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Chapter 7

Telecommunications, the Internet,

and Wireless Technology
True-False Questions
1. Telephone networks are fundamentally different from computer networks.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#$
2. A NOS must reside on a dedicated server computer.
Answer: False Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#&
3. In a clientserver network! a network server sets the rule of communication for a network and
provides every connected client with an address so it can "e found "y others on the network.
Answer: True Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#'
#. $ircuit switchin% makes much more efficient use of the communications capacity of a
network than does packet switchin%
Answer: False Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#'
&. Two computers usin% T$'I' can communicate even if they are "ased on different hardware
and software platforms.
Answer: True Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#(
#! In a rin% topolo%y! one station transmits si%nals! which travel in "oth directions alon% a sin%le
transmission se%ment.
Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "')
(. Twisted wire can "e used to connect to the Internet at speeds up to 1 )"ps
Answer: False Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'"
*! *i"er+optic ca"le is more difficult to work with and harder to install than wire media.
Answer: True Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'"
(! The num"er of cycles per second that can "e sent throu%h any telecommunications medium
is measured in kilo"ytes.
Answer: False Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "'-
1,. *rame relay is less e-pensive than packet switchin%.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'-
11. .very computer on the Internet is assi%ned a uni/ue Internet 'rotocol 0I'1 address!
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "''
12. The success of the Internet is! in part! due to its desi%n as an infinitely scala"le network
capa"le of handlin% millions of users.
Answer: False Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+
13. A new version of the I' addressin% schema "ein% developed is called Internet 'rotocol
version 2 0I'v21 and contains 123+"it addresses.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+
1#. Internet2 is a research network with new protocols and transmission speeds that provides an
infrastructure for supportin% hi%h+"andwidth Internet applications.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+
1&. 4oI' technolo%y uses the Internet 'rotocol to deliver voice information in di%ital form usin%
packet switchin%.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*(
12. 5i%ital cellular service uses several different competin% standards that do not interoperate.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "("
1(. )ost 6i+*i communication uses infrastructure mode.
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(&
13. The 3,2.11 standard can "e used to provide wireless access to the Internet usin% a "road"and
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(&
17. 8*I5 has "een e-ceptionally popular "ecause of its low implementation costs
Answer: False Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "((
2,. Sensor networks typically have a tiered architecture
Answer: True Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "((
Multile-.hoice Questions
21. A device that acts as a connection point "etween computers and can filter and forward data to
a specified destination is called a9
a. hu".
". switch.
c. router.
d. NI$.
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#&
22. 6hich device sends data packets to all connected devices in a network:
a. Network interface card
". ;u"
c. 8outer
d. None of the a"ove
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#&
23. The Internet is "ased on the followin% three key technolo%ies9
a. T$'I'! ;T)<! ;TT'.
". T$'I'! ;TT'! and packet switchin%.
c. clientserver computin%! packet switchin%! and the development of widely used
communications standards for linkin% networks and computers.
d. clientserver computin%! packet switchin%! and ;TT'.
Answer: c Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "##
2#. The method of slicin% di%ital messa%es into parcels! transmittin% them alon% different
communication paths! and reassem"lin% them at their destinations is called9
a. multiple-in%.
". packet switchin%.
c. packet routin%.
d. AT).
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#'
2&. The most important communication standard today for linkin% disparate computers and
networks is9
a. Transmission $ontrol 'rotocolInternet 'rotocol 0T$'I'1.
". International Standards Or%ani=ation 0ISO1.
c. Open Systems Interconnection 0OSI1.
d. *ile Transfer 'rotocol 0*T'1.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#*
22. In T$'I'! I' is responsi"le for9
a. disassem"lin% and reassem"lin% of packets durin% transmission.
". esta"lishin% an Internet connection "etween two computers.
c. movin% packets over the network.
d. se/uencin% the transfer of packets.
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#*
2(. These si%nals are represented "y a continuous waveform9
a. laser.
". optical.
c. di%ital.
d. analo%.
Answer: d Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "#(
23. A <AN9
a. is a central switchin% system that handles a firm>s voice and di%ital communications.
