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# Rob Brua, Cor van Wijgerden

Workbook Step 1
ame:
Street:
School:
Learned chess from:
Date of birth:
Place:
Club:
Trainer:
Fhe board
The chess board consists of
squares. It has 64 squares
arranged 8 x 8. In chess
language they are called
white and black squares.
The board is positioned cor-
rectly when a white square is
in the lower right hand cr-
ner; 'white on right'.
All of the squares have a
ame..
The square marked
called b2.
The square marked
called e4.
The square marked
called f6.
is
is
is
All squares al, b2, c3, d4, e5,
f6, g7 and h8 lie on a diago-
nal (slanting Une).
Not all diagonals are of equal
length. The shortest diagonals
are only two squares long
(e.g. al/bS).
The longest diagonals consist
of eight squares. There are
two of them: al/h8 and hl/a8.
a8 b8 c8 d8 e8 f8 98 h8
a? b7 c7 d7 e7 f7 g7 h7
a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6
a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5
a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4
a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3
a2 b2 c2 d2 e2 f2 g2 h2
a1 b1 d d1 e1 f1 g1 h1
In this diagram all the ames
are indicated in the squares.
A A A A A A A A
The starting position.
The pieces on the board
should be set up like this. We
view the position from the
side of the white player.
White always begins a game;
he makes the first move.
Notice where the white queen
is standing. She is always on
a white square.
flfth rank
Ranks ('rows') go from one
side to the other. They are
indicated with numbers. All
squares with number 1 (al, bl,
el, di, el, fl, gl and hl ) are
on the first rank.
All squares with number 5 are
on the fifth rank.
Files ('columns') go from bot-
tom to top and are indicated
with letters. All squares with
an h (hl through h8) are on the
h-file.
All eight files and eight ranks
are equally long.
s \ .&
A A A A A A A A
i l i i
In the diagram the board is
shown from the viewpoint of
the black player. Once again
the white player makes the first
move.
Note the position of the black
queen. She is standing on a
black square.
Firststep
Board Naming the squares: A
a b c d e f
BHJ;
a b c d e f g h
*= A= *=
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
7
6
a b c d e f
a b c d e f g h
A= ^= 1 =
7
6
5
4
3
2
b c d e f g h
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f a b c d e f g h
7
6
5
4
3
2
I
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f
Board Naming the squares: B
^8
7
6
5
4
3
2 ,
i
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h
=f2 = g7 4= c6 0=35 = e8 += h3 = a1 = d6 += c4
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
'
7
JQUL
6
5
4
M
v - ; .I/ :.,, i
3
2
1
IH m iw*
8
7
6
5
4
3
9
1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h
=h8 B =d1 +=c5 =96 B =e3 *= b4 = f7 = b2 4= d4
8
7
6
5
;
:
: ; f: HH
8
7
6
5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
8
7
6
5
4
3
9
1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h
=g2 "=e5 += b6 = d2 = h6 * =f5 = g4 = f1 += c4
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
8
'
6
5
4
3
2
1
s y
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h
=c6 B =g1 4=d8 * =f1 B =c5 ^= a3 = a7 = e5 ^= g6
First step
Moves of the pieces
All the pieces move in their own way on the chessboard.
+
+
1
The rook can move to all squares marked with a
plus. There are 14 of them.
The rook moves straight, forwards, backwards,
or sideways. The rook can move to 14 different
squares from e4.
The queen can move to all the squares marked
with a plus. There are 27 of them.
The queen can move like a rook, and like a bis-
hop. The queen moves straight, diagonally,
forwards or backwards. The queen can move to
27 different squares from e5.
4- < f > :+;
4- -i- +
The king can move to all the squares marked
with a cross. There are 8 of them. The king
moves straight or diagonally, but only one
square at a time. The king can move to 8 diffe-
rent squares from c3.
I
The bishop can move to all the squares marked
with a plus. There are 13 of them.
The bishop moves diagonally, forwards or back-
wards. The bishop can move to 13 different
squares from d5.
1
The knight can move to all the squares marked
with a plus. There are 8 of them.
The knight moves one square straight and one
square diagonally. The knight can move to 8
different squares from d4.
The queen has the most possibilities.
Therefore she is the strongest piece.
The rook has a lower valu than the queen, but
is still stronger than the other pieces.
The bishop and the knight are equally strong.
The king is a special case. He is the most
important one!
-
Rules of the game Moves of the pieces: A
AW
1
Firststep
Attacking and taking
On the l eft, the rook 'eyes
up' the squares marked with
a plus.
At right, the rook 'eyes up'
not only all the squares
marked with a plus, but also
the black knight. The rook is
aimed at the knight.
This is called: attacking.
On the left, the white queen
is attacking the black queen.
The queen on a4 can capture
the queen on d7.
On the right, the white queen
has captured the black queen.
The queen comes to rest on
the square that the black
latter is removed and no
longer takes part in the game.
White can take the black
knight with his rook.
The white rook cannot take
the bishop because the knight
is blocking its path.
Queens, rooks and bishops
are not allowed to jump over
enemy pieces.
In the l eft half the white
queen cannot capture the
black bishop. His own piece,
the white bishop is standing
in the way.
Also at right, the white queen
cannot capture. The white
bishop can capture the black
bishop. Queens, rooks, and
bishops are not allowed to
jump over their own pieces.
The knight can, of course,
also capture.
At l ef t, the knight can
capture the queen.
At right, the knight can
choose between taking the
queen or the rook. The
knight may also make
another move.

