\

+ =
2
sin
2
3 t
et A
A
also) values possible other are There (
3
2
3 2
sin
t t t
e or t =

.

\

+
time) negativ yield should
3
Taking (
3
2
2
t t t
e = + t
For minimum time,
6 2 3
2 t t t
e = = t
Also,
6
2 2 t t t
e = = t
T T
12
T
t =
Example 5:
A simple harmonic oscillator has displacement equation x (5m) sin [(2s
1
)t]
(a) Locate the particle on x axis at (i) t = 0 (ii) t = 0.25 s (iii) t = 0.5 s (iv) t = 0.75 s
(v) t = 1s.
(b) Determine the distance traversed by the SHO for the interval (i) t = 0 to t = 0.25
(ii) t = 0 to t = 0.75 s.
Solution:
(a) Positions
(i) At t = 0, x = (5 m) sin 0 = 0
(ii) At t = 0.25, x = (5 m) sin

.

\

2
t
= 5 m
(iii) At t = 0.5 s, x = (5 m) sin () = 0
(iv) At t = 0.75 s, x = (5m) sin m 5
2
3
=

.

\
 t
(v) At t = 1s, x = (5m) sin2 = 0
(b) Distance traversed can be calculated from the above figure,
(i) T = 0 to t = 0.25 s, distance traversed = 5m
(ii) T = 0 to t = 0.75 s, distance traversed = 5 + 5 + 5 = 15 m
Example 6:
Two particles oscillates simple harmonically with same amplitude and same
frequency along the same straight line. The cross each other when moving in opposite
directions, each time their displacement is
2
1
times of their amplitude. What is the
minimum phase difference between them?
Solution:
Let us assume that the equations of motion for two particles are
y
1
= A sin et and y
2
= A sin (et + )
For have we
2
y and
2
2 1
A A
y = =
) sin(
2
A
and sin
2
 e e + = = t A t A
A
4
3
4
sin
2
t t
 e or t A
A
= + =
As the two particles are not in same phase,
4
3t
 e = + t
2 4 4
3 t t t
 = = .
Velocity
For a particle executing SHM, whose displacement from origin (mean position) is
x = A sin (et + 
0
),
Velocity is given as ] t Asin( Let x .[
0
 e + = =
dt
dx
v
So v = Ae cos (et + 
0
)
or v = v
0
cos (et + 
0
)
Where v
0
= Ae is the maximum magnitude of velocity.
The above result can also be written as
) ( sin ) ( sin 1
0
2 2 2
0
2
 e e  e e + = + = t A A t A v
So
2 2
x A v =e
Also } cos ) 90 sin( {
2
) ( sin
0
0 0
u u
t
 e = +
(
+ + = t v v
It clear that there is a phase difference of
2
t
between velocity and displacement. More
precisely, velocity leads displacement by an angle
2
t
.
Acceleration
If v is velocity of a particle then the term
dt
dv
is called acceleration and is given as
a = Ae
2
sin (et + 
0
)
or )] sin( [
0
2
 e e + = = t A x x a
Also, ) sin(
0 0
 e + = t a a
Where a
0
= e
2
A is known as maximum acceleration.
We can also represent the above result as
a = a
0
sin [(et + 
0
) + ]
So, it is obvious that acceleration leads velocity by a phase difference
2
t
and
acceleration is out of phase with displacement i.e., leads (or lags) displacement by .
Graphs
Let x = A sin et be the displacement equation of S.H. Oscillator.
Then v = v
0
) sin( a a and
2
sin
0
t e
t
e + =

.

\

t t
The following graphs represent the variation of displacement, velocity and
acceleration with time.
S.H.M. AS A PROJECTION OF A PARTICLE IN CIRCULAR PATH AND PHASE
Let a particle P is moving on the circumference of a circle of radius a with uniform
speed v. As the particle P moves round the circle the foot of perpendicular M, vibrates
along the diameter y y ' with amplitude a.
At any instant the distance of M from the center of the circle is called the
displacement.
And the angle phase. called is t AOP e = Z
From MOP
] [ t asin x sin t or
a
x
e u e u = = =
Here we have assumed that the particle P starts motion from x.
If initial angular position of P is  then phase at any time will be et +  so the position
of its foot M will be
x = a sin (et + )
Following table will help to know about position, velocity, acceleration of M at
difference in start if the particle start from mean position.
Note: When x = Asin (et + ),
2
2
dt
x d
a = = Ae
2
sin(et+
0
) = w
2
x
The relation 0
2
2
2
= + x
dt
x d
e is the characteristic equation of SHM.
Example 7:
Two particles are SHM on same straight line with amplitude a and 2a and with same
angular frequency e. If is observed that when first particle is at a distance
2
a
from
origin and going towards mean position, other is at extreme position on other side of
mean position. Find phase difference between the two particles.
Solution:
S.H.M. is projection of a particle moving in circular path let the particles are moving
in circular path of radii a and 2a in anticlockwise direction with same angular velocity
e.
If the projections of these particles on axis y y ' are the S.H.Ms. The first particle is at
2
a
and moving towards origin. It is the projection of rotating particle at A. The
OA vector has been rotated through angle 90 + u where
0
45 ,
2
1
tan = = u u so
Or phase of the first particle at this instant is 135
0
.
While other particle is at opposite extreme so the phase of the same particle is 270
0
,
Hence phase different will be = 270
0
135
0
= 135
0
.
Example 8:
Classify the following functions as simple harmonic motion, oscillatory but not
SHM and periodic but not oscillatory. Find the time period if the motion is
periodic.
(a) x = a sin et + b cos et
(b) x = sin et + sin 2et + sin 3et
(c) x = Ae
t
sin et
(d) x = Ae
iet
, 1 = i
(e) x = log
e
wt
Solution:
(a) x = a sin et + b cos et
t b t a
dt
dx
e e e e sin cos =
t b t a
dt
x d
e e e e cos sin
2 2
2
2
=
x
dt
x d
2
2
e =
2
So x = a sin et represent SHM.
Now as x is a function of time
u t u u t u e e cos ) 2 cos( and sin ) 2 sin( . cos sin = + = + + = n n As t b t a x , we can
write
x = a sin (et + 2n) + b cos (et + 2n)

.

\

+ +

.

