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Primary contact: AbuAdas, Hisham on phone 8746908
Best Practice
SABPQ004 6 November 2007
Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee
Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Developed by: Hisham AbuAdas
Civil Engineering Unit/M&CED
Consulting Services Department
37'  0"
22'  0"
6
'

6
"
8
'

0
"
4
'

0
"
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 September 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 2 of 55
Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Table of Contents
Page
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3
1.1 PURPOSE ........................................................................................................ 3
1.2 SCOPE ............................................................................................................. 3
1.3 DISCLAIMER.................................................................................................... 3
1.4 CONFLICTS WITH MANDATORY STANDARDS............................................ 3
2 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 4
2.1 SAUDI ARAMCO REFERENCES .................................................................... 4
2.2 INDUSTRY CODES AND STANDARDS.......................................................... 4
3 GENERAL......................................................................................................................... 5
4 DESIGN PROCEDURE .................................................................................................... 6
4.1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS........................................................................... 6
4.2 VERTICAL LOADS........................................................................................... 6
4.3 HORIZONTAL LOADS ..................................................................................... 8
4.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS ................................................................................. 11
4.5 ANCHOR BOLTS ........................................................................................... 13
4.6 SLIDE PLATES............................................................................................... 14
4.7 PIER DESIGN................................................................................................. 15
4.8 COLUMN DESIGN ......................................................................................... 17
4.9 FOOTING DESIGN......................................................................................... 17
4.10 REINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTING DESIGN........................................... 22
APPENDIX: Tables, Figures, and Examples
TABLE 1  THERMAL EXPANSION DATA.............................................................................. 28
TABLE 2  BASIC DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF STANDARD 90 HOOKS IN TENSION.... 30
FIGURE A  APPROXIMATE EXCHANGER WEIGHTS ......................................................... 31
FIGURE B  APPROXIMATE TUBE BUNDLE WEIGHTS....................................................... 32
FIGURE C  SOIL PRESSURE FOR BIAXIALLY LOADED FOOTINGS ................................ 33
EXAMPLE 1  HEAT EXCHANGER FOUNDATION................................................................ 34
EXAMPLE 2  HORIZONTAL VESSEL FOUNDATION........................................................... 53
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
This Practice establishes guidelines and recommended procedures for the
analysis and design of heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundations for use
by Saudi Aramco engineers and engineers working on Saudi Aramco projects.
It shall be used where applicable unless otherwise specified.
1.2 Scope
This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the analysis and design
of heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundations in process industry
facilities at Saudi Aramco sites. In the ensuing sections, pertinent references are
given, and design loadings and general design consideration are presented and
discussed. This Practice addresses isolated foundations supported directly on
soil. Pile supported footings are not included in this practice. Process Industry
Practice PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel Foundation
Design Guide forms the basis for the development of this design guide.
1.3 Disclaimer
The material in this Best Practices document provides the most correct and
accurate design guidelines available to Saudi Aramco which complies with
international industry practices. This material is being provided for the general
guidance and benefit of the Designer. Use of the Best Practices in designing
projects for Saudi Aramco, however, does not relieve the Designer from his
responsibility to verify the accuracy of any information presented or from his
contractual liability to provide safe and sound designs that conform to
Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirements. Use of the information or
material contained herein is no guarantee that the resulting product will satisfy
the applicable requirements of any project. Saudi Aramco assumes no
responsibility or liability whatsoever for any reliance on the information
presented herein or for designs prepared by Designers in accordance with the
Best Practices. Use of the Best Practices by Designers is intended solely for,
and shall be strictly limited to, Saudi Aramco projects. Saudi Aramco is a
registered trademark of the Saudi Arabian Oil Company. Copyright, Saudi
Aramco, 2002.
1.4 Conflicts with Mandatory Standards
In the event of a conflict between this Best Practice and other Mandatory Saudi
Aramco Engineering Requirement, the Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering
Requirement shall govern.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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2 References
This Best Practice is based on the latest edition of the references below, unless
otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate.
2.1 Saudi Aramco References
Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAES)
SAESA112 Meteorological and Seismic Design Data
SAESA113 Geotechnical Engineering Requirements
SAESA114 Excavation and Backfill
SAESA204 Preparation of Structural Calculations
SAESM001 Structural Design Criteria for NonBuilding
Structures
SAESQ001 Criteria for Design and Construction of Concrete
Structures
SAESQ005 Concrete Foundations
Saudi Aramco Best Practices
SABPQ001 Anchor Bolt Design and Installation
SABPQ002 Spread Footings Design
SABPQ006 Wind Loads on Pressure Vessels
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
ACI 31802 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
ASCE 702 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other
Structures
Wind Load and Anchor Bolt Design for Buildings and Other Structures
Process Industry Practices (PIP)
PIP STE03360 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal Vessel
Foundation Design Guide
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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3 General
3.1 The design and specifications for construction of heat exchanger and horizontal
vessel foundation shall be adequate for the structure intended use, in accordance
with commonly accepted engineering practice, Saudi Aramco Engineering
Standard SAESQ005 and this guideline.
3.2 A geotechnical investigation is required for all new structures and foundations
as described in SAESA113. (Ref. SAESQ005, Para. 4.1.1)
3.3 The allowable soil bearing pressure shall be based on the results of the
geotechnical investigation, and a consideration of permissible total and
differential settlements. Soil pressures shall be calculated under the action of
vertical and lateral loads using load combinations that result in the maximum
soil pressures. The maximum soil pressure shall not exceed the applicable
allowable value. (Ref. SAESQ005, Para. 4.1.2)
3.4 Foundations shall be founded on either undisturbed soil or compact fill and at
least 600 mm below the existing or finished grade surface, unless a detailed soils
investigation indicated otherwise. In the case of foundations supported on
compacted fill, the geotechnical investigation and/or SAESA114 shall govern
the type of fill material and degree of compaction required. (Ref. SAESQ005,
Para. 4.1.3)
3.5 The minimum overturning stability ratio for service load combinations
including wind loads shall be 1.5. (Ref. SAESQ005, para. 4.2.1)
3.6 The minimum factor of safety against sliding for service loads other than
earthquake shall be 1.5. (Ref. SAESQ005, para. 4.2.6)
3.7 The minimum factor of safety against buoyancy shall be 1.2 using actual
unfactored service loads. (Ref. SAESQ005, para. 4.2.7)
3.8 The design and construction of all concrete foundations shall comply with the
requirements of SAESQ001, SAESQ005 and ACI318. (Ref. SAESQ005,
para. 4.3.1)
3.9 The design concrete compressive strength of concrete shall be 27.6 MPa
(4000 psi) at 28 days. (Ref. SAESQ005, Para. 4.3.2.b)
3.10 Reinforcing steel bars shall be hotrolled, high tensile 422 Mpa (60.0 ksi),
deformed steel per ACI 318M. (Ref. SAESQ001, Para. 5.2)
3.11 The structural calculations shall be prepared in accordance with the
requirements of SAESA204.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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4 Design Procedure
4.1 Design Considerations
4.1.1 Heat exchanger and horizontal vessel wind and seismic loads shall be in
accordance with Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAESA112.
4.1.2 Heat exchanger and horizontal vessel foundation design shall be based
on final approved certified vendor drawing.
4.1.3 For general foundation requirements and guidelines, refer to Saudi
Aramco Best Practice SABPQ002 Spread Footings Design.
4.1.4 The engineer shall verify anchor bolts design, type and size to ensure
compliance with ACI 31802 Code Appendix D, Saudi Aramco Standard
Drawing AB036322 and with the Vendor specific requirements.
4.2 Vertical Loads
4.2.1 Dead Loads
4.2.1.1 The following nominal loads shall be considered as dead loads
when applying load factors used in strength design.
a. Structure dead load (D
s
) Vessels foundation weight
which is defined as combined weight of footing, pedestal
dead load (D
p
), and the overburden soil.
b. Erection dead load (D
f
)  Fabricated weight of the
exchanger or vessel, generally taken from Vendor
certified exchanger or vessel drawings.
c. Empty dead load (D
e
)  Empty weight of the exchanger or
vessel including all attachments, trays, internals, bundle,
insulation, fireproofing, agitators, piping, ladders,
platforms, etc. The eccentric load defined in paragraph
4.2.1.2 shall also be added to the empty dead load weight.
d. Operating dead load (D
o
)  Empty dead load of the
exchanger or vessel plus the maximum weight of contents
(including packing/catalyst) during normal operation.
The eccentric load defined in paragraph 4.2.1.2 shall also
be added to the operating dead load weight.
e. Test dead load (D
t
)  (horizontal vessels only) Empty
dead load of the vessel plus the weight of test medium
contained in the system. The test medium should be as
specified in the contract documents. Unless otherwise
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specified, a minimum specific gravity of 1.0 should be
used for test medium. Cleaning load shall be used for test
dead load if cleaning fluid is heavier than test medium.
Whether test or cleaning will actually be done in the field
shall be determined. It is generally desirable to design for
test dead load because unforeseen circumstances may
occur. Test load shall be taken from certified Vendor
drawings. The eccentric load defined in paragraph 4.2.1.2
shall also be added to the test dead load weight.
4.2.1.2 Eccentric load  Unless more exact information about piping
supported on the exchanger or horizontal vessel is available,
the following guidelines shall be used:
a. A load of an additional 20% of the applicable weight
(empty or operating) for exchangers with diameters less
than 24 inches.
b. A load of an additional 10% of the applicable weight
(empty or operating) for exchangers with diameters equal
to or greater than 24 inches.
c. A load of an additional 10% of the applicable weight
(empty, operating, or test) for horizontal vessels.
d. This additional load shall be applied at a perpendicular
horizontal distance of D/2 plus 18 inches from the
longitudinal centerline of the vessel, where D is the
basic diameter (basic diameter = vessel I.D. + 2 times the
wall thickness + 2 times the insulation thickness). This
additional eccentric load (vertical load and moment
caused by eccentricity) shall be distributed to each
pedestal in proportion to the distribution of operating load
to each pedestal. For stacked exchangers, the weight of
only the largest exchanger shall be used to estimate the
eccentric load.
Comment: These eccentric loads are only guidelines and shall
be checked against actual conditions when they
become available.
4.2.1.3 Load distribution (exchangers)  For most common shell and
tube heat exchangers, vertical dead loads should normally be
distributed with 60% to the channel end support and 40% to
the shell end support. However, the actual exchanger shape
and support configuration should be reviewed when
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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determining weight distribution because in many cases load
distribution may vary.
4.2.2 Live Loads (L)
4.2.2.1 Live loads should be calculated in accordance with
SAESM001.
4.2.2.2 Load combinations that include live load in Table 5 and Table
6 of Section 4.4 do not normally control any portion of the
foundation design.
4.3 Horizontal Loads
4.3.1 Wind Loading (W)
4.3.1.1 Wind loads shall be calculated in accordance with the
requirements of SAESA112, SAESM001 Structural
Design Criteria for NonBuilding Structures, and Saudi
Aramco Best Practice SABPQ006 Wind Loads on Pressure
Vessels.
4.3.1.2 The engineer is responsible for determining wind loads used
for foundation design. Wind loads from vendor or other
engineering disciplines shall not be accepted without
verification.
4.3.1.3 Partial wind load (Wp) shall be based on the requirements of
ASCE 3702, Section 6.2.1, for specified test or erection
duration. The design wind speed shall be 75% of the actual
wind speed.
4.3.1.4 Transverse Wind  The wind pressure on the projected area of
the side of the vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at
the center of the exchanger or vessel. Including the wind
loading on projections such as piping, manways, insulation,
and platforms during the wind analysis is important. The
saddletopier connection should be considered fixed for
transverse loads. The saddle design is a function of either the
vessel supplier or the Designers Mechanical/Vessel Group.
4.3.1.5 Longitudinal Wind  The wind pressure on the end of the
exchanger or vessel should be applied as a horizontal shear at
the center of the exchanger or vessel. The flat surface wind
pressure on the exposed area of both piers or both columns
should also be included, applied as a horizontal shear at the
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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centroid of the exposed area. The saddletopier connection
will be considered pinned for longitudinal loads unless more
than one row of anchor bolts exists.
