Scientific Journal of Earth Science June 2014, Volume 4, Issue 2, PP.3754
Threedimensional Porenetwork Cracks Transient Hydrofacturingliquefaction in Tight Sandstone under Seismic Wave & Electro magnetothermoelastic Fields
Yongbing Li ^{1}^{,}^{2}^{,}^{3} , Bojing Zhu ^{1}^{,}^{2} †
^{1} Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
^{2} College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
^{3} Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
Email addresses: cynosureorion@ucas.ac.cn; bojingzhu@gmail.com † ; bojing.zhu@durham.ac.uk (B.J. Zhu † ).
Abstract
This contribution presents a new theory with lattice Boltzmann & finite element & hypersingular integral equation (LBFEHIE)
to explore the threedimensional porenetwork cracks transient hydrofacturingliquefaction in tight sandstone (3D PCTHTS)
under seismic waves & electromagnetothermoelastic fields through intricate theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.
First, the 3D PNTHTS problem is reduced to solving a set of coupled LBFEHIEs by using the Green functions and
distribution functions, in which the unknown functions are the extended porenetwork cracks displacement discontinuities. Then,
the behavior of the extended displacement discontinuities at the porenetwork cracks surface terminating at the solidliquid film
interface are analyzed through extended dynamic hypersingular integral mainpart analysis method of LBFEHIEs. Closed
formed solutions for the extended singular dynamic stress, the extended dynamic stress intensity factor and the extended dynamic
energy release rate near the dislocations interface are provided. Last, the tight sandstone sample from the Ordos Basin Triassic
formation is selected, the fluidsolid coupled digital rock physical modeling is established, and the simulations of 3D PCTHTS
process is presented on the parallel CPUGPU platform. The hydrofacturingliquefaction varying with the amplitude, frequency
and constituting time of earthquake wave is obtained. The relationship between the tight sandstone porenetwork cracks transient
propagationevolution and the maximum tight sandstone fracturingliquefaction stress criteria is explored.
Keywords: Hydrofracturingliquefaction, Tight Sandstone, Lattice Boltzmann Method, Finite Element Method, Hypersingular
Integral Equation, Seismic Wave & Electromagnetothermoelastic Fields, Parallel CPUGPU Technology
1 INTRODUCTION
Hydrofracturingliquefaction mechanism is the basic theory for understanding the insitu stress measurement, the petroleumgas (nature gas and shale gas)geothermic develop, and the earthquake evaluation and mechanism exploration. With the complex and challenge of this issue, the mechanism of dynamic Hydrofracturingliquefaction is still not clear even a lot of fundamental and landmark achievements have been obtained in this field since the last century 60’s. The oscillation singularity of dynamic stress wave as well as stress oscillation singularity index of porenetwork cracks transient Hydrofracturingliquefaction (PCTH) fluid poresolid sketch interface under seismic wave & electromagnetothermoelastic fields (SW&EMTE) makes it much more difficult than the unsaturated cased of the ordinary cracks, for in this process, including fluid transient undrained process, fluid transient compression and expansion process, physical properties of tight stone varying with PCTH propagation process and tight stone transient failure with the liquefaction process (the liquefaction process time is around 10E5s).
 37  http://www.jes.org
The mode I stress intensity factor for a constant velocity semiinfinite crack moving in a fluidsaturated porous medium with finite height is calculate[1]. The linear elastic solid with cavities containing nonviscous compressible fluid is explored[2], and the abnormally high fluid pressure in the cavities affects is analyzed. The mode I crack in an elastic fluidsaturated porous solids is studied[3], and relatively closedform asymptotic solution near the crack tip is obtained. Extended horizontal cracks in a vertical column of saturated sand is explored [4], and the theory is good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings. The interaction of a normally incident timeharmonic longitudinal plane wave with a circular crack imbedded in a porous medium is considered [5], and the problem is formulated in dual integral equations for the Hankel transform of the wave field. The formation mechanism of “water film” (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically[6]. The cracks in fluidsaturated twophase medium is explored [7] by finite element method. A circular crack imbedded in a porous medium under a normally incident timeharmonic longitudinal plane wave is studied by second kind single Fredholm integral equation[8]. A finite element algorithm is presented for the numerical modeling of cohesive fracture in a partially saturated porous media[9]. The saturated cracks in 4% porosity Fontainebleau sandstone fro an effective mean pressure ranging from 2 to 95MPa under high ultrasonic frequencies, Vp/Vs, ratio is explored [10]. The narrow distribution of cavities permeability model is devised combining the hydraulic radium and percolation concepts [11]. But this problem is far from solved for complex relationship between fluid states, physical properties of tight sandstone and ultra high temperaturepressure (UHTP). There are four differences between classical porous medium and tight sandstone. First, the pore/void size is located at atommolecularpiconano scale level, the fluid viscous (as function of UHTP), the effects of boundary layer, and the unsteady fluid flow (eddy flow and turbulent flow) can not