## At left, the white knight on

b3 jumps over the black
pieces to capture the black
rook.
It is simple to jump over
one's own pieces.
At right, the knight on g2
takes the black bishop on h4.
The knight is the only piece
that is allowed to jump.
For all the pieces, remember: Taking is not compulsory.
It is allowed, but is not obligatory.
f
Rules of the game
A
+ for moving
O for taking
Bd5
Qe5

_ _ . _
Rc7
Moves of the pieces: B
Rd4
Be3
Rc5
I
Qg4 Nd6
Qe2 Bd6 Nd3
Attacking Creating an attack: A
1
I I
The pawn
Each player has eight pawns. The pawn move is not similar to the moves of other pieces. In fact,
everything is different.
A
A pawn can move one square
forward. On its frst move
the pawn can chose whether
it wants to move one or two
squares forward. After this,
the pawn can only move one
square forward each turn.
The white pawns play from
bottom to top.
The black pawns always play
from top to bottom.
A
i
A
The pawn takes diagonally
forward, not straight. It is the
only piece that captures dif-
ferently from the way that it
moves.
The pawn on d5 can choose
between taking the bishop or
the knight. He can also ad-
vance forward one step.
The pawn on g3 can play
only after the black pawn has
takenonh3.
i i i i i i i i
A A A A A A A f i
Each side has 8 pawns in the
starting position. They are
standing on the 2
nd
and 7*
rank.
A pawn is the only chess
piece that may not move
backwards. He also may not
capture backwards. This
means that the white pawns
can never stand on the frst
rank and the black pawns
never on the eighth rank.
If a pawn reaches the back
rank, it can change into a
queen, rook, bishop or knight
of the same colour.
The pawn cannot remain on
the square. The pawn is pro-
moted. The pawn cannot
change into a king.
Pawn f7 chooses:
m a & A
Pawn b2 chooses:
W I % J L
1 0
i
A
Pawns may not jump, neither
over their own pieces, or
over the enemy pieces.
The white a-pawn cannot
move. The black g-pawn
cannot move two squares
forward because the bishop
is in its way, or can it take
the queen. The only move is
one step forward to g6.
A pawn:
can choose to move one or
two squares on its frst
move
may not move backwards
takes differently (diago-
nally) from the way it
moves (forward)
can change to a piece of
the same colour (except a
king) when it reaches the
opposite end of the board
First step
Rules ofthe game Moves of the pawn: A
A
A i
A
A
A
iJ.
A
R f .
A
A
u
Attacking Creating an attack: A
J.
I
II
11 i
i i
te
A
A A A
I
A i
A
A A
12
Firststep
Defending
J.
+ 4-
A piece which is under attack
can often be saved.
The bishop at left is being
attacked, but he can defend
himself by moving to one of
the six squares marked with a
plus.
On the right, the black knight
can only move to one square
where it cannot be captured.
A
On the left, the queen is
attacked; she can move
away. Black has another way
to defend himself from this
attack. He can interpose the
bishop on b6.
At right, Black can choose
from three ways of defending
the attacked knight. Moving
away, protecting with the
rook on f6, or interposing the
rook on g5. The black pawn
protects the rook.
I
On the left, the queen attacks
the knight. The knight does
not have to move away.
the knight on c7 or b8. If
White then takes the knight,
the black rook takes the
queen.
At right, Black can protect
his attacked bishop by
moving his rook one square
backward (to f7).
A
There are two special ways
of protecting which are
somewhat different from the
previous examples.
At left, White can protect the
pawn. The pawn move frees
up a path for the rook.
On the right, the white rook
is not interested in taking.
White protects the rook by
moving it to g3.
On the l eft, the black rook is
attacked. The rook can move
away, but it can also capture
the white rook.
Capturing (or taking) is the
third way of defence.
The black queen on the right
can escape from the bishop's
attack by moving away. In
this case it is better to take it,
because the bishop is not
protected.
i
J.1
i
The rook on e? is under
attack. He can be defended in
various ways. In chess you
can defend yourself by:
moving away
protecting
taking
interposing
Black can play either:
1. ... Re7-a7 (moving away)
1.... Bg7-f6 (protecting)
1. ... Re7xe4 (taking)
1.... Bg7-e5 (interposing)
L 3
Defending
Protecting: A
1
A A A i
i!
1
A A i A A
%
A \
A A
A A A < ? A A
;
<||s) A L
A
A A A A
A A
A %
A J.A
A IA A ^ A
A A
A A A A A A
< > A A A < > A :