4.3.1.6 Shielding  No allowance shall be made for shielding from
wind by nearby equipment or structures except under unusual
conditions.
4.3.2 Earthquake Loads (E)
4.3.2.1 Seismic forces shall be calculated in accordance with
SAESA112 and the requirements of SAESM001 Structural
Design Criteria for NonBuilding Structures.
4.3.2.2 Seismic loads calculated by the Vessel Vendor shall be
independently verified as appropriate by the Engineer prior to
performing foundation design to ensure compliance with the
project specifications and the applicable Saudi Aramco
Standards.
4.3.2.3 For lowfriction slide plates ( 0.2), all the longitudinal
earthquake loads shall be applied at the fixed pier. For higher
friction slide plates ( > 0.2), 70% of the earthquake loads shall
be applied at the fixed pier. Transverse and vertical
earthquake loads shall be distributed in proportion to the
vertical load applied to both piers. The piers are normally
designed for the fixed end, and then the pier for the sliding end
is made identical, to avoid potential errors in construction and
to reduce engineering time. If this proves to be uneconomical,
the sliding end should be designed for 30% of the longitudinal
earthquake load if using lowfriction slide plates, and for 50%
of the longitudinal earthquake load if using higher friction slide
plates.
4.3.2.4 For the load combinations in Section 4.4, the following
designations are used:
E
O
= Earthquake load considering the unfactored operating
dead load and the applicable portion of the unfactored
structure dead load.
Ee = Earthquake load considering the unfactored empty dead
load and the applicable portion of the unfactored structure
dead load.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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4.3.3 Bundle Pull Load (Bp)  (Exchangers)
4.3.3.1 Foundations supporting heat exchangers subject to bundle
pulling shall be designed for a horizontal load equal 1.0 times
the weight of the removable tube bundle but not less than
2,000 lb (9.0 kN). If the total weight of the exchanger is less
than 2,000 lb (9.0 kN), the bundle pull load is permitted to be
taken as the total weight of the exchanger.
4.3.3.2 Bundle pull load shall be applied at the center of the bundle.
Comment: if it can be assured that the bundles will be removed
strictly by the use of a bundle extractor attaching directly
to the exchanger (such that the bundle pull force is not
transferred to the structure or foundation), the structure
or foundation need not be designed for the bundle pull
force. Such assurance would typically require the
addition of a sign posted on the exchanger to indicate
bundle remover by an extractor only.
4.3.3.3 The portion of the bundle pull load at the sliding end support
shall equal the friction force or half the total bundle load,
whichever is less. The remainder of the bundle pull load shall
be resisted at the anchor end support.
4.3.3.4 Consideration should be given to reducing the empty weight of
the exchanger owing to the removal of the exchanger head
(channel) to pull the bundle. The weight of the exchanger head
(channel) typically is within the range of 8% to 15% of the
empty weight of the exchanger.
4.3.4 Thermal Force
4.3.4.1 Calculate thermal growth using maximum design temperature.
Thermal coefficients can be found in Table 1. Thermal force is
defined as the force due to growth of the horizontal vessel or
exchanger between supports.
4.3.4.2 The thermal force used for design should be the smaller value
resulting from the following two calculations:
a. The force required to overcome static friction between the
exchanger or vessel support and the slide plate:
F
f
= (P
o
) (Eq. 1)
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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where,
F
f
= static friction force
= coefficient of friction, refer to the values given in
Section 4.6, Slide Plates
P
o
= nominal operating compression dead load on slide
plate
b. The force required to deflect the pier or column an
amount equal to half of the thermal growth between
exchanger or vessel saddles:
3
H 2
I E 3
= T (Eq. 2)
where,
T = force from thermal expansion required to deflect
pier or column
= total deflection between exchanger/vessel saddles
= L
= thermal expansion coefficient in accordance with
Table 1
L = length of exchanger/vessel between saddles
E = modulus of elasticity of concrete pier
I = pier moment of inertia
H = pier height
The thermal force should be applied at the top of the piers.
4.3.5 Load Distribution
The horizontal loads shall be divided equally between piers unless
otherwise required by Section 4.3 of this Design Guide.
4.4 Load Combinations
4.4.1 Heat exchangers and horizontal vessel foundations shall be designed
using load combinations in accordance with Tables 5 and 6 of Section
6.2.3 of SAESM001 (as listed in Tables 5 and 6 of this Design Guide).
4.4.2 Foundations for fin exchangers (double pipe exchangers) should not be
designed to resist thermal or bundle pull forces.
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4.4.3 Piping thermal loads shall be included in combinations when deemed
advisable and shall be considered as dead loads when applying load
factors.
4.4.4 The loads used for footing design shall be service loads reactions
obtained from certified vendor drawings. In computing footing soil
pressure, the service load reactions are used. The weight of the footing
and soil overburden shall be combined with the service loads. The effect
of buoyancy shall be considered in footing design when applicable.
4.4.5 Service load combinations shall be used to check soil bearing pressures
and foundation stability against overturning and sliding. In computing
moments and shears for footing slab design, the service loads are
factored. In designing the pedestal, load factors are applied to the
service loads reactions and the pedestal is designed in accordance with
Section 4.7.
Table 5 Allowable Stress Design (Service Loads)
Load
Comb. #
Load Combination
Allowable
Stress
Multiplier
Description
1 D
s
+ D
o
+ (T or F
f
)
b
1.00
Operating Weight + Thermal Expansion or
Friction Force
2 D
s
+ D
o
+ L + (T or F
f
)
b
1.00
Operating Weight + Live Load + Thermal
Expansion or Friction Force
3 D
s
+ D
o
+ (W or 0.7 E
o
) 1.00 Operating Weight + Wind or Earthquake
4 D
s
+ D
e
+ W 1.00
Empty Weight + Wind
(Wind uplift case)
5a 0.9 (D
s
+ D
o
)+ 0.7 E
o
1.00
Operating Weight + Earthquake
(Earthquake uplift case)
5b 0.9 (D
s
+ D
e
)+ 0.7 E
e
1.00
Empty Weight + Earthquake
(Earthquake uplift case)
6 D
s
+ D
f
+ W
p
1.00
Erection Weight + Partial Wind
(Wind uplift case)
7 D
s
+ D
t
+ W
p
1.20
Test Weight + Partial Wind
(for Horiz. Vessels Only)
8 D
s
+ D
e
C
+ B
p
1.00
Empty + Bundle Pull
(For Heat Exchangers Only)
Notes:
a. Wind and earthquake forces shall be applied in the both transverse and longitudinal directions,
but need not be applied simultaneously.
b. The design thermal force for horizontal vessels and heat exchangers shall be the lesser of T or Ff.
c. Heat exchanger empty dead load will be reduced during bundle pull due to the removal of the
exchange head.
d. Sustained thermal loads not relieved by sliding due to vessel or exchanger expansion should be
considered in operating load combinations with wind or earthquake.
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e. Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping should be included in the calculations for
operating load combinations, if deemed advisable. The pipe stress engineer should be consulted
for any thermal loads that are to be considered.
Table 6 Loading Combinations and Load Factors  Strength Design
Load Comb. # Load Combination Description
1 1.4(D
s
+ D
o
) + 1.4 (T or F
f
)
b
Operating Weight + Thermal Expansion or Friction
Force
2 1.2(D
s
+ D
o
) + 1.6 L + 1.2 (T or F
f
)
b
Operating Weight + Live Load + Thermal Expansion or
Friction Force
3 1.2(D
s
+ D
o
) + (1.6 W or 1.0 E
o
) Operating Weight + Wind or Earthquake
4 0.9(D
s
+ D
e
) + 1.6 W Empty Weight + Wind (Wind uplift case)
5a 0.9(D
s
+ D
o
) + 1.0 E
o
Operating Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case)
5b 0.9(D
s
+ D
e
) + 1.0 E
e
Empty Weight + Earthquake (Earthquake uplift case)
6 0.9(D
s
+ D
f
) + 1.6 W
p
Erection Weight + Partial Wind
(Wind uplift case)
7 1.4 (D
s
+ D
t
)
Test Weight
(For Horizontal Vessels Only)
8 1.2 (D
s
+ D
t
) + 1.6 W
p
Test Weight + Partial Wind
(For Horizontal Vessels Only)
9 1.2 (D
s
+ D
e
c
) + 1.6 Bp Empty Weight + Bundle Pull (For Heat Exchangers Only)
10 0.9 (D
s
+ D
e
c
) + 1.6 Bp
Empty Weight + Bundle Pull (For Heat Exchangers Only)
(Bundle pull uplift case)
Notes:
a. Wind and earthquake forces shall be applied in the both transverse and longitudinal directions,
but need not be applied simultaneously.
b. The design thermal force for horizontal vessels and heat exchangers shall be the lesser of T or Ff.
c. Heat exchanger empty dead load will be reduced during bundle pull due to the removal of the
exchange head.
d. Sustained thermal loads not relieved by sliding due to vessel or exchanger expansion should be
considered in operating load combinations with wind or earthquake.
e. Thrust forces caused by thermal expansion of piping should be included in the calculations for
operating load combinations, if deemed advisable. The pipe stress engineer should be consulted for
any thermal loads that are to be considered.
4.5 Anchor Bolts
4.5.1 Anchor bolts shall conform to requirements of Para. 4.8 of SAESQ005
Concrete Foundations and SABPQ001.
4.5.2 Friction force at the bottom of the saddle shall be overcome before
lateral load is assumed to produce shear in the anchor bolts.
4.5.3 For earthquake loads, horizontal shear forces shall be applied to the
anchor bolts, assuming no friction resistance.
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4.5.4 Anchor bolts shall be designed based on final approved vendor certified
drawings.
4.6 Slide Plates
4.6.1 A steel slide plate or lowfriction slide plate assembly should typically
be provided at the sliding end of every exchanger or vessel regardless of
the flexibility inherent in the structural support. Small, lightly loaded
exchangers or vessels may not require slide plates.
4.6.2 Lowfriction manufactured slide plate assemblies should be used to
reduce highfrictional resistance, especially for heavy exchangers or for
exchangers with significant thermal growth.
4.6.2.1 For exchangers with bundle pull, steel slide plates instead of
lowfriction slide plate assemblies may be more cost efficient.
4.6.2.2 Typically, a lowfriction slide plate assembly consists of
multiple individual slide plate components spaced out along the
length of the saddle. Each slide plate component consists of an
upper element and a lower element, and the sliding surface is at
the interface of the upper and lower elements. The elements
should be fabricated with a carbon steel backer plate attached
to the elements to facilitate welding of the upper elements to
the saddles and the lower elements to the steel bearing plate.
4.6.3 Typical coefficients of friction are as follows. For lowfriction slide
plate assemblies, manufacturers literature should be consulted because
coefficients of friction vary with slide plate material, temperature, and
pressure.
a. No slide plate (steel support on concrete) 0.60
b. Steel slide plate 0.40
c. Lowfriction slide plate assemblies 0.05 to 0.20
4.6.4 Suggested criteria for sizing lowfriction slide plate elements are as
follows. Manufacturers literature should be consulted for temperature
restrictions, pressure limitations, and other requirements that may affect
the size and types of materials used for the slide plate elements.
Element widths (where = total thermal growth between exchanger or
vessel saddles):
a. Upper element = saddle width + 1inch minimum to allow for down
hand welding on the elementtosaddle weld (larger upper element
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width may be required for exchangers or vessels with large
values).
b. Lower element = upper element width  2 ()  1 inch (minimum of 1
inch narrower than upper element)
Element lengths (use 18inch maximum clear distance between lower
elements):
a. Lower element = based on allowable contact pressure in accordance
with the manufacturers literature and lower element width
b. Upper element = lower element length + 1 inch
Plates should be aligned with saddle stiffeners where practical.