be neglected; Second, when the PT conditions are high enough, the water role in the rock/mineral includes free supercriticalconstitutional state, the fluid flow particles are composed of four components [H2O, H+, (OH), (H3O)+]. Third, the micro pore is composed of four types [multigrain gap, polycrystalline space, crystal space and crystal internal space] and the deformation of the microstructure had to be considered; Last, the fluid flow permeability and diffusion include intermolecular collisions and diffusion (Fick’s laws of diffusion), molecular collisions with interface (Knudsen diffusion), molecular and interfacial adhesive and viscous flow (Darcy and Forchheimer flow). With the scale decrease, the surface stress component became domain, the effect of the body stress component reducing, and the classical NS equation is no longer applies.
In this work, based on the previous work on saturated dislocation transient propagationevolution in olivine structure under ultrahigh temperature and pressure (UHTP)[12], and general solutions of extended displacement (elastic displacement, electrical potential, magnetic potential and thermal potential) given in the previous work[13, 14], the threedimensional porenetwork crack transient Hydrofracturingliquefaction in tight sandstone (3D PCTHTS) under seismic waves & electromagnetothermoelastic fields is studied by using lattice Boltzmann & finite element & hypersingular integral equation (LBFEHIE) on parallel GPUCPU environment.
First, the 3D PNTHTS problem is reduced to solving a set of LBFEHIEs coupled with extended boundary integral equations by using the Green functions and distribution functions, in which the unknown functions are the extended porenetwork cracks displacement discontinuities. Then, the behavior of the extended displacement discontinuities around the porenetwork cracks surface terminating at the solidliquid film interface are analyzed by the extended hypersingular integral mainpart analysis method of LBFEHIEs. Analytical solutions for the extended singular dynamic stresses, the extended dynamic stress intensity factors and the extended dynamic energy release rate near the dislocations front are provided. Thrid, the tight sandstone sample from the Ordos Basin Triassic formation is selected and different tomography resolution data is obtained by Xray CT digital technology, the fluid solid coupled porous medium physical modeling is established, and the relatively Hydrofracturingliquefaction numerical modelling of tight sandstone is obtained for the first time. Last, The simulations of 3D PCTHTS process is presented, the hydrofacturingliquefaction varying with the amplitude, frequency and time of earthquake wave is obtained. The relationship between the tight sandstone porenetwork cracks transient propagationevolution and the maximum tight sandstone fracturingliquefaction stress criteria is explored.
2 BASIC EQUATIONS
Here summation from 1 to 3(1 to 6) over repeated lowercase (uppercase) subscripts is assumed, and a subscript
 38  http://www.jes.org
comma denotes the partial differentiation with respect to the coordinates. The ultralow permeability tight sandstone (UPTS) consists of six constituents, i.e. the particles of solid skeleton (the 1st component), bound liquid film (the 2nd component), static poreliquid (the 3rd component, free state water), dynamic poreliquid I (the four component, free state water), dynamic poreliquid II (the five component, supercritical state water) and dynamic poreliquid III (the 6th component, constitutional state water [H+, (OH), (H _{3} O)+]. The governing equations and constitutive relations of UPTS under EMTE field can be expressed as [15, 16],
(1)
L
A B f 0
L ij j
,
L
iJ i
,
J
B
L
A
L
1
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
5
P
6
(1
)
L
L
L
L
L
L
1
2
3
4
5
6
(1
2
3
4
5
2
U x
L
2
L 3
L
L
L
4
5
6
)
1
P
2
P
3
P
4
P
5
6
x
P
6
U ( xi , t ) _{i}_{1} , U ( xi , t ) _{i} _{2} , U ( xi , t ) _{i} _{3} , U ( xi , t ) _{i} _{4} , U ( xi , t ) _{i} _{5} and U ( xi , t ) _{i} _{6} denote the components of displacements of drained porous solid frame, the components of displacements of drained bound liquid film, denote the components of displacements of the static poreliquid, the components of displacements of the dynamic poreliquid I, the components of displacements of the dynamic poreliquid II, and the components of displacements of the dynamic
denote density, viscosity, intrinsic permeability, relative
permeability and volume fractions of L th component of ultralow permeability porous rock respectively; , ,
poreliquid III respectively;
L
,
NL
,
,
NL
and
L
P
2
,
represent macro porosity of ultralow permeability rock, fraction occupied by bound liquid film,
the connected porosity of bound liquid film, the connected porosity of static poreliquid part, the connected porosity of dynamic poreliquid I, II and III respectively. In addition, the extended stress displacement matrix tensor and the extended body load vector, _{i}_{J} and f _{J} , are defined respectively as
P
3
,
4
,
5
and
P
P
P
6
iJ
ij
D
B
i
i
i
J
j
1,2,3
J 4
J
J
6
5
f
J
f
j
e
m
f
f
^{} ^{} f
J
j
J
J
J
1,2,3
4
5
6
(2)
The combined constitutive equation is written as
iJ
E Z
iJKl Kl
(3)
where the EMTE constant matrix tensor and the extended strain field matrix tensor, EiJKl and Z _{K}_{l} , take the form
E
iJKl
C
iJKl
0
0
iJ
0
iJ
Z
Kl
U
[
K s l
,
,
l
]
T
(4)
the extended elastic stiffness tensor, the extended thermal stress constants tensor and the extend elastic displacement vector, CiJKl , _{i}_{J} and U _{K} , are defined as
 39  http://www.jes.org
C
iJKl
c
ijkl
e lij
e
ikl
d
lij
^{}
d
^{} g
ikl
il
il
il
^{}
J K
,
1,2,3
J 1,2,3; K 

