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# Lesson 14

## The effects of the Distortion group

In this lesson, you will:
Manage the symmetry effects.
Manage the Wrapping effects.
Animate with the Wrapping Grid effect.
The Distortion !lip effect
The Distortion > Flip effect
This effect permit to flip hori"ontally and#or vertically images in the current layer \$see the e%amples
&elow'. This effect does not use or re(uire animation )eys.

Source Image Vertical flip Horizontal flip Horizontal and vertical flip
The Distortion > Mirror effect
This effect allows you to do a symmetry in relation to an a%is in the current layer.
* The Pivot X, Pivot Y and Angle numeric fields allows you to define the a%is the symmetry will &e
applied to.
* When using animation )eys, the Rotation parameter reflects the num&er of complete rotations to
&e carried out &efore arriving at the chosen angle.
* The Opacity parameter allows you to ad+ust the transparency of the reflected image.
>>
Source Image Mirror effect, opacit !"#
If needed, you can move the a%is through the ,-D interactively in the current
pro+ect window.
./01 The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion 2aleidoscope effect
The Distortion > Kaleidoscope effect
As the name implies, the effect imitates the view through a )aleidoscope. In the following
paragraphs, the pro+ects will &e considered as having the layers merged.
>>
\$riginal image %se of the Kaleidoscope effect
The num&er of segments is the num&er of symmetric a%es used to o&tain the final image \$see
&elow'.

\$riginal image \$ne horizontal smmetric T&o smmetric a'es Three smmetric a'es
a'is (horizontal and vertical)

The effects of the Distortion group ./03
The Distortion 2aleidoscope effect

*our smmetric a'es *ive smmetric a'es Si' smmetric a'es +ight smmetric a'es
,nd so on ---
The value of the first angular parameter varies the a%is formed &etween the symmetric and the
hori"ontal a%is.
The grayish diagrams indicate the area in the original image which will &e duplicated &y the
symmetry.
In &lac), the rotation angle applied &efore symmetry in relation to the red a%es.
,ere for one symmetric a%is :

,ere for two symmetric a%es :

./0/ The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion 2aleidoscope effect
The Source coordinates define the position on the screen of a point at which the symmetry a%es
cross each other \$see the various e%amples hereafter'.

The value of the second angular parameter is used to vary the glo&al angle of the image o&tained:

The Destination coordinates define the position on the screen of an image centre o&tained after
application of the effect \$see the various e%amples hereafter'.
The effects of the Distortion group ./04
The Distortion 2aleidoscope effect

When the Fill option is disa&led, the )aleidoscope effect is calculated according to the current
image. When it is ena&led, the calculation is also carried out on all reproductions of the current
image.
5elow, the area inside the white rectangle represents the current pro+ect window.
All areas inside and outside the white rectangle represent the space used to calculate the effect.
In the .
st
case, the option is disa&led, the effect is calculated from the current image.
In the 1
nd
case, the option is ena&led, the effect is calculated from the current image and its
reproductions.

In &oth cases the original pro+ect is represented with the result after the effect is calculated and the
other showing the result o&tained when the destination parameter is set to another point.

./06 The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion 7erspective : / points effect
The Distortion > Perspective : 4 points effect
This effect is constructed in the same way as the Perspective tool from the main panel, e%cept that
the position of each point can &e moved along a stored path.
>
Source Image .urrent Image /esult after appling the stac0
* The Position tab allows you to manage the coordinates of the four points used for this effect \$the
four corners of the ,.-.D'
* The Render tab permit to select the type of image, called 8ource Image, which will &e put in
perspective \$current layer, !908tac), other pro+ect, &rush, etc.'.
Associated with the Piel !rac"er \$this option will &e e%plained in details in the ne%t
lesson', this effect can wrap a video se(uence or a picture onto a moving shape.
This could &e the case if the cameraman was moving his recorder while filming the
computer screen a&ove.
,ere &elow, a shadow was created for our character. The two effects #olor \$ Source %&age and
Styli'e \$ Drop S(ado) were used in order to have the shadow drawn on an empty layer \$go &ac)
to the last chapters of the last lesson for more details'.
This shadow was put into perspective than)s to our effect. We succeed to imitate the pro+ection of

The effects of the Distortion group ./0:
The Distortion Wave effect
The Distortion > Wave effect
This effect imitates water waves, as if a roc) was thrown into water. \$loo) at the images &elow'.
* The #enter parameter defines the center of the effect, the position where the roc) hits the water.
* The Radius parameter defines the ma%imal distance the waves will go.
* The Wave parameter defines the num&er of visi&le waves.
* The A&plitude parameter defines the ma%imum height of the waves.
* The Angle and Rotation permit to animate the waves in time.

