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Field Project Report

Cleaner Production Technology Options:


A Case Study















Diomande Mamery, Ivory Coast
Sari Murni, Indonesia
Samuel Rajkumar, India
RamaChandran, India

Chennai-April 2005


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
With current trends in population growth and industrialization, wastes and
pollutants are released faster than the earth can absorb them, and natural
resources are consumed faster than it can be restored. If sustainable
development is to be achieved, production processes, products and services
have to be reoriented towards new patterns in order to alleviate environmental
stress and bring better industrial productivity. It is in this perspective, a new
concept - Cleaner Production Technology -was proposed and advocated. It is a
pro-active and integrated solution to pollution problems by eliminating or reducing
pollutants at the source during the course of production processes.
By considering this issue and as a part of the Technology and Sustainable
Development program, a team consisting of four members, have worked from
15th March to 15th April 2005 with TVS-Sundram Fastener Limited, Padi, located
in Thiruvallur District on the theme Cleaner Production Technology.
Sundram Fastener limited belongs to the TVS Group and it is first company in
India to get ISO 9001. This company has shown lot of interest in environmental
protection and its improvement. In view of this, the company has been chosen
for this project and during one-month field visit, the two indispensable areas of
cleaner production Technology - the Environment and Energy have been
focussed.
In these areas data have been collected, the process have been studied in detail
and suitable cleaner technologies have been offered to improve the process and
thereby the waste generation in the following areas have been minimized.
ENVIRONMENT
In the coolant management, recycling techniques for cutting oil and
demineralised water instead of tap water for water-soluble oil have been
suggested to improve the durability.
In the electroplating process, reduction in the water usage, improvement in
the process, process modification using new solution, spent acid reuse have
been suggested.
In the Effluent Treatment Plants, reduction in acid usage, reuse of sludge as
filler material in the fertilizer plant, introduction of panchyakavya liquid in the
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sewage treatment plant for improving the performance of the treatment plant
have been suggested.
ENERGY
In the energy sector, generation of Bio gas from kitchen waste, using solar
energy for street lighting and recovery of waste heat to reuse the same for
pre washing and furnace pre heating have been suggested
Cost benefit analysis have been calculated for each suggested technologies.

















ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is time for the closure of the successful course on TSD, and it is with heartfelt thoughts
we sit down to write this acknowledgement. Before we proceed to think of the Success
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of this course we are highly pleased to express our immense gratitude to our Course
Directors Prof S.Mohan and Prof Musy who have sowed the seed for its fruitful thought
of this course that has strengthened our technical capability on Sustainability
Development.
One month has passed since we first met, what was going to be our group project
entitled Cleaner Production Technology. Little did we know how fun, interesting and
challenging being a part of a field project would be? For such an experience to be
possible, however, we need to be surrounded by people that have the ability to inspire,
listen, and give advice and share of their time.
One such person to whom we are particularly thankful to Mr P. Ramasubramanian
shortly called PRS, Senior Manager, SFL Padi, with his knowledge, kindness,
consideration and support, he has created an environment that has truly encouraging
our team members to proceed in a proper direction on our field work. We are also
grateful for all the opportunities he has made possible for us to meet interesting people
in SFL.
Our Sincere thanks goes to the following SFL personnel for their constant
encouragement and support during our study:
- Mr.S. Ramasubramanian-Senior General Manager- Business Strategy and
System,
- V.M.Ravikumar Assistant General Manager-Personnel
- Mr. S. Durairajan Senior Executive- Maintenance
We are pleased to submit our gratitude to Dr.V. Ravichandran Enviro Energy System,
Chennai for his technical support and invaluable advice.