<^g)
i! A A A A
A
A A J. A A
%
% A A
A
A A A
< > A >
a A
ni m
I IB n
^
& .
A A A
A A
% , A
A - 1 IL B
: H t 9H
W
A A A A
1
*
'' A
A A %
A
A A A
A M& 1
n i
:
A ^ A A
A A A %
A
A
A
A A A A A
: isr flHt (SrS)
: A A
A !___
A <^M ) A
A
J
v^H
A & U ^
t
1
< >
A J.A
f e A A A A A
A B
A A
A <? A
A A A A A
A
^ A
;
A
A . A
14 F/V 5< step
Defending Moving away: A
A ili A
A A A
A
tjBgji) A A ( ^ g>
A A % A I A A
A A A
& A iirii
A A A
A
^ A A
A A A & , ,\
g
% A
A A & A A A
6W
Jfta 1^=1 ^ *
ft
A A A , A A
A ./ *. ^
:
"'
:
1^ 1
A
A A +
A A
j- fl
A A * A
>
A
A A W A
^ A A
;
A
A & A A
15
<

)
^"BHBB H ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ H
i
A % A A
A AI
& A & j
A
1
A A
A A A A
Ni W

A i A
A
A <>
I
'' . A % A '*A
A A A
A
A A
A \$i
: A A <> A
fi ' '' JaL
A A
igf
A
^ A
A A
A A
A A fl A
: ' I A* A A A
15
Material
Taking an unprotected piece: A
II ' 4 |
A A III
1
4 4
A%
" H

W f A
4 1
4
f"W A
44
4 4
A
l^jBL
A
A A A
_
4 A 4 4
A
^ e5t=
A A
A A A
Jt '
1
4 44
1 A
A A
A A < &
n -
4 W J. 4
4
A A
A ' : ; ^i A
^g>
4 44
4 A
4
A
A
A A fl A A
1
ilf 4
I. ' \ 'A..- ' ']
4
A ^ A
E 4^4
|; --=
A A A
lB'4 4

^^%MMBgj^^^
HH^^
: 4
> !
A A A A
4 4> 4
A 4 44
^JTji&
A &
L A A A

16 F/rs? s/ep
Defending Taking the attacker: A
i rir *
A vA w A > A
A
^A
A a j.

A
A A ^A A
A A < ?

i,
A
* *f
(Bgi) A i
A A
: A A A
r A
\$
I
A
A
A A
A A
< >
" & M
A ^^
A A
H l > w v
A A
A A A ^
i
A A % A 1
A 1
H
*^
(
' *
' A
!
*
^p A I ^p A
% A A A 1A
A
M.
A ,
2I ' ' " ' . A ,: . . & &
A > A l l
^
j. i ^
A
A ,
A
A I * A
41
A A A -
W A A f l J L
* *
A
i^g?
A
l
w
j
A % A A
A
A 1A
A A
A S A A
A % A
A A M B
1 > A
A ^A A ^ A
17
Material Taking an unprotected piece: B
i i i i i i
i %
A
A A A
A &
A *A A A!
IWI *
ii Ai
A
A
A
A A
IA 1
i i i i
A i %
I
i i
A
i i
1
i i
i
i i
A
A
A A
Jj
A A A
a
A A A
i i i i i i
i 1
i
A
A A W A A A
1
A
A
Itr
i i
i
A
A
A
a
2 w
i i
A
A
A A A
iii
A Ai i i
i i
i % A
A A A A A
A i i i a i i
i&
i i A
A
A Jl
A A
A
i i
i %
A ir
A W A
A A > A A
18 F/'rs 5?ep
Test Repetition: A

Creating an attack
% &
BM^^^^^^JP^M^^^^^^MBB^^
QB A :
A ttacking
1 A A
d k A
VJjf Jt
A
A A
. A A A ; : ;
fi l?
Taking an unprotected piece
A l A
A A
^SjEBL
Which move can the pawn play?
1F A
A A A
A ' >
1 * .: ,: :
Defend ing
A A
% A A
A
A A A
A J, A A
Defend ing
; ^> ^
^ 4 i^
'
&
V
I " BA BI
\Ul
HI I B* < " f
A ttacking
a b c d e f g h
= d 5 = O 4= e7
A A '
1
A
A % A A
A A H
A
Defend ing
A
A . - A
A
Creating an attack + = moving O = taking
Taking an unprotected piece
19
Test Mix: A
S, * B i i li
>

i

>
A * A A A
^H1 ^B ^Sft
A W
A
s
:
"
&
*
Defendi ng
I
A l A
A
A
a A A
Defendi ng
1S? k
l
< > A A < > A
J. A & A
A
A
A
Atta cki ng
O
s
A - A A
A i
:
>
Defendi ng
S
< i|@
A
A 4A
A
JL rjj^i
g n 4,
A A
A - ' A
1 a
Ta ki ng a n unprotected pi ece
A 1
A I
v ; ^
4- = movi ng O = ta ki ng
IA "T?
>
A A
A :
}
- A A
A W A A