\

+ =
e
t
e
e
t
e
n
t b
n
t a x
2
cos
2
sin
same is
2n
t and at t x of value The
e
t
+
e
t 2
T period ith time function w periodic a is x = .
(b) x = sin et + sin 2et + sin 3et
t t t
dt
dx
e e e e e e 3 cos 3 2 cos 2 cos + + =
and t t t
dt
x d
e e e e e e 3 sin 9 sin 4 sin
2 2 2
2
2
=
( ) t t t
dt
x d
e e e e 3 sin 9 2 sin 4 sin
2
2
2
+ + =
x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
So the given function does not represent SHM.
Let
e
t 2
= T
x(t+nT) = sine(t+nT) + sin 2e(t+nT) + sin 3e(t+nT)
= sin (et + 2n) + sin (2et + 4n) + sin (3et+6n) [As eT = 2]
= sin et + sin 2et + sin 3et
) ( ) ( t n nT t n = +
So the given function is periodic with time period T =
e
t 2
Note: Alternate method for finding time period
Time period of sin et is ) (
2
say T =
e
t
Time period of sin 2et is
2 2
2 T
=
e
t
and Time period of sin 3et is
3 3
2 T
=
e
t
So time period of sin et + sin 2et + sin 3et will be equal to LCM of
3 2
,
T
and
T
T .
T period time =
(c) x = Ae
t
sin e t
t e A t e A
dt
dx
t t
e e e
sin cos
=
t e A t e A t e A
dt
x d
t t t
e e e e e
sin cos 2 sin
2 2
2
2
+ =
Clearly x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
Hence the given function does not represents SHM.
Also we can show that
), ( ) ( t n nT t x = + so the given function is not periodic.
(d) x = Ae
iet
can be represented as
x = A ( cos et I sin et)
t iA t A
dt
dx
e e e e sin sin
2
+ =
or ) sin (cos
2
2
2
t i t A
dt
x d
e e e =
x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
So the above function represents SHM.
Again we can prove that at t and
e
t n
t
2
, the value of x remains same.
So the above function represents a periodic function with period
e
t 2
.
(e) x = log
e
(et)
t dt
dx 1
=
2 2
2
1
t dt
x d
=
As SHM. not is function given the so
2
2
2
x
dt
x d
e =
Also one can prove that
n(t + nT) n (t)
So the given function is not periodic
Example 9:
The displacement equation of a particle executing SHM is given by y = 0.02 sin
[100(t+0.5)], where all the quantities have SI units.
Find
(1) Time period of SHM
(2) Amplitude of displacement
(3) Amplitude of velocity (i.e., maximum velocity)
(4) Amplitude of acceleration (i.e., maximum acceleration)
Solution:
The displacement equation can be written as
y = 0.02 sin (100t + 50)
Comparing the above equation with,
y = A sin (et+)
We have, A = 0.02 m, e = 100
(2) Amplitude of velocity
It is A = 0.02 m.
(3) Amplitude of velocity
As have we ,
dt
dy
v =
v = 0.02 x 100 sin (100t+50)
= 2 (100t + 50)
(4) Amplitude of acceleration
As have we ,
dt
dv
a =
a = 2 x 100 sin(100t+50)
= 200
2
sin(100t + 50)
Therefore, maximum acceleration is 200
2
.
Example 10:
A particle is executing SHM with amplitude of oscillations A and maximum
acceleration having magnitude a
0
. When the particle is at a distance A
2
3
from mean
position, find its acceleration,
Solution:
Let the displacement equation for the particle be given as
x = Asin(et + ) .(i)
Note: You can directly write v
max
= Ae = 0.02 x 100 = 2
Note: a
max
= e
2
A = (100)
2
x 0.02 = 200
2
.
The velocity is given as have we , so
dt
dx
v =
v = Ae (as et+) ..(ii)
The acceleration is given as
dt
dv
a = So, we have
a = Ae
2
sin(et+) .(iii)
Now, maximum acceleration will have a magnitude Ae
2
.
So, we have
a
0
= Ae
2
.(iv)
From (i) & (ii), we get
a = e
2
x.
When
0
2 2
2
3
2
3
2
3
,
2
3
a A
A
a
A
x = =


.

\

= = e e
The magnitude of acceleration is
o
a
2
3
. The direction will depend on the sign of
x. If simple harmonic oscillation is towards right (say+ve), the acceleration will be
towards left (i.e.,  ive) and vice versa.
Example 11:
The displacement equation of a particle executing SHM is given by

.

\

+ =
6
sin
t
et A x . Find the average velocity and average speed of the particle for
time interval t = 0 to
e
t
= t .
Solution:
By definition
0
0
=
A
A
=
t
x x
t
x
V
t
av
Now,
2 6
0 sin
0
A
A x =

.

\

+ =
t
e
2 6
sin
A
A x
t
=

.

\

=
t
e
t
e
t
e
e
t
A
A A
t
x x
v
t
av
=
=
0
2 2
0
0
Average speed is the ratio of total distance travelled over total time taken. As you
know that in SHM, there is a change in direction (in fact, reversal of direction) during
the motion, the average speed is not necessarily equal to average velocity.
First let us calculate the expression for velocity. It will help us determine the turning
point. As
dt
dx
v = , we have

.

\

+ =
6
cos
t
e e t A v
At t = 0, v = e
t
e A A
2
3
6
cos =

.

\

(This is positive, so particle moving towards increasing x)
At
2
3
6
cos
6
cos ,
e t
e
t
t e
e
t A
A A v t =

.

\

=

.

\

+ = =
As the sign of velocity has changed, it must have been zero in between.
Let us find the turning point.
At turning point, velocity is zero. So, we have

.

\

+ =
6
cos 0
t
e e t A
0
6
cos =

.

\

+
t
et
.........
2
5
2
3
2 6
t t t t
e or or t = +
When
e
t
e
t t
t t
e
3
6 2
,
2 6
=
= = + t t
When
e
t
e
t t
t t
e
3
4
6 2
3
,
2
3
6
=
= = + t t
The value
e
t
3
4
lies outside the interval t = 0 to
e
t
= t , so it is not of our concern.
So, there is a change in direction of motion, once in the interval t = 0 to
e
t
= t .
Let us determine the positions at time instants 0 = t ,
e
t
e
t
= = t and
3
t .
At t = 0,
2
1
6
0 sin
0
=

.

\

+ =
t
e A x
At
2 6
sin ,
3
1
A
A x t =

.

\

+ = =
t
e
t
e
e
t
So, distance covered is A
A
A
A
2
2 2
= + +
So, average speed
t
e
e
t
A A 2 2
=

.

