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10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I

2































HP V I RPM


230 V
DC SUPPLY
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
A1
3 POINT STARTER
-
_
+


M
L F A

D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

V

A

FUSE
15A

15A
A2
S2 Kg
S1 Kg
-
(0-300V)
MC
+
(0-20A)
MC

I
L
+
220 /1.1 A

F1




F2

NAME PLATE DETAILS
FUSE
BRAKE DRUM
10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
1
Ex. No:

LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR
P.Aravindan
Date :

AIM
To draw the performance characteristic curves of the given dc shunt motor by
conducting load test.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the efficiency of the given dc shunt motor by conducting load test.
2. To find the various parameters such as torque, input power, output power etc.
3. To obtain the electrical and mechanical characteristics for the given dc shunt
motor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO APPARATUS
NAME
RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
01. Voltmeter (0300V) MC 1
02. Ammeter (020A) MC 1
03. Rheostat 220 /1.1A Wire wound 1
04. Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULA

1. Torque (T) =(S
1
S
2
) x R x 9.81 Nm

Where
S
1
, S
2
Spring balance readings in kg
R Radius of brake drum in m

2. Input power (P
i
) = V
L
x I
L
watt
Where
V
L
line voltage in volt
I
L
load current in amp

3. Output power (P
o
) =
60
2 T N
watt

Where
N Speed of motor in rpm
T Torque in Nm
4. % Efficiency ( ) =
i
o
P
P

Where
P
o
Output power in watts
P
i
Input power in watts
10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
2
TABULAR COLUMN 1.1:LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR

Circumference of brake drum, 2R = m
Radius of brake drum, R = m



S.No
LINE
VOLTAGE
(V
L
)
Volts
LOAD
CURRENT
(I
L
)
Amps
SPRING BALANCE
READINGS
SPEED
(N)
(rpm)
TORQUE
(T)
(Nm)
INPUT
POWER
(P
i
)
(Watts)
OUTPUT
POWER
(P
o
)
(Watts)
EFFICIENCY
in %
( )
S
1

in kg
S
2

in kg
S
1
S
2

in kg
1.


2.




3.


4.




5.


6.

7.

10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
3
PRECAUTIONS

1. Select the fuse such that the current rating is 120% of rated current of the motor.
2. Ensure that the starter handle is in OFF position.
3. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position at the time of starting.
4. Heat produced due to friction between belt and brake drum is reduced by pouring water inside
the brake drum periodically.

PROCEDURE

1. Circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing DPST switch.
3. The motor is started using 3 point starter and hence the flow of high starting current is avoided.
4. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum resistance position to get the rated speed
of 1500 rpm.
5. The no load readings of the voltmeter, ammeter and spring balances are noted.
6. The load is increased in steps and corresponding voltmeter, ammeter, spring balance readings &
speed for various load currents up to the rated current are noted.
7. Performance characteristic curves are drawn from the tabulated readings & calculated
performance parameters.

MODEL CALCULATION






















10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
4
MODEL GRAPH


Figure 1.1 Performance Characteristic Curves Figure 1.2 Mechanical Characteristic Curve


VIVA QUESTIONS

1. What is the role of magnetic field in electromechanical energy conversion?
2. Differentiate a permanent magnet from an electro magnet.
3. Which equation gives the amount of force developed by a current carrying conductor?
4. What is the function of commutator in dc motor?
5. What is the role of back emf in a dc motor?
6. If the terminal voltage is reduced to half and the torque remains constant, what will happen to the
speed and armature current?
7. What will happen to the speed of a dc motor when its flux approaches zero?
8. What is the necessity of a starter for dc motor?
9. What is the function of no volt coil?
10. How the direction of rotation of a dc shunt motor can be reversed?
11. What are the important characteristics of dc shunt motor?
12. What are the applications of dc shunt motor?
13. Which rule gives the direction of rotation of a dc motor?






10 EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
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RESULT











MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
6


















S2
Kg

NAME PLATE DETAILS










F
HP V I RPM


I
L
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

15A

230 V
DC SUPPLY
- +

M

L A
A
D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

V
A
FUSE
15A

2 POINT STARTER
(0-300)V
MC
+
-
+
-
FUSE
(0-20) A
MC

BRAKE DRUM
S1
Kg
A1
A2
E
1

E
2

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
7
Ex. No:
LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR
P.Aravindan Date :

AIM
To conduct the load test on dc series motor and also to draw the performance
characteristics of the given motor.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the efficiency of the given dc series motor by conducting load test.
2. To find the various parameters such as torque, input power, output power etc.
3. To obtain the electrical and mechanical characteristics for the given dc series
motor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

FORMULA

1. Torque (T) = (S
1
S
2
) x 9.81 x R in Nm.

Where,
S
1
, S
2
are spring balance readings in kg
R is the radius of brake drum in m

2. Power output (P
o
) =
60
2 T N
watt
Where,
N is the speed of the motor in rpm.
T is the torque in Nm.

3. Power input (P
i
) = V
L
I
L
Watt.

Where,
V
L
is the line voltage in volt.
I
L
is load current in amp.