!
+ for correct bi shop moves
- for ba d bi shop moves
>
A A
A
+ for correct queen moves
- for ba d queen moves
t
&\
^H
A
A A A < >
Ta ki ng a n unprotected pi ece
A A * A
).-,
t^g) JL
A A JL A A A ' JL& A
A
W ^
A A A
* A 1 A
^
A
A A
Ii
A A
A ; ; A A
Defendi ng A tta cki ng Defendi ng
20
First step
Check and getting out of check
At the upper le the rook is
attacking the king. An attack
on the king is something
special and has its own
ame: check.
In the other positions the
king is also in check.
If in a game you attack the
may say: "check."
The king may never remain
in check. the king can thus
never be captured.
At the top in this diagram,
the black king must move to
b8.
At the bottom, White cannol
move his king. He must
move his pawn.
The king may never place
himself in check; he can also
never give check. There must
always be one square between
the two kings.
How do we get out of check?
Moving away Taking
At left, the king is in check.
He can choose one of three
squares to move to.
At right, he can only move to
two squares.
At left, the black king can
take the white queen and he
will no longer be in check.
At right, the white rook can
take the bishop, which is
giving check.
moving away
with the king
Getting out of check: taking
with another piece
Interposing
At left, Black can escape
from check by moving his
knight on c7 between his
king and the white rook.
At right, the bishop's move
to 2 cuts off the queen's line
of attack.
interposing
2 1
Attacking Giving check: A
1
A A
iA
J. A
A
i "!
% < > ijt
i
A
A A
A i
A
A
i !
4 *iI
A

A
A A! A A A A

A
A

A
A
ii A ii

A A
A
A
A A A A
I
A A A
J. 1
A A A
A A
A A A A A A
A
A
A A
fe
A
A
A
A A A A
*I
A A A A
J.
A
A A A
A
A A A A
22
First step
Defending Getting out of check: A
1 A A A A A
i
A A A A! I A A
A
A A
A
A A
A A m 11
i1 ^ 1
A
A A A A A
i i A
^U
<*) A
V 01
A
A
AA AA AA < ? A A
A A * A A
A & A
A
A A A A A
A A A A A A 1 A A A
1 A
A
A A A A A A A A A A Al
i 111
A A
A A
A A > A A A
A A A T A A A
A
A TH
A A A^ A A A
2 "i
Defending Getting out of check: B
A &
J. 1
A
A
A|
A
A
A
A
i
A i
J. I
A i
A
I
A A
A
A
A A A A
11<
A W A A
A Al
A A A
M f r
w

> A
A Al A
i A
A A W A A A A A A
24
First slep
Checkmate
The queen is attacking the
black king, thus the king is in
check and Black must
remove the check. Moving
away or interposing a piece
is not possible. The only
possibility for Black is to
take the white queen.
In this position black is also
in check. Now the king can
no longer take the white
queen. The queen is protec-
ted; she is assisted by the
bishop. Black is in check and
there is no way to get out of
it.
Black is checkmated.
r*
The knight is protecting the
queen on b6. Black is in
check and he can do nothing
to remove it. Black has been
checkmated.
On the right, White has been
checkmated. The black
queen is safely protected by
her bishop.
Checkmate ends of the game.
The player who delivers checkmate wins and receives one point. The player who has been
checkmated loses and receives no points. The outcome:
1-O if White wins
0-1 if Black wins
The rook is guarding all
squares on the seventh rank.
The black king can only
move to squares d8 or f8.
In the lower portion Black
guards e ven more squares.
White is not checkmated yet,
for mate, a check is needed.
He can mate with the queen
on.
1
The queen is guarding the
seventh rank. The rook can,
by giving check on the eighth
rank, deprive the king of his
last escape square.
At the bottom checkmate has
been delivered. The white
king is in check and there are
no more possible moves.
At left, White can give
checkmate with the rook on
el.
Each rook has its own task.
The b-rook protects the
b-file, while the c-rook
checks. Both are needed for
mate.
At right, the queen check-
mates on g2. She is suppor-
ted by the pawn on f3.
25
Mate Mate in one: A
g
'
1
26
First step
Mate Creating mate: A
A
A
A
A A
i i
A i
A
A
A A
27
Mate Creating mate: B
I
A
A

i
i i
A '& A
A
A
A
A
A
28
1
T
1
g
ui
Mate Mate in one: C
A

1
A A! A 1 & A
A
A
i
A
f
_A_ &HB
(^M)
i
30 First step
Mate Creating mate: C
V A
A
A
1
A i
A
A
A
A
A< ? . A
A
A
J.
A
A
A
A
A
A A
*I 1
A A !A > A A
A A % A Al. A
A
A
A < > A A A A
A
A
IA ?
31
Mate
Creating mate: D