4 

J 4; K 
1,2,3 

J 1,2,3; K 

5 

J 5; K 
1,2,3 

J 

4; K 
5 orJ 

5; K 

4 

J K , 
4 

J K , 
5 
iJ
ij
il
il
J
J
J
1,2,3;
4;
5;
K
K
K
6
6
6
U
s
K
u
s
i
s
4
5
s
6
s
K 1,2,3
K 4
5
6
K
K
(5)
6 are defined in [14]. The drained
porous solid frame and the drained bound liquid film have the same displacement and pressure; The static pore liquid, the dynamic poreliquid I have the same displacement; The pressure of saturated porous solid frame is the sum of static poreliquid, dynamic poreliquid I, dynamic poreliquid II and dynamic poreliquid III components pressure. The seismic wave displacement in ultralow permeability porous rock can be written as
ij
, Di , Bi , i , f _{i} , f _{e} , f _{m} , f ,
c
e
ijkl lij
,
,
d
lij
, il , g _{i}_{l} , _{i}_{l} ,
ij
, _{i}_{l} , il ,
ij
,
u
s
i
,
4 s
,
s
5
and
s
where
U x t x t
i
,
iL
i
,
(
)
1
(
)
iL i
,
2
x t )
ijk
(
i
,
jL k
,
L
1
E
A E
i
(
t
3
cos
)
3
i
E
(
2
L
x x x
1
2
3
(
2
sin
cos
1
L
cos
L
1
cos
)
E
(
2
2
L
)
E
(
L
x x x
1
2
3
2
cos
cos
sin
L
1
1
L
sin
2
L
)
(
x t
i
,
)
iL
E
(
2
L
x
3
L
x x x
1
2
3
cos
(
x
3
,
x
2
)
pL
)
2
L
E
(
2
L
x
3
L
x x x
1
2
3
(
x
3
,
x
1
)
pL
)
sin
2
L
)
x x
E E
(
L
x
1
sin
(2
L
x x
1
2
_{}
(
(
x
x
3
3
,
,
x
x
2
2
)
)
pL
pL
(
x
,
x
2
)
pL
)
E
(
L
x
2
sin
(
x
3
,
x
1
)
pL
)
E
(2
L
x x
1
2
L
1
cos
2
L
(
x x
3
,
1
(
x x
3
,
1
)
)
pL
pL
)
E
(2
L
x x
1
2
sin
L
1
1
2
,
2 L
_{}
(
(
x
x
3
3
,
,
sin
x
x
2
2
)
)
2
L
)
sL
sL
x x
3
,
1
(
x x
3
,
1
(
sin
)
sL
)
sL
L
1
cos
2
L
)
E
(2
L
1
1
2
,
L
_{}
/
/
v
v
L
P
L
S
2
cos
L
1
1
2
,
sin
2
L
()
E e
)
i ()
denote the Pwave velocity in drained porous solid frame, drained bound liquid film, static
poreliquid, dynamic poreliquid I, dynamic poreliquid II and dynamic poreliquid III respectively;
denote the Pwave velocity in drained porous solid frame, drained bound liquid film, static poreliquid,
,
2 axes, the Pwave incidence angle
between
axes in the L th component of ultralow permeability porous rock respectively. If we defined that solid
skeleton component and liquid components are parallel and subjected to the same strain, the timedependent rigidity modulus components G _{L} of ultralow permeability porous rocks can be defined as
2 axes and the Swave incidence angle between
v
P
,
and
v
P
v
6
S
,
v
P
,
v
P
,
v
P
and
v
P
1
2
3
4
5
6
v
1
S
2 ) pL
,
v
2
S
,
v
3
S
,
v
4
S
,
v
S
,
x x
(
3
,
1
)
pL
5
dynamic poreliquid I, dynamic poreliquid II and dynamic poreliquid III respectively;
x x
(
3
,
2 ) sL
x
3
and
x
x
1
3
and
and
x x x
(
3
,
1
)
sL
denote the Pwave incidence angle between
x
3
and
x
1
axes, the Swave incidence angle between
x
3
and
x
x x
(
3
,
G
L
(1
f G f v
)
0
(
s
L
L 2
)
,
t
and G0 represent macroporosity of ultralow permeability porous rocks, fraction occupied by bound