\

=
Example 12:
A particle moves along x axis such that at any position, its acceleration is given by a
= 25
2
x
.
If the particle starts from origin with velocity 5 m/s write the displacement
equation and find the maximum displacement of the particle along x axis.
Solution:
Let at any instant of time t, the particle is located at a position x and moving with a
speed v. The acceleration is given by
x a
2
25t =
x
dx
vdv
2
25t =
or xdx vdv
2
25t =
Integrating both sides, within proper limit,
} }
=
V
s
x
xdx vdv
0
2
25t
2
25
2
25
2
2 2 2
x v t
=
) 1 ( 5
2 2
x v t =
Now,
2 2
1 5 x
dt
dx
dt
dx
v t = =
Rearrangement and integration gives
} }
=
x t
dt
x
dx
0 0
2 2
5
1 t
  t x
x
5 ) ( sin
1
0
1
=
t
t
( ) t x t t 5 sin
1
=
t x ) 5 sin(
1
t
t
=
Example 13:
The following figure shows the graphical variation of acceleration of a particle
executing SHM along x axis about x = , with time. Draw the corresponding velocity
time and position time graph. The maximum speed of the particle is v
0
.
Solution:
Clearly, the graph is a cosine curve. The equation for acceleration is given as
T
t a a
t
e e
2
, cos
0
= =
As velocity lags behind acceleration by
2
t
, the equation for velocity is

.

\

=
2
cos
0
t
et v v
v =
v
0
sinet.
As displacement lags behind velocity by
2
t
, the displacement equation is
t A t A x e
t
e cos
2
sin =

.

\

=
Now, maximum acceleration is e
2
A which is given to be a
0
. So, e have
2
0
e
a
A=
So, the displacement equation becomes t
a
x e
e
cos
2
0
=
The graphs are given below
Example 14:
The velocity of the particle is changing with time as shown in following graph.
Find the initial velocity of the particle.
Solution:
Velocity of the particle is zero at t = 0.1 s and 5 = 0.5 s. The time taken by the particle
in moving from one extreme tc the other is 0.4 s. So time period of oscillation is 0.8
s.
2
5
8 . 0
2 2 t t t
e = = =
T
Variation of velocity with time is sinusoidal whose origine is shift to t = 0.3s.
So V = V
0
sin e (t + 0.3s)
So, initial velocity of the particle is
V = 10 sin (0+0.3s) e
t

.

\

=
2
5
10
3
sin 10
t
4
3
sin 10
t
=
s m/ 2 5
2
1
10 = =
Think Yourself:
(i) What is initial acceleration of the particle,
(ii) Find the distance travelled by the particle in 0.5 s.
Example 15:
A particle executes SHM such that its displacement from x = 0 is given by x =Asinet.
if the speeds of the particle at x = x
1
and x = x
2
are v
1
and v
2
respectively, then find
the time period of oscillations.
Solution:
For the displacement equation given by
x = Asinet, the velocity and position are related as
2 2
x A v =e
At x = x
1
, v = v
1
and at x = x
2
, v = v
2
. So, we have
2
1
2
1
x A v =e
2
2
2
2
x A v =e
Squaring and subtracting, we get
] [
2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
x x v v = e
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
x x
v v
= e
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
v v
x x
T
=
= t
ENERGY IN SHM
The particle of body executing SHM possess two energies i.e., kinetic energy and
potential energy.
Kinetic energy (K)
Kinetic energy is given by
speed its is v and particle the of mass is m where ,
2
1
2
mv K =
] A v [ ) (
2
1
2 2 2 2 2
x As x A M k So = = e e
We can also say that
(
+ = + = ) cos 1 (
2
1
cos ) 2 cos 1 (
2
1
2 2 2
u u e e As t A m K
From this expression, one can see that kinetic energy oscillates with angular frequency 2e
(and frequency 2f i.e., double the frequency of SHM)
Potential energy
m kx F x m
dt
x md
x
dt
x d
As
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
k where , e e e = = = = .
The restoring force (which in conservative) is
kx F
r
=
So work done by conservative force
}
=
x
C
dx kx W
0
2
2
1
kx W
c
=
As ) (
i f c
U U U W = A =
2
2
1
kx U U
i f
=
Taking U
i
= 0 [i.e., when x = 0, U = 0]
And U
f
= U
2
2
1
kx U =
) (
2
1
2 2 2
m k x m U e e = =
Or ] t sin A x Taking [ sin
2
1
2 2 2
e e e = = t A m U
Or ) 2 cos 1 (
4
1
2 2
t A m U e e =
As discussed in kinetic energy, one can say that in SHM potential energy oscillates
with a frequency double of the frequency of SHM.
Mechanical Energy (E
0
)
Mechanical energy in SHM is the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
U k E + =
0
2 2
0
2
1
A m E e =
Which is constant.
Variation of kinetic energy, potential energy and mechanical energy with time
Here K = E
0
cos
2
et and U = E
0
sin
2
et
Variation of kinetic energy, potential energy and mechanical energy with
position
Here, ) (
2
1
2 2 2
e e m k x m U = = ..(i)
) (
2
1
2 2 2
x A m K = e ..(ii)
2 2
0
2
1
A m E e = .(iii)
From (i) & (iii), we can write,


.

\

= =
2
A
x
A
x E
U
2
0 2
2
0
1
E k and
Example 16:
A particle executes SHM with amplitude 0.1 m. Find the displacement of the particle
from mean position, where kinetic energy and potential energy become equal.
Solution:
Let the mean position is x = 0 and the position where KE = PE is x = x.
2 2 2 2 2
2
1
) (
2
1
x m x A m e e =
2
A
or x
2
2
2
= =
A
x
In this question, A = 0.1 , 0707 . 0
2
1 . 0
= = x m
Example 17:
The kinetic energy of a particle executing SHM is given as E = E
0
sin
2
et. What are
the values of total energy and maximum potential energy. Assuming that at mean
position, potential energy is U
0
.
Solution:
The kinetic energy is E = E
0
sin
2
et. Therefore, the maximum value of kinetic energy
is E
0
.
At mean position, PE = U
0
, KE = E
0
(it is maximum at mean position).
KE PE TE instant, any At + = .
PE t E E U + = + e
2
0 0 0
sin
0
2
0
cos U t E PE + = e
So, maximum value of potential energy is U
0
+ E
0
COMPOSITION OF TWO SIMPLE HARMONICS MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
Let the two simple harmonic vibrations be represented by the equation
y
1
= A
1
sin et
y
2
= A
2
sin (et + )
The resultant displacement y of the particle is given by
y = y
1
+ y
2
= A
1
sin et + A
2
sin (et + )
= (A
1
+ A
2
cos) sin et + A
2
sin  cos et
= A sin (et + o)
Where
 cos 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
A A A A A + + =
and tan


.

\

+
=


o
cos
sin
2 1
2
A A
A
Same results can be obtained by phasor diagram for two oscillation and adding two
radius vectors
Example 18:
Two SHM acting simultaneously of a particle are given by the equations.

.

\

=
6
sin 4
1
t
et y

.

