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The Date of the Exodus: part twomore


by Jonathan Bure
!"#
Down$oad %&pdf'
The(Date(of(the(Exodus(part(two&pdf
)*+ ,B

!
Jonathan Bure %-#!*'The Date of the Exodus
This arti.$e is the se.ond of two in a .onsideration of the date of the Exodus&
Typi.a$$y/ on$y twodates are .onsidered 0iab$e1 .&
!22# B3E %the 4ear$y date5'/ and
.&
!-6# B3E %the 4$ate date5'&
7rgumentsfor these dates are re0iewed and .ompared here&
Summary of ,ey 7rguments
The fo$$owing tab$es summari8e the ey arguments for the ear$y date/
together with .riti.isms&
7rguments 9or an Ear$y Date Exodus %.& !22# B3E'7rgument 3riti.ism
The 26# years of ! ,ings!:) indi.ates an ear$y date


This is on$y a re$ati0e .hrono$ogy/ and the number does not agree with
theyears re.orded in the Judges
!

-


The number may be symbo$i. for !- generations
*


This disagrees with the date for 7braham
2
Some destru.tion $ayersin 3anaan support anear$y date
:


Destru.tion and o..upation $ayers pro0ide more support for a $ate date
)


;o e0iden.e for Edom and <oab existing at an ear$y date
"

!
The years of the =udges/ if added se>uentia$$y/ resu$t in )**?):# years
between the exodus and the reign of So$omon/ .ompe$$ing supporters of the
ear$y date to read the years in Judges $ess $itera$$y/ in order to read the
years in ! ,ings ):! more $itera$$y1 4To get around the di$emma
.aused by the di@eren.e between 26# and )**?):#years/ ad0o.ates of the
!:th?.entury %and the $ater date' exodus date are for.ed to harmoni8e the
.onAi.ting data
by proposing some o0er$ap between =udgeships to bring the 26#?year Bgure
into a$ignment with the )**
C
):#year tota$
&!- By doing this/ one abandons a straightforward/ $itera$ reading of the
Judges through Exodus
narrati0es&5/ Ho@meier/ 4Dhat is the Bib$i.a$ Date 9or the ExodusE 7 Fesponse
to Bryant Dood5/
Journa$ of theE0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ :#G- %-##"'/ --6&
-

4Dhen one sees to re.onstru.t the numbers gi0en in the bib$i.a$ a..ounts/
.onsistent$y and $itera$$y/
they do notadd up to the number 26# gi0en in ! ,gs ):!
&5/ Hawins/ 4Hropositions 9or E0ange$i.a$ 7..eptan.e If 7 Late
?DateExodus?
3on>uest: Bib$i.a$ Data 7nd The Foya$ S.arabs 9rom <t& Eba$5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ :#G! %-##"'/ *:&
*

4It has $ong been thought that the 26#
?year Bgure of ! ,gs ):!
might be a symbo$i. Bgure that deri0es from !-times 2#?2# years being a
symbo$i. number for a generation
J
thus signifying that !- generations had e$apsed
between the exodus and So$omon5s 2th year& Sin.e men were usua$$y married
and had .hi$dren by age -#C
-:/ )# aperiod .$oser to *## years wou$d be more a..urate& Dhen one adds
*## to +)" B3/
an Exodus date around !-)"B3
%-# years into the reign of Famesses II'
resu$ts
&5/
ibid&/ p& -*)&
2

47 !:th
?.entury B&3& date presents prob$ems for the .hrono$ogy of 7bram&
7r.haeo$ogi.a$ e0iden.e re$ating to theo0erthro
w of Sodom and Komorrah seems to date 7bram5s arri0a$ in 3anaan around
!+## B&3& The Kenesisnarrati0es p$a.e Ja.ob5s migration to Egypt about -!:
years $ater& In the basis of the 2*# years of Exodus !-:2# it
wou$d seem that 7bram .ame to 3anaan about -#6) B&3&/ some )2: years
before the exodus&
That wou$d date his
birth %.f& !-:2' about -!)! B&3& If the Sodom and Komorrah e0iden.e is
.orre.t/ 7bram5s arri0a$ in 3anaan wou$d
harmoni8e with a !*th?.entury B&3& date
&5/ Harrison/ 4Exodus/ The5/ in E$we$$ L Bei
t8e$/
Baer En.y.$opedia of theBib$e
%!+66'/ "2*?"22&
:

4
7..ording to Dood/ some ar.haeo$ogi.a$ Bndings
J
su.h as destru.tion $ayers from Jeri.ho/ 7i and Ha8or
J
support a !:th?.entury exodus

%Dood/ MThe Fise and 9a$$ of the !*th
?3entury Exodus?
3on>uest Theory/N 266C
6+1

-
Jonathan Bure %-#!*'7rguments 9or an Ear$y Date Exodus %.& !22#
B3E'7rgument 3riti.ism
Feferen.e to the Habiruin the !2
th
.entury7rmana $etters
6