". links all computers in a closed loop in a manner that passes data in one direction from
one computer to another.
c. links all computers and other devices to a central host computer! throu%h which all
communications must pass.
d. connects computers and peripheral devices located close to each other! often in the same
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'+
27. 6hich type of network would "e most appropriate for a "usiness that comprised three
employees and a mana%er located in the same office space! whose primary need is to share
a. 6ireless network in infrastructure mode
". 5omain+"ased <AN
c. 'eer+to+peer network
d. $ampus area network
Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'+
3,. A peer+to+peer network architecture9
a. %ives e/ual power to all computers on the network and is used primarily in small
". spans a lar%e %eo%raphical distance and may consist of a variety of media technolo%ies.
c. is a private! multipath! data+only! third+party mana%ed network that multiple
or%ani=ations use on a su"scription "asis.
d. has the technolo%y to ena"le voice and data to run over a sin%le network.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'+0"')
31. All network components connect to a sin%le hu" in a9
a. star network.
". "us network.
c. domain network.
d. peer+to+peer network.
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "')
32. In a "us network9
a. si%nals are "roadcast to the ne-t station.
". si%nals are "roadcast in "oth directions to the entire network.
c. multiple hu"s are or%ani=ed in a hierarchy.
d. messa%es pass from computer to computer in a loop.
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "')
33. A network that covers a lar%e %eo%raphic area is most commonly referred to as a0n19
a. local area network.
". Intranet.
c. peer+to+peer.
d. wide area network.
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'"
3#. A communications medium that uses sin%le copper wire surrounded "y thick insulation is9
a. twisted+pair ca"le.
". a satellite.
c. optical fi"er.
d. coa-ial ca"le.
Answer: d Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'"
3&. 5ata is sent throu%h the fi"er+optic ca"le "y a0n19
a. router.
". laser device.
c. optical device.
d. multiple-er.
Answer: / Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "'"
32. 6hich technolo%y will ena"le communications service providers to add transmission
capacity to an e-istin% fi"er+optic network without havin% to lay more fi"er+optic ca"le:
a. AT)
". 565)
c. $5)A
d. 6A'
Answer: / Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "'$
3(. 6hich type of si%nals follow a strai%ht line and do not "end with the curve of the .arth:
a. radio
". satellite
c. microwave
d. fi"er+optic
Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'$
33. ????????????? work "y usin% radio waves to communicate with radio antennas placed
within ad@acent %eo%raphic areas.
a. $ell phones
". )icrowaves
c. Satellites
d. Information appliances
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'$
37. A' Amoco uses ?????????????????? for real+time data transfer of oil field e-ploration data
%athered from searches of the ocean floor.
a. fi"er optics
". "luetooth technolo%y
c. 6i+*i technolo%y
d. satellites
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'-
#,. Aandwidth is9
a. the num"er of fre/uencies that can "e "roadcast throu%h a medium.
". the num"er of cycles per second that can "e sent throu%h a medium.
c. the difference "etween the hi%hest and lowest fre/uencies that can "e accommodated on
a sin%le channel.
d. the total num"er of "ytes that can "e sent throu%h a medium per second.
Answer: c Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'-
#1. The total amount of di%ital information that can "e transmitted throu%h any
telecommunications medium is measured in9
a. "ps.
". hert=.
c. "aud.
d. %i%aflops.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'-
#2. 6hich transmission technolo%y parcels information into fi-ed &3+"yte cells:
a. IS5N
". AT)
c. *rame relay
d. 5S<
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'&
#3. 5i%ital su"scri"er lines9
a. operate over e-istin% telephone lines to carry voice! data! and video.
". operate over coa-ial lines to deliver Internet access.
c. are very hi%h+speed data lines typically leased from lon%+distance telephone companies.
d. have up to twenty+four 2#+B"ps channels.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'&
##. 6hich protocol is the Internet "ased on:
a. T$'I'
". *T'
c. 'acket+switchin%
d. *rame relay
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "''
#&. 6hat service converts I' addresses into more reco%ni=a"le alphanumeric names:
a. ;T)<
". 5NS
c. *T'
d. ;TT'
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "''
#2. In the domain name Chttp9myspace."lo%%in%.comC! what are the root! top+level! second+
level! and third+level domains! respectively:
a. Chttp9C! myspace! "lo%%in%! com
a. Chttp9C! com! "lo%%in%! myspace
c. C.C! com! "lo%%in%! myspace
d. C.C! myspace! "lo%%in%! com
Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "''0"'*
#(. I'v2 is "ein% developed in order to9
a. update the packet transmission protocols for hi%her "andwidth.
". create more I' addresses.
c. allow for different levels of service.
d. support Internet2.
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+
#3. The Internet is "ased on clientserver technolo%y in which9
a. all the data resides on servers.