Diomande Mamery, RamaChandran, Sari Murni, Samuel Rajkumar







Table of content

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i
4
ACKNOWLEGEMENT ii

I. INTRODUCTION
1.1 PREAMBLE 1
1.2 OBJ ECTIVES OF THE PROJ ECT 3
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJ ECT
2. CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY 5
2.1 CONCEPT OF CLEANER PRODUCTION 5
2.2 CLEANER PRODUCTION: A WIN-WIN SITUATION 5
2.3 CLEANCONCEPTS CLOSED TO CP 6
2.4 CLEANER PRODUCTION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 7
3. PROCESS INDUSTRY DETAILS 7
3.1 SUNDRAM FASTENERS LIMITED 7
3.2 PRODUCTS 8
3.3 MANUFACTURING PROCESS IN TVS 9
3.4 CLEANER PRODUCTION INITIATIVES 11
4. COOLANT MANAGEMENT 12
4.1 INTRODUCTION 12
4.2 COOLANT AND ITS USE 12
4.3 HOW DOES COOLANT WORK? 12
4.4 COOLANT FUNCTIONS 13
4.5 METAL WORKING FLUIDS TYPES 13
4.6 COOLANT CONSUMPTION 14
4.7 CRITERIA FOR COOLANT OIL SELECTION 14
4.8 PRESENT SCENARIO 14
4.9 CLEANER PRODUCTION PROGRAMME 15
5. ELECTROPLATING PROCESS 20
5.1 INTRODUCTION 20
5.2 SFL PLATING PROCESS 20
5.3 ELECTROPLATING PROCESS DESCRIPTION 20
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6. EFFLUENT TREATMENTS 32
6.1 INTRODUCTION 32
6.2 ORIGIN AND SOURCES OF WASTEWATER 32
6.3 EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT 33
7. ENERGY 41
7.1 INTRODUCTION 41
7.2 SOURCES OF ENERGY IN THE COMPANY 43
7.3 ENERGY CONSERVATION 47
CONCLUSION 55
REFERENCES
LIST OF FIGURES/TABLES
ANNEXURE
GLOSSARY
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CONCLUSIONS

Industries have always been a major contribution to the wealth and well being of people,
despite the fact that it is also considered a source of environmental problems. However
a major achievement of the Rio Summit was the realization that environment and
development are inseparable and that industry is an important contributor to
development. The need for preventive approaches to industrial pollution has been
recognized and cleaner production is now seen as one of the central tool for industry to
achieve environmental improvements while remaining competitive and profitable. The
need for this approach is particularly great in small-and medium-sized enterprises whose
cumulative impact on the environment is often greater than that of large-scale incidents.
In this context, a medium scale industry, Sundram Fastener limited belonging to the TVS
Group has been subjected to the study as part of the Technology and Sustainable
Development program, on the theme Cleaner Production Technology.
In this study, two major areas have been focussed 1) Energy and 2) Environment. In
these areas, data have been collected, processed and studied in detail and suitable
cleaner technologies have been suggested to improve the process and thereby minimize
the waste generation in the following areas
In the coolant management,
In the electroplating process,
In the Effluent Treatment Plants,
In the energy sector.
In addition, the Cost benefit analysis have also been calculated for each suggested
technologies.
The above cleaner production technology study in Sundram Fastener limited points out
many suggestions that could be used not only for the economic benefits of the industry
but also for the major environmental benefits leading to the sustainable development. of
our country.



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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Additive Sulfur, chlorine, and other materials added to cutting fluids to
improve lubricity, stabilize oil emulsions and prevent chip welding
under high heat and pressure

Biocide An EPA registered product added to metal working to inhibit the
growth of bacteria, fungi and molds

BOD Biochemical oxygen demand of water: a measure of the oxygen
required by bacteria for oxidation of the soluble organic matter
under controlled test conditions.

COD Chemicals oxygen demands: a measure of organic matter and
other reducing substances in water.

Coolant Fluid that reduces temperature buildup at the tool/work piece
interface during machining

Cutting Fluid Liquid used to improve two-piece machinability, enhance tool life,
flush out chips and machining debris, and cool the work piece and
tool. Three basic types are: straight oils, soluble oils, which
emulsify in water; and synthetic fluids, which are water-based
chemicals solutions having no oil. Each category often exhibits
some properties of the other.

Deionization Removal of ions from a water-based solution

Educator A simple chemical/water proportioning device that operates based
on a pressure drop across orifice.