Extensi0e study has re0ea$ed no dire.t .orresponden.e between the
Habiruand the Hebrews/ thus the 7rmana $etters do not support the ear$y
date
+

!#


7rmarna .orresponden.e .ontradi.ts ear$y date destru.tion of Ha8or
!!
;o e0iden.e for !*
th
.entury o..upation ordestru.tion of Jeri.ho/ 7i/or Ha8or
!-


Ha8or was o..upied and destroyed in the !*
th
.entury/
!*
re$iab$e ex.a0ationof !*
th
.entury Jeri.ho is .ha$$enged by extensi0e erosion/
!2
and thear.haeo$ogi.a$ data for 7i is diO.u$t to re.on.i$e with both ear$y and
$atedates1
!:
these are insigniB.ant ar.haeo$ogi.a$ .ha$$enges for the $ate date
Dood/ M9rom Famesses to Shi$oh/N -:)C6-'&5/ Thornhi$$/ 4Exodus5/ in Barry L
Dent8 %eds&'/
The Lexham Bib$eDi.tionary
%-#!-'&
)

4The destru.tion and o..upation $ayers of
many .on>uest .ities
%e&g&/ La.hish/ Debir/ Ha8or/ Bethe$/ et.&'
fa0or the!*th?.entury dating
&5/ ibid&

"

4Ex.a0ation Bndings seem to indi.ate that
Edom and <oab
%.ompare Exod !*:!:1 ;um -#:!2
C
-!'
were not yetestab$ished peop$es during the mid?!2th .entury
&5/
ibid&
6

4Dood a$so .ites the mention of the 4 %4'apiru in the 3anaanite 7marna $etters
of the mid
?!2th .entury/ as we$$ asan ins.ription dating to the !6th Dynasty& This
ins.ription appears to mention 7she$on/ 3anaan/ and Israe$ %Dood/
MThe Fise and 9a$
$ of the !*th?3entury Exodus?
3on>uest Theory/N 26+'&5/ Thornhi$$/ 4Exodus5/ in Barry L Dent8
%eds&'/
The Lexham Bib$e Di.tionary
%-#!-'&
+

4The re$ationship between the MHabiruN of the 7marna $etters/ the M7piruN in
!*th
?.entury B&3& Egypt/ and thebib$i.a$ Hebrews has been examined minute$y by
s.ho$ars&
Dide$y di@ering opinions ha0e been o@ered
& Somebe$ie0e that the three are 0ariations of the name of one peop$e& To
others/ howe0er
/ it seems far from .$ear thatthere was any signiB.ant re$ationship between
the names
& Su.h disagreement a$so tends to intensify the
prob$em&5/ Harrison/ 4Exodus/ The5/ in E$we$$ L Beit8e$/
Baer En.y.$opedia of the Bib$e
%!+66'/ "22&
!#

4The Papiru %sometimes Q
apiru or
Q
abiru' are .onsidered to be war$ords/ brigands and disenfran.hised peop$es
onthe outsirts of so.iety&
Fainey has demonstrated that the term .annot be etymo$ogi.a$$y re$ated to
MHebrew/N

and the range of use of the term maes it .$ear that the Papiru
.annot be e>uated with Israe$ites
& ;e0erthe$ess/some wou$d .ontend that it does not entire$y ru$e out the
possibi$ity that Israe$ites/ a$ong with other peop$es/
.ou$d ha0e been designated by the term
&5/ Da$ton/ 4Exodus/ Date of5/ in 7$exander L Baer/
Di.tionary of the I$d Testament: Hentateu.h
%-##*'/ -)*&
!!

4
7..ording to the Dood/ the marauding Habiru of the 7marna Letters .ou$d be
the Hebrews
&!!* 7bi?<i$u/howe0er/ maes .$ear that
Ha8or was an a$$y of the Habiru rather than being the destroyers of Ha8or
& Thisinformation from the 7marna .orresponden.es demonstrates that
Ha8or during the LB II7 was a ma=or p$ayer inthe region
and does not sound $ie a .ity that had
=ust been demo$ished and burnt by Joshua and his for.es
&5/Ho@meier/ 4Dhat is the Bib$i.a$ Date

9or the ExodusE 7 Fesponse to Bryant Dood5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ :#G- %-##"'/ -2:&
!-

4In$y three .ities are re.orded as ha0ing been destroyed by Bre by the
Israe$ites: Jeri.ho %Josh ):-2'1 7i %Josh
6:-6'1 and Ha8or %Josh !!:!!'&!2
7$$ three pose prob$ems for a $ate !*th?.entury .on>uest& 7t Jeri.ho and 7i/
noe0iden.e has been found for o..upation in the $ate !*th .entury/ $et a$one
for a destru.tion at that time
&5/
Dood/
4The Fise and 9a$$ of the !*
th
?3entury Exodus?
3on>uest Theory5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ 26G*%-##:'/ 2""&
!*

4In 3anaan/
the drasti. destru.tion of Ha8or %$e0e$ !*' in the $ater !*th .entury B&3&
%despite mis.on.eptions to
the .ontrary' may we$$ reAe.t Joshua5s exp$oit&5/ ,it.hen/ 4Exodus/ The/5/ in
9reedman %ed&'
/
7n.hor Ra$e Bib$eDi.tionary
%!++-'/ "#-&


*
Jonathan Bure %-#!*'
The fo$$owing tab$es summari8e the ey arguments for the $ate date/ together
with .riti.isms&
7rguments 9or a Late Date Exodus %.& !-6# B3E'7rgument 3riti.ism
Destru.tion of Ha8or in!*
th
.entury
!)


