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Pillars of Islam

There are five pillars of Islam:


1. Shahada (Testify)
2. Salah (Prayer)
3. Seyam (Fasting)
4. Zakat (Charity)
5. Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Shahada (Creed)
The verbal commitment and pledge that there is no deity but Allah, and
Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
Salah (Mandatory Worship [Prayer])
It is the duty of every Muslim, male and female, after reaching the age of
puberty, to perform five Salats (Prayers) at specific times during the day and
night. These five specific times are: - Dawn, Noon, Afternoon, Sunset, and
Night. A ritual called Wudu (Cleaning several parts of die body with water) is a
prerequisite to Salat.

The above picture is one "rak'a", i.e, one set of standing, bowing, prostrating
and sitting. Each Salah consists of several Rak'a. Muslims are strongly
encouraged to pray in the masjid, but if that is beyond their ability, they can
pray anywhere that is clean; Muslims do not make Salah in a bathroom.
Siyam (Fasting)
Fasting during the month of Ramadan (the ninth month of the lunar calendar) is
from sun up to sun down only and is an obligation on every adult healthy
Muslim, male or female. Fasting is total abstinence from eating, drinking,
smoking, gum chewing, intimate relations, and taking anything into the body. If
a person is ill and needs to take medication, s/he cannot fast. Fasting is also a
time to discipline one's self from bad behaviors, such as, arguing, arguing, and
saying mean things. Those who are ill or unable to fast for health or reasons of
age are exempt from fasting. However, they should feel the poor one meal for
every day they miss of fasting. Women who are pregnant, menstruating, or
nursing, or any who are traveling, are also exempt from fasting. However, when
their situation changes, they make up the days of fasting or feed the poor one
meal for each day of fasting they missed.
Zakah (Charity)
Zakat is an annual obligatory charity on every Muslim, male or female, who
possesses over the last year money or property that exceeds their minimum
needs. The requirement is 2.5% of one's excess wealth. It is also called a tax
because it supports the government workers who are not free to make money
elsewhere.
Hajj (Pilgrimage)
The performance of the pilgrimage to Makkah, Saudi Arabia is required once in
a lifetime of every Muslim, if financially able, as well as physically able. Hajj
begins every year during the month of Dul Hejja; Dul Hejja is the 12th month of
the Islamic (lunar) calendar year. The Hajj is a spiritual journey where a Muslim
forgets all worldly things and devotes his\her attention and time to Allah alone.


Pillars of Faith
In Islam, there are six pillars of faith: Belief in Allah, His angels, His books to
mankind, His Prophets and Messengers, the Day of Judgment, and Destiny.
1. Belief in God (Allah)
Islam teaches that there is one Unique God (Allah) who should be worshipped
and obeyed.
2. Belief in Mala-eka (Angels)
Muslims believe that Allah created unseen creatures such as Angels. Muslims
believe in their existence, their names, their tasks, and descriptions as
explained in the Quran and in the Sunnah (Teachings of the Prophet).
3. Belief in the Books of Allah
Muslims believe that Allah from time to time revealed books to mankind through
his Prophets. These books originated from the same divine source; they are all
divine revelations. Muslims believe in the original text of these books when they
were revealed. The five prominent divine books are: 1) Abraham's Scrolls; 2)
Zabur (Psalms) revealed to Prophet David; 3) Tawrah (Torah) revealed to
Prophet Moses; 4) Injil (Gospel) revealed to Prophet Jesus; 5) Quran revealed
to Prophet Muhammad.
4. Belief in the Prophets of Allah
Muslims believe that Allah sent Prophets to all mankind as messengers for their
guidance. Muslims believe in their existence, their names, and their messages,
as Allah and His Prophet informed about them. Prophets are void of divinity
because divinity is exclusive only to Allah (God) the Almighty. They are all
righteous, truthful, and pious men chosen by Allah to be models to all mankind,
both their words and deeds being in accordance with the divine
commandments.
5. Belief in Yawm al-Qiyama (Day of Judgement)
Muslims believe that the life of this world and all that is in it will come to an end
on one appointed day, when everything will be annihilated. This day will
resurrect all the dead; Allah will judge with perfect justice each person
individually according to his good or bad actions that he did during his life, and
every victim will have his/ her rights. Allah will reward those who lead a
righteous life and did good deeds by sending them to Paradise (Jannah). Allah
forgives whom He pleases of those who disobeyed His Command, or punish
them in the Hellfire (Jahannam).
6. Qada wal-Qada (Destiny, Divine Decree)
Muslims believe that since the whole universe is entirely under the direction and
control of Allah, then everything that is or that happens in this universe, from
the smallest to the greatest event is governed by Allah. Muslims put their trust
in Allah only they are required, however, to make a sincere effort to strive and
do their best, and not simply sit back and let things take their course in blind
resignation. Such belief gives a person a tremendous degree of inner certainty,
confidence and peace of heart, especially in the face of afflictions. Moreover, he
lives with the assurance that whatever is to come to any individual, including
death, cannot fail to come at its appointed time.