A continuous steel bearing plate should be provided under the lower
elements so that lower elements can be welded to the bearing plate.
Minimum width of bearing plate should be 1 inch larger than the width
of the lower elements. Minimum length of bearing plate should be 1
inch larger than the saddle length. Bearing stress on concrete should be
checked in accordance with ACI 318.
4.6.5 Suggested criteria for sizing steel slide plates are as follows:
a. Minimum width = saddle width + 2 () + 1 inch
b. Minimum length = saddle length + 1 inch
Bearing stress on concrete should be checked in accordance with
ACI 318.
4.7 Pier Design
4.7.1 Pier dimensions should be sized on the basis of standard available forms
for the project. When form information is not available, pier dimensions
should be sized in 2inch increments to allow use of standard
manufactured forms. Minimum pier dimensions should equal the
maximum of the saddle, bearing plate, or steel slide plate dimensions
plus 4 inches and should be sized to provide adequate anchor bolt edge
distance. Minimum pier width should be no less than 10 inches or 10%
of the pier height.
4.7.2 Anchorage Considerations
It is normally desirable to make the pier high enough to contain the
anchor bolts and to keep them out of the footing. Consideration must be
given to anchor bolt development and foundation depth requirements.
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4.7.3 Reinforcement
4.7.3.1 Piers should normally be designed as tensioncontrolled
members (cantilever beams) with two layers of reinforcement.
If the pier is a compressioncontrolled member, the pier should
be designed as a column. Size and reinforcement for each pier
should normally be the same. Dowel splices are not required if
the vertical pier reinforcing projection is less than the larger of
6 ft or the rebar size in feet above the top of footing. For
example, #8 rebar can extend up to 8 ft above the mat without
dowel splices. For cases that exceed this limit, dowels with
minimum projections required for tension splices should be
used in accordance with ACI 318.
4.7.3.2 The vertical reinforcement in the piers may need to be
increased to account for shear friction. The following formula
should be used to calculate the area of reinforcement required
for shear friction, A
vf
:
A
vf
= [Vu/() Pu
pier
]/f
y
(Eq. 3)
Vu = strength design factored shear force at bottom of pier
= coefficient of friction, normally use 0.6. If it can be
assured that the concrete at the construction joint at
the interface between the pedestal and the mat will be
intentionally roughened, then 1.0 may be used for .
= strength reduction factor = 0.75
Pu
pier
= strength design factored axial force at bottom of pier
f
y
= yield strength of vertical reinforcement
4.7.3.3 Minimum reinforcement for piers is #5 at 12 inches on each
face with #4 ties at 12 inches. A minimum of two #4 ties (or
three ties if moderate or high seismic risk) should be placed
within 6 inches of the top of concrete of each pier (not
including grout) to protect anchor bolts. All ties should
encircle the vertical reinforcement, unless special tie
reinforcement for boundary elements is required.
4.7.3.4 For tensioncontrolled piers, as is normally the case,
intermediate ties are not required.
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4.8 Column Design
4.8.1 Sizing
Columns (if needed) should be round, square, or rectangular depending
on the job criteria or the construction contractors preference. Column
dimensions should be sized on the basis of standard available forms for
the project. If form information is not available, column dimensions
should be sized in 2inch increments to allow use of standard
manufactured forms.
4.8.2 Reinforcement
Size and reinforcement for both columns should normally be the same.
Dowels should be used to transfer the column loads to the footings.
Minimum dowel projections should be as required for a tension splice
(Class B) in accordance with ACI 318.
4.9 Footing Design
4.9.1 Sizing
a) Footings must be designed to safely resist the effects of the applied
factored axial loads, shears and moments. Provisions of Chapter
15 of ACI Code apply primarily for design of footings supporting a
single column (isolated footings).
b) The size of spread footings may be governed by stability
requirements, sliding, soil bearing pressure, or settlement. Plan
view footing dimensions should be in 2inch increments. The
footing thickness shall be 12 inches minimum and thickened in 2
inch increments. Size for both footings should normally be the
same. For short exchangers or vessels, a combined footing may be
used.
c) The footing thickness should be adequate for shear and embedment
of pier or column reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318,
Chapter 12 (see also attached Table 2).
4.9.2 Foundation Stability
a) All foundations subject to buoyant forces shall be designed to resist
a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the full hydrostatic pressure.
The minimum safety factor against floatation shall be 1.20,
considering the highest anticipated water level (Ref. SAESQ005,
Para. 4.2.7).
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b) The minimum safety factor against overturning for load
combinations which include wind forces shall be 1.5; (Ref. SAES
Q005, Para. 4.2.1). Overturning caused by earthquake shall be
checked in accordance with SEI/ASCE 7, Chapter 9; (Ref. SAES
Q005, Para. 4.2.2).
Compute the Stability Ratio (S.R.) using the following formula:
S.R. = M
R
/ M
O
.
T
or S.R. = L/2e
where
M
R
= Resisting Moment
M
O.T.
= Overturning Moment
L = dimension of footing in the direction of the overturning
moment, ft.
e = eccentricity = overturning moment at the base of the
footing divided by the total vertical load, ft.
Eccentricity e = M
O
.
T
./P
4.9.3 Foundation Sliding
The minimum safety factor against sliding for service loads other than
earthquake shall be 1.5. The coefficient of friction used in computing
the safety factor against sliding for castinplace foundations shall be
0.40, unless specified otherwise in a detailed soil investigation. Passive
earth pressure from backfill shall not be considered in computing these
safety factors (Ref. SAESQ005, Para. 4.2.6).
4.9.4 Soil Bearing Pressure
A common assumption in the design of soil bearing footings is that the
footing behaves as a rigid unit. Hence, the soil pressure beneath a
footing is assumed to vary linearly when the footing is subjected to axial
load and moment. The ensuing rectangular footing formulas are based
on the linear pressure assumption. We will consider the following
conditions:
Case 1  Resultant is within middle third of footing e L/6
The resultant R consists of the applied vertical load plus the
weight of the footing.
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In this case, all of footing area in compression, and the direct soil
pressure P
T
/A is larger than the bending pressure Mc/I = M/S.
When bending occurs about one axis only (Figure 1 Case 1), and the
entire footing is subjected to compression pressure,
Q
max
= P
T
/A + M/S = P
T
/BL (1 + 6e/L) Uniaxial Loading Eq. 41
Q
min
= P
T
/A  M/S = P
T
/BL (1  6e/L) Uniaxial Loading Eq. 42
Eccentricity e = M/P
T
= (M + H x h) /P
T
Eq. 43
When bending occurs about both the x and y axis, and the entire footing
is subjected to compression pressure (i.e., eccentricity of the footing e
x
and e
y
lie within their respective kern points),
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q
max
= P
T
/A + M
y
/S
x
+ M
x
/S
y
= P
T
/BL (1 + 6e
x
/L
+ 6e
y
/B)
Biaxial Loading Eq. 44
q
min
= P
T
/A  M
y
/S
x
 M
x
/S
y
= P
T
/BL (1  6e
x
/L
 6e
y
/B)
Biaxial Loading Eq. 45
e
x
= M
y
/P
T
Eq. 46
e
y
= M
x
/P
T
Eq. 47
where
A = Area of footing = (L) (B)
L = Footing Length Dimension Parallel to XAxis
B = Footing width dimension parallel to Yaxis
P
T
= Vertical design load including soil overburden,
foundation weight, and buoyancy
M
x
= Moment About XAxis of Footing Plan
M
y
= Moment About YAxis of Footing Plan
S
x
= L (B
2
/6) I
x
= L B
3
/12
S
y
= B (L
2
/6) I
y
= B L
3
/12
The values of e
x
and e
y
are obtained using equation 46 and 47 first
about the xaxis and then about the yaxis
Case 2  Resultant is outside middle third of footing e>L/6
The resultant R consists of the applied vertical load plus the
weight of the footing and soil overburden.
When bending occurs about one axis only:
In this case, as the load acts outside the middle third, tensile stress results
at the left side of the footing as shown in Figure 1 Case 2.
Figure 1  Case 2 shows the distribution of soil pressure beneath the
footing when the resultant is outside the middle third of the base.
According to the laws of static, the total upward force must be equal to
and collinear with R. These two conditions may be expressed by
R = (q
max
B x) / 2 Eq. 48
and
x/3 = (L/2)  e
2
x = 3 (L/2 e
2
) Eq. 49
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q
max
=
2P
T
/3B (L/2 e
2
) Eq. 410
q = 0 at x = 3 (L/2 e
2
) Eq. 411
When bending occurs about both the x and y axis, and the values of e
x
and e
y
are obtained using equation 46 and 47 first about the xaxis and
then about the yaxis. If the resulting point of application of eccentricity
e falls outside of the kern of the section (as labeled in Figure 2), a
special case exists and the points of zero pressure must be determined by
trial. It should be noted that tension cannot exist between the soil and
the footing.
For the spread footings that are subject to biaxial bending with the
resultant lies outside or inside the kern, numerical solutions can be found
in many soil mechanics textbooks. Commercial software is also
available for this situation. Figure C is a design aid that is based on
accurate numerical solutions and graphically provides the results.
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4.9.5 Settlement
Footings shall be designed so that under sustained loads (operating
loads) the total settlement and the differential settlement between
footings do not exceed the established limits. The maximum allowable
amount of total settlement and differential settlement is typically set by
the Project Structural Engineer based on the sensitivity of the equipment
or structure being supported.
4.10 Reinforced Concrete Footing Design
4.10.1 General
a) Reinforced concrete footing design shall conform to the
requirements of ACI 318. The strength method shall be used for
all reinforced concrete footings design.
b) The footing thickness is generally controlled by shear or rigidity
requirements. However, thickness may be controlled by flexural
considerations where the thickness is increased to avoid tension top
steel or to keep less than
bal
. In any case, the minimum
thickness of a soil bearing footing shall be 12 inches.
4.10.2 Flexural Considerations
a) Footings shall be designed considering twoway action. The
procedures outlined in ACI 318, Chapter 15 shall be followed for
footing design.
b) The strength method outlined in ACI 318, Chapter 10 shall be used
for all design.
c) Reinforced concrete design shall be in accordance with ACI 318
using factored loads. The critical section for moment shall be taken
at the face of the pier. The moment shall be calculated for a 1 foot
wide strip as a simple cantilever from the edge of the pier. The
resulting reinforcing steel shall be placed continuously across the
entire footing in a grid pattern with the minimum bottom
reinforcing being #5 bars at 12 inches oncenter, each way.
d) The minimum amount of bottom steel (grade 60 ksi) shall not be
less than the minimum shrinkage reinforcement:
As (min) = 0.0018 b h
where,
b = width of footing
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d = distance from top of footing to center of bottom bars
h = depth of footing
e) If a footing has uplift, there will be a moment at the heel that will
cause tension in the top of footing. Provide top steel to account for
the moment resulting from the footing weight and soil overburden
weight. Development length of top steel shall be per Table 5. The
bars may be hooked 90 downward to achieve the required
development length if straight embedment is not adequate. If top
reinforcing is required, minimum reinforcing shall be #4 at 12
inches on center, each way. For top reinforcement, concrete stress
can be checked in accordance with the following procedure:
Top Reinforcement Check:
Except where seismic effects create tensile stresses, top
reinforcement in the footing is not necessary if the factored tensile
stress at the upper face of the footing does not exceed the flexural
strength of structural plain concrete, as follows:
f
t
= 5(f
c
)
1/2
(Eq. 7)
where,
f
t
= flexural strength of structural plain concrete, psi
f
c
= compressive strength of concrete, psi
= strength reduction factor for structural plain concrete = 0.55
The effective thickness of the footing for tensile stress calculations
should be 2 inches less than the actual thickness for footings cast
against soil (ACI 31802, Section R22.7.4). For footings cast
against a seal slab, the actual thickness of the footing may be used
for the effective thickness. If the factored tensile stress exceeds the
flexural strength of structural plain concrete, top reinforcement
should be used if an increase in the footing thickness is not
feasible.
