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Ch1: What is Organizational Behavior?.

Q1: What is the importance of Interpersonal Skills?


1. Lower turnover of quality employees.
2. Higher quality applications for recruitment.
3. Better financial performance.
Q2: What o !anagers o in terms of f"nctions# roles# an skills?
In terms of f"nctions# managers o the follo$ing:
%lanning:
A process that includes defining goals, estalishing strategy, and developing
plans to coordinate activities.
As managers advance, they do this function more often.
Organizing:
!etermining what tas"s are to e done, who is to do them, how the tas"s are to
e grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to e made.
&eaing:
A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the
most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.
Controlling:
#onitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set
goals, and correcting any deviation.
In terms of roles# managers o the follo$ing:
Interpersonal 'oles:
1. (ig"rehea: symolic head$ requires to perform a numer of routine duties of a
legal or social nature.
2. &eaer: responsile for the motivation and direction of employees.
3. &iaison: maintains a networ" of outside contacts who provide favors and
information.
Informational 'oles:
1. !onitor: receives wide variety of information$ serves as nerves center of
internal and e%ternal information of the organi&ation.
2. )isseminator: transmits information received from outsiders or from other
employees to memers of the organi&ation.
3. Spokesperson: transmits information to outsiders on organi&ations plans,
policies, actions, and results$ serves as e%pert on organi&ations industry.
)ecisional 'oles
1. *ntreprene"r: searches organi&ation and its environment for opportunities and
initiates pro'ects to ring aout change.
2. )ist"r+ance ,anler: responsile for corrective action when organi&ation
faces important, une%pected disturances.
3. 'eso"rce -llocator: ma"es or approves significant organi&ational decisions.
(. .egotiator: responsile for representing the organi&ation at ma'or negotiations.
In terms of skills# managers o the follo$ing:
1. /echnical Skills: )he aility to apply speciali&ed "nowledge or e%pertise.
2. ,"man Skills: )he aility to wor" with, understand, and motivate other people,
oth individually and in groups.
3. Concept"al Skills: )he mental aility to analy&e and diagnose comple%
situations.
Q0: What is Organizational Behavior 1OB2?
Organizational +ehavior: is a field of study that investigates the impact that
individuals, groups, and structure have on ehavior within organi&ations, for the
purpose of applying such "nowledge toward improving an organi&ation*s
effectiveness.
Q3: Wh4 is it importance to complementing Int"ition $ith S4stematic St"4?.
)he importance of the +vidence Based #anagement is asing managerial decisions on
the est availale scientific evidence.
And for the ,ntuition it-s a gut feeling not necessarily supported y research.
,n addition that #anager .hould /se All )hree Approaches
)he tric" is to "now when to go.
,ntuition is often ased on inaccurate information.
.ystematic study can e time0consuming.
-nother ans$er:
An 1utgrowth of .ystematic .tudy2
+vidence Based #anagement3 #ust thin" li"e scientists3
4ose a managerial question
.earch for est availale evidence
Apply relevant information to case
Q5: What are the ma6or +ehavior science isciplines that Contri+"te to the OB
(iel?
1. %s4cholog4: )he science that see"s to measure, e%plain, and sometimes change the
ehavior of humans and other animals. /nit of Analysis3 ,ndividual
2. Social %s4cholog4: An area within psychology that lends concepts from
psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one
another. /nit of Analysis3 5roup
3. Sociolog4: )he study of people in relation to their social environment or culture.
/nit of Analysis3 1rgani&ational .ystem 65roup
(. Anthropology3 )he study of societies to learn aout human eings and their
activities. /nit of Analysis3 1rgani&ational .ystem 65roup.
Q7: Wh4 are there (e$ -+sol"tes in OB?
Beca"se of situational factors that ma"e the main relationship etween two variales
change 2 e.g., the relationship may hold for one condition ut not another.
Q8: What are the challenges an opport"nities for managers in "sing OB
concepts?
1. 7esponding to 5loali&ation
2. #anaging 8or"force !iversity
3. ,mproving 9uality and 4roductivity
(. ,mproving :ustomer .ervice
;. ,mproving 4eople ."ills
<. .timulating ,nnovation and :hange
=. :oping with >)emporariness?
@. 8or"ing in Aetwor"ed 1rgani&ations
B. Helping +mployees Balance 8or"0Life :onflicts
1C.:reating a 4ositive 8or" +nvironment
11. ,mproving +thical Behavior
Q9: What are the three levels of anal4sis in this +ooks OB moel?
)here are three main levels that included in the D1rgani&ational Behavior #odelD, and
they are as the following3
1. Inivi"al : &evel ;aria+les:
Biographical characteristics, personality and emotions, values and attitudes,
aility, perception, motivation, individual learning and individual decision
ma"ing
2. <ro"p : &evel ;aria+les:
:ommunication, group decision ma"ing, leadership and trust, group structure,
conflict, power and politics, and wor" teams.
0. Organization S4stem : &evel ;aria+les:
1rgani&ational culture, human resource policies and practices, and
organi&ational structure and design.
