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# MATHS

"manishkumarphysics.in"
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f+iifat4 asia y uuf+iy
(Trigonometric ratio & identities)
zi< 'lzi+iilnl-' <i n i+ ~-ii 'lzi+i i' -ii 'lnl-' = lnn+ -i t -ii :=+i ~i ti-i t ''(+ lzii +i
ii~i ~i +iii +i ni-''.
+i i (Angle) :
+ii <i n: l+i + vil-i+ l-< + =i-i ini +i ni t i--l+ l+i il-i+ ii ~i l+i +i i i-
+ i< ~l-n l-il- +ii +i ~l--n ii +tni-i t ii- l-< ziii +tni-i t l< ini +i l<zii ini-
(anticlockwise) t. -i +i i i-in+ ti-i t -ii l< ini +i l<zii <l-iii- (clockwise) t . -i +ii +iin+
ti -i t
+ii + isa +t s&fa4i (Systems For Measurement of Angles) :
(+ +i i l--- zl-i n nii i =+-i t
1. iifa+s&fa (ffazis&fa) : := zl- n (+ =- i -ii i ni +i
360
1
iin (+ ln i (), (+ ln i +i
60
1
iin
(+ ln- (' ) ~i (+ ln- +i
60
1
iin (+ =+ ('') +tni-i t
(+ =n+ii = 90, 1 = 60', 1' = 60''
2. zifa+s&fa (v s&fa) : := zl- n (+ =- i -ii i ni +i
400
1
iin (+ n (
g
), (+ n +i
100
1
iin (+
ln- ~i (+ ln- +i
100
1
iin (+ =+ +tni-i t
(+ =n+ii = 100
g
; 1
g
= 100 ; 1 = 100
aia : iil+zl- (Sexagesimal system) n ln- ( = +. zil-+zl- (Centesimal System) = li-- t
<i -i zl-i n l--t ii li-- t
3. -it4 s&fa (Circular System (Radian Measurement))
l+=i -i -i ,ii. l=+i n-i: lzii + i t . + -< -ii ni +ii (+ l- +tni-i t := zl- n
ni +i :+i: l- (
c
) t
- l+ :+i: lzii + -i +i lli 2t ti -i t . :=ln( il-i+ i i +i (+ =- i -++ 2t l- +i i -i-i t
l--i + r lzii + (+ -i n r n-i: + -i ,ii -i n +i i +i ni 1 l- ti -i t t ai- t l+ (+ ti
-i + =ni- -i -i + + -< =ni- +ii ~--l- +- t ~- n-i: +i (+ -i -i + +-<
r