Practices in islam
1. Prayers: The Muslim prayer is a combination of physical actions, verbal sayings, and an
internal feeling in the heart. Muslims are required to be in a state of calmness, serenity and
humbleness while performing their prayers. Once the prayer is started, a series of sayings
and actions are performed. The sayings include reciting parts of the holy Qur'an, the holy
book of Islam, as well as other sayings glorifying God and thanking Him for all of His
blessings upon us. It also gives Muslims the opportunity to ask God for anything they desire.
This could include asking for help in getting a job, passing an exam, having a child, asking
God for forgiveness of sins or anything else. Muslims are required to pray at least five times
every day, and are encouraged to pray extra prayers if they can. The required prayers have
specific times that they are to be performed at. These are dawn, noon, mid afternoon, sunset
and at night.
2. Fasting: Fasting means to refrain from having all kinds of food, drink and sexual intercourse
from dawn to sunset. Muslims are required to fast during the month of Ramadan every year.
Ramadan is a month based on the lunar cycle, as opposed to the solar calendar used today
by most people. Therefore, the start and end of the month of Ramadan change each year
according to the lunar cycles. Ramadan can be either 29 or 30 days. Muslims are also
encouraged to fast on other optional days. It is viewed as a way to cleanse the soul of all
worldly desires and devout oneself completely to the obedience of God. It is also an
opportunity for wealthy Muslims to experience life without food and drink for a day, which is
meant to remind them of the poor and encourage them to have sympathy and to be
generous in donating to help the poor and the needy.
3. Pilgrimage: Also known as the Hajj, the pilgrimage is a physical and spiritual journey that
every financially and physically able Muslim is expected to make at least once in their
lifetime. Muslims travel to the holy city of Makkah, located in what is known today as Saudi
Arabia, to perform the required rites of the pilgrimage. There, they are expected to spend
their days in complete devotion to worship and to asking God for forgiveness and for
anything else they wish to ask for. They also perform specific rituals, such as walking around
the Kaaba, the black cube-shaped building located in Makkah.
4. Charity: A very important aspect of Islam is giving charity to the poor. Muslims are required
to give certain percentages of any type of wealth that they have accumulated. For example,
Muslims must give 2.5% of the money they have saved each year. It is important to note that
this is not based on income, it is based on savings. A small portion of the money that is
sitting in the bank accounts of wealthy people and not helping anyone is used every year to
help the poor. This ensures some re-distribution of wealth among Muslims. Also, Muslims
are strongly encouraged to make charitable giving a habit. Most Muslims donate to charity on
a weekly basis when they attend Friday prayer services at the Masjid, the Islamic place of
worship.
5. Purification: Before performing certain rituals, most importantly before prayers, Muslims are
expected to perform a form of purification, known as ablution or "wudu" in Arabic. This
involves washing the hands, face, arms and feet with water. Since Muslims are required to
pray at least five times every day at various times throughout the day from dawn until the
night, this ensures that Muslims maintain a high level of hygiene.
6. Animal Sacrifice: The term "Animal Sacrifice" may sound weird, unusual or shocking to
some people when they first hear or read it. But the reality is that the majority of people in the
world do eat the meat of many different kinds of animals. Muslims believe that it is God
whom has given us the right to kill these animals and eat them. Therefore, Muslims are
required to mention God at the time the animal is killed. This reminds us that these animals
were created by God and that God gave us the permission to benefit from them. This is why
it is called a "sacrifice", and this is why it is considered a religious practice. Muslims are
encouraged to perform animal sacrifice at special occasions in the Islamic calendar. In these
special occasions, it is expected that part of the meat of the animal would be donated to the
poor.


Contribution of islam

Trigonometry, Sine, Tangent, Co-Tangent

The Arabs developed these functions in trigonometry and Ibn Moosaa's
work Hisaab-Al J ab-Wal Muqaabala (The Calculation of Integration and Equation)
presented 800 examples in the 8
th
century CE. His work was translated from
Arabic into Latin and until the 16th century CE, it wasEurope's main textbook on
the subject.