Hazardous A chemical that has a negative affect on the environment or poses
a threat to human health

Lubricant Substance that reduces friction between moving machine parts.
Can be liquid (hydrocarbon oil), solid (grease), or gaseous (air).
Important characteristics are to prevent metal-to metal contact
between moving surfaces, be a cooling medium, and protect
surfaces from rust and corrosion

Swarf Metal fines and grinding wheel particles generated during grinding

Tramp Oil Oil that is present in a metalworking fluid and is not from the
product concentrate. The usual sources are machine tool
lubrication systems and leaks

Waste An unwanted by-product of a manufacturing process.
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List of Figures
Figure 3.1 The range of SFL products
Figure 3.2 Differentiation of SFL products
Figure 3.2 Process Flow Chart
Figure 4.1 Average Coolant Consumption per month
Figure 4.2 The Flow Chart of the Proposed on site Recycling Unit
Figure 4.3 Eductor Proportioning Device
Figure 5.1 Electroplating Process
Figure 5.2 Existing Continuous Rinse System
Figure 5.3 Proposed Counter Current Rinse Systems
Figure 5.4 Spray System Equipment
Figure 7-1. Variable and Fixed Power Usages in SFL
Figure 7-2 Consumption of Variable Power
Figure 7-3. Consumption of Variable Power in the HT Plant
Figure 7-4. Consumption of Fixed Power
Figure 7.5. Methodology of Energy Saving
Figure 7.6 Arrangement of Biogas and LPG after the Project is Implemented
Figure 7.8 Waste Heat Recovering unit for the Pre-washing Unit
Figure 7.7 Waste Heat Recovering Unit for the Preheated Combustion Air

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List of Tables

Table 4.1 Types of Metalworking Fluids
Table 4.2 Existing Coolant Maintenance Activities
Table 4.3 Economic Analysis of on site Recycling Coolant
Table 4.4 The Economic Analysis due to Extend Water Soluble Coolant Life
Table 5.1 Economic Benefits due to Reduction in Water Consumption
Table 5.2 Economic Benefits due to Process Modification
Table 6.1 Economic Benefit of Spent Acid Usage
Table 6.2 Economic Benefit due to Acid Reduction
Table 6.3 Report of Analysis of Sewage Effluent
Table 6.4 Economic Benefit of Sludge Disposal
Table 7.1 Consumption of LPG
Table 7.2 Consumption of LDO
Table 7.3 Consumption of DO
Table 7.4 Financial Analysis of the Biogas Project
Table 7.5 Economic Analysis of Solar Bulbs Lighting
Table 7.6 Economic Analysis Recovery Heat Project
Table 7.7 Economic Analysis of the Heat Recovering for the Pre-washing Unit project
Table 7.8 Table Total Electricity Saving
Table 7.9 Table total fuel saving



















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REFERENCES

1. Cleaner Technologies Issues and Options (1996), Information Manual on
Pollution Abatement & Cleaner Technologies Series, Central Pollution Control
Board, Delhi,

2. Edwards, H. W, Kostrzewa, M. F, (1998) Combined Pollution Prevention
Assessments, 91st Annual Meeting and Exhibition, Air & Waste Management
Association 98-MP13B.02,
3. Edwards, H. W, Kostrzewa, M. F, (1994) Combining Pollution Prevention and
Energy Conservation at Small Manufacturing Plants, 87th Annual Meeting &
Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association, 94-RP137.04,
4. Edwards, H. W, Kostrzewa, M. F, (1993) Pollution Prevention at Small
Manufacturing Plants, 86th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Air & Waste
Management Association, Paper No. 93-WA-87.07,
5. Edwards, H. W.; Kostrzewa, M. F, and Ketzenberger, C. K, (1999) Pollution
Prevention Through Productivity Improvement, Paper No. 99-151, 92nd Annual
Meeting & Exhibition, Air & Waste Management Association.
6. Environmental Management in Electroplating Industries (1996), Training Manual,
Anna University & Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Chennai, 2004, Terminal
Report, UNIDO & Central Leather Research Institute,
7. Extending the life of Metal Working Fluids (1993), Ohio EPA Fact Sheet -
Number 11, Pollution Prevention Section, Ohio Environmental Protection
Agency, 1993
8. Freeman, H. M. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, and McGraw-Hill: New
York, 1995.
9. Gimbel, Bill, Benefit of Continuous Fluid Clarification, BAzell Technologies
Corporation, Concord, USA