1
i
A

A
A

A
A
A
A
A
1
i
A
a
A
A
JHB
WA A
A
A
32
F/ri/ step
Mate Mate in one:
i
i
A
A
A
1
A
A
A
1 A
I
Jt <s
i i

A
E

^

A
A
1
A i
1
A A A A
33
Mate Mate in one: I
1
1 A
A f i < ? A
A A
A % Jl
&
A
^A *f l
A
A A w 2
A
A AA J.
A W A
A A
A A
A JL A A a
AW A *A

A A
A < ?
' A i
*
A A W
AA
& A
AW A*
af l m
A A
AA ? f|?
A A
^ : A
f 2

! |0: s g?
.H
A
A

AA A
^ A
? ;:
;;
r ^ - I
BJb> W
^H^H f i Br ~ ^^H js.
i^g)
A ^ A A
r .' W A A AA
E '*
W AAA A J. A
A % A
A
A ^ A A
t
MH Ha HP
A A
A ^i ^ f i
A A A I
1 *
A % A
A ^
A W
i i
A f i AA
A
AA W A
< > 2
AA
A
F/re? step
Mate Mate in one: F
1 A
A A
A
i A
A
AA
A
I
A W A
A
A A A A
i
A
IA
A
A
A A
A A
A
A A
A
A
A
1
A A A A
A J. A
A
A
A % A
A I
I8
E L s.
- '
A A A A A
A
A A

A A A A
AA Al
1 A
1
i
A
AA
A
A
A
I1 A
35
Mate Mate in one: G
A A A
.
A A
A
A
A A
A A
A
A
A A
A
A
A
A A
A A A
A A
A A A
A A
A
A
A A A
A
A A A
A A
A
A
A
jf(S||)
A A
A
1
A A
A
A A
A
JlA
A HA
A A l
A 4 i A
A %
A A
A A A i
i
A A
A
A A A
I
A A
A
A
A
36
First step
Mate Mate in one: H
w * ~ f
A A A A
f*~ ^ 1 I
;
A A " > A A A A ^
A * A A % A A A A
A
- A A
f a Jl A
^ A A A A
A ^
0
A , w A
A A 1T A A A A A A
S < ?
' ' . M I F
A A W A A A
A l
A % A
1 ^

A A
!f \$1 W ^fti W
A A A A A
A
A A
:;:/ , &
< >
A A A
A A
A A A ^
A A % A
A > <^A
A A W A &| A A A A A A
1% A W ^A 1
A A %: A A
A A
L A
A
^A
S < >
A V A A
A A
A m
A ^A
&^A
A A A A A A A A W A
fi , W & | II ^fi
1 I*
r
t r - i
" 6
1
E