\

+ =
3
sin 2
2
t
et y
Calculate the amplitude and phase constant of resultant vibrations.
Solution:
Phase difference between two oscillations
2 6 3
t t t
=

.

\

=
So
 cos 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
A A A A A + + =
0 3 2
90 cos 3 . 4 . 2 4 4 + + =
= 5
and
3
4
2
cos 4 3
2
sin 4
cos
sin
tan
2 1
2
=
+
=
+
=
t
t


o
A A
A
or 
.

\

=
3
4
tan
1
o
1. A particle executes SHM with an amplitude of 10 cm and frequency 2 Hz. At t = 0,
the particle is at a point where speed is
2
1
time of max speed. The equation of
displacement of particle
(1) 
.

\

+
4
4 sin 1 . 0
t
et (2) 
.

\

+
3
4 sin 1 . 0
t
tt
EXERCISE
(3)

.

\

2
4 sin 1 . 0
t
tt (4) 0.1 sin (4 t)
2. A particle executes SHM a straight line so that its period is 12 s. The time it takes in
traversing a distance equal to half of its amplitude from its equilibrium position is
(1) 6s (2) 4 s (3) 2s (4) 1s
3. Starting from the origin a body oscillates simple harmonically with a period 2 s. After
what time will its kinetic energy 75% of the total energy?
(1) s
6
1
(2) s
2
1
(3) s
3
1
(4) s
12
1
4. The potential energy of a harmonic oscillator of mass 2 kg in its mean position is 5 J.
If its total energy is 9 J and its amplitude is 0.01 m, its time period would be
(1) 0.01 s (2) 0.02 s (3) 0.05 s (4) 0.1 s
5. Two particles are in SM in a straight line amplitude A and time period t of both the
particles are equal. At time t = 0, one particle is at displacement y
1
= +A and other at
2
2
A
y = , and they are approaching toward each other? After what time they will
cross each other?
(1)
3
T
(2)
4
T
(3)
6
5T
(4)
6
T
6. The time taken by a particle performing SHM to pass from point A to B where its
velocities are same is 2s. After another 2 seconds it returns to B. The time period of
oscillation is
(1) 2s (2) 8 s (3) 6s (4) 4 s
7. Time period of a particle executing SHM is 8 seconds. At t = 0 it is at the mean
position. The ratio of distance covered by the particle in the 1
st
second to the 2
nd
second.
(1)
( ) 1 2
1
+
(2)
2
1
(3) 2 (4) + 2 1
Example 19:
Two particle sexecutes SHM of same amplitude A with same period along the same
line about the same equilibrium position. Find maximum distance between the two if
the phase difference between them is .
Solution:
Let the positions of two particles varies with time as follows
x
1
= A sin et
x
2
= A sin (et + )
If the motion of first particle is observed with respect to second particle then relative
displacement
2 1
x x x
rel
=
) sin( sin  e e + = t A t A x
rel
 e  e sin cos cos sin t A t A =
 e  e sin cos ) cos 1 ( sin t A t A x
rel
=
Lets take
o  cos ) cos 1 ( A A ' = (i)
o  sin sin A A ' = ...(ii)
Then x
rel
= A sin (et + o)
Squaring and addition the equation (i) and (ii).
  
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
sin cos 2 cos A A A A A + + = '
) cos 1 ( 2
2
 = A
2 / 1
2 2
2
sin 4

.

\

= '

A A
2
sin 2

A =
So the motion of first particle w.r.t. second will be also SHM of same frequency and
the amplitude
2
sin 2

A .
Think yourself:
(i) If the maximum distance between the two is also A, find the phase
difference between them.
(ii) Repeat the same questions if two particle oscillates with different
amplitudes.
DIFFERENT SYSTEMS EXECUTING SHM
Spring mass System
Consider a massless spring whose one end is fixed at a point and other end is attached
to a block of mass m which lies on a smooth ground. The following figure shows the
arrangement in equilibrium position. This position is marked as x = 0.
The block is pulled (say towards right) through a distance x
0
and released. This
situation is shown in figure 1. When the block is at a distance x from the mean
position, its speed is v (say) and acceleration is a. this is shown in figure 2
The FBD of the block in the above position is shown below.
The magnitude of acceleration is
m
kx
.
So, acceleration can be written as, x
m
k
a =
(The negative sign appears because a is in the direction of decreasing x).
m
k
or
m
k
x
m
k
dt
x d
= =
= e e
2
2
2
As time period is given by
e
t 2
= T
Therefore,
k
m
T t 2 =
Oscillations of a Vertical Spring mass System
Let l
0
be the natural length of a spring and x
0
the extension in the spring at
equilibrium position.
So, we have, Mg = kx
0
At any instant, let x be the displacement of the block from equilibrium position.
Applying Newtons second law at this position,
] ) ( [
0
2
2
Mg x x k
dt
x d
M + =
] [
0
2
2
Mg kx kx
dt
x d
M + =
] kx Mg [
0
2
2
= = as kx
dt
x d
M
x
M
k
dt
x d

.

\

=
2
2
Comparing with x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e = , we have
M
k
=
2
e
M
k
= e
and
k
M
T t 2 =
Therefore, constant force like weight of the object do not affect the time period of
oscillation. Their presence only shifts the equilibrium position of the oscillator.
COMBINATIONS OF SPRINGS
Series Combination
Let two springs of spring constant k
1
and k
2
be connected in series with a block of
mass M. if x be net displacement of the block from equilibrium position towards right
(assuming position directive) and x
1
, x
2
are extension the two spring, we have
spring) in the developed force restoring or tension the is T Here, ( x and
2
2
1
1
k
T
k
T
x = =
Also x = x
1
+ x
2


.

\

+ = =
2 1 1
k
1 1
k
T
k
T
x
x
k k
k k
T
2 1
2 1
+
=
Net force on the block is T which tries to decrease x, So we have
T
dt
x d
M = =
2
2
x
k k
k k
dt
x d
M
2 1
2 1
2
2
+
=
x
k k M
k k
dt
x d
) (
2 1
2 1
2
2
+
=
Comparing with
x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
We get
) (
2 1
2 1 2
k k M
k k
+
= e
So
2 1
2 1
) (
2
k k
k k M
T
+
= t
or


.