The following formulas are for calculating the required footing
thicknesses with no top reinforcing steel:
For footings cast against soil:
t
reqd
= t
eff
+ 2 inches (Eq. 8a)
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For footings cast against a seal slab:
t
reqd
= t
eff
(Eq. 8b)
With t
eff
calculated as follows:
t
eff
= (6M
u
/f
t
)
1/2
(Eq. 9)
where,
t
reqd
= required footing thickness with no top reinforcing
steel, inches
t
eff
= effective footing thickness, inches
M
u
= strength design factored moment caused by the weight
of soil and concrete acting on a 1inch strip in the
footing at the face of the pier, inchpounds per inch,
using a load factor of 1.4
f
t
= flexural strength of structural plain concrete, psi
(from Eq. 7)
If tensile stress in the upper face of the footing exceeds ACI plain
concrete design requirements, top steel should be used if increasing
the footing thickness is unfeasible. If top reinforcement is
required, minimum reinforcement is #4 at 12 inches c/c.
4.10.3 Shear Considerations
Both widebeam action and twoway action must be checked to
determine the required footing depth. Beam action assumes that the
footing acts as a wide beam with a critical section across its entire width.
Twoway action for the footing checks "punching" shear strength. The
critical section for punching shear is a perimeter b
o
around the supported
member with the shear strength computed in accordance with ACI Code
Sect. 11.12.2.1. Tributary areas and corresponding critical sections for
widebeam action and twoway action for an isolated footing are
illustrated in Figure 3 below:
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Figure 3 Tributary Area for WideBeam and TwoWay Action Shear
(Adapted from Notes on ACI 318  02 by PCA)
Tributary Areas and Critical Sections for Shear
For footing design, the depth must be selected so that shear
reinforcement is not required. The shear strength equations may be
summarized as follows:
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Figure 4 Shear Strength of Concrete in Footings
Revision Summary
31 August, 2002 New Saudi Aramco Best Design Practice SABP004.
6 November, 2007 Revision 1 to comply with ACI 31802, ASCE 702 and revised SAESM001 & SAESQ005.
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APPENDIX:
Tables, Figures, and Examples
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Table 1 Thermal Expansion Data
Total linear expansion between 70F and indicated temperature (inches/100 ft)
Temp.
(F)
Shell Material
Temp.
(F)
Carbon Steel
Carbon  Moly
LowChrome
(through
3 Cr Mo)
5 Cr Mo
through
9 Cr Mo
Austenitic
Stainless
Steels
18 Cr 8 Ni
12 Cr
17 Cr
27 Cr
12 Cr
20 Ni
Monel
67 Ni
30 Cu
31/2
Nickel
NiFeCr
70
100
125
150
175
0.00
0.23
0.42
0.61
0.80
0.00
0.22
0.40
0.58
0.76
0.00
0.34
0.62
0.90
1.18
0.00
0.20
0.36
0.53
0.69
0.00
0.32
0.58
0.84
1.10
0.00
0.28
0.52
0.75
0.99
0.00
0.23
0.42
0.61
0.81
0.00
0.28
0.52
0.76
0.99
70
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
0.99
1.21
1.40
1.61
0.94
1.13
1.33
1.52
1.46
1.75
2.03
2.32
0.86
1.03
1.21
1.38
1.37
1.64
1.91
2.18
1.22
1.46
1.71
1.96
1.01
1.21
1.42
1.63
1.23
1.49
1.76
2.03
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
1.82
2.04
2.26
2.48
1.71
1.90
2.10
2.30
2.61
2.90
3.20
3.50
1.56
1.74
1.93
2.11
2.45
2.72
2.99
3.26
2.21
2.44
2.68
2.91
1.84
2.05
2.26
2.47
2.30
2.59
2.88
3.18
300
325
350
375
400
425
450
475
2.70
2.93
3.16
3.39
2.50
2.72
2.93
3.14
3.80
4.10
4.41
4.71
2.30
2.50
2.69
2.89
3.53
3.80
4.07
4.34
3.25
3.52
3.79
4.06
2.69
2.91
3.13
3.35
3.48
3.76
4.04
4.31
400
425
450
475
500
525
550
575
3.62
3.86
4.11
4.35
3.35
3.58
3.80
4.02
5.01
5.31
5.62
5.93
3.08
3.28
3.49
3.69
4.61
4.88
5.15
5.42
4.33
4.61
4.90
5.18
3.58
3.81
4.04
4.27
4.59
4.87
5.16
5.44
500
525
550
575
600
625
650
675
4.60
4.86
5.11
5.37
4.24
4.47
4.69
4.92
6.24
6.55
6.87
7.18
3.90
4.10
4.31
4.52
5.69
5.96
6.23
6.50
5.46
5.75
6.05
6.34
4.50
4.74
4.98
5.22
5.72
6.01
6.30
6.58
600
625
650
675
700
725
750
775
5.63
5.90
6.16
6.43
5.14
5.38
5.62
5.86
7.50
7.82
8.15
8.47
4.73
4.94
5.16
5.38
6.77
7.04
7.31
7.58
6.64
6.94
7.25
7.55
5.46
5.70
5.94
6.18
6.88
7.17
7.47
7.76
700
725
750
775
800
825
850
875
6.70
6.97
7.25
7.53
6.10
6.34
6.59
6.83
8.80
9.13
9.46
9.79
5.60
5.82
6.05
6.27
7.85
8.15
8.45
8.75
7.85
8.16
8.48
8.80
6.43
6.68
6.93
7.18
8.06
8.35
8.66
8.95
800
825
850
875
900
925
950
975
7.81
8.08
8.35
8.62
7.07
7.31
7.56
7.81
10.12
10.46
10.80
11.14
6.49
6.71
6.94
7.17
9.05
9.35
9.65
9.95
9.12
9.44
9.77
10.09
7.43
7.68
7.93
8.17
9.26
9.56
9.87
10.18
900
925
950
975
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Table 1 (continued)
Total linear expansion between 70F and indicated temperature (inches/100 ft)
Temp.
(
F)
Shell Material
Temp.
(
F)
Carbon Steel
Carbon  Moly
LowChrome
(through
3 Cr Mo)
5 Cr Mo
through
9 Cr Mo
Austenitic
Stainless
Steels
18 Cr 8 Ni
12 Cr
17 Cr
27 Cr
12 Cr
20 Ni
Monel
67 Ni
30 Cu
31/2
Nickel
NiFeCr
1000
1025
1050
1075
8.89
9.17
9.46
9.75
8.06
8.30
8.55
8.80
11.48
11.82
12.16
12.50
7.40
7.62
7.95
8.18
10.25
10.55
10.85
11.15
10.42
10.75
11.09
11.43
8.41 10.49
10.80
11.11
11.42
1000
1025
1050
1075
1100
1125
1150
1175
10.04
10.31
10.57
10.83
9.05
9.28
9.52
9.76
12.84
13.18
13.52
13.86
8.31
8.53
8.76
8.98
11.45
11.78
12.11
12.44
11.77
12.11
12.47
12.81
11.74
12.05
12.38
12.69
1100
1125
1150
1175
1200
1225
1250
1275
11.10
11.38
11.66
11.94
10.00
10.26
10.53
10.79
14.20
14.54
14.88
15.22
9.20
9.42
9.65
9.88
12.77
13.10
13.43
13.76
13.15
13.50
13.86
14.22
13.02
13.36
13.71
14.04
1200
1225
1250
1275
1300
1325
1350
1375
12.22
12.50
12.78
13.06
11.06
11.30
11.55
11.80
15.56
15.90
16.24
16.58
10.11
10.33
10.56
10.78
14.09
14.39
14.69
14.99
14.58
14.94
15.30
15.66
14.39
14.74
15.10
15.44
1300
1325
1350
1375
1400
1425
1450
1475
1500
13.34 12.05 16.92
17.30
17.69
18.08
18.47
11.01 15.29 16.02
15.80
16.16
16.53
16.88
17.25
1400
1425
1450
1475
1500
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TABLE 2 Basic Development Length l
hb
of Standard 90 Hooks in Tension
Ref. ACI Code 31802 Sections 12.5.2 & 12.5.3
Ref. ACI Design Handbook Publ. SP17(97)
F'c = 4000 psi & Fy = 60,000 psi
l
dh
= (0.02 fy / f'
c
) d
b
Development length l
dh
> 8 d
b
> 6 in.
alpha = 0.7
= 1.0 For normal weight concrete
= 1.2 for Epoxy coated bars T
min
= l
dh
+ 3" cover + 1.5
Bar Size Bar Dia. l
hb
Alpha Beta *l
dh
8 d
b
B T
Min
(d
b
)  in. in. in. in. in. in.
#4 0.500 9.5 0.7 1.2 8.0 6 8 12.5
#5 0.625 11.9 0.7 1.2 10.0 6 10 14.5
#6 0.750 14.2 0.7 1.2 11.9 6 12 16.4
#7 0.875 16.6 0.7 1.2 13.9 7 14 18.4
#8 1.000 19.0 0.7 1.2 16.0 8 16 20.5
#9 1.128 21.4 0.7 1.2 18.0 9 19 22.5
#10 1.270 24.1 0.7 1.2 20.2 10 21.5 24.7
#11 1.410 26.8 0.7 1.2 22.5 11 24 27.0
*l
dh
can be further reduced by the ratio alpha = A
s
required / A
s
provided
d
b
T l
dh
B
4.5 on
FOOTING ELEVATION
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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Figure A Approximate Exchanger Weights
These curves give the approximate weight of standard heat exchangers, all in tons. The curves are for a 192inch
type ET exchanger with two passes in the tubes. The tubes are 3/4 inch on a 90 layout. The tube material is 14
gage steel. For the weights of heat exchangers with other tube lengths, multiply by the following factors:
Length in inches: 240 192 168 144 120 96
Heat exchanger factor: 1.10 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80
20
A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
W
e
i
g
h
t
(
t
o
n
s
)
Exchanger Diameter (inches)
15 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18
Weight of water to fill
shell and tubes
7
14
15
16
18
19
17
8
9
10
11
12
13
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
3
0
0
4
5
0
P
o
u
n
d
C
l
a
s
s
1
5
0
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Figure B Approximate Tube Bundle Weights
These curves give the approximate weight of standard tube bundles, all in tons. The tubes are inch, 14 gage,
and 192 inches long. The tubes are two pass on a square pitch. The baffle spacing range from 8 inches on the
15inch exchanger to 16 inches on the 48inch exchanger. For the weight of bundle with other lengths, multiply
by the following factors:
Length in inches: 240 192 168 144 120
Heat exchanger factor: 1.20 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70
15
Exchanger Diameter (inches)
48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 30 28 26 24 32 22 20 18
1
5
0 6
0
0
P
o
u
n
d
C
l
a
s
s
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
A
p
p
r
o
x
i
m
a
t
e
W
e
i
g
h
t
(
t
o
n
s
)
0
1
2
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Figure C Soil Pressure for Biaxially Loaded Footings
Location of SBmax
a
b
SB
max
= K (P/ab)
Load P
e
2
e
1
K coefficient
Ratio e
1
/a
0.40
0.38
0.02
0.00
12 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11
12 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.40
0.38
0.02
0.00
0.36
0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
e
2
/b = 0.40
0.375
0.35
0.325
0.30
e
2
/b = 0.0
0.275
0.25
0.225
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.175
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Example 1 Heat Exchanger Foundation
1
f
t

4
i
n
c
h
e
s
1
f
t

4
i
n
c
h
e
s
3
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
5
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
11 ft 0 inches
8 ft 0 inches
1ft 4 inches
PIERS
P
I
E
R
(
F
i
x
e
d
e
n
d
)
P
I
E
R
(
S
l
i
d
i
n
g
e
n
d
)
C
cc
Steel slide plate
3 ft 1 inch
by 11 inches
by 3/8 inch
2  1 1/4 inch diameter
ASTM F1554, Grade 36
anchor bolts per pier
P = 4 inches (fixed end w/1 nut)
P = 5 1/4 inches (sliding end w/2 nuts)
Dimensions typical both piers
PLAN
SECTION "A  A"
A
A
# 4 ties @ 11 inches
5  #8 each face
# 6 @ 10 inches
each way
Grade
6
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
1
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
Top of grout elevation (fixed end)
Top of steel slide plate (sliding end)
# 4 @ 10 inches
each way
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11ft 0 inches
23 ft 6 inches
8
f
t

0
i
n
c
h
e
s
4
f
t

0
i
n
c
h
e
s
Shell
end
Channel
end
42 inches
Diameter
Slide plate
5
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
2 ft 9 inches
ELEVATION
(Example 1, continued)
DESIGN DATA
Exchanger Data:
Empty weight = 32 kips each
Operating weight = 44 kips each
Bundle weight = 19 kips each
Channel weight = 3.5 kips each
Basic diameter = 42 inches,
or 3.5 ft
Max. design temperature
= 550F
Exchanger material: carbon steel
Bolts: 2  11/4inch diameter ASTM
F1554, Grade 36 (galvanized) per
pier
Bolt spacing = 2 ft  8 inch c/c
Saddle: 3 ft  0 inch by 9 inches
Load distribution: 60% at channel end,
40% at shell end
Design Criteria:
Concrete: f'
c
= 4,000 psi
Reinforcing: f
y
= 60,000 psi
Soil unit weight: = 100 pcf
Allowable net soil bearing: SB
net
= 5.5
ksf (at 4ft depth)
Wind load: SEI/ASCE 702
Earthquake load: SEI/ASCE 702
DETERMINE LOADS
Empty and Operating Loads
Exchanger weight supplied by outside manufacturers does not include the weight of attached pipes and
insulation. Increase exchanger weight by 10% of the larger exchanger to account for these attached items
(refer to this Practice, Section 4.2, vertical loads, empty and operating dead loads).