Ch2: (o"nations of Inivi"al Behavior.
Q1: What are the t$o t4pes of a+ilit4?
/4pes of -+ilit4
1. ,ntellectual Ailities3
2. 4hysical Ailities3
Q2: What is intellect"al or cognitive a+ilit4# an is it relevant to OB?
Intellect"al -+ilit43 the capacity to do mental activities such as$ thin"ing, reasoning,
and prolem solving.
)imensions of Intellect"al -+ilit4
1. Aumer Aptitude.
2. Eeral :omprehension.
3. 4erceptual .peed.
(. ,nductive 7easoning .
;. !eductive 7easoning .
<. .patial Eisuali&ation.
=. #emory.

Q0: What are the ke4 +iographical characteristics# an $h4 are the4 relevant to
OB?
%ersonal Characteristics:
1. -ge: 1lder wor"ers ring e%perience, 'udgment, a strong wor" ethic, and
commitment to quality.
2. <ener: Few differences etween men and women that affect 'o performance.
0. 'ace (the biological heritage used to identify oneself):
:ontentious issue3 differences e%ist, ut could e more culture0ased than race0
ased.
Other Biographical Characteristics
1. /en"re: 4eople with 'o tenure Gseniority at a 'oH are more productive, asent
less frequently, have lower turnover, and are more satisfied.
2. 'eligion: ,slam is especially prolematic in the wor"place in this post0BI11 world.
3. Se="al orientation: Federal law does not protect against discrimination Gut state
or local laws mayH. !omestic partner enefits are important considerations.
(. <ener ientit4: 7elatively new issue J transgendered employees.
Q3: What is learning# an $hat are the ma6or theories of learning?
&earning: a relatively permanent change in ehavior that occurs as a result of
e%perience.
!a6or theories of learning:
1. Classical Conitioning: A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to
some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
2. Operant Conitioning: A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
ehavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment
3. Social>&earning /heor4: 4eople can learn through oservation and direct
e%perience. +%3 Attentional processes 0 7etention processes 0 #otor reproduction
processes 0 7einforcement processes.
Q5: What is shaping# an ho$ can it +e "se as a management tool?
Shaping Behavior: systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an
individual closer to the desired response.
?e4 Concepts
7einforcement is required to change ehavior.
.ome rewards are more effective than others.
)he timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence.
Sche"le of 'einforcement
1. Contin"o"s 'einforcement3 A desired ehavior is reinforced each time it is
demonstrated.
2. Intermittent 'einforcement3 A desired ehavior is reinforced often enough to
ma"e the ehavior worth repeating ut not every time it is demonstrated
(i=e interval sche"le: 7ewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.
;aria+le interval sche"le: 7ewards are initiated after a fi%ed or constant
numer of responses
(i=e ratio sche"le: 7eward given at amounts of output
;aria+le ratio sche"le: 7eward given at a variale amounts of output.
Q7: ,o$ oes c"lt"re affect o"r "nerstaning of intellect"al a+ilities#
+iographical characteristics# an learning?
Intellect"al a+ilities
)hin"ing of the people differ from person to another one, that depends on his
environment, thin"ing, s"ills, ailities, talent, e%perience and his aility to solve
prolems. )he culture can affect our understanding of intellectual a+ilities as follo$s3
Aumer Aptitude3
Eeral :omprehension3 the people who have good communication s"ills
4erceptual .peed3 the people who have a speed understanding of the situation
,nductive 7easoning3 solve prolems in their wor" many immediately and in
good way.
!eductive 7easoning3 the people who analy&e the situation and "now the main
reason for any phenomenon
.patial Eisuali&ation3 that depends on the thin"ing way of the person.
#emory3 who have a good memory
Biographical characteristics:
)he culture can affect our understanding of Biographical characteristics as follows3
1. -ge: 1lder wor"ers ring e%perience, 'udgment, a strong wor" ethic, and
commitment to quality.
2. <ener: Few differences etween men and women that affect 'o performance.
3. 'ace: differences e%ist, ut could e more culture0ased than race0ased.
(. /en"re: 4eople with 'o tenure are more productive, asent less frequently,
have lower turnover, and are more satisfied.
;. 'eligion: ,slam is especially prolematic in the wor"place in this post0BI11
world.
<. Se="al orientation: Federal law does not protect against discrimination
=. gener ientit4: 7elatively new issue.
&earning: )he culture can affect our understanding of learning as follows3
1. ,nvolves change
2. ,s relatively permanent
3. ,s acquired through e%perience.
Ch0: -ttit"es an @o+ Satisfaction.
Q1: What are the main components of attit"es?. -re these components relate
or "nrelate?.
:ognitive :omponent 3 )he opinion or elief segment of an attitude.
Affective :omponent 3 )he emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.
Behavioral :omponent 3 An intention to ehave in a certain way toward
someone or something.
/he4 are relate together# :ognitive :omponent: helps to evaluate the wor" oth in
terms of positive or negative, and this leads to support the affective :omponent and
improve the ehavioral :omponent toward the 'o.
