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WORLD GEOGRAPHY - HANDOUT 1

What is geography? Why do we stdy it?


Geography is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants
and phenomena.
Geographia -to describe or write about the Earth [geo- earth; graphia-to
describe or to write]
!t is that a""?
Geography is a ery wide sub!ect and can be used in a number of
occasions. "rom discoering our past and predicting the future; to
#nding out where it is best to build a s$yscraper.
Geography is also lin$ed with many other sub!ects li$e science and
history.
%ith Geography we e&plore many natural and man-made wonders on
Earth. 'nd learn how to maintain them.
Geography also loo$s at the Economic and (ultural sides of di)erent
countries; how they respond to di)erent situations and how well
deeloped they are.
%e can study di)erent cultures and local tradition with Geography;
including their di)erent style of liing and their society as a whole.
*ur eeryday weather is predicted by Geography; the clouds, the rain,
the wind; all natural phenomena, e&plained by Geography, from
olcanoes to hurricane.
Geography loo$s at our incredible ariety of animals on our planet; of all
shapes and si+ed and their way of life in eery location possible. ,ot only
animals but plants too; how beautiful and e&otic they can be.
Geography e&isted before we $new about it. %hen we used to draw
maps of the world and when we started polluting the air.
#o why do we stdy it?
-ecause it is around us all the time
-ecause we see it eery day
-ecause it e&plains most of nature and helps us to understand the life
we share our planet with.
-ecause it tells the story of our planet
-ecause we would not e&ist if it was not for geography
'nd with Geography we can help our planet in the future.
This is Geography$
WORLD GEOGRAPHY - HANDOUT %
Geography
.. /he study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on
the earth, including human life and the e)ects of human actiity.
0. /he physical characteristics, especially the surface features, of an area
H&a' Geography
1any branches of geography are found within human geography, a ma!or
branch of geography that studies people and their interaction with the earth
and with their organi+ation of space on the earth2s surface.
E(o'o&i( Geography
Economic geographers e&amine the distribution of production and
distribution of goods, the distribution of wealth, and the spatial structure of
economic conditions.
Pop"atio' Geography
3opulation geography is often e4uated with demography but population
geography is more than !ust patters of birth, death, and marriage. 3opulation
geographers are concerned with the distribution, migration, and growth of
population in geographic areas.
Geography o) Re"igio's
/his branch of geography studies the geographic distribution of religious
groups, their cultures, and built enironments.
*edi(a" Geography
1edical geographers study the geographic distribution of disease 5including
epidemics and pandemics6, illness, death and health care.
Re(reatio'+ Toris&+ a'd #port Geography
/he study of leisure-time actiities and their impact on local enironments.
's tourism is one of the world2s largest industries, it inoles a great number
of people ma$ing ery temporary migrations and is thus of great interest to
geographers.
*i"itary Geography
3ractitioners of military geography are most often found within the military
but the branch loo$s not only at the geographic distribution of military
facilities and troops but also utili+es geographic tools to deelop military
solutions.
Po"iti(a" Geography
3olitical geography inestigates all aspects of boundaries, country, state, and
nation deelopment, international organi+ations, diplomacy, internal country
subdiisions, oting, and more.
Agri("tra" a'd Rra" Geography
Geographers in this branch study agriculture and rural settlement, the
distribution of agriculture and the geographic moement and access to
agricultural products, and land use in rural areas.
Tra'sportatio' Geography
/ransportation geographers research transportation networ$s 5both priate
and public6 and the use of those networ$s for moing people and goods.
Ur,a' Geography
/he branch of urban geography inestigates the location, structure,
deelopment, and growth of cities -- from tiny illage to huge megalopolis.
Physi(a" Geography
3hysical geography is another ma!or branch of geography. 7t is concerned
with the natural features on or near the surface of the earth.
!iogeography
-iographers study the geographic distribution of plants and animals on the
earth in the sub!ect $nown as biogeography.
Water Resor(es
Geographers wor$ing in the water resources branch of geography loo$ at the
distribution and use of water across the planet within the hydrologic
cycle and of human-deeloped systems for water storage, distribution, and
use.
-"i&ate
(limate geographers inestigate the distribution of long-term weather
patterns and actiities of the earth2s atmosphere.
G"o,a" -ha'ge
Geographers researching global change e&plore the long term changes
occurring to the plant earth based on human impacts on the enironment.
Geo&orpho"ogy
Geomorphologists study the landforms of the planet, from their deelopment
to their disappearance through erosion and other processes.
Ha.ards Geography
's with many branches of geography, ha+ards combines wor$ in physical and
human geography. 8a+ard geographers research e&treme eents $nown as
ha+ards or disaster and e&plore the human interaction and response to these
unusual natural or technological eents.
*o'tai' Geography
1ountain geographers loo$ at the deelopment of mountain systems and at
the humans who lie in higher altitudes and their adaptations to these
enironments.