A A A W 4 f c A A A A l
% A ;
A A
A A A
A A A A
a s ^
HB w BH .
^A
:
^ A
1 A
^^B l^HI Q B^B ^BB
- - ;. : . i^S ;;f:;
^
I A - iM I A
A ^A
A % A
" '& A A
A A I
njf. -^::- f
1
A A % A A A
*
*
=H= <^>
A
A A A A < A A A A A
I . f l*
37
Castling
Castling is a move with king and rook at the same time: The king moves two squares to the side
The rook jumps over the king
Castling offers safety to the king and brings the rook into play.
A A A A A A
before castling
You may not castle:
A A A A A Al
If the king has moved (even
if he is onel again).
1
A A A A A A
If the king is in check.
. i. A
A A A A A
38
A A A A A A:
after castling kingside
A
A A A A
If the rook has moved (even
if he is on hl again)
A
A A A A
If the king passes through
check.
If it is only the rook which is
attacked then you may castle.
In the lower left diagram
White may castle kingside,
but not queenside.
A A A A A Al
! *_. ! __ i
after castling queenside
A A A
A
A A A!
If one of your own (or your
opponent's) pieces is in the
way.
w
A A A A A
;
If the king will be in check
after castling.
First step
Rules of the game
Castling: A
A AAA
A
A A A A A
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no
i i
A A A
May Black castle kingside?
O yes o no
r
i
i i
A
J.
A
A A A
May Black castle kingside?
o yes o no
< s j s >
AAW AAA
ft
A 1
A
A^ A A
A A A AW A
May White castle queenside?
o yes o no
AAA
A A A A
May Black castle kingside?
o yes o no
Ai
A
A
A A
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no
A A * AAAA
W AA %
A A A
^ 4^
A A A A A
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no
i A W A A A
* A J.4I
A
A A A A A
1
May Black castle queenside?
O yes O no
A A i
J.A
A A A;
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no
i 1 A
t
A A A
A
A
May White castle queenside?
o yes o no
A A A W A A A
ft A
A
A A 4 s ,
&A &
A A A A A &
May Black castle queenside?
O yes O no
AAA \$ AAA
A %
A
J. A W
A A A A A:
May White castle queenside?
o yes O no
39
Exchange and favourable exchange
4
3
2
1
14 13 15 11 5 6 7
9
10
5 2
4 3
The rook on e4 can move to,
at most, 14 different squares.
This is true from every
square on the board.
This bishop can move to, at
most, 13 different squares.
must remain on one colour.
This knight can move to, at
most, 8 different squares. Its
extra strength is that it can
jump.
This queen can move to, at
most, 27different squares.
The queen is a very strong
piece.
13 3
12 2
11 1
10
27 BB3 6
26 2 5
25 1 4
24 23 22 21 ^7 8 9
17 13 10
18 14 11
19
20
15
16
12
List of vales: O = 1 point ^J=3poi nt s JL= 3 points Ji = 5 points !' = 9 points
1
In the upper left, the black rook can take the white rook; White
recaptures. This is an exchange of rooks.
In the upper right, Black can take the white knight; White
recaptures with his pawn. This is an exchange of knights.
At the bottom left, the white queen can take the black queen; the
black rook recaptures. This is an exchange of queens.
At the bottom right, the white knight can take the black bishop; the
black pawn recaptures. This is an exchange of bishop for knight.
The favourable exchange
The white pawn takes the black queen on c6; the black pawn
recaptures. White gains 8 points.
The black pawn takes the white rook on g6; the white pawn
recaptures. Black gains 4 points.
The white knight takes the black rook on a2; the black pawn takes
the white knight. White gains 2 points.
The black pawn takes the white bishop on g3; the knight
recaptures the pawn. Black gains 2 points.
40
First step
Material Favourable exchange: A
A
A
A
I
A
X
A A
A A
A A
A A A
A A A A

A A
A A
A A A A A
A A A
JL
^ A
A A A
A
A A
A A
A
A A
A
A
A A
% A
A
A W A A
A A A
A
A A i
A A
A A
A
A
A A
a < * ! ?
41
Material Favourable exchange: B
I AW I*
A A A A A
% A fa A
A A A
A A
A A
I
A A A A A
A
A
A
A
A
A A
A A A! A A
A A A AW A > A
A A
A I
A A W A
A &
A A
A O A A A
A A
A A
m A
^A W A
A A A &
I A I I
A A
A A A A
rtty A
A% A A
A
A A A
A A
A
A A
A
A A
A A
A
A A
A A A A | A A
% A %
AA A
A & A &'
A A A A A
A J, A >
A W A A A A
A A
W A
A AA
li
A 1A
A
A A W A A A
A %
1
A
A A A
A A
A A
A A A A | A A
A
A A A
42
F/' rs sfp
Test
JK
(
J i
)
11 :'v;i"E
^
;,
Vate in one
E
:
A Jl I F
A A %A A A A
VA A %
&
A
^
A A A A A
I I
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no
I W*4. f t K
A A A A A
A
A A A A
A
A A A A A A
fi Jl W < > fl
Going out of check
A
i
a*

i!
r I
:
:/ ; - ;
!
vate in one
A W A A A
A %
A A A A
:
I , *
F avourable exchange
1
J. A
I %
S
* fl I H
cS,
' A A 2
*
Vate in one
A A A A A
%
A
HA A
A A : > - < > A A
fl

Repetition: D
1 F
A A A A
A i %
I H
^.
A A ^ A A A
Going out of check
A A A A A
A
% A A
A < 5 }
A A A
* J
Giving check
l f
A
&_
-
_8H
c
^=
3
A
A nBrii
Creating mate
sfe)
^3
A A
A
un/ ^ A
^H 4B
1
1 A
A T A A ,
Mate in one Giving check F avourable exchange
43
Test Mix: B
m G & S )
m. w
A A
A A
: }A
; A
A A < ?
m J B B B J R
Mate in one
ISf tS & K
0
1 I +'
A m A A A
A A A
A A
A A
A
A A T A fl A
-avourable exchange
I W
1
A A A A A
% A A A A A *J L
A A A
A A A A
A A A A A
A &
fi lt H
Going outofcheck
I 4l A
}ff
A A 1 A ^ A