l-
+i +ii -i(ni := v+i r lzii + (+ -i n n-i: +i -i +-< u l- +ii -i-i t.
-i u =
r

i = ru
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
2
u
1
A
B
1
O
1
u = 1 radian
(i)
u
1
A
B
1
O
1
u = 1 radian
(ii)
u
2
A
B
1
O
1
u = 2 radian
(iii)
u
2
A
B
1
O
1
u = 2 radian
(iv)
aia : l< +i : l--t - l<i ti l+ +i i +i ni ti . -i t ni-i i =+-i t l+ t ni l- n t
-<itiii u = 15 15 l-
# -ii iin +i -i zi+n
-i zi+n =
2
1
r
2
u n :+i:
f4a, fnt y n + t u-ri (Relation between radian, degree and grade) :
2
t
radian = 90 = 100
g
-4a+iii + fny fi+iifat4 asia (Trigonometric Ratios for Acute Angles) :
ni-i (+ i li - l+i OP, OA= i-i ti-i t . ~i OP +i l-il- -+ i n-i t . := +i +i i AOP--i t
i li - l+i n (+ l-< Pn ~i P = vil-i+ l+i OA n-i PMii -
=n+i i lzii MOPn OP l+i t . PMn- -ii OM~iii t .
~ +i i AOP+ ln( lzi+i iln-i ~-i- i +n- := +i liili- l+ i- t
OP
MP
, i.e.
d.kZ
yEc
, +ii AOP +i sine t
OP
OM
, i.e.
d.kZ
vk/kkj
, +ii AOP +i cosine t
OM
MP
, i.e.
vk/kkj
yEc
, +ii AOP +i tangent t
MP
OM
, i.e.
yEc
vk/kkj
, +ii AOP +i cotangent t
OM
OP
, i.e.
vk/kkj
d.kZ
, +ii AOP +i secant t
MP
OP
, i.e.
yEc
d.kZ
, +ii AOP +i cosecant t
l= nizii ,ii cosine :+i: = +n ti-i t .
iia 1 cosAOP, AOP+i Versed Sine +tni-i t ~i l= nizii ,ii sine :+i: = +n ti -i i-i t . ~ii -
1 sinAOP, AOP +i Coversed sine +tni-i t
=ii lzi+i ilnl- ~- i- i--l+ = i( t = l-i-- n :- ~ia ~-i-i +i +nzi := +i lnii i =+-i t
sin AOP, cos AOP, tan AOP, cot AOP, cosec AOP, sec AOP, vers AOP, -ii covers AOP
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
3
+ii u e R + fny fi+iifat4 asia :
~ tn lzi+i iln-i ~- i- +i liiii +i (+ +i i l- + =-<i n ~in c i- t ~i --t lzi+i iln-i +n- +
n ~- +- t ( -ii +n-)
ni-i (+ :+i: -i (lzii 1 :+i: ) t . l=+i + -< l-< zii + ~-ii
+i n nl-< t ni-i P(a, b) -i +i : l-< := +i t l+
+i i AOP= x l- ~ii - := +i -i AP+i n-i: = x
= tn cos x = a ~i sin x = b +i liili- +- t - l+ A
OMP (+ =n+ii lzii t ~- OM
2
+ MP
2
= OP
2
i
a
2
+ b
2
= 1 := +i -i -l-i- + l-< + ln(
a
2
+ b
2
= 1 i cos
2
x + sin
2
x = 1
- l+ (+ =- i -++ -i + + -< 2t +ii -i-i t ZAOB =
2
t
, ZAOC= t -ii
ZAOD=
2
3t
,
2
t
+ ii+ n i +i i -- iizi +i i +tni- t l-< ~i A, B, C -ii D
+ l-< zii + +nzi (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0) -ii (0, 1) t ~- -- ii zi +i ii + ln( tn +t
=+- t
cos 0 = 1 sin 0 = 0,
cos
2
t
= 0 sin
2
t
= 1
cos t = 1 sin t = 0
cos
2
3t
= 0 sin
2
3t
= 1
cos 2t = 1 sin 2t = 0
~ l< tn l-il- OP = (+ =- i -++ n . -i tn - il-i+ l-il- OP i= ~i i- t := +i tn :=
l-+i t -- t l+ l< x l+=i 2t + ii+ ni = c-i t (i i-i t) -i sine -ii cosine +n-i +i ni-
ll-- -ti ti-i t. := +i
sin (2nt + x) = sin x , n e Z, cos (2nt + x) = cos x, n e Z
~i sin x = 0, l< x = 0, t , 2t , 3t ..... ~ii- x, t +i ii+ ni t -ii cos x = 0, l<
x =
2
t
,
2
3t
,
2
5t
, ..... ~ii- cos x +i ni- zi- ti i-i t x,
2
t
+i lin ni t
sin x = 0 x = nt , ti n +i: ii+ t
cos x = 0 x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, ti n +i: ii+ t
~ tn ~- lzi+i iln-i ~- i-i +i sine ~i cosine +n- + n +- +- t
cosec x =
x sin
1
, x = nt , ti n +i: ii+ t
sec x =
x cos
1
, x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, ti n +i: ii+ t
tan x =
x cos
x sin
, x = (2n + 1)
2
t
, ti n +i: ii+ t
cot x =
x sin
x cos
, x = n t, ti n +i: ii+ t
tn <lzi - + -+ t l+ =ii i--l+ x + ln( sin
2
x + cos
2
x = 1
l=+ ~-=i 1 + tan
2
x = sec
2
x {x = (2n + 1)
2
t
; n e Z}
1 + cot
2
x = cosec
2
x {x = nt ; n e Z}
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
4
fi+iifat4 +nai + f-r (Signs of The Trigonometric Functions) :