;nce again, these parameters can &e partly ad+usted in the pro+ect window through
the ,.-.D.
We will ta)e advantage of this image which show clouds to study the Distortion \$ !ornado effect.
,ave you ever noticed how a whirlpool &ehaves in a wash&asin for e%ample <
The Distortion \$ !ornado effect produces the same )ind of effect, distorting the image or the image
se(uence \$loo) at the images &elow'.
* =i)e the Wave effect, you will need to define a #enter and a Radius \$which can &e loc)ed with
animation )eys if needed>'.
./0? The effects of the Distortion group
>> >>
>> >>
* The Angle parameter allows you to define the power of the applied distortion.
* When using animation )eys, the Rotation parameter reflects the num&er of complete rotations to
&e carried out &efore arriving at the chosen angle.
The Distortion > Bump effect

The *u&p effect allows the creation of a relief, which
will &e provided &y a source image, over the current
layer.
The more luminous the source image is, the more
important the relief of the pi%els in the current image is.
The dar)er the source image is, the less visi&le the
relief is.
;n the right &elow, the source image and the current
image are the same. It gives a feeling of relief on the
whole screen.

.urrent image Source image 1 .urrent image
The effects of the Distortion group ./0@
The Distortion 5ump effect

Source image 1 TV2aint logo Source image 1 paper
* Aou can ad+ust the depth of the relief and soften the &orders using the numeric fields Dept( and
S&oot(.
* A relief re(uires a lighting to &e visi&le : than)s to the Apply )it( menu, you can define a centered
lighting than)s to the #enter option, or a directional lighting \$Direction option' whose angle will
The Distortion > Displacement Mapping +ffect

The Displace&ent +apping effect wor)s the same way
as the Distortion \$ *u&p effect : the panel and settings
are the same.
Begarding the Displace&ent +apping : the pi%els from
the current image which correspond to the pi%els from
the source image will &e replaced &y different pi%els
from the current image.
That means : the software ma)es a translation of the
current image pi%els along a direction or a center, only
in the opa(ue areas of the 8ource image.

.urrent image Source image 1 TV2aint logo
The more luminous the 8ource image is, the more important the displacement of the pi%els in the
current image is. The dar)er the 8ource image is, the less visi&le the Displace&ent +apping is.
./0.C The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion Displacement Mapping Dffect

Source image 1 paper
The Distortion > Wrapping Grid effect

The wrapping grid is an e%tremely useful animation tool and is capa&le of distorting the images in
time according to the criteria of your choice.
The Wrapping grid effect, when correctly used, can produce (uite spectacular results: wave
movement, 3D rotation of faces, movement of hair &lowing in the wind, etc... \$&elow, you will find a
summary overview of the possi&ilities proposed'.
>> >> \$pro+ect s)ull.tvp'
1
st
image Movement Last image
;nce the effect has &een placed in the !9 stac), a grid is displayed on the current image.
8ome hints for &eginners:
* The use of two grids will &e necessary for your effects to wor) correctly: these grids are referred
to as Source and Destination grids.
The Display popup menu is used to select on which of the two grids you intend to wor).
Depending on your choice, the ,-D will &e modified accordingly: the letter S appears when the
source grid is displayed and the letter D appears if the destination grid is displayed.
The effects of the Distortion group ./0..
The Distortion Wrapping Erid effect

Intersections in the Source grid Intersections in the Destination grid
In the ,-D, when the source grid is displayed, the destination grid is always visi&le &ehind in a
less &right color. When the destination is displayed, the opposite case applies.