\

+
=
2 1
1 1
2
k k
M
T t
Parallel Combination
Two springs of spring constants k
1
and k
2
are connected with a block of mass M as
shown.
Let x be the displacement of the block towards right (assuming positive direction)
T
1
= k
1
x
T
2
= k
2
x
Net force on the block is T
1
+ T
2
. So, we have
) (
2 1
2
2
T T
dt
x d
M + =
x k k
dt
x d
M ) (
2 1
2
2
+ =
x
M
k k
dt
x d ) (
2 1
2
2
+
=
Comparing with get we x
dt
x d
,
2
2
2
e =
M
k k
2 1
+
= e
2 1
2
k k
M
T
+
= t
Similarly, the time period of the system shown below is also
2 1
2
k k
M
T
+
= t
Two Body Oscillations
Let two blocks of masses M
1
and M
2
are placed on a smooth horizontal surface are
connected by a massless spring of spring constant k. The spring is stretched and left,
then the two blocks starts vibrating.
Let x be the extension in the spring at any instant and T be the tension in the spring.
Acceleration of block of mass M
1
will be
1
M
T
a = (towards right)
Let us describe the motion of M
2
as seen by a frame attached to M
1
.
Free body diagram of M
2
w.r.t. M
1
shown
Net force on M
2
is T + M
2
a.
) (
2
2
2
2
a M T
dt
x d
M + =
(
+ =
1
2
2
2
2
M
kx M
kx
dt
x d
M
So
2 1
2 1 2
) (
M M
M M k +
= e
) (
2
2 1
2 1
M M k
M M
T
+
= t
Angular SHM
When the oscillating particle moves on an arc of a circle, it is called angular SHM.
Simple Pendulum
It is an arrangement of a sufficiently heavy spherical bob suspended from one end of a
light, flexible and in extensible string connected to a fixed support. The following
figure shows a simple pendulum at equilibrium.
When the bob of the pendulum is displaced from equilibrium position and released, it
oscillates about the equilibrium position. We shall prove that the motion is simple
harmonic for small displacements. The figure 1 shows the instant, when the bob is
released from rest. This will be the extreme position.
Figure 2 shows the situation, in which bob is somewhere between the mean and
extreme position. The speed at this instant v is
The FBD of the bob is shown below.
The centripetal acceleration is
l
v
2
, which is not of concern at this point. The
tangential acceleration is a
T
= gsinu
Also, if the arc length from equilibrium position to the given position is x then
l
x
a = .

.

\

=
l
x
g  a as given is on accelerati l tangentia The .
The negative sign appears as a is in decreasing direction of x.
.
d
have, we .
2
2
x
l
g
dt
x
x
l
g
a As =
=
The time period of simple harmonic motion is given by
e
t 2
= T
g
l
T t 2 =
The displacement equation of the bob is x = x
0
coset or u = u
0
coset
Here, coset appears in the equation because initially (i.e., at t = 0), u = u
0
.
The result for time period of oscillations can also be calculated using torque method.
Let us consider a small sphere of mass M is connected by a massless inextensible
string. The mass be displaced slightly from its equilibrium position and left.
Let u be angular displacement of the mass M.
Restoring torque
) sin ( u t l Mg
r
=
u
u

.

\

=
l
Mgl
dt
d
2
2
Comparing with
u e
u
2
2
2
=
dt
d
We get
l
Mgl
=
2
e
Mgl
l
T t 2 =
or ] Ml l [ 2
2
2
= = As
Mgl
Ml
T t
g
l
T t 2 =
Torsional Pendulum
A body is connected by a metallic wire which is pivoted from a rigid support as
shown.
Let the body be turned by an angle u.
Restoring torque developed in the wire is given by
u t
r
u t C
r
=
Where C is called torisonal constant


.

\

= =
2
2
2
2
dt
ld
l C
dt
ld u
o t u
u
or u
u

.

\

=
l
C
dt
d
2
2
C
l
T t 2 =
Where l is moment of inertia of the body about its geometrical axis.
Example 20:
A solid cylinder of height h and density is floating in a non viscous liquid of density
0
. If the cylinder is slightly pushed downwards and left, then prove that the cylinder
will execute SHM. Also find its time period.
Solution:
Let at equilibrium, a length h of the cylinder is inside.
At equilibrium
AHg = Ah
0
h [As net force on the cylinder is zero]
0
h H =
Let at any instant t the displacement of the cylinder be x in down wards (i.e., positive)
direction.
By Newtons second law,
] ) ( [
2
2
g AH g x h A
dt
x d
M
o
= + =
] [ g AH g Ax g Ah
o o
+ =
x g A
dt
x d
AH ) ( ) (
0
2
2
=
x
H
g
dt
x d


.

\

=
0
2
2
Comparing with
x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
H
g
e
0 2
=
g
H
T
0
2
t =
Or
(
= = h
H
As
g
h
T
0
2
t
Example 21:
A small block of mass M is connected by three identical springs as shown in figure.
Calculate the time period of the oscillation of the block for small displacement along
one of the springs.
Solution:
Let the block be displaced slightly by x in downwards direction.
So expansion in the upper spring is x.
Now let be component of x in a direction making an angle 60
0
with it.
a = x cos 60
0
2
x
a =
So compression in the other two springs is
2
x
each.
Net force on the block 
.

\

+ =
2
kx
kx
kx
dt
x d
M
2
3
2
2
=
M
k
2
3
2
= e
and
k
M
T
3
2
2t = .
Example 22:
The centre of a solid sphere, of mass m and radius R placed on a rough horizontal
plane, is connected to a spring of stiffness k as shown in the figure. An impulse is
provided to the sphere at its mean position and the sphere starts oscillating. Find the
time period of oscillation, if there is no slipping anywhere.
Solution:
Let us draw Free body diagram at a displacement x (towards right) from mean
position while sphere is moving towards right direction.
Here,
e = angular velocity about centre,
v = linear velocity of centre,
o = angular acceleration about centre,
f = force of friction
Force Method
Using 2
nd
law of motion
= ma F
ma kx f =
and
= o t l ..(i)
o
2
5
2
mR fR=
o mR f
5
2
= ..(ii)
For no slipping
a = R o .(iii)
From (i), (ii), & (iii)
ma kx ma =
5
2
x x
m
k
a
2
7
5
e =

.

\

=
i.e., ) ( x a
By definition, motion is SHM with time period
k
m
t
5
7
2
2
t
e
t
= =
Energy Method
Since, there is no dissipative force acting on spring mass system, hence total
mechanical energy of the system remains conserved i.e.,
.
5
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2 2
const mR mv kx E =

.

\

+ + = e
For no slipping, v = er
2
2 2 2
5
2
2
1
2
1
2
1

.

\


.

\

+ + =
R
v
mR mv kx E
Differentiating the above equation w.r.t. time (t) we get
dt
dv
v m
dt
dv
v m
dt
dx
x k 2
5
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
0 + + =
If then, 0 = =
dt
dx
v
x
m
k
dt
dv

.