(i) l< u vin -- ii zi n t - P(a, b) vin -- ii zi n ti ni :=ln( a > 0, b > 0 ~- =ii lzi+i iln-i +n-i
+i ni- i-in+ ti ni
(ii) l< u l,-i --iizi n t - P(a, b) l,-i --iizi n ti ni :=ln( a < 0, b > 0 ~- sin, cosec + ni-
i-in+ ~i zii +iin+ ti n
(iii) l< u - -i -- ii zi n t - P(a, b) - -i -- ii zi n ti ni :=ln( a < 0, b < 0 ~- tan, cot + ni- i-in+
~i zii +iin+ ti n
(iv) l< u --i --iizi n t - P(a, b) --i --iizi n tini :=ln( a > 0, b < 0 ~- cos, sec + ni-
i-in+ ~i zi i +iin+ ti n
+ z nt-i +iii + lzi+iiln-i +n-i + ni- -i - <i n: =iii n l< n t
. D . N 3 1
3
1
0 tan
0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1 cos
1
4
4
2
3
4
3
2
1
4
2
2
1
4
1
0
4
0
sin
2 3 4 6
0
= = = = =
t t t t
N.D. = ~liili-
cosec x, sec x -ii cot x + ni- +nzi sin x, cos x -ii tan x + +n t
u& +iii + fi+iifat4 asia (Trigonometric Ratios of allied angles)
l< u +i: +ii t. - u,
2
t
u, t u,
2
3t
u, 2t u :il< =-z +ii +tni- t
( u) + fi+iifat4 asia :
ni-i (+ +i i u ni-+ l-il- n vin -- ii zi n t ni-i :=+i ~ l-n i i (+ -i. l=+i + -< O-ii lzii r t . +i
P (x, y) +i-i t
ni-i ~ l-n i i +i -i + =ii u +i i +i-i l-< P' (x', y') t
~ ZMOP= ZMOP' (=in+) ~i P ( P' + x ~-i =ni- -i M t
A OMP A OMP' x = x' -ii y = y'
y
x
P
P'
O
r
M
Z u POM =
Z ' u MOP =
(x , y)
(x , y ) ' '
sin ( u) =
r
y'
=
r
y
= sin u.
cos ( u) =
r
x'
=
r
x
= cos u.
tan ( u) =
'
'
x
y
=
x
y
= tan u.
cot ( u) =
'
'
y
x
=
y
x
= cot u.
sec ( u) =
' x
r
=
x
r
= sec u.
cosec ( u) =
' y
r
=
y
r
= cosec u.
=ni-- l< u ~- -- iizii n ti - - l< n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
5
(t u) + fi+iifat4 asia
ni-i (+ +i i u vin -- ii zi n ni-+ l-il- n t ni-i :=+i ~ l-n i i (+ -i. l=+i + -< O-ii lzii r t . +i
P (x, y) +i-i t
ni-i ~l-n i i +i -i + =ii (t u) +ii +i- l-< P' (x', y') t
ni-i M-ii M' +nzi P -ii P' + x-~-i -i t
-l+ A OM'P' A OMP, x' = x, y' = y
sin (t u) =
r
y'
=
r
y
= sin u
cos (t u) =
r
x'
=
r
x
= cos u
tan (t u) =
'
'
x
y
=
x
y
= tan u
cot (t u) =
'
'
y
x
=
y
x
= cot u
sec (t u) =
' x
r
=
x
r
= sec u
cosec (t u) =
' y
r
=
y
r
= cosec u
(
2
t
u) + fi+iifat4 asia
=ni-- -i- l<( n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
sin |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cos u , tan |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cot u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= sec u,
cos |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= sin u, cot |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
= cosec u
(
2
t
+ u) + fi+iifat4 asia
=ni-- -i- l<( n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
sin
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cos u, tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cot u, cosec
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= sec u,
cos
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= sin u, cot
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= tan u, sec
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
= cosec u
(t + u) + fi+iifat4 asia
=ni-- -i- l<( n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
sin (t + u) = sin u, tan (t + u) = tan u, cosec (t + u) = cosec u,
cos (t + u) = cos u, cot (t + u) = cot u, sec (t + u) = sec u
(
2
3t
u) + fi+iifat4 asia
=ni-- -i- l<( n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
6
sin |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cos u, tan |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cot u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= sec u,
cos |
.
|