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40% at
Shell/Fixed End
60% at
Channel/Sliding End
Empty dead load (D
e
) = 32 kips + (32 kips)(1.1) = 67.2 kips 26.9 kips 40.3 kips
Operating dead load (D
o
) = 44 kips + (44 kips)(1.1) = 92.4 kips 37.0 kips 55.4 kips
Transverse Moment from Pipe Eccentricity
Eccentricity = (basic diameter)/2 + (1.5 ft) = (3.5 ft)/2 + (1.5 ft) = 3.25 ft
Empty M
Te
(channel end) = (32 kips)(0.1)(0.6 channel end)(3.25 ft) = 6.24 ftk
Empty M
Te
(shell end) = (32 kips)(0.1)(0.4 shell end)(3.25 ft) = 4.16 ftk
Operating M
To
(channel end) = (44 kips)(0.1)(0.6 channel end)(3.25 ft) = 8.58 ftk
Operating M
To
(shell end) = (44 kips)(0.1)(0.4 shell end)(3.25 ft) = 5.72 ftk
Wind Loads
Wind load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice.
Exchanger wind load is applied at the center of each exchanger.
Transverse wind: H
w
= 1.28 kips (per exchanger)
Longitudinal wind: H
w
= 0.25 kips (per exchanger)
Transverse or longitudinal wind on each pier: H
w
= 0.039 ksf
Earthquake Loads
Earthquake load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice.
Exchanger earthquake loads are applied at the center of each exchanger.
Note that the following are strength design loads:
Empty
(Per Exchanger)
Operating
(Per Exchanger)
Pier
Transverse 5.42 kips 7.45 kips 0.154 W
Longitudinal 8.80 kips 12.10 kips 0.250 W
For calculations based on allowable stress design (service loads), the strength design loads shown in the
preceding table should be converted to service loads by multiplying by 0.7, in accordance with Table 5.
Empty
(Per Exchanger)
Operating
(Per Exchanger)
Pier
Transverse 3.79 kips 5.22 kips 0.108 W
Longitudinal 6.16 kips 8.47 kips 0.175 W
Bundle Pull
V
Bp
= 1.0 (bundle weight) = 1.0 (19 k) = 19.0 kips
The minimum is the lesser of 2 kips or exchanger weight (Section 4.3.3.1). Therefore, use the bundle weight.
Use V
Bp
= 19.0 kips (applied at centerline of top exchanger.)
Note that a reduction in the empty load of the exchanger owing to the removal of the exchanger head
(channel) to pull the bundle is not included in this foundation calculation because the reduction in the empty
load is not considered to have a significant effect on the design.
Thermal Force
1. Compute sliding force (assume that a steel slide plate is used):
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Coefficient of friction, = 0.40 (Ref. Section 4.6.3)
Operating load,
F
f
= (P
o
) = (0.40)(55.4 kips at channel end) = 22.2 kips (Ref. Eq. 1)
2. Compute force required to deflect pier:
Assume pier is 42 inches long by 16 inches wide by 78 inches high.
Moment of inertia,
I = b(h)
3
/ 12 = (42 inches)(16 inches)
3
/ 12 = 14,336 inches
4
Modulus of elasticity, (ACI 31802, Section 8.5.1)
E = 57,000 c f' = 57,000 psi 4,000 = 3,605 ksi
Thermal expansion coefficient for carbon steel at 550F: = 0.0411 inch/ft
(Ref. Table 1)
Thermal growth between saddles,
= ()(L) = (0.0411 inch/ft)(11 ft) = 0.452 inches
T = 3 E I / 2 H
3
= 3 (0.452 inch)(3,605 ksi)(14,336 inches
4
) / 2 (78 inches)
3
= 73.8 kips
(Ref. Eq. 2)
Because F
f
< T and because a lower friction factor will not help the distribution of earthquake and bundle pull
loads, use steel slide plate.
DESIGN ELEMENTS
Size Steel Slide Plate
Width = (saddle width) + 2() + 1 inch = (9 inches) + 2 (0.452 inches) + (1 inch)
= 10.90 inches, say 11 inches
Length = (saddle length) + 1 inch = (36 inches) + (1 inch) = 3 ft  1 inch
Check bearing stress (operating and longitudinal earthquake):
P
Eo
= (12.10 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11 ft between piers)
= 12.1 kips (downward load caused by overturning)
P
u
= 1.2 (P
o
) + 1.0 (P
Eo
) = 1.2 (55.4 kips) + 1.0 (12.1 kips) = 78.6 kips
(Table 6, Load Combination 3)
P
n
= 0.85 f'
c
A
1
= (0.65)(0.85)(4 ksi)(11 inches)(37 inches) = 899 kips > P
u
OK
(ACI 31802, Section 10.17)
Use a steel slide plate that is 3 ft  1 inch by 11 inches by 3/8 inches.
Pier Size
Pier length
(c/c bolts) + (2)(5inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = (2 ft  8 inches)
+ 2 (5 inches)
= 3 ft  6 inches controls
(steel slide plate length) + (4 inches) = (3 ft  1 inch) + (4 inches)
= 3 ft 5 inches
Pier width
10 inches
10% of pier height = (0.10)(78 inches) = 7.8 inches (based on assumed pier height)
(2)(5inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = 2 (5 inches) = 10 inches
(steel slide plate width) + (4 inches) = (11 inches) + (4 inches) = 15 inches controls,
but use 16 inches for forming in 2inch increments
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Use a pier size of 1 ft  4 inches by 3 ft  6 inches.
Anchor Bolt Design
Anchor bolt design is beyond the scope of this Practice. Refer to SABPQ001 for procedures.
Use two 11/4inch diameter, ASTM F1554, Grade 36 anchor bolts per pier.
Pier Design
At base of pier (assume footing to be 1.5 ft thick):
Pier height = 8.0 ft  1.5 ft = 6.5 ft
Pier weight = (0.15 kcf)(1.33 ft)(3.5 ft)(6.5 ft) = 4.54 kips
Use load combinations and strength design load factors from Table 6.
Operating and longitudinal earthquake at fixed end:
Apply 70% of exchanger earthquake loads at fixed end (Ref. Paragraph 4.3.2.3,)
Horizontal load at fixed end,
V
uFX
= 1.0 [(0.7)(12.10 kips)(2 exchangers) + (0.25)(4.54 kips)]
= 16.94 kips + 1.14 kips
= 18.08 kips (Table 6, Load Combination 3)
Shear and moment at bottom of pier,
V
uFX
= 16.94 kips + 1.14 kips = 18.08 kips
M
uFX
= (16.94 kips)(6.5 ft) + (1.14 kips)(6.5 ft/2) = 113.8ftk
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Empty and bundle pull at fixed end:
Bundle pull force,
V
uBp
= 1.6(19.0 kips) = 30.4 kips (Table 6, Load Combination 9 or 10)
Vertical load at top of pier due to bundle pull on top exchanger,
P
uBp
= (30.4 kips)(2.75 ft + 5.5 ft) / (11 ft between piers) = 22.8 kips
Net vertical load on sliding pier pushing top bundle in (use 0.9D for load factor, Table 6, Load
Combination 10),
P
uSL
= (0.9)(40.3 kips)  (22.8 kips) = 13.5 kips
Horizontal load at sliding end,
V
uSL
= (P
uSL
) = 0.40 (13.5 kips) = 5.40 kips < 1/2 bundle pull force (V
uBp
)
Horizontal load at fixed end,
V
uFX
= (V
uBp
)  (V
uSL
) = (30.4 kips)  (5.40 kips) = 25.0 kips
Shear and moment at bottom of pier,
V
uFX
= 25.0 kips
M
uFX
= (25.0 kips)(6.5 ft) = 162.5 ftk
Operating and thermal at fixed end:
Thermal force,
V
uThermal
= 1.4(22.2 kips) = 31.08 kips
Horizontal load at fixed end,
V
uFX
= V
uThermal
= 31.08 kips
Shear and moment at bottom of pier,
V
uFX
= 31.08 kips controls
M
uFX
= (31.08 kips)(6.5ft) = 202.0 ftk controls
Check diagonal tension shear:
d = (16inch pier) (2inch clear) (0.5inch ties) (say 1.0inch bar) / 2 = 13.0 inches
V
c
= 2 c f' b
w
d (ACI 31802, Eq. 113)
= (0.75)(2) psi 4,000 (42 inches)(13.0 inches) / 1,000 = 51.8 kips > V
u
= 31.08 kips OK
0.5 V
c
= (0.5)(51.8 kips) = 25.9 kips < V
u
= 31.08 kips
Minimum tie requirements from Section 4.7.3.3 of this Practice is #4 ties at 12inch spacing; however,
because V
u
> 0.5 V
c
, spacing requirement should be checked for #4 ties to meet minimum shear
reinforcement requirements of ACI 31802, Section 11.5.5:
A
v
= 0.75 c f' b
w
s / f
y
but not less than 50 b
w
s / f
y
s
reqd
= A
v
f
y
/ 0.75 c f' b
w
= (0.20 in
2
)(2)(60,000 psi) / (0.75) psi 4,000 (42 inches)
= 12.0 inches but not more than A
v
f
y
/ 50 b
w
= (0.20 in
2
)(2)(60,000 psi) / (50)(42 inches)
= 11.4 inches controls
Use #4 ties at 11inch spacing.
Design for moment:
F = b d
2
/ 12,000 = (42 inches)(13.0 inches)
2
/ 12,000 = 0.592
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K
u
= M
u
/ F = (202.0 ftk) / (0.592) = 341.2 = 0.00674
A
s
= b d = (0.00674)(42 inches)(13.0 inches) = 3.68 inches
2
The following equation is provided for illustration only; it should not control unless f '
c
> 4,440 psi,
A
s min
= 3
c
' f b
w
d / f
y
= 3 psi 4,000 (42 inches)(13.0 inches) / (60,000 psi)
= 1.73 inches
2
(ACI 31802, Eq. 103)
A
s min
= 200 b
w
d / f
y
= 200 (42 inches)(13.0 inches) / (60,000 psi) = 1.82 inches
2
(ACI 31802, Section 10.5.1)
Find total A
s
requirement including shear friction, A
vf
at fixed end with LF = 1.4 for
(P
o
+ pier weight) at bottom of pier:
A
vf
= [Vu/()  Pu
pier
] / f
y
= [(31.08 k)/(0.6)(0.75)  (1.4)(37.0 k + 4.54 k)] / 60 ksi
= [69.07  58.16] / 60 = 0.18 inches
2
(Ref. Eq. 3)
A
s
(total on each face) = A
s
(moment) + A
vf
/2 = 3.68 + 0.18/2 = 3.77 inches
2
controls
Use five #8 bars each face (A
s
provided = 3.95 inches
2
).