\

=
7
5
i.e., x x
m
k
a
2
7
5
e =

.

\

=
k
m
5
7
2
2
T with S.H.M. is motion , definition by t
e
t
= =
Example 23:
Find the time period of oscillation of the block in following arrangement. (Assume the
pulley is ideal)
Solution:
Lets assume under equilibrium condition extension in spring is x
0
. Tension in spring
is kx
0
. Tension in spring to which is block is attached is T.
2T = kx
0
and T = mg
If block is displaced in downward direction by distance x then addition extension in
spring will be
2
x
. So spring force will be equals to k 
.

\

+
2
0
x
x
Tension in string 
.

\

+ = '
2 2
0
x
x
k
T
Net force on the block

.

\

+ =
2 2
0
x
x
k
mg F
4 2
0
kx kx
mg = ] T mg [ =
(
= =
2 4 2
0 0
kx
T
kx kx
T
4
kx
F =
So effective force constant is
4
k
.
Time period of oscillation
eq
k
m
t 2 =
k
m 4
2t = . `
Think yourself:
(i) Does the answer will differ if there is no gravity or it is double the
present value.
(ii) Solve the same result using energy method explained in previous
example.
Example 24:
Find the time period of oscillation in following arrangement.
Solution:
As the time period of oscillation for spring mass system is independent of gravity
[As the restoring force is not provided by gravity]. So we can neglect he gravity in
calculation of time period of oscillation. The block M is displaced in downward
direction by x. Lets assume extension produced in three springs A, B and C are x
1,
x
2
and x
3
respectively then
From constrain relations
x = x
1
+ 2x
2
+ x
3
If T is tension in spring A and B respectively then tension spring C will be 2T so
T = k
1
x
1
= k
3
x
3
and 2T = k
2
x
2
Substituting the values of x
1
, x
2
are x
3
in equation (i)
3 2 1
4
k
T
k
T
k
T
x + + =
or
1
3 2 1
1 4 1


.

\

+ + =
k k k
x T
So effective force constant is
1
3 2 1
1 4 1


.

\

+ + =
k k k
k
eff
Time period of oscillation will be
eff
2
k
m
T t =


.

\

+ + =
3 2 1
1 4 1
2
k k k
m t
Think yourself:
(i) In which of the following case time period will maximum
(a) k
1
= k
2
k
3
= k
(b) k
1
= k
3
k
2
= k
(c) k
2
= k
3
k
1
= k
(ii) if block is release from situation when all springs are in natural length then
find amplitude of oscillation of the block M.
Example 25:
A rod of length 2 m and mass 2kg is suspended from a vertical wall through a nail is
hinged at a point 0.5 m from one end of the rod. For small oscillation, find the time
period. [g = 10 m/s
2
]
Solution:
Mass of rod = m = 2 kg.
Length of rod = l = 2m.
The moment of inertia of the rod about an axis passing through the point of
suspension and perpendicular to the plane of wall through which rod is hanging is
given by.
48
7
4 12
2
2
2
2
ml l
m
ml
md l l
cm
=

.

\

+ = + =
and the distance of centre of mass of rod from the point of suspension is
figure. in shown as
4
l
d =
The time period of a compound pendulum for small oscillation is
mgd
l
t t 2 = .
This is proved below
t = mgd sin u
) sin (
2
2
u u u
u
= = mg
dt
d
l
u
u
l
mgd
dt
d
or =
2
l
mgd
=
2
e
mgd
l
t t 2 =
i.e., time period of rod
4
48
7
2
2
l
mg
ml
= t t
10 12
2 7
2
12
7
2
= = t t
g
l
s
15
7
t =
s 14 . 2 =
Damped and forced oscillations
Generally, there are external forces which act on the system other than the restoring
force. If the external force damps the system and dissipates the systems energy, it is
called the damping force. Example of this is the friction of the viscous force. The
motion is then a damped oscillation. If energy is pumped into the system by an
external force, the force is called driving force and the oscillation is named as forced
oscillation.
When the driving force has its frequency equal to the natural frequency of the system,
the system is under resonance.
Example 26:
Find the least time taken by a simple harmonic oscillator to traverse the distance from
positive extreme to a point at a distance of
2
3A
from mean position towards negative
extreme, where A is the amplitude and T is the time period of sample harmonic
motion.
Solution:
Let the particle starts its motion (at t = 0) from mean position, reaches the +velocity
extreme first time at time instant t
1
and point P at time instant t
2
. The equation of
displacement of the particle performing S.H.<. is given by
x = A sin et
At positive extreme
A = A sinet
1
(
= =
2
first time for since ) 1 .......(
2
1
t
u
t
et
At point P
2
sin
2
3
t A A e =
3
2
3
2
t
t
t
t e + = or t
But for first time
3
4
3
2
t t
t e = + = t .(2)
From (1) & (2), time taken to each from positive extreme to point P is given as

.

