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An appendix or appendices are usually the last pages in a document/project.

They contain things that you

did not have space for in the main part of your project.

For example, imagine halfway through my project, I was discussing the increase in the population
between the years 1990 and 2000. If I had a table that showed all the relevant information, but the table
was too long to include in the middle of my project, I could just say: See Appendix A for a breakdown of
population growth between the years 1990 and 2000. Then, at the end of my document, the first appendix
(Appendix A) would show a table.

We use appendices for many things: tables, figures, permission to use premises letters, informed consent
forms, etc. Basically, anything that is relevant to your project but would not look good stuck in the middle
of your text.

There are two main ways to layout your appendices: You can place the heading (Appendix plus letter) on
a blank page and place your information (e.g., table) on the next page, or you can place the heading at
the top of a blank page and add the information directly below.
An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in
providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem and/or is information which is too
cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or
set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.
Importance of...
Your research paper must be complete without the appendices, and it must contain all information including
tables, diagrams, and results necessary to address the research problem. The key point to remember when you are
writing an appendix is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the paper would still be
It is appropriate to include appendices...
When the incorporation of material in the body of the work would make it poorly structured or it would be too long
and detailed and
To ensure inclusion of helpful, supporting, or essential material that would otherwise clutter or break up the
narrative flow of the paper, or it would be distracting to the reader.
Structure and Writing Style
I. General Points to Consider
When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following points:
1. It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the
reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider
placing it online and note this as the appendix to your research paper.
2. Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from
the main paper. Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not
diminish a reader's understanding of the overall research problem being investigated. This is why non-
textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of elements in the paper.
3. If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning
of your paper. This will help the reader know before reading the paper what information is included in the
appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
4. The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other non-textual
elements, if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, but remembering
that the paper should be understandable without them.
5. An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information. If you have a very long and
complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find
relevant information quickly.

II. Contents
Appendices may include some of the following, all of which should be referred to or summarized in the text
of your paper:
Supporting evidence [e.g. raw data]
Contributory facts or specialized data [raw data appear in the appendix, but with summarized data appearing in
the body of the text].
Sample calculations
Technical figures, graphs, tables, statistics
Detailed description of research instruments
Maps, charts, photographs, drawings
Letters, emails, and other copies of correspondance
Questionnaire/survey instruments, with the results appearing in the text
Complete transcripts of interviews
Complete field notes from observations
Specification or data sheets