5
I
I*"'
Taking an unprotected piece
2 A e
U ?
A
&
Mate in one
f ^W)
E X IF
A * A A A
A
- A
:: :
: A
A
f A ' A

A A < ?
Goingout of check
I 1
A W A A A A A A A A
A A A ^ < ib
^ A
A A A
1 A . A A
A > A %
A
"
:
"iDt
A 1 A A A
A A A A A A
A
^

fi A A A
A A A A A
May White castle kingside?
o yes o no

A
A A
n
A A A A
A
m
Defending
1 A
A W I > A A A
A A
A
A A &
A !
A A
Mate in one
1&
I & A A A
A
A

A
A A
I
F avourable exchange Mate in one Taking an unprotected piece
44
First step
The twofold attack
1
Ai l eft , the whit e rook
attacks the black bishop and
can capture him. The black
bishop is unprotected.
At right, the black bishop is
protected. The bishop is
attacked once and defended
once. This is sufficient .
1
I
Now the black bishop is also
attacked by the white bishop.
White takes on d5, Black
takes back, and White takes
once again.
The black bishop is attacked
twice and defended once.
White attacks the bishop
twice: the twofold attack.
Twofold attacks are also
carried out with other pieces.
It does not matter with which
piece we take frst. It is a
question of taste.
At l eft , White can take the
bishop with the queen or the
knight.
At right, White can take the
black knight with his bishop
or his knight.
In both cases White wins a
piece.
On the l eft , the black knight
is defended only once. White
attacks him twice.
White nevertheless must be
careful how he takes. If he
takes with the bishop he wins
a pawn.
On the right, Black must frst
take with the rook.
The twofold attack in this
diagram is tricky. It seems
that the rook on a8 is only
once attacked. The rook on
al assists so that White can
still win the rook.
At right, the queen on h7
assists in a twofold attack on
e4.
[ A A & A i A i
A W
A A A A A A A
The white queen and the
bishop both attack the pawn
on f7. The black king provi-
des the only protection. The
queen must assist with the
protection of f7. The g-pawn
can also move forward one
square.
A piece that is attacked
twice, but protected only
support.
45
Material Taking a piece which is attacked twice: A
I
i
1 1
11
A
A
A
A
A A A
1 11
1 JL
A
A A A
Al 11
A A A
A A
A A A A
I
1
1
'A
? A
A 1
1>
111
1
A
A
B 4?
A
1 1
11
A A A A
J.
1 %1 le
1 1
1A 1
A
A ' 1 A
A ?A A
1111
1
111
1
111
11
A A
A
A A A A A A A A A A
J.1 11
11
% A 1
*A
A . A
& A A
46
First step
Material Taking a piece which is attacked twice: B
i

A
A A A
A A
A
A A
A
A A
A i
A
A A A
I HA
A A A
i A ^A
A A A
A A
} A
A A & A A'
i - . . - . . ;__ _____ ^*~
J
- .
I
A A A A A
J.
A A
& A
A A W A A A A A A A A A
A A A J. A A A
A
A
A A A A A A
% 41A
A A l
A A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A
A A % A %
A A A
A A
A i W A A A
47
Draw
Just as in soccer a chess game can end in a tie. A tied game is
called a draw. Both players receive half a point. The game is
finished.
When is a game drawn?
If it is no longer possible for either side to checkmate (e.g. if
only the two kings remain on the board)
If one side is in stalemate.
Stalemate
The white queen has comple-
tely trapped the black king
but Black is not in check.
Unfortunately for White it is
Black to move. The king is
not in check, but cannot
move. No other move is
possible: Stalemate.
A
A
Black is totally tied down.
Yet the game is not a draw!
To be stalemated it must be
Black to move. In this
position it is White to move.
He gives mate on b8 or h7.
Two stalemates: on the left,
White is down a rook but
gains a half point.
At right, Black is even a
White can make no move he
is stalemated.
A ilf A
A
1
_
In this game Black has cap-
tured all White's pieces.
Quite an achievement!
Unfortunately, his last move
was rather stupid, since he
has stalemated White. That
means he gets half, instead of
a whole point.
The white king has no more
moves. Yet White is not
stalemated. The pawn on h3
can move a step forward.
You are only stalemated if
absolutely no move is pos-
sible.
no pieces left, be careful for
'crazy' moves like this rook
check on d2. White should
not take with the king.
Stalemate: It is your turn to move, but you can make no legal move.
You are not in check.
First step
Rules of the game Mate, stalemate or play: A
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
A
A
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
I
A A
A
A
A A A
o mate o stalemate
O White plays 1.
A A
A
A
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
A A A A
A A A
o mate o stalemate
o White plays 1.
A A
A 1
A A
A A A
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
A
A A
A A
A
o mate o stalemate
o White plays 1.
1
ir A A
A
A A A
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
o mate o stalemate
O White plays 1.
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1. . . .
A A
A
A
A
A A
A
T
K'
1
' H.
o mate o stalemate
o White plays 1.
49
Mate Mate in one with the queen: A
5 x mate 2 x mate
2 x mate 4 x mate 3 x mate
50
First step
Test Repetition: C