\

= = =
e
t
e
t
e
t
e
t 2
12
5
6
5
2 3
4
1 2
t t
12
5
1 2
T
t t t = = A
Example 27:
A particle is subjected to two simple harmonic motions
x
1
= 3 cm sin ( s
1
) t and
)
`
+ =
2
) ( sin 4
1
2
t
t t s cm x . Find
(a) the displacement of the a particle from mean position at t = 0.
(b) The maximum speed of the particle and
(c) The maximum acceleration of the particle.
Solution:
(a) At t = 0, x
1
= 3 cm, sin u = 0
cm cm 4
2
sin 4 x and
2
= =
t
cm x x x 4
2 1
= + =
(b) Resultant amplitude
o cos 2
2 1
2
2
2
1
A A A A A + + =
cm 5
2
cos 4 3 2 4 3
2 2
= + + =
t
) )( 5 (
1
max
= = s cm A V t e
cm/s 5t =
(angular frequency of resultant S.H.M. is same as individual equal angular
frequencies)
(c)
2 2 2 1 2
max
/ 5 ) 5 ( ) ( s cm cm s A a t t e = = =
.
Example 25:
A block of mass M attached to the end of a spring of force constant k is mounted on a
smooth horizontal table as shown in figure.
The block executes SHM with amplitude A and frequency f. if an object of mass m is
put on it, when the block is passing through its equilibrium position and the two move
together, then what is the new amplitude and frequency of vibration.
Solution:
Initially the mass of oscillating system is M
M
k
f
t 2
1
=
Let f be the new frequency and A' be the new amplitude of vibration.
When block of mass m placed on block m, the total mass of oscillating system
becomes M + m.
) ( 2
1
M m
k
f
+
=
t
Now
) (
1
M m
M
f
f
+
= = '
) ( M m
M
f f
+
= ' .(i)
The new frequency of oscillation f is less than f.
When mass M passes through its mean position, it has maximum speed.
Let v and V be the speed of block of mass M and M + m respectively at equilibrium
position.
By conservation of linear momentum for the collision.
Mv = (m+M) V
( ) f A M m t MA ' ' + = t t 2 ) ( 2
f
f
M m
M
A
A
'
+
=
'
) (
Using equation (i)
) ( M m
m
A A
+
= '
Example 29:
Figure shows two light springs S
1
and S
2
of force constant 1.6 N/m and 3.6 N/, with
one end of each spring fixed on rigid supports and a block of mass 0.4 kg lying
between them on a smooth horizontal surface. The distance between the free ends of
springs is 80 cm. The block starts moving towards spring S
2
with constant speed
v = 1.6 m/s in between the springs. Calculate the period of oscillation of the block and
also predict whether the motion is SHM?
Solution:
The block is moving with constant speed towards S
2
. When it touches the spring S
2
, it
will compress the spring and its K.E. convert into elastic energy of spring. The
compressed spring will push the block back towards S with same speed, so the time
taken by block to move from S towards Q and then back to S will be equal to half the
time period of oscillation of system containing a block of mass 0.5 kg attached to
spring of spring constant 3.6 N/m.
Let t
1
be the time taken by block to move from S towards Q and back to S.
9
1
6 . 3
4 . 0
2
2
1
t t
t
= = =
k
m
t
s
3
t
=
Similarly time t
2
taken by block to move from R towards P and back to R is given by
s t
4 6 . 1
4 . 0
2
t
t = =
Now, during oscillation between P and Q the block moves the distance RS twice with
uniform speed 1.6 m/s once from R to S and again from S to R. Let t
3
be time taken
by it.
s
v
RS
t 1
6 . 1
8 . 0
2 2
3
= = =
3 2 1
t n oscillatio of period The t t + + =
s 82 . 2 1
4 3
= + + =
t t
Now, for SHM the accelerations of oscillating body is directly proportional to its
displacement from mean position and acts in opposite direction of displacement.
But in this case block has constant speed between R and S 0 = a .
Example 30:
In the figure shown the spring is released. The spring is compressed by 2A and
released. Mass M attached with the spring collides with the wall and losses rd
3
2
of
its kinetic energy. Find the time after which the spring will have maximum
compression first time after releasing.
Solution:
The block is released from situation shown in above figure. As the block start from
rest so initial total energy Total energy = Potential energy + kinetic energy
0 ) 2 (
2
1
2
+ = A k
2
2kA = .
So the instant at which is strikes the wall its kinetic energy will be equal to
2 2
2
1
2 kA kA =
2
2
3
kA =
Before this motion of the block will be SMH of amplitude 2A and time period
k
m
t 2 . During motion of the block from 2A to A it has covered the phase of 
.

\

3
2t
so time taken by the block from 2A to A.
= interval) Phase (
2
t
T
3 3
2
2
T T
=

.

\

=
t
t
Now just after the collision its kinetic energy
2
2
1
kA (One third of the kinetic energy
before collision)
Now the motion of block will be SHM of lesser amplitude say A' so from equation.
K.E. ) (
2
1
2 2
x A k ' =
) (
2
1
2
2 2
2
A A k
kA
' =
2 2
2A A = '
or 2 A A = '
Let the equation of displacement of the block after collision is (Taking collision
instant t = 0)
) sin( 2  e + = t A x
At
4
3
4
0
t t
 or so A x t = = =
As velocity is negative so
4
3t
 =
Compression in spring will be maximum when the block is at 2 A x =
1
4
sin =

.

\

+
t
et
2
3
4
3 t t
e = + t
4
3 2 t t
= t
T
8
3t
= t
So the total time
8
3
3
T T
+ =
24
17T
=
=
k
m
12
17t
Think yourself:
(i) What will the answer if collision of the block from wall is elastic.
(ii) Write the equation of displacement of the block taking mean position as
origin before collision.
8. Two blocks A and B of masses 0.3 kg and 0.4 kg respectively are stick to each other
by some weak glue as shown in the figure. They hang together at end of a spring with
a spring constant k = 200 N/m. The block b suddenly falls free due to failure of glue
find
(1) Period of SHM block
(2) Amplitude of its SHM
(3) Total energy of oscillation
9. A spring block system is kept on a horizontal smooth plane as shown AB and CD are
two rigid walls. Separation between the block and wall CD is d.
EXERCISE
(1) What is the maximum velocity that can be imparted to the block of mass m,
towards wall CD such that time period of the oscillations under the action of
spring force, is
k
m
t 2 , where k is the spring constant of the ideal spring.
(2) If velocity imparted is twice this maximum value find the time period of
oscillations of the spring block system.
10. A particle of mass m is allowed to oscillate near the minimum of a vertical parabolic
surface having the equation x
2
= 4ay. The angular frequency of small oscillation is
given by
(1) ga (2)
a
g
(3)
a
g
2
(4)
a
g 2
11. A system shown in figure consists of massless pulley, a spring of force constant k and
a block of mass m. if block is just slightly displaced vertically down from its
equilibrium position and released, the period of vertical oscillations is
(1)
k
m
T
4
2t = (2)
k
m
T
4
2t = (3)
k
m
T
2
2t = (4)
k
m
T
2
2t =
12. A ring of mass m and radius R is pivoted at a point O on its periphery. It is free to
rotate about an axis perpendicular to its plane. W hat is the time period of oscillation
ring?
13. A small ball of mass m is projected from center of earth along a tunnel across the
diameter such that its speed gR v 01 . 1 = . Find the time period of the ball.
Example 31:
A block of mass 5 g attached between the free ends of two identical springs, each of
force constant 1 N/m, is placed on a horizontal smooth surface as shown in figure. To
the block a pointer (very light in weight) is attached, which touches a vertical moving
plane sheet. The block is now displaced by 50 cm along the line of springs and
released. The sheet is moving in vertical direction with speed 10 cm/s. Find the
equation of the path traced by the pointer on sheet and the distance between two
consecutive minima of the path.
Solution:
In this case the spring pendulum is constructed by using two identical springs, each of
force constant 1 N/m.
m N k k k / 2 1 1
2 1
= + = + =
Mass of block is 5g or 0.005 kg
f and H
m
k
f t e t t t 2 ) 20 ( 2
005 . 0
2
2 2
2
= = = =
s rad / 20 = e
As the block is displaced by 50 cm
m 0.50 ns oscillatio of amplitude =
Now for SHM along x axis
x = A sin (et + )
Here,  is phase constant
A = 0.5 m and e = 20 rad/s
) 20 sin( 5 . 0  + = t x .(i)
Now, paper is moving vertically upward with speed 10 cm/s or 0.1 m/s
m/s 0.1 of speed paper with to relative downward y verticall moving is pointer The .
t y 1 . 0 = .(ii)
The equation of the path can be obtained by eliminating t between equation (i) and (ii)
i.e.,
x = 0.5 sin (200y+)
Now x will be minimum when
sin (200y+) = 1
i.e., ,........ 11 , 7 , 3
2
200 = + = + n
n
y
t