10. Higgins, T. E, (1995) Pollution Prevention Handbook, CRC Lewis: Boca Raton,.
11. Higgins, T. E, (1995) Pollution Prevention Handbook, CRC Lewis: Boca Raton,.
12. Muller, M. R, Briggs, D, Kasten, D; Comer, K, Simek, M.; Tierney, C.; Garcia, G,
(1996) Industrial Productivity Training Manual, Rutgers, State University of New
J ersey: New Brunswick,.
13. Keshav, A.M, (1986) Environmental Audit, An In-Depth Guide to Rule 14 of the
Environment Act, Media Enviro,
14. Long, B.L, Cleaner Production in OECD Countries (1994), Industry and
Environment Volume 17 No.14, p 23-27, UNEP Publication, Paris, Monga, G,S,
11
Environment and Development (2003), Deep & Deep Publications PVT Ltd, New
Delhi,
15. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (1994), DSM Pocket Guidebook, Volume
4: Industrial Technologies, prepared for U.S. Department of Energy and Western
Area Power Administration,
16. Pachauri,R.K, (1990) Energy Efficiency and Conservation in India, Indutry and
Environment Volume 13 p.19-24, UNEP Publication,
17. Scoullos, M.J , (1990) Energy Conservation and Efficiency: a Safe response to
Global Warming and Other Environmental Problems, Industry and Environment
Volume 13 p.6-8, UNEP Publication, Paris,

18. Shop Guide to Reduce the Waste of Metalworking Fluids (1997) A Competitive
Advantage Manual for the Metal Fabricating and Machining Industry, Institute of
Advanced Manufacturing Sciences and Waste Reduction and Technology
Transfer Foundation,

19. Ten Ways to Reduce Machine Coolant Costs (1994), Environmental Services
Division, State of Michigan, Departements of Commerce and Natural Resources,
20. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1994), Air and Radiation Division, Green
Lights Update,EPA 430-N-94-006, USEPA, Washington, DC,
21. Wang,,L.K; Hung, Y;Lo Howard; Yapijakis, (2004) C, Handbook of Industrial and
Hazardous Waste Treatment, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marcel
Dekker,Inc, New York,

22. Links :

23. www.metroks.gov
24. www.uneptie.org/jp
25. www.usepa.gov
26. http://www.unep.or.jp
27. www.climatechange.gc.ca
28. www.gc.ca













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ANNEXURE 1:Coolant Consumption per 4 months


Coolant oil consumption (liter)
Machine Oil Name Tank
Capaci
ty (lt)
Average
Consump
/month(lt)
Oil Change
Frequency
Average
Consump/
4 months
(lt)
Price/lt
(Rs)
Total
price
1000LS Muses 35 500 1035 15 days once
4140 35.84 148378
1012BM Muses 35 500 635 3 months once
1810 35.84 64870.4
PH Muses 35 400 780 3 months once
3080 35.84 110387
3/8 BM Muses 35 180 180 3 months once
1080 35.84 38707.2
10L4 Muses 35 250 260 1 months once
1040 35.84 37273.6
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HEADER
Muses 35 100 100 3 months once
600 35.84 21504
S2 BM Muses 35 80 20 1 months once
400 35.84 14336
SACMA Muses 35 300 490 1 months once
1960 35.84 70246.4
8S3 BM Muses 35 200 420 1 months once
1680 35.84 60211.2
H36 T/R Muses 35 100 150 4 months once
700 35.84 25088
H 24 T/R Muses 35 210 30 4 months once
330 35.84 11827.2
WMW T/R Muses 35 200 40 4 months once
360 35.84 12902.4
LANDIS
T/R
Muses 35 130 110 4 months once
570 35.84 20428.8
T-
SUGAMI
Muses 35 180 50 4 months once
380 35.84 13619.2
S3 PH Chemlub
e R 150
300 280 4 months once
1020 34.39 35077.8
S3 BM Soluble
S50
180 15 1 month once
780 61.97 48336.6
CFTR Vesta 51-
10
160 270 3 months once
760 31.16 23681.6
SASPI T/R
I
Vesta 51-
10
150 210 3 months once
580 31.16 18072.8
SASPI T/R
II
Vesta 51-
10
180 10 3 months once
400 31.16 12464
W P 803
T/R
Vesta 51-
10
300 440 3 months once
1040 31.16 32406.4
Total 5525
22710 819818
Source: Sundaram Fasteners Limited (SLP SR)