Determine #8 splice length:
l
d
/ d
b
=
) / ( f' 40
) )( )( )( ( f 3
c
y
b tr
d K c +
=
) 5 . 2 ( psi 4,000 40
1.0) 1.0)(1.0)( psi)(1.0)( 3(60,000
= 28.5
(ACI 31802, Section 12.2.3)
l
d
= (28.5) d
b
= (28.5)(1.0 inch) = 28.5 inches
Class B splice = 1.3 (l
d
) = 1.3 (28.5 inches) = 37.1 inches (ACI 31802, Section 12.15.1)
Do not use a splice because the pier height is 6 ft  6 inches < 8 ft 0 inch for #8 bar.
(Ref. Section 4.7.3.1)
Footing Size
Determine minimum footing thickness to develop standard hook for #8 pier reinforcing:
l
dh
= (0.02f
y
/
c
' f )(d
b
)(0.7)(A
s
required/A
s
provided) (ACI 31802, Section 12.5)
= [(0.02)(1.0)(1.0)(60,000 psi) / psi 4,000 ](1 inch)(0.7)(3.77 in
2
/3.95 in
2
) = 12.7 inches
Minimum thickness = (12.7 inches) + (2 layers)(0.75inch rebar) + (3 inches clear)
= 17.2 inches
Use 18inch footing thickness.
SB
allow
= (5.5 ksf net) + (4.0 ft deep)(0.10 kcf soil) = 5.9 ksf gross
Try an 8ft by 5.5ft footing, 1.5 ft thick.
Weights:
Pier = (0.15 kcf)(3.50 ft)(1.33 ft)(8 ft  1.5 ft) = 4.54 kips
Footing = (0.15 kcf)(8 ft)(5.5 ft)(1.5 ft) = 9.90 kips
Soil = (0.10 kcf) [(8 ft)(5.5 ft)  (3.50 ft)(1.33 ft)] (4 ft  1.5 ft) = 9.84 kips
Total = (4.54 k) + (9.90 k) + (9.84 k) = 24.28 kips
Soilbearing and stability ratio checks:
Use load combinations for allowable stress design (service loads) from Table 5
Check operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end):
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Thermal force at top of pier,
V
Thermal
= 22.2 kips
Maximum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
o
= (24.28 k) + (55.4 k) = 79.68 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 1)
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (22.2 k)(8 ft) = 177.6 ftkips
M
To
(from pipe eccentricity) = 8.58 ftkips
Check soil bearing using maximum axial load,
e
1
= M
L
/ P
max
= (177.6 ftk) / (79.68 k) = 2.23 ft
e
2
= M
To
/ P
max
= (8.58 ftk) / (79.68 k) = 0.108 ft
e
1
/ a = (2.23 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.279 e
2
/ b = (0.108 ft) / (5.5 ft) = 0.020
Read Figure C, this Practice: K = 3.20
SB
max
= K (P
max
/ab) = (3.20)[(79.68 k)/(8 ft)(5.5 ft)] = 5.79 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf OK
Check operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end):
Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
LEo
= 8.47 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to
overturning moment),
0.7 P
Eo
= (8.47 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11.0 ft) = 8.47 kips
Axial loads at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
o
+ 0.7 P
Eo
= (24.28 k) + (55.4 k) + (8.47 k) = 88.15 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 3)
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
o
)  0.7 P
Eo
= (0.9)(24.28 k + 55.4 k)  (8.47 k) = 63.24 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5a)
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (0.3 at sliding end)(8.47 k)(2 exchangers)(8.0 ft)
+ (0.175)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft)
= 44.43 ftkips
M
To
(from pipe eccentricity) = 8.58 ftkips
Soilbearing check using maximum axial load,
e
1
= M
L
/ P
max
= (44.43 ftk) / (88.15 k) = 0.504 ft
e
2
= M
To
/ P
max
= (8.58 ftk) / (88.15 k) = 0.097 ft
e
1
/ a = (0.504 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.063 e
2
/ b = (0.097 ft) / (5.5 ft) = 0.018
Read Figure C, this Practice: K = 1.50
SB
max
= K (P
max
/ab) = (1.50)[(88.15 k)/(8 ft)(5.5 ft)] = 3.00 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf OK
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
OTM
L
(overturning moment) = [M
L
+ (0.7P
Eo
)(a/2)] = [(44.43 ftk) + (8.47 k)(8 ft)/2]
= 78.31 ftk
RM
L
(resisting moment)= 0.9(P
s
+ P
o
)(a/2) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 55.4 k)(8 ft)/2 = 286.8 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
L
/ OTM
L
= (286.8 ftk) / (78.31 ftk) = 3.66 > 1.0
Check operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end):
Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
LEo
= 8.47 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to
overturning moment),
0.7 P
Eo
= (8.47 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11.0 ft) = 8.47 kips
Axial loads at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
o
+ 0.7 P
Eo
= (24.28 k) + (37.0 k) + (8.47 k) = 69.75 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 3)
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
o
)  0.7 P
Eo
= (0.9)(24.28 k + 37.0 k)  (8.47 k) = 46.68 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5a)
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (0.7 at fixed end)(8.47 k)(2 exchangers)(8.0 ft)
+ (0.175)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft)
= 98.64 ftkips
M
To
(from pipe eccentricity) = 5.72 ftkips
Soilbearing check using maximum axial load,
e
1
= M
L
/ P
max
= (98.64 ftk) / (69.75 k) = 1.41 ft
e
2
= M
To
/ P
max
= (5.72 ftk) / (69.75 k) = 0.082 ft
e
1
/ a = (1.41 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.176 e
2
/ b = (0.082 ft) / (5.5 ft) = 0.015
Read Figure C, this Practice: K = 2.15
SB
max
= K (P
max
/ab) = (2.15)[(69.75 k)/(8 ft)(5.5 ft)] = 3.41 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf OK
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
OTM
L
(overturning moment) = [M
L
+ (0.7P
Eo
)(a/2)] = [(98.64 ftk) + (8.47 k)(8 ft)/2]
= 132.5 ftk
RM
L
(resisting moment) = 0.9(P
s
+ P
o
)(a/2) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 37.0 k)(8 ft)/2
= 220.6 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
L
/ OTM
L
= (220.6 ftk) / (132.5 ftk) = 1.66 > 1.0 OK
Check empty and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end) loads:
Longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
LEe
= 6.16 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers (owing to
overturning moment),
0.7 P
Ee
= (6.16 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11.0 ft) = 6.16 kips
Minimum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
e
)  0.7 P
Ee
= (0.9)(24.28 k + 40.3 k)  (6.16 k) = 51.96 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5b)
Longitudinal moment at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (0.3 at sliding end)(6.16 k)(2 exchangers)(8.0 ft)
+ (0.175)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft)
= 33.34 ftkips
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
OTM
L
(overturning moment) = [M
L
+ (0.7P
Ee
)(a/2)] = [(33.34 ftk) + (6.16 k)(8 ft)/2]
= 57.98 ftk
RM
L
(resisting moment)= 0.9(P
s
+ P
e
)(a/2) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 40.3 k)(8 ft)/2 = 232.5 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
L
/ OTM
L
= (232.5 ftk) / (57.98 ftk) = 4.01 > 1.0
Check empty and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end):
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 43 of 55
Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
LEe
= 6.16 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal empty earthquake load on exchangers (owing to
overturning moment),
0.7 P
Ee
= (6.16 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11.0 ft) = 6.16 kips
Minimum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
e
)  0.7 P
Ee
= (0.9)(24.28 k + 26.9 k)  (6.16 k) = 39.90 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5b)
Longitudinal moment at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (0.7 at fixed end)(6.16 k)(2 exchangers)(8.0 ft)
+ (0.175)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft)
= 72.77 ftkips
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
OTM
L
(overturning moment) = [M
L
+ (0.7P
Ee
)(a/2)] = [(72.77 ftk) + (6.16 k)(8 ft)/2]
= 97.41 ftk
RM
L
(resisting moment)= 0.9(P
s
+ P
e
)(a/2) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 26.9 k)(8 ft)/2 = 184.2 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
L
/ OTM
L
= (184.2 ftk) / (97.41 ftk) = 1.89 > 1.0
Check operating and transverse earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end):
Transverse operating earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
TEo
= 5.22 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Axial loads at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
o
= (24.28 k) + (55.4 k) = 79.68 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 3)
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
o
) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 55.4 k) = 71.71 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5a)
Transverse moment at bottom of footing,
M
T
= (5.22 kips) [(2.75 ft + 8.0 ft) + (5.5 ft + 2.75 ft + 8.0 ft)] (0.6 channel end)
+ (0.108)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft) + (8.58 ftk pipe eccentricity)
= 95.47 ftkips
Soilbearing check using maximum axial load,
e = M
T
/ P
max
= (95.47 ftk) / (79.68 k) = 1.20 ft > b/6 = (5.5 ft)/6 = 0.92
SB
max
= 2 P
max
/ [3 a (b/2  e)] = 2 (79.68 k) / [3 (8 ft) (5.5 ft /2  1.20 ft)]
= 4.28 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf gross OK (Ref. Eq. 5)
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
RM
T
= (P
min
) (b/2) = (71.71 kips)(5.5 ft / 2) = 197.2 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
T
/ OTM
T
= 197.2 ftk / 95.47 ftk = 2.07 > 1.0 OK
Check operating and transverse earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end):
Transverse operating earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
TEo
= 5.22 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Axial loads at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
o
= (24.28 k) + (37.0 k) = 61.28 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 3)
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 44 of 55
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
o
) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 37.0 k) = 55.15 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5a)
Transverse moment at bottom of footing,
M
T
= (5.22 kips) [(2.75 ft + 8.0 ft) + (5.5 ft + 2.75 ft + 8.0 ft)] (0.4 shell end)
+ (0.108)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft) + (5.72 ftk pipe eccentricity)
= 64.43 ftkips
Soilbearing check using maximum axial load,
e = M
T
/ P
max
= (64.43 ftk) / (61.28 k) = 1.05 ft > b/6 = (5.5 ft)/6 = 0.92
SB
max
= 2 P
max
/ [3 a (b/2  e)] = 2 (61.28 k) / [3 (8 ft) (5.5 ft /2  1.05 ft)]
= 3.00 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf gross OK (Ref. Eq. 5)
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
RM
T
= (P
min
) (b/2) = (55.15 kips)(5.5 ft / 2) = 151.7 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
T
/ OTM
T
= 151.7 ftk / 64.43 ftk = 2.35 > 1.0 OK
Check empty and transverse earthquake and eccentric (channel/sliding end):
Transverse empty earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
TEe
= 3.79 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Minimum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
e
) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 40.3 k) = 58.12 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5b)
Transverse moment at bottom of footing,
M
T
= (3.79 kips) [(2.75 ft + 8.0 ft) + (5.5 ft + 2.75 ft + 8.0 ft)] (0.6 channel end)
+ (0.108)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft) + (6.24 ftk pipe eccentricity)
= 69.97 ftkips
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
RM
T
= (P
min
) (b/2) = (58.12 kips)(5.5 ft / 2) = 159.8 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
T
/ OTM
T
= 159.8 ftk / 69.97 ftk = 2.28 > 1.0 OK
Check empty and transverse earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end):
Transverse empty earthquake load on exchangers,
0.7 V
TEe
= 3.79 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Minimum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
min
= 0.9 (P
s
+ P
e
) = (0.9)(24.28 k + 26.9 k) = 46.06 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 5b)
Transverse moment at bottom of footing,
M
T
= (3.79 kips) [(2.75 ft + 8.0 ft) + (5.5 ft + 2.75 ft + 8.0 ft)] (0.4 shell end)
+ (0.108)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft) + (4.16 ftk pipe eccentricity)
= 47.42 ftkips
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
RM
T
= (P
min
) (b/2) = (46.06 kips)(5.5 ft / 2) = 126.7 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
T
/ OTM
T
= 126.7 ftk / 47.42 ftk = 2.67 > 1.0 OK
Check empty and bundle pull and eccentric (channel/sliding end; pulling top bundle out):
Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger,
P
Bp
= (19.0 kips)(2.75 ft + 5.5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14.25 kips
Vertical load on sliding end at top of pier,
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 45 of 55
P
SL
= P
e
+ P
Bp
= (40.3 kips) + (14.25 kips) = 54.55 kips
Horizontal load at sliding end,
V
SL
= (P
SL
) = (0.4)(54.55 kips) = 21.82 kips
Note that the horizontal load on the sliding end computed on the basis of friction is greater than half
of the total bundle pull (19.0 kips). Therefore, because the two pedestals and footings are equal in
size and thus even in stiffness, the actual horizontal load will be the same on both pedestals.