liquid film, nondimensional parameter (linked fluid viscosity, bulk modulus, density and permeability) of L th
component of ultralow permeability porous rock, and rigidity modulus of solid grains.
f , ,
L
2
3 LBFEHIE FOR 3D PCTHTS UNDER SEISMIC WAVE & ELECTROMAGNETO THERMOELASTIC FIELDS
3.1 Lattice Boltzmann & finite element (LBFE) coupled modelling
It is shown in the Fig 1, The LBFE coupled modeling for tight sand porous media is established. The finite element method is using to analyze solid sketch part of the porous tight sand (the strain/strain ratestress/stress ratetemporal
 40  http://www.jes.org
spatial solid sketch structuremacro strength) (Fig1D, 1E); D3Q27 lattice Boltzmann method is using to analyze fluid pore part of the porous tight sand ( fluid stressviscousdensitytimebulk strain) (Fig 1F); LBFE coupled modeling can deal with interface stressstrain between solid sketch and fluid pore (surface of porenetwork cracks) (Fig 1C). In our work, the threedimensional 20 node arbitrary hexahedral element (3D20 Hexahedral element) is defined for the solid sketch part of the porous tight sand, and the threedimensional 27 particle arbitrary hexahedral node (D3Q27) is defined for the fluid pore part of the porous tight sand; if the element is located at the surface of the porenetwork cracks, then we defined that each D3Q27 node has the same physical meaning as one arbitrary node of 3D20 Hexahedra element (Fig 1G,1H and 1I), the distribution function of lattice Boltzmann and the shape function in finite element can be linked through intricate theoretical formulation, and the LBFE coupled fluid poresolid sketch porous modeling can be established, the theoretical derivation can be written as follows,
FIG 1. THE LATTICE BOLTZMANN & FINITE ELEMENT FLUIDSOLID COUPLED MODELLING
FIG 1A. CROSSSECTION OF ROCK CT SCAN DIGITAL DATA, FIG 1B. CROSSSECTION OF DIGITAL ROCK, FIG 1C. LBM & FEM FLUIDSOLID COUPLED MODELING; FIG 1D, SKETCH OF 20 NODES FEM CELL, FIG 1E. SKETCH OF 20 NODES ISOPARAMETRIC FEM CELL, FIG 1F SKETCH OF D3Q27 LBM GRID POINT; FIG 1G. MICRO STRUCTURE OF TIGHT ROCK (SCALE I), FIG 1H. MICRO STRUCTURE OF TIGHT ROCK (SCALE II), FIG 1I MICRO STRUCTURE OF TIGHT ROCK (SCALE III)
The equation of shape function for 3D20 Hexahedra isoparametric element is defined as
N
k
3
)
3
i
1
3
2
2(1
2(1
i
1
x x
ik
i
(1
2
)(1
2
1
x
)
(1
i
1
x x
ik
i
)(1
)(1
x
2
2
x
3
)(1
x x
ik
1
x x
1
k
1
3
3
x x
3
k
x x
3
k
2
)
)
k
k
k
1 ~ 8
k
9
~ 12
13 ~ 16
16 ~ 20
(6)
The relatively stiffness matrix for 3D20 Hexahedra isoparametric element is defined as
where
K
111
111
T
B D B J dx dx dx
1
2
3
 41  http://www.jes.org
(7)
B
K
N
K
1
0
0
N
K
2
0
N
K
3
0
N
K
2
0
N
K
1
N
K
1
0
0
0
N
K
3
0
N
K
2
N
K
1
D
E (1 