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ANNEXURE 2 . Average Coolant Kool-Cut Consumption

Machine Oil
Name
Tank
Capacity
(lt)
Consump/month
(lt)
Oil
Changing
frequency
Consump/4
months (lt)
oil
Price/lt
(Rs)
Water
price/lt
(Rs)
Total price
Gringhilli
CLess
Grinder
Kool
Cut -
40
200 800 Weekly
12800 48.83 0.4 62502.76
Russian
C Less
Grinder
Kool
Cut
40
280 1020 Weekly
16320 48.83 0.4 79690.92
WMW C
Less
Grinder
Kool
Cut
40
300 1200 Weekly
19200 48.83 0.4 93753.96
Nissin C
Less
Grinder
64.12
Kool
Cut
40
300 1200 Weekly
19200 48.83 0.4 93753.96
Nissin C
Less
Grinder
64.11
Kool
Cut
40
200 800 Weekly
12800 48.83 0.4 62502.76
Takasiwa
- I
Kool
Cut
40
200 800 Weekly
12800 48.83 0.4 62502.76
Takasiwa
II
Kool
Cut
40
200 800 Weekly
12800 48.83 0.4 62502.76
Hunger
Lathe
Kool
Cut
40
80 320 Weekly
5120 48.83 0.4 25001.32
NCM 20 Kool
Cut
40
70 280 Weekly
4480 48.83 0.4 21876.2
Ecoster Kool
Cut -
40
80 320 Weekly
5120 48.83 0.4 25001.32
Total 7540
120640 589088.72
Source: Sundaram Fasteners Limited (SLP SR)




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ANNEXURE 3. Energy saving projects handled in SFL from 2002-2005



POTENTIAL SAVINGS
Proposal / Action plan
Qtity
Units /
month
Rs. in lakhs
/month
Replacing 40 W conventional tube lights to
Energy saving 28W E+lamps
(Savings/lamp=5.1 units per month)
200 1020 0.046
Installation of energy saver in LDB of Main
plant and Tool room (savings=25% in current
consumption)
1 200 0.009
Installation of energy saver in LDB of WDP
(savings=25% in current consumption)
1 150 0.007
Installation of automatic power factor
controller in SB4, SB14 and SB9(savings
=30units/Hr)
3 15000 0.669
Installation of automatic power factor
controller in UMB and HDWD(savings =
15units/Hr)
2 7500 0.335
Installation of Energy savers for fume
exhausts of forging machines(savings=
10units/hr)
5 5000 0.223
Interlocking of machine accessories with main
motor to eliminate idle running
4500 0.201
Switching over from contactor control to
thyristor control in Endo panels
1 3600 0.161
Installation of energy saver in LDB of WDP
(savings=25% in current consumption)
1 150 0.007
Installing AC variable speed drives for main
motors of grinding machines
2 4800 0.214
Usage of Energy efficient motors for
Hydraulics of all rolling machines (savings =
7.5units/Hr)
6 3750 0.167
Use of energy efficient Air Conditioners 10 1430 0.060
Total savings 64100 2.858
Source: Sundaram Fasteners Limited (SLP SR)








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