2
7
200
2
3
200
2 1
t t
 = = + y and y
100 200
2
200
1
2
3
2
7
1 2
t t t t
= =
(
= y y
= 0.0314 m 3.14 cm
cm 3.14 is minima e consecutiv o between tw distance .
Example 32:
One end of a rod of length l and mass m attached to spring of force constant k and
other end can rotate about point O as shown in figure. The spring is connected
between one end of the rod and a fixed wall. When rod is in equilibrium it is parallel
to the wall. Find the period of oscillations that result when rod is slightly rotated about
O in a vertical plane and released. Also find the maximum speed of free end of rod,
when the amplitude of oscillation is u
0
.
Solution:
Suppose rod is displaced from equilibrium position by x distance.
i.e., spring the to due developed be will torque restoring the
Fl = t
Now kx F =
kxl = t
As x is may small u u l or x = =
l
x
u t
2
kl = .(i)
Now, according to Newtons second law for rotational motion,
o t l =
Where
2
2
2
,
3
1
dt
d
ml l
u
o = =
2
2
2
3
1
dt
d
ml
u
t = .(ii)
From (i) & (ii)
u
u
2
2
2
2
3
1
kl
dt
d
ml =
u
u
m
k
dt
d 3
2
2
=
or
m
k
with
dt
d 3
2
2
2
= e u e
u
This is standard equation of angular SHM
k
m
3
2
2
period time t
e
t
= =
Now, the amplitude of oscillations is u
0
.
m
mk
0 0
max
dt
d
locity angular ve Maximum u e u
u
= =

.

\

=
m
k
l
3
dt
d
l end free of speed Maximum
0
max
u
u
=

.

\

=
Example 33:
A block of mass M attached to the free end of a spring of force constant k is placed on
a smooth horizontal table as shown in figure. A block of mass m is placed on the top
rough surface of the first block. The coefficient of static friction between the surfaces
of two blocks is . If we assume that two bodies move together as a unit, then find the
period of oscillation of the system and the maximum oscillation amplitude that allows
the two bodies to move as a unit.
Solution:
Suppose block of mass M is displaced from it equilibrium position and released. It
will execute SHM. Let x be the displacement of block at any instant, then the equation
of SHM (linear) can be written as
kx
dt
x d
M m = +
2
2
) (
or x
M m
k
dt
x d
) (
2
2
+
=
or x
dt
x d
2
2
2
e =
Where
) ( M m
k
+
= e
) (
2
2
SHM of period Time
M m
k
+
= = t
e
t
Now, we want that blocks move as a unit, which is possible only when block of mass
m does not slide on the surface of block of mass M.
At extreme position the force acting on block of mass m is maximum.
For the two blocks to move as a unit, in the extreme position, the force on m should
be less then maximum static frictional force.
Now static frictional force = mg ] [ N f =
Let A be the amplitude of SHM
unit a as move to bodies For two
k
M m g
A
g
A m
) (
2
2
+
s s
e
e
Maximum amplitude of oscillations that permits the two bodies to move as a unit is
k
M m g
A
) ( +
=
Example 34:
A small steel ball of mass m placed inside at a small distance from the centre of a
smooth concave surface of radius r and released. Find the time period of oscillation of
ball.
Solution:
When ball is placed at some distance from the centre O of concave surface and
released, it will oscillate about O. The restoring force will be due to gravity.
Restoring torque acting on ball due to the free to gravity t = mgl
u u u r rsin l small very is = =
u t mgr = (i)
As restoring torque and opposite to displacement,
Therefore motion will be SHM
Now t = lo
Where l = moment of inertia = ml
2
2
2
dt
d u
o = ..(ii)
From equation (i) and (ii)
u
u
mgr
dt
d
mr =
2
2
2
u
u
4
2
2
g
dt
d
=
or
r
g
dt
d
= =
2 2
2
2
with e u e
u
Therefore time period of oscillations
g
r
t
e
t
2
2
= =
Example 35:
Find the time period of oscillation of a body of mass m dropped in a tunnel along the
diameter (2R) of the earth and also find the effect on the time period, if the tunnel is
along a chord not along diameter of earth.
Solution:
Consider earth to be sphere of radius R and centre O suppose that body drooped into
the tunnel is at P i.e., at depth d from the surface of earth.
then P, at gravity to due on accelerati is g If '
(
=
(
= '
R
d R
g
R
d
g g 1
The ve sign has been included so as to indicate that as d increases, g' decreases.
Let y be the distance of body from the earths center.
y d R =
y
R
g
g =
Since
R
g
is constant, the value of acceleration due to gravity at any point is directly
proportional to the displacement of body at that instant. Hence the motion executed by
the body dropped in the tunnel is SHM.
R
g
y g =
2 2
where , e e
minutes 6 . 84 2 =
g
R
T t
(a) T is independent of mass of body and depends on R and g (both are constant)
Now, consider the tunnel is along a chord and body at any time is at a distance x
from the center of the tunnel and F be the restoring force on the body due to
gravity.
x F F
3
R
GMm
 F where sin = = u
(
=
x
y
x
R
GMm
F
3
x
R
GMm
.
3
=
or F = kx
SHM again is motion
GM
R
GMm
mR
k
m
T
3 3
2 2 2 t t t = = =
But
2
R
GM
g =
minute 6 . 84 2 = =
G
R
T t
Motion is SHM with same time period as in the case when tunnel is along a
diameter of the earth.
Example 36:
A uniform horizontal plank is resting symmetrically in a horizontal position on two
cylindrical rods, which are spinning in opposite directions about their horizontal axes
with equal angular velocity. The distance between the axes is 10 cm and the
coefficient of friction between the plank and cylinder is 0.81. If plank is displaced
slightly from the equilibrium position along its length and released, then show that it
performs SHM. Calculate also the time period of oscillation.
Solution:
When plank is situated symmetrically on the rods, its CM will lie exactly between the
rods. As a result of this, the reactions on plank from rods will be equal.
Now, frictional force f
A
= f
B
= N
The force of friction will be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction as result
of which the plank will be in equilibrium along vertical as well as in horizontal
direction.
(b)