3ispla of Source and Destination grids (the current grid is green, the other is 4lue)
* Modification of an intersection in the Source and#or Destination grid distorts the current image
accordingly.
The image is distorted, stretched or contracted over a narrower or wider area on the screen so that
the points on the source grid of your initial image are moved to the same location as the points on
the destination grid.
5elow, source and destination points on a grid with the resulting distortion.
>>
* The Point menu is used to edit each grid point present on the screen. The latter may &e identified
&y their position on the grid \$see &elow'.

* The first two numeric fields are used to select the num&er of intersection points on your grids
\$Source and Destination grids have the same num&er of intersections'. Aou may increase or
decrease the height and#or width of these grids. The limit of the grids is 4C%4C intersections.
./0.1 The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion Wrapping Erid effect

4 ' 4 grid 5 ' 4 grid 5 ' 16 grid
* The five &uttons present in this panel are used respectively to:
0 Ddit grid points.
0 Distort the grid as a whole.
0 Copy the source grid to the destination grid.
0 Copy the destination grid to the source grid.
0 8wap source and destination grids.
Ddit grid points
* When this option is ena&led, each intersection point of your grid \$source or destination grid' may
&e moved in space along three a%es \$)idt(, (eig(t and dept(' the effect of which will result in
immediate distortion of the current image.
Aou may also use the predefined paths to manage intersection movement.

A&ove, from left to right, the initial image, movement of the destination intersection along the 9 and
A a%es, movement of the destination intersection along the F a%is.
* It is possi&le to select several intersection points when the ,-D is visi&le &y drawing a rectangle
inside the ,-D. ;nce this has &een done, it is easy to carry out all movements with a single clic)
and slide on an intersection.
The effects of the Distortion group ./0.3
The Distortion Wrapping Erid effect

* It is possi&le to choose an intersection interpolation mode \$linear, spline or smooth' in the first

Spline interpolation Smooth interpolation Linear interpolation
If the interpolation mode chosen is Spline, use of the G8hiftH )ey when moving the
handles ena&les movement of one handle at a time.
Ddit grid &ounding &o%
When the second icon is selected, it is possi&le to distort the current grid as a whole &y rotating it
or &y modifying its dimensions \$see &elow'.

\$riginal grid 7rid &ith 8"9 rotation 7rid &ith height divided 4 t&o
8wap the source and destination grids
This option is practical when creating a distortion opposite to that of the current distortion.
5elow, the rear end of the arrow represents the Source point of the grid and the arrow tip
corresponds to the Destination point.
./0./ The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion Wrapping Erid effect

3istortion: Source 1> destination 3istortion: 3estination 1> Source
The AntiAliasing parameter in the last section allows to smooth the &order of the image when this
one is applied on the pro+ect. The options are Ione, Medium and 5est.
Distortion of the current image in time.
We +ust saw how to distort an image in space using the source and destination grids. To distort the
current image in time as was done for the Js)ull.tvpK pro+ect, you must:
* Duplicate the latter along the entire layer.
* -nactivate the previsualisation of the effect \$use the menu at the &ottom left of the !908tac)'
* 8et the display option on Source.
* 7ay attention to place intersections of the Source Grid at all strategic points on the image : eyes,
teeth, etc > and ensure the grid covers the lines of your drawing.
* Copy the Source Grid to the Destination Grid.
* Beactivate the previsualisation of the effect.
* 8et the display option on Destination.
* Ma)e the Destination Grid slightly different from the Source Grid for at least the first and last
frames of the animation layer and then create the corresponding )eys.
The result is a distortion, and conse(uently, a movement which ta)es place over a period of time.

The method descri&ed a&ove is not the only way of using this effect. Many others
e%ist. Aou should try them out and share your impressions in the on0line forum.
The Distortion > Optical Flo effect
The purpose of this effect is also to distort the current image or animation, &ut in a different way
than the Distortion \$ Wrapping Grid effect. It uses a vector field instead of a grid. This vector field
defines a flow that will &e followed &y the pi%els of the current image.
The effects of the Distortion group ./0.4
The Distortion ;ptical !low effect
The parameters of this effect are really close to the *lur \$ +otion *lur effect in
=esson .C. They have the same functionality as the +otion *lur effect, the only
difference &etween the two effects, is that the rendered image is different. ThatLs
why the +otion *lur is in the *lur section and the Optical Flo) is in the Distortion section.
This effect comprises four ta&s :
; The !dit ta4

L<image source
* The first &utton allows you to set the si"e of the vector field. More e%actly it allows you to set the
num&er of vector that you will use on &oth the hori"ontal and vertical a%is.
;nce you have chosen the si"e, you can edit the current vector field itself.
To do so, display the ,.-.D and draw directly on the screen \$to &e e%act : on the ,.-.D' with the
purple circle, as shown &elow.
If you have a picture &ehind the vector field, you should see the render of the distortion.