". some data! such as e+mail messa%es! resides on client computers.
c. applications reside on servers and all data resides on client computers.
d. all data resides on servers and applications reside on client computers.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+
#7. 6hich of the followin% services ena"les lo%%in% on to one computer system and workin% on
a. *T'
". <ISTS.84
c. Telnet
d. 6orld 6ide 6e"
Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*)
&,. 6e" "rowser software re/uests 6e" pa%es from the Internet usin% which protocol:
a. D8<
". ;TT'
c. 5NS
d. ;T)<
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "*"
&1. To%ether! a protocol prefi-! a domain name! a directory path! and a document name! are
called a9
a. uniform resource locator.
". domain name.
c. third+level domain.
d. root domain.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*"
&2. The open+source 6e" server that controls (, percent of the market is9
a. )icrosoft IIS.
". AS'.net.
c. Apache ;TT' server.
d. Netscape.
Answer: c Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*"
&3. The paid sponsored links delivered with search results is a type of marketin% referred to as9
a. shoppin% "ot marketin%.
". search en%ine marketin%.
c. tar%eted marketin%.
d. search results marketin%.
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "*-
&#. 6hat technolo%y allows people to have content pulled from 6e" sites and fed automatically
to their computers:
a. *T'
". 8SS
c. <ISTS.84
d. Aluetooth
Answer: / Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "*&
&&. 6hat competitive force do intelli%ent a%ent shoppin% "ots enhance:
a. Traditional competitors
". Aar%ainin% power of customers
c. 'roduct differentiation
d. Su"stitute products
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*&
&2. 6hat is a "usiness value of 8SS:
a. <owers costs and improves efficiency "y minimi=in% Internet access
". .na"les %reater customer intimacy
c. .na"les Internet+"ased colla"oration
d. .na"les company to focus on a market niche
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*&
&(.- Instant messa%in% is a type of9
a. chat service.
". cellular service.
c. 6e" service.
d. wireless service.
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "*'
&3. The need in some cases for employees to have access to se-ually e-plicit material on the
Internet! such as medical researchers! su%%ests that9
a. companies cannot restrict Internet use.
". companies need speciali=ed software to determine which types of material are
c. companies may need to maintain a data"ase of accepta"le 6e" sites.
d. companies need to "ase their Internet use policies on the needs of the or%ani=ation and
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "**0"*(
&7. 6hich technolo%y uses the Internet 'rotocol to deliver voice information in di%ital form
usin% packet switchin%:
a. T$'I'
". 4'N
c. 4oI'
d. None! voice information is di%itally delivered usin% AT)
Answer: c Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "*(
2,. A 4'N9
a. is an encrypted private network confi%ured within the pu"lic Internet.
". is more e-pensive than a dedicated network.
c. provides secure! encrypted communications usin% Telnet.
d. is an Internet+"ased service for deliverin% voice communications.
Answer: a Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "(+
21. 6ireless cellular phone systems are enterin% this %eneration of networks9
a. 2E.
". 2.&E.
c. 3E.
d. 3.& E.
Answer: c Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "("
22. $5)A
a. is the ma@or .uropean di%ital cellular standard.
". is more e-pensive than ES).
c. transmits over several fre/uencies.
d. uses the 1.7 E;= "and.
Answer: c Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "("
23. To deliver Internet content! I+mode uses9
a. 6A'.
". 6)<.
c. $ompact F)<.
d. $ompact ;T)<.
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "($
2#. Aluetooth is the popular name for this I... standard9
a. I... 3,2.1&.
". I... 3,2.11.
c. I... 3,2.12.
d. I... 3,2.2,.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(-
2&. The 6i+*i 3,2.11" standard can transmit up to9
a. &# )"ps in the unlicensed &+E;= fre/uency ran%e and has an effective distance of 1, to
3, meters.
". 11 )"ps in the unlicensed 2.#+E;= "and and has an effective distance of 3, to &,
c. &# )"ps in the 2.#+E;= ran%e.
d. (22 B"ps in the 2.#+E;= ran%e.
Answer: / Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "(&
22. Ad+hoc mode is also known as9
a. peer+to+peer mode.
". infrastructure mode.
c. <AN mode.
d. 'AN mode.
Answer: a Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(&
2(. 6hy are products "uilt for 3,2.11" and 3,2.11% compati"le:
a. They have the same transmission capacity and ran%es.
". They are "oth "ased on 6A'.
c. They are "oth part of the 3,2.11 family of standards.
d. They use the same fre/uency "and.