v 
) 
) 

(1 
v 
)(1 

2 
v 



A 
1 

1 
v 
v 
1
A
1
A
2
0
A
1
1
A
1
0
0 0
0 0
A
2
A
1
1
0
0
0
A
2
2(1 1
2 v
v
)
0
0
0
A
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
A
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
A
2
J
1
x
1
1
x
2
1
x
3
2
3
x
1
x
1
2
3
x
2
x
2
1
x
3
1
x
3
The extended equivalent stress and tension for 3D20 Hexahedra isoparametric element is defined as
R
111
volume
111
N p J dx dx dx
1
2
3
T
R
surface
A
x 1 x 2
N
T
dA
1
(8)
(9)
Take the distribution function of D3Q27 LB node[17] into the shape function of 3D20 Hexahedra element, the LB FE modeling can be established to analyze the fluidsolid coupled porous structure problem.
3. 2 LBFEHIE for 3D PCTHTS under seismic wave & electromagnetothermoelastic fields
Using Micro XCT400 CT system, the high resolution data are obtained, the 3D virtual digital rock are reestablished, and the LBFEHIE physical model are constructed; The threshold is arrange from 78~100, the interior geometry structure at low level scales translate from the pix RGB color into the cellmeshgrid model, the initial/boundary conditions, the physical/chemical parameters of rock and water, and the low level scales geometry poresolid structure can be defined.
Fig 2. shows the PCTDTS LBFEHHIE coupled modeling, the diameter and the length of the core samples are equal to 5cm and 10cm respectively; the resolution of crosssection and the interval between crosssections are equal to 10µm. The general model was formulated by utilizing an automatic local amplification grid technique, and the initial LBFEHIE physical model is equal to 102410241024 pixels, which does not include the extended variables. Applying function in references [18, 19] to the initial virtual digital rock modelling, we can obtained the random LBFEHIE modeling (decreasing the computational scale in parallel CPUGPU environment). The pore/void size is located at atommolecularpiconano scale level, the fluid viscous (as function of pressure temperature), the effects of boundary layer, and the unsteady fluid flow (eddy flow and turbulent flow) had to be considered. The water role in the rock includes free state, supercritical state and constitutional state, the fluid flow particles are composed of four components [H2O, H+, (OH), (H3O)+]. The micro pore is composed of four kinds [multigrain gap, polycrystalline clearance, crystal space and crystal internal clearance] and the deformation of the microstructure had to be considered. The fluid flow permeability and diffusion include intermolecular collisions and diffusion (Fick’s laws of diffusion), molecular collisions with interface (Knudsen diffusion), molecular and interfacial adhesive and viscous flow (Darcy flow and Forchheimer flow). With the scale decrease, the surface stress component became domain, the effect of the body stress component reducing, and the classical NS equation is no longer applies. The more detailed introduction can be found elsewhere in the literature[2023].
 42  http://www.jes.org
FIG 2. THE TIGHT SANDSTONE TRANSIENT HYDROFRACTURINGLIQUEFACTION LATTICE BOLTZMANN & FINITE ELEMENT FLUIDSOLID COUPLED MODELLING (FIG 2A. SAMPLE OF TIGHT SANDSTONE, FIG 2B. VIRTUAL DIGITAL ROCK SAMPLE OF TIGHT SANDSTONE; FIG 2C, A CIRCLE DRILLING IN THE TIGHT SANDSTONE, FIG 1D. SKETCH OF TRANSIENT HYDROFRACTURINGLIQUEFACTION IN THE TIGHT SANDSTONE)