Vector field Modified image

The left mouse &utton allows you to increase the tension of the
vectors in a chosen direction.
The right mouse &utton allows you to decrease the tension of the
vectors in a chosen direction.
The red points are the source points of your vectors, \$they canLt
&e moved'
The green points are the destination points your vectors,
The &lue segments are the vectors themselves.
!or a given picture in your timeline, modifying the vector field creates an animation
)ey.
If more than one animation )ey is created in the timeline, it means that your vector
field and thus the distortion will evolve in time.
./0.6 The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion ;ptical !low effect
* The Reset #urrent .ey &utton reset the vector field of the current picture in the timeline. If this
picture does not have an animation )ey, a new one will &e automatically created.
* The &utton : allows you to modify all the vectors of the field in only one operation. This tool is
perfect if you need to distort, move or pivot an image entirely.

The more vectors you will use, the more time you will need to render the effect.
* The &utton : allows to change the parameters of your ,.-.D &rush \$i.e : the purple circle'
=i)e the common tools \$air&rush, etc ...' that you use to draw, you can set its profile, si"e and also
power.

=etLs admit that we will always choose the direction opposite
when editing our vector field \$i.e : the red arrow' :
The pictures &elow shows the impact of the different settings at

The effects of the Distortion group ./0.:
The Distortion ;ptical !low effect
The last &utton that loo)s li)e 1 corssing arrows allow you to manage a random distortion of the
image. This option has the a&ility to move pi%els from your image dimly or strongly. Com&ined with
antoher effect, li)e Styli'e \$ /oise, you will have the opportunity to create a convincing fau%0fi%e.
M The parameter Seed is a value proposed &y default and does not need to &e changed.
M The parameter 0engt( defines the distance &etween the destination points \$green' and the
source points \$red'. The &igger this value is, the more the image will &e sha)ed \$and conevrsely'.
M The parameter 1ariance allows to increase the strenght of the move, following the 0engt( value.
The &igger this value, the stronger and the more powerful the tremor will &e \$and conversely'.
; The Selection ta4

* In this ta&, you can select the vectors of the field that you want to edit via the previously
discussed tools.
5y default, all the vectors are selected. The two &uttons Select All and #lear Selection allow you to
reset the selections.
As in the main panel, you can use one of the three selections icons : S2uare, Free(and
or #ircle selection.
./0.? The effects of the Distortion group
The Distortion ;ptical !low effect

When doing a selection, if a vector is selected, it appears
in yellow instead of &lue. \$if you want to select a vector,
+ust select its source'
If a vector source is not selected, its ,.-.D color &ecomes
lighter.
The tools availa&le in the 3dit menu will only apply on the
selected vectors.
The circle selection use the same parameters as the ,.-.D &rush \$the purple circle' so you can
select your vectors &y Ndrawing on the ,.-.DO
It allows you to have source points only selected in part and thus to have nice effects when editing
the vectors.
Iote that if you reset the si"e of the vector field, all the settings that you have done
\$vectors, animation )eys, selections, ...' will &e lost.
; The "ender ta4

The Render ta& allows you to choose :
* The calculation algorithm of the distortions \$*lac"&an
or by de4ault'
* The distortion mode of the image &orders
\$The e%ample &elow illustrates the three modes at your
disposal.'

Source Image Vector *ield

=one Image Mode Mirror Image Mode Loop Image Mode
The effects of the Distortion group ./0.@
The Distortion ;ptical !low effect
; The Displa# ta4

The three &uttons: S(o) Source, S(o) Destination
and S(o) 1ector allow you to select e%actly what you
want to see on the ,.-.D : the red source points
and#or the green destination points and#or the &lue
vectors.
The &utton S(o) Only Selection allows to see only the
vectors located inside the current selection.
./01C The effects of the Distortion group