Q2: )oes +ehavior al$a4s follo$ from attit"es?. Wh4 or $h4 not?. )isc"ss the
factors that affect $hether +ehavior follo$ from attit"es.
It epens on the nat"re of the case an $hether 4es or no. Any incompatiility
etween two or more attitudes or etween ehavior and attitudes.
,ndividuals see" to reduce this uncomfortale gap, or dissonance, to reach
staility and consistency.
:onsistency is achieved y changing the attitudes, modifying the ehaviors, or
through rationali&ation.
)esire to re"ce issonance epens on:
,mportance of elements
!egree of individual influence
7ewards involved in dissonance
%reicting Behavior from -ttit"es
,mportant attitudes have a strong relationship to ehavior.
)he closer match etween attitude and ehavior, the stronger the relationship3
.pecific attitudes predict specific ehavior.
5eneral attitudes predict general ehavior.
High social pressures reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance.
Attitudes ased on personal e%perience are stronger predictors.
-ttit"es preict +ehavior# as infl"ence +4 moerating varia+les.
Q0: What are the ma6or 6o+ attit"es?. In $hat $a4s are these attit"es alike?.
What is "niA"e a+o"t each?.
1. @o+ Satisfaction: A positive feeling aout the 'o resulting from an evaluation
of its characteristics
2. @o+ Involvement: !egree of psychological identification with the 'o where
perceived performance is important to self0worth.
3. %s4chological *mpo$erment: Belief in the degree of influence over the 'o,
competence, 'o meaningfulness, and autonomy.
(. Organizational Commitment: ,dentifying with a particular organi&ation and
its goals, while wishing to maintain memership in the organi&ation.
;. %erceive Organizational S"pport 1%OS2: !egree to which employees
elieve the organi&ation values their contriution and cares aout their well0
eing.
<. *mplo4ee *ngagement: )he degree of involvement with, satisfaction with,
and enthusiasm for the 'o.
/hese attit"es alike: these attitudes are highly related, Eariales may e redundant
Gmeasuring the same thing under a different nameH.
/he "niA"e a+o"t each: there is some distinction, there is also a lot of overlap.
Q3: ,o$ o $e meas"re 6o+ satisfaction?
1. .ingle gloal rating Gone questionIone answerH 0 Best
2. .ummation score Gmany questionsIone averageH J 1K
-nother /4pes of tests are:
1. 7ating scales and 9uestionnaires
2. Lo !escriptive ,nde%.
3. #innesota )ests.
Q5: What ca"ses 6o+ satisfaction? (or most people# is pa4 or the $ork itself more
important?
1. 4ay influences 'o satisfaction only to a point.
2. 4ersonality can influence 'o satisfaction.
Aegative people are usually not satisfied with their 'os.
4eople with positive core self evaluation GBottom0line conclusions individuals
have aout their capailities, competences, and worth as a personH.
%a4 infl"ences 6o+ satisfaction onl4 to a point.
After aout M(C,CCC a year Gin the /. ..H, there is no relationship etween
amount of pay and 'o satisfaction.
#oney may ring happiness, ut not necessarily 'o satisfaction.
Q7: What o"tcome oes 6o+ satisfaction infl"ence?. What implications oes this
have for management?.
1. @o+ %erformance3 .atisfied wor"ers are more productive 6 more productive
wor"ers are more satisfiedN.
2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors3 .atisfaction influences 1:B through
perceptions of fairness.
3. C"stomer Satisfaction3 .atisfied frontline employees increase customer
satisfaction and loyalty.
(. -+senteeism3 .atisfied employees are moderately less li"ely to miss wor".
;. /"rnover: .atisfied employees are less li"ely to quit.
#any moderating variales in this relationship3
+conomic environment and tenure.
1rgani&ational actions ta"en to retain high performers and to weed out lower
performers.
<. Workplace )eviance3 !issatisfied wor"ers are more li"ely to unioni&e, ause
sustances, steal, e tardy, and withdraw.
/he implications oes this have for management.
#anagers 1ften >!on*t 5et ,t?3 !espite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of
'o satisfaction on the ottom line, most managers are either unconcerned aout or
overestimate wor"er satisfaction.
Q8: Is 6o+ satisfaction a "niA"el4 concept?. )oes 6o+ satisfaction appear to $a4
+4 co"ntr4?.
6o+ satisfaction a "niA"el4 concept, ,t is depends on3 Attitudes influence toward
administration. individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower0order needs at
wor", e%ample, those associate $ith:
#inimum salary levels.
Achievement,
7ecognition,
7esponsiility,
Advancement,
And the nature of the wor" itself.
#otivation, ased on the presence of one set of 'o characteristics, or incentives
lead to wor"er satisfaction at wor", while another separate set of 'o
characteristics lead to dissatisfaction at wor".
,mprove 'o attitudes and productivity, administrators must recogni&e and
attend to oth sets of characteristics satisfaction, dissatisfaction 'o.