< >
^ ' - '
aa '
:
Mate in one
JK,
<
3 J j
>
4 4
6 fi, ' a?
%
A A
K \
A
BBH
Mate in one
lf
I
&
A
: > ' , '
o mate o stalemate
o White plays 1 . . . .
4 i 444
A - :
wfmrJ ^
A A A A A

*
4 4 4
4
A
i; ; A A
A A A
Vlay Black castle kingside?
o yes o no
3?
iWf

1
Mate in one
^4 a
4
4 >
;
A
A : I
W
Mate in one
asa
4 4
I ^4
: : /"-
a
A ; A

*
nj uj
! j >
444
A
\$5
A
1 ;;.: / A < ? 1
o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1 . . . .
\$1
4 W 1 4'
1
4
4 4
4 1
A Bji
A A A A ,
I I < ?l
Taking a piece which is attacked
: wice
X llf
4 44
4 A A
A A A
a &
Mate in one
4 44
4 A
jflbt fj \
^9) %y i
A 1
A A A A
Taking a piece which is attacked
twice
Mate in one Taking a piece which is attacked
twice
51
Test
Mix: C
i 1
A
A
A A A
A
A
Taking a piece which is attacked
twice
A A A A
A A
A * J.
A m A
A*&
Defending
Defending
11
ft W
i A i
A A
A
A A
A
lUIr
A
A
A J.
A
Mate in one
Goingout of check
1
A
A
JL
A 1
A
A
Favourable exchange o mate o stalemate
o Black plays 1....
A A
A
A
A
A A A
Mate in one
Mate in one
I W l *
A A A A
A % A %
^ A A t
4A A
A H A A A
mmmm
A ^
A J. 1 A
A A W A
Taking a piece which is attacked
twice
A A
A I
Defending
A
A
52
First step
The pawn (2)
i
A
f A
A
A
The pawn moves forward
and captures diagonally.
At left, White can push his
pawn to b6 or he could take
the black pawn: b5xc6.
In this case, the position on
the other side results. The
black pawn has disappeared.
The black pawn has just
moved from c7 to c5. White
may treat the move just as if
one square and he can take it.
The result is pictured in the
next diagram.
White has taken the pawn.
We cali this en passant
capture. This is French for
capture in passing.
You can easily overlook the
possibility of this pawn
move.
A
White has just played the
move 1. a2-a4. Black may
now take en passant (in
passing).
See the next diagram.
After this move the black
pawn will be on a3.
En passant is only possible
after:
The pawn has moved two
squares forward;
Only the pawn standing
file may take en passant;
It must be taken at once.
You cannot wait a move.
Taking 'en passant' is in
chess the only capture when
after taking a piece moves to
an empty square.
53
The notation
You can write down the
games you play.
You can show your games at
home or replay them later.
he wants to analyze your
games with you. This is only
possible when you write
On the drawing Black has
just moved. White is writing
down the move.
It's easy to write down the
moves.
We write the white knight's
move in the following way:
first the piece N (knight)
(N is used instead of K to
avoid confusin with the
king)
then the square on which it
is standing (c2)
a hyphen (goes to)
fnally the square to which
it moves (d4).
White writes down his move
as Nc2-d4.
Black's move is Bc8-g4.
A
Special moves:
Upper left:
taking (x): Rdxa
Upper right:
check (+): Bg5-h6+
Lower left:
promotion: b2-blQ
(Q=queen, R=rook,
B=bishop, N=knight)
Lower right:
castling: 0-0
(0-0-0 = castling queenside)
A A
1
To note down 'en passant'
we write the letters e.p. after
the move, e.g: b4xa3 e.p.
A t right, White's move is
written as 1. eVxfSR; Black's
move as 1 .... RfB-e8.
For mate we write either
(check)mate or #.
The 1. is the move number.
In score books the move
cated.
54 First step
Notation
The long notation: A
A
i
I
i i i
Black castles queenside.

A
The white pawn promotes to
a queen.
Material Winning material: A
1 le
A A A A A
A A % r A
A
A A A A A
1
i A W A A A
i A
A A A
A
i ir 1*
A % A A
A A A A
A &
A A A
A &.
A < ?
:
A A A A A
I
A A A A A A
A A
A
A A A A %
A A A A
IA A W A
A A
AB A A
A A
A W A A A
A A
A
A A
A
A A
A
I WI+
A A *A A A
A A A
A
A A ^
A A A A
A A
A
1*
ir A A
A
A A
A A
A A
A
A
A
A
I
i A A A
% A %
A ^A
A A
i. ^
A A W A A A
A A A A
A 4 H A
W A
A A A A
A A '-i
W f\
56