\
|
u
t
2
3
= sin u, cot |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u
t

2
3
= cosec u,
(
2
3t
+ u) + fi+iifat4 asia
=ni-- -i- l<( n( liin l=z l+( i =+- t
sin |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cos u, cos |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= sin u, tan |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cot u,
cot |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= tan u, sec |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= cosec u, cosec |
.
|

\
|
u +
t
2
3
= sec u
at <t nr uiit fa iiai +i 4 ify+
. D . N 3 1
3
1
0 tan
0
2
1
2
1
2
3
1 cos
1
2
3
2
1
2
1
0 sin
2
6
11
3
5
2
3
3
4
6
7
6
5
3
2
2 3 4 6
0 t
t t t t t
t
t t t t t t
fi+i ifat4 +na (Trigonometric functions) :
(i) y = sin x i-- : x e R
l= : y e [1, 1]
t
0
1
y
1
x
t
2
3t
2
t
2
3t
2
2t 2t t
(ii) y = cos x i-- : x e R
l= : y e [ 1, 1]
t
0
1
y
1
x
t
2
3t
2
t
2
3t
2
2t 2t t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
7
(iii) y = tan x i-- : x e R
)
`

t
+
2
) 1 n 2 (
, n e I
l= : y e R
0
x
y
t t
2
3t

2
3t
2
t
2
t
0
(iv) y = cot x i-- : x e R {nt}, n e I
l= : y e R
0
x
y
t
t
2
t
2
t 3t
2
2t
(v) y = cosec x i-- : x e R {nt}, n e I
l= : y e ( , 1] [1, )
(vi) y = sec x i-- : x e R
)
`

t
+
2
) 1 n 2 ( , n e I
l= : y e ( , 1] [1, )
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
8
<i +i ii + 4i n i -a + fi+i ifat4 +na
(Trigonometric functions of sum or difference of two angles) :
(a) sin (A B) = sinA cosB cosA sinB
(b) cos (A B) = cosA cosB sinA sinB
(c) sinA sinB = cosB cosA = sin (A+B). sin (A B)
(d) cosA sinB = cosB sinA = cos (A+B). cos (A B)
(e) tan (A B) =
B tan A tan 1
B tan A tan

(f) cot (A B) =
A cot B cot
1 B cot A cot

(g) sin (A + B + C) = sin A cos B cos C + sin B cos A cos C + sin C cos A cos B sin A sin B sin C
(h) cos (A + B + C) = cos A cos B cos C cos A sin B sin C sin A cos B sin C sin A sin B cos C
(i) tan (A + B + C) =
A tan C tan C tan B tan B tan A tan 1
C tan B tan A tan C tan B tan A tan

+ +
(j) tan (u
1
+ u
2
+ u
3
+ ....... + u
n
) =
....... S S 1
...... S S S
4 2
5 3 1
+
+
ti S
i
+iii + (+ i n i -zi i~i + n i-+ni +i i n t
a<iri # 1 : l=z +il( l+
(i) sin (45 + A) cos (45 B) + cos (45 + A) sin (45 B) = cos (A B)
(ii) tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
3
= 1
rn : (i) --i sin (45 + A) cos (45 B) + cos (45 + A) sin (45 B)
= sin (45 + A + 45 B) = sin (90 + A B) = cos (A B)
(ii) tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
tan
|
.
|