-ryosphere Geography
(ryosphere geography e&plores the ice of the earth, especially glaciers and
ice sheets. Geographers loo$ at the past distribution of ice on the planet and
ice-cause features from glaciers and ice sheets.
Arid Regio's
Geographers studying arid regions e&amine the deserts and dry surfaces of
the planet. /he e&plore how humans, animals, and plants ma$e their home in
dry or arid regions and the use of resources in these regions.
-oasta" a'd *ari'e Geography
%ithin coastal and marine geography, there are geographers researching the
coastal enironments of the planet and how humans, coastal life, and coastal
physical features interact.
#oi"s Geography
9oil geographers study the upper layer of the lithosphere, the soil, of the
earth and its categori+ation and patterns of distribution.
*ther ma!or branches of geography include the following...
Regio'a" Geography
1any geographers focus their time and energy on studying a speci#c region
on the planet. :egional geographers focus on areas as large as a continent or
as small as an urban area. 1any geographers combine a regional specialty
with a specialty in another branch of geography.
App"ied Geography
'pplied geographers use geographic $nowledge, s$ills, and techni4ues to
sole problems in eeryday society. 'pplied geographers are often employed
outside of academic enironment and wor$ for priate #rms or goernmental
agencies.
-artography
7t has often been said that geography is anything that can be mapped. %hile
all geographers $now how to display their research on maps, the branch
of cartographyfocuses on improing and deeloping technologies in map-
ma$ing. (artographers wor$ to create useful high-4uality maps to show
geographic information in the most useful format possible.
Geographi( /')or&atio' #yste&s
Geographic 7nformation 9ystems or G79 is the branch of geography that
deelops databases of geographic information and systems to display
geographic data in a map-li$e format. Geographers in G79 wor$ to create
layers of geographic data and when layers are combined or utili+ed together
in comple& computeri+ed systems, they can proide geographic solutions or
sophisticated maps with the press of a few $eys.
Geographi( Ed(atio'
Geographers wor$ing in the #eld of geographic education see$ to gie
teachers the s$ills, $nowledge, and tools they need to help combat
geographic illiteracy and to deelop future generations of geographers.
Histori(a" Geography
8istorical geographers research the human and physical geography of the
past.
History o) Geography
Geographers wor$ing in the history of geography see$ to maintain the
history of the discipline by researching and documenting the biographies of
geographers and the histories of geographic studies and geography
departments and organi+ations.
Re&ote #e'si'g
:emote sensing utili+es satellites and sensors to e&amine features on or near
the earth2s surface from a distance. Geographers in remote sensing analy+e
data from remote sources to deelop information about a place where direct
obseration is not possible or practical.
0a'titati1e *ethods
/his branch of geography uses mathematical techni4ues and models to test
hypothesis. ;uantitatie methods are often used in many other branches of
geography but some geographers speciali+e in 4uantitatie methods
speci#cally.
*ther :eferences
12 Physi(a" Geography
3hysical geography is a branch of geography that studies physical
phenomena onearth<s surface. 7nspection #eld of physical geography is
natural phenomena of earth<s surface that becomes human liing
enironment.
/he study of physical geography is supported by seeral sciences below=
a. Geology >? a science that studies structure, composition, history and
deelopment process of the earth.
b. Pedology >? a science that studies the $inds and formation process of
soil.
c. Astronomy >? a science that studies celestial bodies.
d. Oceanology >? a science that studies about physical and chemical
properties of sea water.
e. Climatology >? a science that studies about climate.
f. Meteorlogy >? a science that studies about weather.
g. Volcanology >? a science that studies about olcanoes.
h. Seismology >? a science that studies about earth4ua$e.
i. Geophysics >? a science that studies the properties of the inner port of
the earth with physical method, such as measuring earth4ua$e, graitation,
and magnetic #eld.
!. Biogeography >? a science that studies spreading of liing organisme
geographically on earth<s surface.
%2 #o(ia" Geography
9ocial geography is a branch of geography that coers population aspects
and human actiities that consist of economic, politics, social, and cultural
actiities.
-ranches of social geography are as follows=
a. Human geography >? a branch of geography that studies social economy,
and culture of population.
b. Anthropogeography >? a branch of geography that studies the spreading
of races on earth, seen from geographical point of iew.
c. Political geography >? a branch of geography that studies geographical
conditions seen speci#cally.
d. Regional geography >? a branch of geography that studies a certain
fegion speci#cally.
e. Population geography >? a branch of geography that studies the numer,
spreading, and composition of population.
f. Economic geography >? a branch of geography that studies economic
actiities of population in a certain region.
g. Rural geography >? a branch of geography that studies the condition of
rural areas, including the society, from geographical point of iews.
h. r!an geography >? a branch of geography that studies about urban
regions, including the society, from geographical point of iew.