Algebra and Geometry
Muhammad bin Moosaa Al-Khawaarizmi is considered to be one of the founders
of Algebra. The word Algorithm or 'Algorizm' is a corruption of his name or the
name of the town Khwaarizm (Kheva), in what is now Uzbekistan, where he
was born. He adopted the use of cipher (zero), that was devised in India some
centuries earlier, a numeral of fundamental importance, leading up to the so-
called arithmetic of positions and the decimal system. The very word zero is a
derivative of the Arabic sifr or cipher. His pioneering work on the system of
numerals is well known as "Algorithm," or "Algorizm." In addition to introducing
the Arabic numerals, he developed several arithmetical procedures, including
operations on fractions.
Another great mathematician was Omar Khayyaam, who offered to the world
geometric and algebraic solutions of the second degree. Naseeruddeen wrote the
treatise on quadrilateral trigonometry, as well as plain and spherical geometry.

Physics and Chemistry

Kamaaluddeen examined the refraction of sunlight in raindrops and offered an
explanation of the genesis of primary and secondary rainbows. The story of the
invention of the pendulum and the presentation of a water clock to Emperor
Charlemagne by Haaroon Ar-Rasheed is well known.
The great historian Gibbons wrote in his Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire (Volume 5) that the science of chemistry owes its origin and
improvements to the Muslims.

Science of Mechanics

The development of the science of mechanics in Islam is an act of genius.
Moosaa bin Shaakir described one hundred pieces of mechanical equipment in
his book of artifices. Other outstanding Muslim treatises included Al Kitaab Fi
Ma`rifat Al-Hiya Al-Handasiyyah (The Book of the Knowledge of Ingenious
Geometrical Contrivances) by Abul Fiaz bin Al Raz and Al Kitaab Meezanal-
Hikmah (The Book of Balance and Wisdom) by Al-Khazini. He also did work on
accurate weighing, and determination of the specific gravity of substances.

Camera Obscura

In the field of optics, Camera Obscura was invented by Ibn Haytham in 1038 CE.

Theory of Relativity

Qaadhi Abu Bakr had developed the theory of relativity in the 8
th
century CE in
terms of time and space by means of mathematical equations and astrophysics.
Imagine, Einstein was not even born in the Western world, who propounded the
same theory of relativity much later in the 20
th
century CE.

Geography

As far as geography was concerned, Muslim scientists established that the world
was round in the 9
th
century CE, and the first map of the globe was made during
the Caliphate of Mamoon.

Paper Making

This was one of the earliest skills attained by the Muslims. As early as the
8
th
century CE, high quality paper was being manufactured in
Samarqand. Egypt was known to have its first paper mill in the year 900 CE. The
earliest Arabic manuscript written on paper that has been discovered is
the Ghareeb Al Hadeeth by Abu Ubayed, dated 837 CE. It can be seen
in Holland preserved in the library at the University ofLeyden.

Advances in Industry

Under Islamic rule, Spain was an industrial center. It was one of the wealthiest
and most thickly populated of the European countries. Muslims were leading in
weaving wool, producing silk, pottery, jewelry, leather and perfume industry. In
the Middle Ages, world trade was commanded by Muslims
and Baghdad Bukhaara and Samarqand remained centers for world fairs until the
16
th
century CE. The Bayt Al-Hikmah at Cairocontained two million books, the
library at Tripoli contained some three million, but this library was burned down
by the Christians during the first Crusade.

Miracles of the Quran
Let us consider the hundreds of scientific facts mentioned in the Holy Quran. For
example, the fact that the earth was previously a part of the sun and after its
separation, it became a habitable place for humankind, as mentioned in chapter
21, verse 30. That matter is made up of sub-atomic particles (chapter 10, verse
61). That the embryo in the mother's womb in enclosed by three epithelial
coverings (chapter 39, verse 6). That each human being has a unique fingerprint
(chapter 75, verse 4) etc. There are thousands of other scientific facts in the Holy
Quran.

Regrettably, today the West is at its peak and we have lagged behind so far.
However, our downfall is not due to Islam, as the West would like us to believe,
but due to our sheer neglect of Islamic principles. We must realize that Islam is
undeniably the most progressive religion, which is in fact a way of life with a very
wide scope.

Of course, life is a very hard struggle. However, struggle is an inbuilt instinct of
human nature. Struggle is a way but not an accomplishment or attainment in
itself. We should make an effort and struggle but at the same time make Du'aa.
This is where Tawakkul, i.e. trust in Allaah comes because destiny supersedes
thought. We must trust in Allaah for our betterment, because if success
depended merely upon ones personal struggle, then nobody in the world would
be unsuccessful. Furthermore, struggle is itself predestined by Allaah. Man
should do his best, then leave the rest to Allaah, Most High.