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Q1) South Asia is referred to as a subcontinent. Discuss.

Subcontinent, as the name suggests, is a part of the continent. South Asia includes countries like India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. South Asia is referred to as subcontinent because although it is smaller than a
continent, it is very large and is separated from the rest of Asia by seas, hills and mountains.

Q2)How are historical dates devised? What is their importance?
Historical dates are devised by counting the years from the date assigned to the year of the birth of Jesus Christ. The dates before the
birth of Christ are counted backwards and denoted as BC (Before Christ). The dates after the birth of Christ are counted forwards. They
are important as they help in structuring periods of history in relation to present dates.

What were manuscripts? What was their purpose?
A manuscript was a manually created handwritten document. These were usually written on palm leaf, or on the specially prepared bark
of the birch tree which grew in Himalayas. They were composed in Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tamil languages and dealt with religious and
scientific beliefs, lives of kings and epics of the time.


How did the word India come into use?
The word India was derived from the name of the river Indus or the Sindhu in Sanskrit. It was used by the Iranians and Greeks who
came from the northwest about 2500 years ago and referred to the river Indus as Hindos or Indos. The land to the east of the river was
known as India.


State whether True or False
i. The earliest cities flourished 4700 years ago.
ii. Son is the tributary of the river Ganga.
iii. Greek and Aramaic were the two languages used in the Kandahar.
iv. Different groups of people had similar pasts.
i. True
ii. True
iii. True
iv. False, Different groups of people like kings, merchants, crafts persons and farmers had different pasts.

Q6 .What are the ways of restructuring the past in present?
The different ways of restructuring the past in present are
Through the help of manuscripts that depicted epics, plays, poems and knowledge of ancient times.
Through the help of writings on inscriptions made on order of the king.
Through excavation of archaeological remains of ancient times. For example, tools, weapons, coins, ornaments and buildings.


Who are archaeologists? What is their role?
Archaeologists are those who study the objects of the past. They evaluate the remains of the buildings made of stone and
bricks, paintings and sculpture. They contribute in exploration and excavation of tools, weapons, pots, pans, ornaments
and coins. Archaeologists also study bones of various animals and birds to find out the food pattern of people. Thus, they
play a vital role in interpreting the objects of the past for historians.


Why was travelling an important part of the life of people?
Travelling was an important part of the life of people for the following reasons:
Men and women moved in search of livelihood from one place to another.
People left for other places to escape from disasters like floods and/or droughts.
Armies moved from one place to another in order to conquer other areas.
Merchants travelled with caravans or ships carrying valuable goods from place to place.
Religious teachers walked from village to village, town to town. They stopped in between to offer instructions and advices.
Some travelled to explore new and exciting places.

Why are the pasts of various groups of people different from each other?
The pasts of various groups of people are different from each other because of differences in their social and economic status. For
example, kings, merchants, farmers and crafts persons. The variations in geography created differences as people in different parts of
the country followed different customs and traditions. The ruling groups like kings also preserved their history by recording their
victories while the ordinary people did not have any written records.

Describe the earliest evidences of agriculture that have been found in the subcontinent.
The earliest evidences of agriculture in the subcontinent have been found in the Sulaiman and Kirthar hills in the northwest, the Garo
hills in the north-east and the Vindhyas in central India. Men and women first began to grow crops such as wheat and barley about 8000
years ago on Sulaiman and Kirthar hills. People also reared animals like sheep, goat and cattle, and lived in villages. Rice was first
grown to the north of the Vindhyas.