\
|
u +
t
4
3
=
u
u +
tan 1
tan 1

u +
u +
tan 1
tan 1
= 1
4iu +i4 :
(1) l< sin o =
5
3
, cos | =
13
5
ti , -i sin (o + |) ai- +il(
(2) sin 105 +i ni- ai- +il(
(3) l=z +il( l+ 1 + tan A tan
2
A
= tan A cot
2
A
1 = sec AA
65
33
,
65
63
(2)
2 2
1 3 +
=si-ai u i (Transformation formulae) :
(i) sin(A+B) + sin(A B) = 2 sinA cosB (a) sinC + sinD = 2 sin
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
(ii) sin(A+B) sin(A B) = 2 cosA sinB (b) sinC sinD = 2 cos
2
D C+
sin
2
D C
(iii) cos(A+B) + cos(A B) = 2 cosA cosB (c) cosC + cosD = 2 cos
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
(iv) cos(A B) cos(A+B) = 2 sinA sinB (d) cosC cosD = 2 sin
2
D C+
sin
2
C D
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
9
a<iri # 2 : l=z +il( l+ sin 5A + sin 3A = 2sin 4A cos A
rn : L.H.S. sin 5A + sin 3A = 2sin 4A cos A = R.H.S.
[ sin C + sin D = 2 sin
2
D C+
cos
2
D C
]
a<iri # 3 : 2 sin 3u cos u sin 4u sin 2u +i ni- ai- +il(
rn : 2 sin 3u cos u sin 4u sin 2u = 2 sin 3u cos u [2 sin 3u cos u ] = 0
a<iri # 4 : l=z +il( l+
(i)
u u u u
u u u u
4 sin 3 sin cos 2 cos
3 cos 6 sin cos 8 sin
= tan 2u
(ii)
u u
u + u
3 tan 5 tan
3 tan 5 tan
= 4 cos 2u cos 4u
rn : (i)
u u u u
u u u u
4 sin 3 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2
3 cos 6 sin 2 cos 8 sin 2
=
u + u u + u
u u u + u
7 cos cos cos 3 cos
3 sin 9 sin 7 sin 9 sin
=
u u
u u
2 cos 5 cos 2
5 cos 2 sin 2
= tan 2u
(ii)
u u
u + u
3 tan 5 tan
3 tan 5 tan
=
u u u u
u u + u u
5 cos 3 sin 3 cos 5 sin
5 cos 3 sin 3 cos 5 sin
=
u
u
2 sin
8 sin
= 4 cos2u cos 4u
4iu +i4 :
(4) l=z +il( l+
(i) cos 8x cos 5x = 2 sin
2
x 13
sin
2
x 3
(ii)
A 2 cos A cos
A 2 sin A sin

+
= cot
2
A
(iii)
A 7 cos A 5 cos A 3 cos A cos
A 7 sin A 5 sin A 3 sin A sin
+ + +
+ + +
= tan 4A
(iv)
A 7 sin A 5 sin 2 A 3 sin
A 5 sin A 3 sin 2 A sin
+ +
+ +
=
A 5 sin
A 3 sin
(v)
A 13 cos A 9 cos A 5 cos A cos
A 13 sin A 9 sin A 5 sin A sin
+
+
= cot 4A
(5) l=z +il( l+ sin
2
u
sin
2
7u
+ sin
2
3u
sin
2
11u
= sin 2u sin 5u
(6) l=z +il( l+ cos A sin (B C) + cos B sin (C A) + cos C sin (A B) = 0
(7) l=z +il( l+ 2 cos
13
t
cos
13
9t
+ cos
13
3t
+ cos
13
5t
= 0
s-4 i sa + +i i (Multiple and sub-multiple angles) :
(a) sin 2A = 2 sinA cosA
-ii : sin u = 2 sin
u
2
cos
u
2
:il<
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
10
(b) cos 2A = cosA sinA = 2cosA 1 = 1 2 sinA
-ii : 2 cos
2
u
= 1 + cos u, 2 sin
2
u
= 1 cos u
(c) tan 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 2
2

-ii : tan u =
2
2
2
tan 1
tan 2
u
u

(d) sin 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 2
2
+
, cos 2A =
A tan 1
A tan 1
2
2
+

## (e) sin 3A = 3 sinA 4 sin

3
A
(f) cos 3A = 4 cos
3
A 3 cosA
(g) tan 3A =
A tan 3 1
A tan A tan 3
2
3

a<iri # 5 : l=z +il( l+
(i)
A 2 cos 1
A 2 sin
+
= tan AA
(ii) tan A + cot A = 2 cosec 2 A
(iii)
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
+ +
+ +
= tan
2
A
cot
2
B
rn : (i) L.H.S.
A 2 cos 1
A 2 sin
+
=
A cos 2
A cos A sin 2
2
= tan AA
(ii) L.H.S. tan A + cot A =
A tan
A tan 1
2
+
= 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
A tan 2
A tan 1
2
=
A 2 sin
2
= 2 cosec 2 AA
(iii) L.H.S.
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
) B A cos( B cos A cos 1
+ +
+ +
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
B
2
A
cos
2
A
cos 2
2
A
cos 2
B
2
A
sin
2
A
sin 2
2
A
sin 2
2
2
= tan
2
A
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
B
2
A
cos
2
A
cos
B
2
A
sin
2
A
sin
= tan
2
A
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
| +
|
.
|

