests, and other countries such
as Chile, Peru, Philippine, etc.
56
4. Current services of ISDB-T in Japan
HDTV, SDTV multi-program,
EPG (Electric Program Guide)
Data broadcasting, Interactive
One-Seg (Handheld)
EWS (Emergency Warning System)
57 57
Powerful applications of ISDB-T
HDTV
High quality image on wide
screen and CD quality sound.
Multi-channel program
Standard quality
multi-channel service
Local news and weather forecast
for viewers at any time.
Data broadcasting
Interactive service
Offers Interactive service
One-Seg service
Anytime, anywhere,
TV service
Stable reception service
Mobile reception
58
HDTV
High Definition Television Program
The high quality images on a 169 wide screen and
CD-quality sound make you feel as if you were at the
theater.
European broadcasters have opted for multi-
channel strategy, but Japanese broadcasters have
chosen to take advantages of high definition
pictures.
HDTV is a killer application.
59
Multi channel program (SDTV)
ISDB-T can transmit multiple SDTV
programs simultaneously in one
TV channel.
SD-1 SD-2 SD-8 -----
63
EPG
EPG (Electronic Program Guide)
An Electronic Program Guide (EPG) is
an interactive schedule of current and
upcoming programs that a viewer can
display on-screen simply by pressing a
button on a remote control unit.
64
One-Seg service for handheld receiver
Example parameter
Transmission Mode 3
Guard Interval 1/8
Modulation QPSK
Code Ratio 2/3
Bit Rate 416 Kbps
Display Image
Data service
On-air program
Video (H.264)
180-256kbps
Audio (AAC-SBR)
32-64kbps
Data-cast (BML)
20-80kbps
65
Emergency Warning System
Schematic diagram for disaster prevention service
Text
Possibility of a flood in
the xxx river has
increased.
Residents in the
surrounding areas
should evacuate. Areas
affected are as follows.
Image
Emergency
evacuation
areas
Test Server
TV station
Evacuation
recommenda
tion order
Transmission without congestion
On-air waves
Start signal
+
Screen
BML automatic converter
Master room
EMG-button
S
c
r
e
e
n

d
i
s
p
l
a
y
T
u
n
e
r

p
o
w
e
r

O
N
Mobile base station
Application to Disaster Prevention
70
5. ISDB-T Receivers on the Market
TV set (PDP, LCD, CRT)
(fixed reception home receiver)
STB (Set Top Box)
HDD/DVD recorder with digital tuner
One-Seg receiver (Cellular phone)
HDTV mobile receiver for car TV
Portable player
71
Wide variety of ISDB-T receivers
TV set
STB
HDD/DVD
recorder
Cell phone
PC
Car TV
Laptop
/ handheld PC
Handheld
TV
72
ISDB-T receivers for fixed reception
Panasonic
SONY
Toshiba
Hitachi
SANYO
Pioneer
Sharp
Mitsubishi NANAO
EPSON
Victor
73
Types of fixed reception digital receivers (HDTV)
(Plasma Display type)
(LCD type)
(CRT type)
(Rear Projection type)
74
PCs with ISDB-T tuner (HDTV)
75
Set Top Box (DTTB Tuners)
SHARP TU-HD200
SONY DST-TX1 PANASONIC TU-MHD500
76
SHARP
TOSHIBA
Panasonic
SANYO
HITACHI
SONY
Pioneer
Victor
HDD/DVD recorders with DTTB tuner
77
Cellular Phones for One-Seg
78
PCs with ISDB-T tuner (One-Seg)
Tune
r
79
USB type ISDB-T Tuners for One-Seg
80
Portable DVD Players
with ISDB-T tuner (One-Seg)
81
Other Portable One-Seg devices
Portable Audio Player
Portable Navigator
Portable Electronic Dictionary
Portable TV
82
Mobile receivers for car TV system
(HDTV / One-Seg)
Pioneer GEX-P7DTV
Alpine TUE-T300 Fujitsu Ten DTV105
Panasonic TU-DTV100, TU-DTV20
Mitsubishi TU-100D
SANYO NVP-DTA10
83
6. Summary
84 84
Summary
ISDB-T is the most robust transmission system
Adopting OFDM and time-interleaving
Brazil, Chile, Peru, Philippine, etc. confirmed
ISDB-T performance is the best.
HDTV (or SDTV multi-channel) and One-Seg
(handheld TV service) can be transmitted
simultaneously in a channel
ISDB-T enables both digital TV service for fixed and
mobile (handheld) by just one transmission facility
HDTV and mobile TV (One-Seg) using ISDB-T is
successfully progressing in Japan.
85
Muchas Gracias!
Thank You for Your Attention!