Consider the tight sandstone containing a random threedimensional transient hydrofacturingliquefaction crack as shown in Fig.2D. A fixed global rectangular Cartesian system xi (i=1,2,3) is chosen. Assume that the porenetwork
crack S ( S
loads q ( P , Q, t ) , the seismic magnetic loads b ( P, Q, t ) and the thermal loads ( P, Q, t ) , respectively. The local
rectangular Cartesian system i are chosen, the stochastic flaws are assumed to be in the
the
axis. Using the EMTE form of the Somigliana identity, the extended displacement vector, U _{I} ( p ) , at interior
point p ( x1, x2 , x3 ) is expressed as
, the seismic wave electrical
is subjected to remote the seismic wave mechanical loads
p
j (
,
P Q t
,
)
1
2
plane and normal to
i
3
U
I
(
p
)
S
(
U p q T q
(
IJ
(
,
)
T
IJ
(
,
)
p q U q
(
)
J
J
(
T p q U q ds q
)
)
U p q T q ds q
(
IJ
IJ
(
,
)
J
(
))
(
(
,
)
J
(
))
)
U p q f q ds q
IJ
(
,
)
J
(
)
(
)
(10)
where is the domain occupied by the EMTECMCs, is the external boundary,
tractions on boundaries,
corresponding extended stresses tensor, _{I}_{J} , is expressed as
is the extended elastic
are the fundamental solutions. Using constitutive Equation (10), the
(
T q
J
)
U
IJ
(
p q
,
)
and
(
T p q
IJ
,
)
IJ
(
p )
S
(
D
KiJ
(
p q T q
,
K
)
(
)
S
KiJ
(
p q U q ds q
(
,
)
))
(
K
)
D p q f q ds q
KiJ
(
,
)
K
(
)
(
)
(10)
The kernels functions,
S
KiJ
and
D
KiJ
, are as follows:
S
KiJ
(
p q E T p q
,
iJMn MK n
,
,
)
(
)
D p q E U
KiJ
,
(
)
iJMn MK n
,
(
p q
,
)
The hypersingular integral equations can be obtained as
5
i
1
2
i
t
2
i
6
m
3
5
n
3
5
i
1
m
i
t
t
i
6
m
3
(11)
(12)
(13)
 43  http://www.jes.org
i
p
5
1
iˆ
i
constants,
where
i
A
3
2
t u
i
(14)
,
t
4 i ˆ
(
p q
i ˆ
)
m
i
,
i m
p b
5
(
)
i ˆ
i ˆ
and
i ˆ
i ˆ
p
5
(
)
can obtained from the solution for the loads of the solids. The material
K
ij iˆ
are given in Appendix A.
,
and the kernels functions
4 DYNAMIC STRESS, DYNAMIC STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS AND ENERGY RELEASE RATE NEAR THE DISLOCATIONS FRONT
In order to investigate the singularity of the dislocations front, consider a local coordinate system defined as x1 x2 x3 .
The x1 axis is the tangent line of the dislocation front at point q0 , x2 axis is the internal normal line in the dislocation plane, and x3 axis is the normal of the dislocation. Then, the extended displacement discontinuities of the dislocation surface near a dislocation front point q0 can be assumed as
(
g q
0
k
)
2
(15)
where g _{k} ( q0 ) and k represent nonzero constants and singular index, respectively. The dynamic stress intensity factors are defined as
0 R e(k ) 1
)
)
0
0
,
,
,
r
,
)
0
)
0
r
,
)
0
)
0
(16)
(17)
where r is the distance from point p to the dislocation front point q0 , the dynamic stress around the dislocation front can be expressed as follows
ˆ
i
23
c
44 2
5
i
2
)]
2
i
cos
i
2
(
13 i ˆ
[15
33
s
2
i
cot
1
i
2
3cos
i
i
2
(3cos
cos
1
4
t g
2
2
sin
2
4
3
i
)
)}
2
33
i
cos
5
m
t g
i
2
ˆ
i
m
2
r r
i
2
m 3
sin
1
i
2
(18)
(19)
(20)
(21)
(22)
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