\
| +
2
B
sin
2
B A
sin 2
2
B
cos
2
B A
sin 2
= tan
2
A
cot
2
B
4iu +i4 :
(8) l=z +il( l+
u + u +
u + u
2 cos cos 1
2 sin sin
= tan u
(9) l=z +il( l+ sin 20 sin 40 sin 60 sin 80 =
16
3
(10) l=z +il( l+ tan 3A tan 2A tan A = tan 3A tan 2A tan A
(11) l=z +il( l+ tan
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
A
45
= sec A + tan AA
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
11
ia++i ii + r-si fi+i ifat4 a sia
(Important trigonometric ratios of standard angles) :
(a) sin n t = 0 ; cos n t = (1)
n
; tan n t = 0, ti n e I
(b) sin 15 i sin
12
t
=
2 2
1 3
= cos 75 i cos
12
5t
;
cos 15 i cos
12
t
=
2 2
1 3+
= sin 75 i sin
12
5t
;
tan 15 =
1 3
1 3
+

= 3 2 = cot 75 ; tan 75 =
1 3
1 3

+
= 3 2+ = cot 15
(c) sin
10
t
i sin 18 =
4
1 5
= cos 72
cos 36 i cos
5
t
=
4
1 5+
= sin 54
s faf-ria u uf+iy (Conditional identities) :
l< A + B + C = t ti . -i
(i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4 sinA sinB sinC
(ii) sinA + sinB + sinC = 4 cos
2
A
cos
2
B
cos
2
C
(iii) cos 2 A + cos 2 B + cos 2 C = 1 4 cos A cos B cos C
(iv) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + 4 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
(v) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC
(vi) tan
2
A
tan
2
B
+ tan
2
B
tan
2
C
+ tan
2
C
tan
2
A
= 1
(vii) cot
2
A
+ cot
2
B
+ cot
2
C
= cot
2
A
. cot
2
B
. cot
2
C
(viii) cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot C cot A = 1
(ix) A + B + C =
2
t
ti , -i tan A tan B + tan B tan C + tan C tan A = 1
a<iri # 6 : l< A + B + C = 180 ti . -i l=z +il( l+ sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C = 2 + 2cosA cosB cosC
rn : ni-i S = sin
2
A + sin
2
B + sin
2
C
~- 2S = 2sin
2
A + 1 cos2B +1 cos2C
= 2 sin
2
A + 2 2cos(B + C) cos(B C)
= 2 2 cos
2
A + 2 2cos(B + C) cos(B C)
S = 2 + cosA [cos(B C) + cos(B+ C)]
- l+ cosA = cos(B+C)
S = 2 + 2 cos A cos B cos C
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
12
a<iri # 7 : l< x + y + z = xyz ti . -i l=z +il( l+
2
x 1
x 2

+
2
y 1
y 2

+
2
z 1
z 2

=
2
x 1
x 2

.
2
y 1
y 2

.
2
z 1
z 2

## rn : x = tan A, y = tan B ~i z = tanC i-

tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC A + B + C = nt, ti n e I
:= v+i L.H.S.
=
2
x 1
x 2

+ 2
y 1
y 2

+
2
z 1
z 2

=
A tan 1
A tan 2
2

+
B tan 1
B tan 2
2

+
C tan 1
C tan 2
2

## = tan2A + tan2B + tan2C [ A + B + C = nt ]

= tan2A tan2B tan2C =
2
x 1
x 2

. 2
y 1
y 2

.
2
z 1
z 2

4iu +i4 :
(12) l< A + B + C = 180 ti . -i l=z +il( l+
(i) sin(B + 2C) + sin(C + 2A) + sin(A + 2B) = 4sin
2
C B
sin
2
A C
sin
2
B A
(ii)
C sin B sin A sin
C 2 sin B 2 sin A 2 sin
+ +
+ +
= 8 sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
(13) l< A + B + C = 2S ti . -i l=z +il( l+
(i) sin(S A) sin(S B) + sinS sin (S C) = sinA sinB
(ii) sin(S A) + sin (S B) + sin(S C) sin S = 4sin
2
A
sin
2
B
sin
2
C
4i i +i 4i it : (Sine and Cosine - series) :
(i) sin o + sin (o + |) + sin (o + 2| ) +...... + sin{ } | + o ) 1 n ( =
2
2
n
sin
sin
|
|
sin
|
.
|