V
SL
= V
FX
= 19.0 kips/2 piers = 9.5 kips
Maximum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
max
= P
s
+ P
SL
= (24.28 k) + (54.55 k) = 78.83 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 8)
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (V
SL
)(8.0 ft) = (9.5 kips)(8.0 ft) = 76.0 ftkips
M
Te
(from pipe eccentricity) = 6.24 ftkips
Soilbearing check using maximum axial load,
e
1
= M
L
/ P
max
= (76.0 ftkips) / (78.83 kips) = 0.96 ft
e
2
= M
Te
/ P
max
= (6.24 ftkips) / (78.83 kips) = 0.08 ft
e
1
/ a = (0.96 ft) / (8 ft) = 0.120 e
2
/ b = (0.08 ft) / (5.5 ft) = 0.015
Read Figure C, this Practice: K = 1.80
SB
max
= K (P
max
/ab) = (1.80) [(78.83 k) / (8 ft)(5.5 ft)] = 3.23 ksf < SB
allow
= 5.9 ksf OK
Check empty and bundle pull and eccentric (shell/fixed end; pulling top bundle out):
Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger,
P
Bp
= (19.0 kips)(2.75 ft + 5.5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14.25 kips
Vertical load on fixed end at top of pier,
P
FX
= P
e
 P
Bp
= (26.9 kips)  (14.25 kips) = 12.65 kips
Horizontal load at fixed end,
V
FX
= V
SL
= 19.0 kips/2 piers = 9.5 kips
Minimum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
min
= P
s
+ P
FX
= (24.28 k) + (12.65 k) = 36.93 kips
(Table 5, Load Combination 8)
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
L
= (V
FX
)(8.0 ft) = (9.5 kips)(8.0 ft) = 76.0 ftkips
M
Te
(from pipe eccentricity) = 4.16 ftkips
Stability ratio check using minimum axial load,
RM
L
= P
min
(a/2) = (36.93 kips)(8.0 ft / 2) = 148 ftk
Stability ratio = RM
L
/ OTM
L
= 148 ftk / 76.0 ftk = 1.94 > 1.5 OK
Use 8ft by 5.5ft by 1.50ft footing.
Footing Design
Use load combinations and strength design load factors from Table 6.
Operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end):
Load factors are from Table 6, Load Combination 1.
Thermal force at top of pier,
V
uThermal
= 1.4 (V
Thermal
) = 1.4 (22.2 k) = 31.08 kips
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 46 of 55
Axial load at bottom of footing,
P
u
= 1.4 (P
s
+ P
o
) = 1.4 (24.28 k + 55.4 k) = 111.6 kips
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
uL
= (V
uThermal
)(8 ft) = (31.08 k)(8 ft) = 248.6 ftkips
M
uTo
(from pipe eccentricity) = 1.4 (M
To
) = 12.01 ftkips
Maximum factored soil bearing,
e
u1
= M
uL
/ P
u
= (248.6 ftk) / (111.6 k) = 2.23 ft > a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.33 ft
e
u2
= M
uTo
/ P
u
= (12.01 ftk) / (111.6 k) = 0.108 ft
Because transverse eccentricity is very small, it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil
bearing for design of footing reinforcing.
SBu
max
= 2 (P
u
) / (3b)(a/2  e
u1
) = (2)(111.6 k) / (3)(5.5 ft)[(8 ft)/2  (2.23 ft)] = 7.64 ksf
Calculate bearing length according to Equation 6, this Practice,
Bearing length (longitudinal direction) = 3 (a/2  e
u1
) = 3 [(8 ft)/2  (2.23 ft)] = 5.31 ft
Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment),
SBu
face of pier
= (7.64 ksf)(5.31 ft  3.33 ft) / (5.31 ft) = 2.85 ksf
Factored soil bearing at distance d from face of pier (for checking shear),
d = (18inch footing)  (3 inch clear)  1.5 (0.75inch rebar) = 13.87 inch = 1.16 ft
SBu
d from face of pier
= (7.64 ksf)(5.31 ft  3.33 ft + 1.16 ft) / (5.31 ft) = 4.52 ksf
2
.
8
5
k
s
f
4
.
5
2
k
s
f
7
.
6
4
k
s
f
1.16 ft
3.33 ft
8.00 ft
5.31 ft
Operating and longitudinal earthquake and eccentric (shell/fixed end):
Load factors are from Table 6, Load Combination 3.
Longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers,
V
LEo
= 12.10 kips applied at the center of each exchanger
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 47 of 55
Vertical load at top of piers from longitudinal operating earthquake load on exchangers (owing to
overturning moment),
P
Eo
= (12.10 kips)(2.75 ft + 8.25 ft) / (11.0 ft) = 12.10 kips
Maximum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
u
= 1.2 (P
s
+ P
o
) + 1.0 (P
Eo
) = 1.2 (24.28 k + 37.0 k) + 1.0 (12.10 k) = 85.64 kips
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
uL
= (0.7 at fixed end)(12.10 k)(2 exchangers)(8.0 ft)
+ (0.250)(4.54 k pier wt)(6.5 ft/2 + 1.5 ft)
= 140.91 ftkips
M
uTo
(from pipe eccentricity) = 1.2 (M
To
) = 1.2 (5.72 ftkips) = 6.86 ftkips
Maximum factored soil bearing,
e
u1
= M
uL
/ P
u
= (140.91 ftk) / (85.64 k) = 1.65 ft > a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.33 ft
e
u2
= M
uTo
/ P
u
= (6.86 ftk) / (85.64 k) = 0.080 ft
Because transverse eccentricity is very small, it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil
bearing for design of footing reinforcing.
SBu
max
= 2 (P
u
) / (3b)(a/2  e
u1
) = (2)(85.64 k) / (3)(5.5 ft)[(8 ft)/2  (1.65 ft)]
= 4.42 ksf
Calculate bearing length according to Eq. 6,
Bearing length (longitudinal direction) = 3 (a/2 e
u1
) = 3 [(8 ft)/2  (1.65 ft)] = 7.05 ft
Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment),
SBu
face of pier
= (4.42 ksf)(7.05 ft  3.33 ft) / (7.05 ft) = 2.33 ksf
Factored soil bearing at distance d from face of pier (for checking shear),
d = (18inch footing)  (3 inch clear)  1.5 (0.75inch rebar) = 13.87 inch = 1.16 ft
SBu
d from face of pier
= (4.42 ksf)(7.05 ft  3.33 ft + 1.16 ft) / (7.05 ft) = 3.06 ksf
2
.
3
3
k
s
f
4
.
4
2
k
s
f
1.16 ft
3.33 ft
8.00 ft
7.05 ft
3
.
0
6
k
s
f
Empty and bundle pull and eccentric (channel/sliding end; pulling top bundle out):
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 48 of 55
Load factors are from Table 6, Load Combination 9
Vertical load from bundle pull on top exchanger,
P
Bp
= (19.0 kips)(2.75 ft + 5.5 ft) / (11 ft) = 14.25 kips
Horizontal load at sliding end,
V
uSL
= V
uFX
= 1.6 (19.0 kips/2 piers) = 15.2 kips
Maximum axial load at bottom of footing,
P
u
= 1.2 (P
s
+ P
e
) + 1.6 (P
Bp
) = 1.2 (24.28 k + 40.3 k) + 1.6 (14.25 k) = 100.3 kips
Moments at bottom of footing,
M
uL
= (V
uSL
)(8.0 ft) = (15.2 kips)(8.0 ft) = 121.6 ftkips
M
uTe
(from pipe eccentricity) = 1.2 (M
Te
) = 1.2 (6.24 ftkips) = 7.49 ftkips
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
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Maximum and minimum factored soil bearing,
e
u1
= M
uL
/ P
u
= (121.6 ftkips) / (100.3 kips) = 1.21 ft a/6 = (8 ft)/6 = 1.33 ft
e
u2
= M
uTe
/ P
u
= (7.49 ftkips) / (100.3 kips) = 0.075 ft
Because transverse eccentricity is very small, it can be ignored in calculations of factored soil bearing for
design of footing reinforcing.
SBu = (P
u
/A)[1 (6)(e
u1
/a)]
SBu
max
= [(100.3 k) / (8 ft)(5.5 ft)] [1 + (6)(1.21 ft)/(8 ft)] = 4.35 ksf
SBu
min
= [(100.3 k) / (8 ft)(5.5 ft)] [1  (6)(1.21 ft)/(8 ft)] = 0.21 ksf
Factored soil bearing at face of pier (for checking moment),
SBu
face of pier
= (0.21 ksf) + (4.35 ksf  0.21 ksf)(8 ft  3.33 ft)/(8 ft) = 2.63 ksf
Factored soil bearing at distance d from face of pier (for checking shear),
d = (18inch footing)  (3inch clear)  1.5 (0.75inch rebar) = 13.87 inch = 1.16 ft
SBu
d from face of pier
= (2.63 ksf) + (4.35 ksf  0.21 ksf)(1.16 ft)/(8 ft) = 3.23 ksf
3.33 ft
8.00 ft
4
.
3
5
k
s
f
1.16 ft
3
.
2
3
k
s
f
2
.
6
3
k
s
f 0.21 ksf
By comparison, operating and thermal and eccentric (channel/sliding end) will govern the design.
Factored soil and concrete weight,
w
u
= (1.4) [(0.15 kcf)(1.5ft footing) + (0.10 kcf)(2.5ft soil)] = 0.67 ksf
Factored shear at a distance d from face of pier,
V
u
= (4.52 ksf  0.67 ksf)(3.33 ft  1.16 ft) + (7.64 ksf  4.52 ksf)(3.33 ft  1.16 ft)/2
= 8.35 kips + 3.39 kips
= 11.74 kips (per ft width)
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Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 50 of 55
Factored moment at face of pier,
M
u
= (2.85 ksf  0.67 ksf)(3.33 ft)
2
(1/2) + (7.64 ksf  2.85 ksf)(3.33 ft)
2
(1/3)
= 12.09 ftk + 17.70 ftk
= 29.79 ftk (per ft width)
Check diagonal tension shear (at a distance d from face of pier):
V
c
= 2 c f' b
w
d (ACI 31802, Eq. 113)
= (0.75)(2) psi 4,000 (12 inches)(13.87 inches) / 1,000
= 15.79 kips (per ft width) > V
u
OK
Check for twoway action (punching shear) according to ACI 31802, Section 11.12 (at
distance d/2 from face of pier):
By inspection, operating weight at channel end will govern.