Answer: d Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "(&
23. The 6i)a- standard can transmit up to a distance of9
a. 3,, feet
". &,, meters
c. 31 miles
d. &, miles
Answer: c Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "('
27. In a 8*I5 system! a0n1 ???????????????????? is electronically pro%rammed with
information that can uni/uely identify an item! such as an electronic code.
a. reader
". antenna
c. microchip
d. transponder
Answer: d Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(*
(,. Aased on your readin% of the e-amples in the chapter! what are the "est "usiness uses of
a. Transaction processin%
". Supply chain mana%ement
c. <owerin% network costs
d. .na"lin% client communication
Answer: / Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(*0"((
Fill In the 1lan2s
(1. A0n1 router is a device that forwards packets of data from one <AN or 6AN to another.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#&
(2. 'rior to the development of packet switching! computer networks used leased! dedicated
telephone circuits to communicate with other computers in remote locations.
Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "#'
(3. A0n1 protocol is a set of rules and procedures %overnin% transmissions "etween the
components in a network.
Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#*
(#. A0n1 modem is a device for translatin% di%ital si%nals into analo% si%nals and vice versa.
Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "#(
(&. Ethernet is the dominant <AN standard at the physical network level.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'+
(2. The manner in which the components of a network are connected is referred to as its
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "')
((. A0n1 backbone is that part of the network handlin% the ma@or traffic and providin% the
primary path for traffic flowin% to or from other networks.
Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "'"
(3. <otus Notes is an e-ample of software called groupware.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*'
(7. A microbrowser is an Internet "rowser with a small file si=e that works with the low+memory
constraints of handheld wireless devices and the low "andwidth of wireless networks.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "($
3,. A network of interconnected wireless devices! em"edded into the physical environment to
provide measurements of many points over lar%e areas! is called a0n1 wireless sensor
network /WSN).
Difficulty: %asy Reference: ! "((
%ssay Questions
31. Identify and /riefly e3lain the four-layered Deartment of Defense reference model
for T.45I4!
Alication layer! .na"les client application pro%rams to access the other
layers and defines the protocols that applications use to e-chan%e data. One of these
application protocols is the ;yperte-t Transfer 'rotocol 0;TT'1 used to transfer 6e"
pa%e files.
Transort layer! 8esponsi"le for providin% the application layer with
communication and packet services. This layer includes T$' and other protocols.
Internet layer! 8esponsi"le for addressin%! routin%! and packa%in% data
packets called I' data%rams. The Internet 'rotocol 0I'1 is one of the protocols used in
this layer.
6etwor2 interface layer. 8esponsi"le for placin% packets on and receivin%
them from the network medium! which could "e any networkin% technolo%y.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#*0"#(
32. Define the following terms: ATM, I7D6, D78, and T)!
ATM 9Asynchronous Transfer Mode:! 'arcels information into uniform
&3+"yte cells! eliminatin% the need for protocol conversion. It can pass data "etween
computers from different vendors and permits data to "e transmitted at any speed the
network handles.
I7D6 9Integrated 7er;ices Digital 6etwor2:! An international standard for
dial+up network access that inte%rates voice! data! ima%e! and video services in a sin%le
D78 9Digital 7u/scri/er 8ine:! Operates over e-istin% copper telephone
lines to carry voice! data! and video! "ut has hi%her transmission capacities than IS5N.
T)! A dedicated telephone connection comprisin% 2# channels that can
support a data transmission rate of 1.&## )"ps. .ach of the 2#+B"+per+second channels
can "e confi%ured to carry voice or data traffic. These services are often used for hi%h+
capacity Internet connections.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "'&0"'#
33. What are the /usiness ad;antages of using ;oice o;er I4 9<oI4: technology=
<ower costs "y usin% the Internet to deliver voice information! avoidin% the
tolls char%ed "y local and lon%+distance telephone networks.
<ower costs from not havin% to create a separate telephone network.
.na"les communication "y supportin% Internet conference calls usin% video.
*le-i"ilityGphones can "e added or moved to different offices without
rewirin% or reconfi%urin% the network.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "(+
3#. .omare the uses of e-mail and grouware! Is e-mail a tye of grouware= Why or why
.+mail allows swift! ine-pensive transmission of te-t messa%es and attachments to one
person or to a list of persons. .+mail can %o "ack and forth amon% the mem"ers of an
or%ani=ation much more /uickly than written materials and hard copy. Eroupware provides
additional capa"ilities for supportin% enterprise+wide communications and colla"orative
work. Individuals! teams! and work%roups at different locations in the or%ani=ation can use
%roupware to participate in discussion forums and work on shared documents and pro@ects.