The ar.haeo$ogi.a$ e0iden.e may indi.ate the destru.tion in Judges 2:-2
!"
Hithom and Fameses inExodus !:!! are e0iden.efor e0ents under
HharaohFameses II %!-"+?!-!*B3E'
!6

!+


This re>uires Fameses to be bui$t before Fameses II e0en began to ru$e
-#


Un$ie the pharaoh of the Exodus/ Fameses II did not die in the Fed Sea
-!


The sites were bui$t ear$ier1 one was $ater renamed
4Fameses5
/ and an editorof the boo of Exodus updated the text with this name
--

3o0enant formu$as in theLaw of <oses .$ose$ymat.h those from !2##?!-##
B3E
-*


There is an insuO.ient mat.h to date the Bib$i.a$ .o0enants pre.ise$y
-2

!2

4at Jeri.ho/ near$y ha$f a mi$$ennium of erosion
has $ong sin.e remo0ed 0irtua$$y a$$ pertinent e0iden.e
&5/ ibid&/ p&
"#-&
!:

47i remains an enigma on any 0iew15/
ibid&/ p& "#-&
!)

4In 3anaan/
the drasti. destru.tion of Ha8or %$e0e$ !*' in the $ater !*th .entury B&3&
%despite mis.on.eptions to
the .ontrary' may we$$ reAe.t Joshua5s exp$oit&5/ ,it.hen/ 4Exodus/ The/5/ in
9reedman %ed&'
/
7n.hor Ra$e Bib$eDi.tionary
%!++-'/ "#-&
!"

4
9o$$owing the !-*# b. destru.tion/ there was no urban .enter there unti$ the
time of So$omon in the !#th.entury b.
%! ,gs +:!:'&!) The defeat of Jabin/ ing of Ha8or/ by a .oa$ition of Hebrew
tribes under the $eadershipof Deborah and Bara is re.orded in Judges 2
C
:&
Judges 2:-2 indi.ates that the Israe$ites destroyed Ha8or at thistime: S7nd the
hand of the Israe$ites grew stronger and stronger against Jabin/ the 3anaanite
ing/ unti$ theydest
royed him&S!" If Joshua destroyed Ha8or in !-*# b./
then there wou$d be no .ity for the Jabin of Judges 2 toru$e
&
5/ Dood/ 4The Fise and 9a$$ of the !*
th
?3entury Exodus?
3on>uest Theory5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ 26G* %-##:'/ 2""&
!6

4Egypto$ogists ha0e $ong understood the referen.e to Fameses
to refer to Hi?Famesses/ the de$ta metropo$isbui$t by Famesses II/ the !+th
Dynasty monar.h who reigned from !-"+
C
!-!* B3
&5/ Ho@meier/ 4Dhat is the
Bib$i.a$ Date 9or
the ExodusE 7 Fesponse to Bryant Dood5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ :#G-%-##"'/ -*!&
!+

4The ar.haeo$ogi.a$ data is now une>ui0o.a$: Hi
?Famesses is $o.ated at modern?day Tantir/ near 9a>us/
and wasbui$t by Famesses II beginning around !-"# B3
15/ ibid&/ pp& -*-
?-**&
-#

4Sin.e <oses was 6# years of age at the time of the exodus %Exod ":"'/ the
bui$ding of Fameses wou$d ha0e taen
p$a.e we$$ before <osesU birth in !*2# b. %a..ording to the !*th?.entury
theory'/
$ong before Fameses .ame tothe throne
&5/ Dood/ 4The Fise and 9a$$ of the !*
th
?3entury Exodus?
3on>uest Theory5/
Journa$ of the E0ange$i.a$ Theo$ogi.a$ So.iety
/ 26G* %-##:'/ 2"6&
-!

4Ib0ious$y/ Fameses II did not drown in the
yam sup
/ V.ommon$y trans$ated 4Fed Sea5W a
s he died of natura$.auses some 2" years after the presumed exodus date of
!-)# b.
&5/
ibid&/ p& 2"6&
--

4It is .$ear/ then/ that the name Fameses used in Exod !:!!
is an editoria$ updating of an ear$ier name that wentout of use
&5/ ibid&/ p& 2"6&

-*

4S.ho$ars ha0e understood for some time/ sin.e the wor of <endenha$$/
,$ine/ and ,it.hen/ that the boo of
Deuteronomy
has the $iterary and $ega$ form that .hara.teri8ed $ate se.ond mi$$ennium B3
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