\
|
|

+ o
2
1 n
(ii) cos o + cos (o + |) + cos (o + 2| ) +.... + cos { } | + o ) 1 n ( =
2
2
n
sin
sin
|
|
cos
|
.
|

\
|
|

+ o
2
1 n
ti : | = 2mt, m e I
a<iri # 8 : l---lnli- +i i n+n ai- +il(
(i) cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
(ii) cos
7
t
+ cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
3t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
5t
+ cos
7
6t
(iii) cos
11
t
+ cos
11
3t
+ cos
11
5t
+ cos
11
7t
+ cos
11
9t
rn : (i) cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
6t
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
2
7
6
7
2
cos
t
t
|
.
|

\
| t
+
t
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
13
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
7
4
cos
t
t t
=
7
sin
7
3
sin
7
3
cos
t
t t

=
7
sin 2
7
6
sin
t
t
=
2
1
(ii) cos
7
t
+ cos
7
2t
+ cos
7
3t
+ cos
7
4t
+ cos
7
5t
+ cos
7
6t
=
14
sin
14
6
sin
2
7
6
7
cos
t
t
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
| t
+
t
=
14
sin
14
6
sin
2
cos
t
t t
= 0
(iii) cos
11
t
+ cos
11
3t
+ cos
11
5t
+ cos
11
7t
+ cos
11
9t
=
11
sin
11
5
sin
22
10
cos
t
t t
=
11
sin 2
11
10
sin
t
t
=
2
1
4iu +i4 :
l--- lii +i i n ai- +il(
(14) cos
1 n 2 +
t
+ cos
1 n 2
3
+
t
+ cos
1 n 2
5
+
t
+ ...... n <i -+
(15) sin2o + sin3o + sin4o + ..... + sin no, ti (n + 2)o = 2t
2
1
(15) 0
+i 4i +i ii +t n ia it (Product series of cosine angles) :
cos u . cos 2u . cos2
2
u . cos2
3
u ...... cos2
n1
u =
u
u
sin 2
2 sin
n
n
fi+i ifat4 -4 +i +i sfu (Range of trigonometric expression) :
E = a sin u + b cos u
E =
2 2
b a +

)

u
+
+ u
+
cos
b a
b
sin
b a
a
2 2 2 2
ni-i
2 2
b a
b
+
= sin o ~i
2 2
b a
a
+
= cos o
E =
2 2
b a + sin (u + o), ti tan o =
a
b
~- u + l+=i ii i--l+ ni- + ln(
2 2 2 2
b a E b a + s s +
MATHS
"manishkumarphysics.in"
14
a<iri # 9 : l---lnli- + ~li+-n ( - --n ni- ai- +il(
(i) 3sinx + 4cosx (ii) 1 + 2sinx + 3cos
2
x
rn : (i) tn i-- t l+

2 2
4 3 + s 3sinx + 4cosx s
2 2
4 3 +
5 s 3sinx + 4cosx s 5
(ii) 1 + 2sinx + 3cos
2
x = 3sin
2
x + 2sinx + 4
= 3
|
.
|

\
|

3
x sin 2
x sin
2
+ 4 = 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

+
3
13
~- 0 s
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

s
9
16

3
16
s 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

s 0
1 s 3
2
3
1
x sin |
.
|

\
|

+
3
13
s
3
13
4iu +i4 :
(16) l---lnli- + ~li+-n ( - --n ni- ai- +il(
(i) 3 + (sinx 2)
2
(ii) 10cos
2
x 6sinx cosx + 2sin
2
x
(iii) cosu + 3 2 sin
|
.
|

\
| t
+ u
4
+ 6
Answers : (i) ~li+-n = 12, - --n = 4 (ii) ~li+-n = 11, - --n = 1
(iii) ~li+-n = 11, - --n = 1