Student answers as to whether e+mail is a type of %roupware may vary. .+mail is not a type of
%roupware in that it is typically e-chan%ed "etween two primary partiesH however! it could "e
considered a type of %roupware in that it can "e sent to a %roup of people at once.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*'
3&. What is the difference /etween a ;irtual ri;ate networ2 9<46: and an e3tranet=
A virtual private network 04'N1 is a private network of computers linked usin% a secure
ItunnelJ connection over a pu"lic network such as the Internet. An e-tranet is a private
intranet "ased on Internet and 6orld 6ide 6e" technolo%y and standards that is accessi"le to
authori=ed outsiders. A 4'N is a method of securin% a network! whereas an e-tranet
descri"es a type of network in terms of its users! in this case! a firm and authori=ed vendors
or partners.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*#, "(+0"()
32. >ou ha;e /een hired /y a ta3 rearation firm to set u a networ2 connecting se;eral
new /ranches in a metroolitan area! What tye of networ2 hardware and transmission
media will you choose and why=
Aecause of security issues! I wouldn>t choose wireless transmission. The offices themselves
can each have an .thernet+"ased <AN! and they can connect to each other and to an Intranet
via a secure! encrypted 4'N over the Internet. Network hardware anticipated is9 coa-ial
ca"le! network server! a switch. Aecause the <ANs will "e connected throu%h a 4'N! a
router may not "e needed. In anticipation of the need for a lot of data transmission! the
connection to the Internet will "e throu%h ca"le modems. A firewall! or several! for security
purposes is anticipated.
Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "#&0"##,
3(. >ou ha;e /een hired /y a small new We/ design firm to set u a networ2 for its single
office location! The networ2 is rimarily needed for e3changing files, accessing and
managing /eta We/ sites on their We/ ser;er, and connecting to the Internet! The firm
hires many freelancers who come into the office on an ad-hoc /asis and it does not ha;e
a lot of money to send on infrastructure! What tye of networ2 will you recommend=
I would recommend a mi-ed .thernet and wireless network. The .thernet <AN would
connect the 6e" servers and primary workstations and connect via ca"le service to the
Internet. *reelancers could connect wirelessly via access points.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "#&0"##,
33. A olitical thin2 tan2 is /eing set u /y a olitical action committee! The thin2 tan2
mem/ers are located throughout the ?nited 7tates and they rimarily need to
colla/orate on and discuss ideas and documents! What tyes of colla/orati;e ser;ices or
software are a;aila/le to them= If money is no o/@ect, and security is a remium, which
will you recommend to them and why=
8ecommend usin% Internet+"ased communications. They can use e+mail! instant messa%in%!
chat rooms! *T' for sharin% documents! Dsenet news%roups! <ISTS.84! %roupware!
electronic and video conferencin%.
I would recommend a 4'N+"ased intranet and usin% %roupware that com"ines all of their
document sharin% and colla"oration needs into one interface.
Difficulty: ,ard Reference: ! "*#0"()
37. Which of the four generic strategies to counteract cometiti;e forces does Aoogle seem
to /e focusing on in its imlementation of information systems, and what tactics,
roducts, or ser;ices is it emloying to this end=
In its creation of new products and services! Eoo%le is employin% the competitive strate%y of
product differentiation. New products it has created include9 Eoo%le maps! *roo%le! Adsense!
and Eoo%le <a"s.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! $+*0$)+
7,. What tyes of caa/ilities does the Internet ro;ide /usinesses and what Internet
rotocols or technologies suort these= Which ha;e ro;en the most ;alua/le to
/usinesses thus far=
The Internet provides ways to transfer files 0*T'1! work on remote computers 0Telnet1!
distri"ute information in the form of pa%es 0The 6e"1! have real+time te-t+"ased
conversations 0instant messa%in%! chat1! colla"orate 0%roupware! electronic conferencin%1!
communicate and share data with suppliers 0e-tranets! 6e"+"ased applications1! conduct
%roup discussions 0<ISTS.84! Dsenet news%roups1! real+time voice conversations 0chat!
4OI'1! send te-t messa%es 0e+mail1 and create lower cost networks 0T$'I'! e-tranets!
intranets! 4'N1.
'ro"a"ly the two most important effects the Internet has had are the effects on network costs
and ease of settin% up a network usin% T$'I' and Internet+"ased technolo%ies! and e+mail!
allowin% near+instant documented messa%in%. .+mail has "een a valua"le alternative to post
office mail.
Difficulty: Medium Reference: ! "*+0"()