P
u
= 1.4 (P
s
+ P
o
) = 1.4 [(0.15 kcf)(3.50 ft)(1.33 ft)(6.5 ft) + (55.4 kips)] = 83.9 kips
SB
u
= P
u
/ (ab) = (83.9 kips) / (8 ft)(5.5 ft) = 1.91 ksf
V
u
= P
u
 (SB
u
)(3.5 ft + d )(1.33 ft + d)
= 83.9 kips  (1.91 ksf)(3.5 ft + 1.16 ft)(1.33 ft + 1.16 ft)
= 61.7 kips
c
= (3.5 ft)/(1.33 ft) = 2.63 b
o
= 2(3.5 ft + 1.16 ft) + 2(1.33 ft + 1.16 ft) = 14.3 ft
s
= 40
V
c
= (2 + 4/
c
) c f' b
o
d
= (2 + 4/2.63) psi 4,000 (14.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.87 inches)/1,000
= 530 kips (ACI 31802, Eq. 1133)
V
c
= (
s
d/b
o
+ 2) c f' b
o
d
= [(40)(1.16 ft)/(14.3 ft) + 2] psi 4,000 (14.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.87 inches)/1,000
= 790 kips (ACI 31802, Eq. 1134)
V
c
= 4 c f' b
o
d = 4 psi 4,000 (14.3 ft)(12 inches/ft)(13.87 inches)/1,000 = 602 kips
(ACI 31802, Eq. 1135)
ACI 31802, Equation 1133, governs, V
c
= 530 kips.
V
n
= V
c
= 0.75(530 kips) = 397.5 kips > V
u
= 61.7 kips OK
Design for moment:
F = b d
2
/ 12,000 = (12 inches)(13.87 inches)
2
/ 12,000 = 0.192
K
u
= M
u
/ F = (29.79 ftk) / (0.192) = 155.2 = 0.0030
A
s
= b d = (0.0030)(12 inches)(13.87 inches) = 0.50 inches
2
/ft controls
A
s min
(for temperature reinforcing) = (0.0018)(gross concrete area)
= (0.0018)(12 inches)(18 inches)
= 0.39 inches
2
/ft (ACI 31802, Section 7.12.2)
Note that ACI 31802, Section 10.5.1, does not apply because Section 10.5.4 excludes foundations of
uniform thickness from the minimum reinforcing requirements of Section 10.5.1.
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 51 of 55
Use #6 at 10 inch each way (A
s
= 0.53 inch
2
/ft).
Top steel:
Because the bottom of the foundation is not in full bearing for some loading combinations and
because the footing is designed for earthquake loads, ductility is required; therefore, the top of the
foundation mat needs to be reinforced.
Conservatively calculate moment for top steel considering the weight of soil and concrete with a 1.4
load factor and assuming no soil bearing under the portion of the footing extending from the edge of
the pier.
Factored soil and concrete weight,
w
u
= (1.4) [(0.15 kcf)(1.5ft footing) + (0.10 kcf)(2.5ft soil)] = 0.67 ksf
Factored shear at a distance d
top
from face of pier,
d
top
= (18inch footing)  (2inch clear)  1.5(0.50inch rebar) = 15.25 inch = 1.27 ft
V
u
= (0.67 ksf)(3.33 ft  1.27 ft) = 1.38 kips (per ft width)
Factored moment at face of pier,
M
u
= (0.67 ksf)(3.33 ft)
2
(1/2) = 3.72 ftk (per ft width)
Design for moment:
F = b (d
top
)
2
/ 12,000 = (12 inches)(15.25 inches)
2
/ 12,000 = 0.233
K
u
= M
u
/ F = (3.72 ftk) / (0.233) = 16.0 = 0.0013
A
s
= b d
top
= (0.0013)(12 inches)(15.25 inches) = 0.24 inches
2
/ft controls
Note that ACI 31802, Section 10.5.1, does not apply because Section 10.5.4 excludes
foundations of uniform thickness from the minimum reinforcing requirements of Section 10.5.1.
Use #4 at 10 inches each way (A
s
= 0.24 inch
2
/ft).
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 52 of 55
Example 2 Horizontal Vessel Foundation
5 ft 6 inches
1
2
f
t

2
i
n
c
h
e
s
1
2
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
22 ft 0 inches
7 ft 0 inches
1ft 2 inches
PIERS
P
I
E
R
(
f
i
x
e
d
e
n
d
)
P
I
E
R
(
s
l
i
d
i
n
g
e
n
d
)
C
cc
Bearing plate
11 ft 9 inches by
9 inches by 3/8 inch
2  1 1/4 inch diameter
ASTM F1554, Grade 36
anchor bolts per pier
P = 4 inches (fixed end w/1 nut)
P = 5 1/4 inches (sliding end w/2 nuts)
Dimensions typical both piers
PLAN
Section "A  A"
A
A
# 4 ties @ 12 inches
13 # 5 bars each
face with matching
dowels
# 6 @ 12 inches each way
Grade
6
f
t

9
i
n
c
h
e
s
1
f
t

3
i
n
c
h
e
s
Top of grout elevation (fixed end)
Top of lowfriction manufactured
slide assembly (sliding end)
2
f
t

8
i
n
c
h
e
s
d
o
w
e
l
p
r
o
j
.
Lowfriction manufactured slide assembly:
(7 components with 1 upper element and
1 lower element per component)
Upper elements = 11 inches by 3 1/2 inches
Lower elements = 8 inches by 2 1/2 inches
5 ft 6 inches
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 53 of 55
(Example 2, continued)
DESIGN DATA
Vessel Data:
Empty weight = 98 kips
Operating weight = 335 kips
Test weight = 394 kips
Basic diameter = 12 ft
Maximum design temperature =
500F
Vessel material: carbon steel
Bolts: two 11/4inch diameter,
ASTM F1554, Grade 36
(galvanized) per pier
Bolt spacing: 11 ft0 inch
Saddle: 11 ft8 inches by 10 inches
Design Criteria:
Concrete: f '
c
= 4,000 psi
Reinforcing: f
y
= 60,000 psi
Soil unit weight: = 100 pcf
Allowable net soilbearing: SB
net
= 3.8 ksf (at 4ft depth)
Wind loads: SEI/ASCE 702,
Earthquake loads: SEI/ASCE 702
Use a 20% increase in soil allowable pressure for test load combinations.
DETERMINE LOADS
Empty, Operating, and Test Loads
Include an additional 10% of the applicable weight (empty, operating, or test) to account for piping supported
on the horizontal vessel (refer to this Practice, Section 4.2, Vertical Loads):
Total empty load, D
e
= (1.10)(98 kips) = 107.8 kips
Total operating load, D
o
= (1.10)(335 kips) = 368.5 kips
Total test load, D
t
= (1.10)(394 kips) = 433.4 kips
22 ft 0 inches
37 ft 0 inches
6
f
t

6
i
n
c
h
e
s
8
f
t

0
i
n
c
h
e
s
4
f
t

0
i
n
c
h
e
s
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 54 of 55
Transverse Moment from Pipe Eccentricity
Eccentricity = (basic diameter)/2 + (1.5 ft) = (12 ft)/2 + (1.5 ft) = 7.5 ft
Empty transverse moment per pier, M
Te
= (98 kips)(0.1)(0.5 per pier)(7.5 ft) = 36.8 ftk
Operating transverse moment per pier, M
To
=(335 kips)(0.1)(0.5 per pier)(7.5 ft)= 125.6 ftk
Test transverse moment per pier, M
Tt
= (394 kips)(0.1)(0.5 per pier)(7.5 ft) = 147.8 ftk
Wind Loads:
Wind load calculations are beyond the scope of this Practice.
Vessel wind is applied at the center of the vessel.
Transverse wind: H
w
= 13.44 kips
Longitudinal wind: H
w
= 2.85 kips
Transverse or longitudinal wind on each pier: H
w
= 0.076 ksf
Thermal Force:
1. Compute sliding force (assume that a lowfriction manufactured slide plate assembly is used):
= 0.10 (maximum based on manufacturers literature)
Operating load, P
o
= (368.5 kips) / (2 piers) = 184.3 kips
F
f
= (P
o
) = (0.10)(184.3 kips) = 18.43 kips (Ref. Eq. 1)
2. Compute force required to deflect pier:
Assume pier is 12 ft 2 inches long by 14 inches wide by 81 inches high:
Moment of inertia, I = b (h)
3
/12 = (146 inches)(14 inches)
3
/12 = 33,385 inches
4
Modulus of elasticity, E = 57,000 c f' = 57,000 psi 4,000 = 3,605 ksi
(ACI 31802, Section 8.5.1)
Thermal expansion coefficient for carbon steel at 500F: = 0.0362 inches/ft
(Ref. Table 1)
Thermal growth between saddles, = ()(L) = (0.0362 inches/ft)(22 ft) = 0.796 inches
T = 3 E I / 2 H
3
= 3 (0.796 inches)(3,605 ksi)(33,385 inches
4
) / 2 (81 inches)
3
= 270.4 kips (Ref. Eq. 2)
Because F
f
< T, and to reduce highfriction forces, use a lowfriction manufactured slide plate assembly.
DESIGN ELEMENTS
Size LowFriction Manufactured Slide Plate Elements
Upper element width = (saddle width) + 1 inch = (10 inches) + 1 inch = 11 inches
Lower element width = upper element width  2 ()  1 inch
= (11 inches)  (2)(0.796 inches)  1 inch 8 inches
Maximum load on sliding end (from test weight): P
t
= (433.4 kips) / (2 piers) = 216.7 kips
Operating load on sliding end: P
o
= (368.5 kips) / (2 piers) = 184.3 kips
According to manufacturers recommendations, seven slide plate components are required for each assembly,
with the lower element = 8 inches by 2.5 inches and the upper element
= 11 inches by 3.5 inches.
Total length of lower elements provided = 7(2.5 inches) = 17.5 inches
Maximum bearing pressure on elements = (216.7 k) / [(7)(8 inches)(2.5 inches)] = 1,548 psi
Operating bearing pressure on elements = (184.3 k) / [(7)(8 inches)(2.5 inches)] = 1,316 psi
From manufacturers literature for 1,316 psi bearing: = 0.055
Document Responsibility: Onshore Structures Standards Committee SABPQ004
Issue Date: 6 November 2007 Heat Exchanger and Horizontal
Next Update: 5 November 2012 Vessel Foundation Design Guide
Page 55 of 55
Revised operating frictional force = F
f
= (0.055)(184.3k) = 10.14 kips
Size Steel Bearing Plate
Steel bearing plate dimensions:
Width = (lower slide plate element width) + (1 inch) = (8 inches) + (1 inch) = 9 inches
Length = (saddle length) + (1 inch) = (11 ft  8 inches) + (1 inch) = 11 ft  9 inches
Check bearing stress (test load case):
P
u
= 1.4 P
t
= 1.4 (433.4 kips / 2 piers) = 303.4 kips
P
n
= 0.85 f'
c
A
1
= (0.65)(0.85)(4 ksi)(9 inches)(141 inches) = 2,804 kips, OK
(ACI 31802, Section 10.17)
Use a bearing plate 11 ft  9 inches by 9 inches by 3/8 inches.
Pier Size
Pier length:
(c/c bolts) + (2)(5inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = (11 ft  0 inches)
+ 2 (5 inches)
= 11 ft  10 inches
(bearing plate length) + (4 inches) = (11 ft  9 inches) + (4 inches)
= 12 ft  1 inch controls,
but use 12 ft  2 inches for forming in 2inch increments
Pier width:
10 inches
10% of pier height = (0.10)(81 inches) = 8.1 inches (based on assumed pier height)
(2)(5inch minimum anchor bolt edge distance) = 2 (5 inches) = 10 inches
(bearing plate width) + (4 inches) = (10 inches) + (4 inches)
= 14 inches controls
Use a pier size of 1 ft  2 inches by 12 ft  2 inches.
Anchor Bolt Design, Pier Design, and Footing Design
Anchor bolt design, pier design, and footing design are very similar to Example 1. Example 1 should be
followed for these portions of this example.