4. Percentage efficiency ( ) = Output power (P
o
) x 100
Input power (P
i
)
Where,
P
o
Output power in watt
P
i
Input power in watt
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Ammeter (020)A MC 1
2. Voltmeter (0300)V MC 1
3. Tachometer Digital 1
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
8
TABULAR COLUMN 2.1: LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES MOTOR

Circumference of brake drum, 2R = m
Radius of brake drum, R = m



S.No

LINE
VOLTAGE
( V
L
)
Volts

LOAD
CURRENT
( I
L
)
Amps
SPRING BALANCE
READINGS

SPEED
(N)
rpm

TORQUE
(T)
Nm
OUTPUT
POWER
(P
O
)
Watts
INPUT
POWER
(P
i
)
Watts

EFFICIENCY

%

S
1
in
kg
S
2
in
kg
S
1
S
2

kg

1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9.


10.



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
9
PRECAUTIONS

1. Before the motor is started, the brake drum is to be loaded to avoid high speed
which will damage the winding.
2. Select the fuse, such that its rating is 120% of the rated current.
3. While making any change in the circuit the DPST switch must be kept open.
4. Heat produced due to friction between the belt and brake drum is reduced by
adding water into the brake drum periodically.

PROCEDURE

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram .
2. After some load is added to the brake drum, the motor is applied with 230 V dc
supply by closing the DPST switch.
3. The motor is started using two-point starter, so that high starting current is
avoided.
4. The voltmeter, ammeter, speed and spring balance readings are noted down.
5. The same procedure is repeated for various loads up to the rated value of current.
6. The motor is switched off after reducing to initial load on brake drum.
7. Performance characteristics are drawn using the tabulated readings & calculated
performance parameters.

MODEL CALCULATION





















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
10

MODEL GRAPH




Figure 2.1: Performance Characteristic Curves Figure2.2:Mechanical Characteristic
Curve


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Can we use same dc machine as a generator and as a motor?
2. Why series motors are preferred for traction purpose?
3. How can the direction of the dc motor be determined?
4. What is the medium against which the energy conversion takes place in dc
generators and dc motors?
5. What type of dc motor is suitable for variable torque operations?
6. State the precautions to be observed in starting a dc series motor.
7. From the nature of characteristics curves, give the applications of dc series motor.
8. Do maximum output and maximum efficiency occur at the same time? Why?
9. Why does the speed of a dc series motor decrease abruptly when load is
increased?
10. Why does not the line current characteristic start from the origin?
11. Why should the series motor always be started on load?
12. Why dc series motor develops a high starting torque?
13. What will be the effect on the direction of rotation of dc motor if the supply
terminal is reversed?




Torque in Nm
S
p
e
e
d

i
n

r
p
m

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
11
RESULT








MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100






Signature of Faculty



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
12




























HP V I RPM

C
1

C
2

(0-20A)
MC

-
M
L
1
L
2
F A
D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
FUSE
15A
15A
4 POINT STARTER
-
(0-300) V
MC
+
-
+
+
220 / 1.1 A

F1







F2


230 V
DC SUPPLY
FUSE
BRAKE DRUM
S1
Kg
A1
A2
S2
Kg
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR
NAME PLATE DETAILS
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
13
Ex. No:
LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR
P.Aravindan
Date :

AIM
To draw the performance characteristic curves of the given dc compound motor
by conducting load test.

OBJECTIVES

1. To find the various performance parameters such as torque, input power, output
power.
2. To determine the efficiency of the given dc compound motor by conducting load test.
3. To obtain the electrical and mechanical characteristics for given dc compound motor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300 V) MC 1
2. Ammeter (020 A) MC 1
3. Rheostat
220 /1.1A
Wire wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULA

1. Torque (T) = (S
1
S
2
) x R x 9.81 Nm.

Where,
S
1
, S
2
are spring balance readings in kg.
R is Radius of brake drum in m.

2. Input power (P
i
) = V
L
x I
L
watt

Where,
V
L
is the line voltage in volt.
I
L
is load current in amp.

3. Output power (P
o
) =
60
2 NT
watt

Where,
N is Speed of motor in rpm.
T is Torque in Nm.

4. % Efficiency ( ) =
i
o
P
P

Where,
P
o
is Output power in watt.
P
i
is input power in watt.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
14
TABULAR COLUMN 3.1: LOAD TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR

Circumference of the brake drum, 2R = m
Radius of brake drum, R = m



S.No

LINE
VOLTAGE
(V
L
)
Volts

LOAD
CURRENT
(I
L
)
Amps
SPRING
BALANCE
READINGS

SPEED
(N)
rpm

TORQUE
(T)
Nm
INPUT
POWER
(P
i
)
(Watts)
OUTPUT
POWER
(P
o
)
(Watts)

EFFICIENCY
( )
%

S
1
in
kg
S
2
in
kg
S
1
S
2

kg




















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
15
PRECAUTIONS

1. Select the fuse such that the current rating is 120% of rated current of the motor.
2. Ensure that the starter handle is in OFF position.
3. The motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position at the time
of starting.
4. Heat produced due to friction between belt and brake drum is reduced by pouring
water inside the brake drum periodically.

PROCEDURE

1. Circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The 230 V dc supply is given by closing DPST switch.
3. The motor is started using 4 point starter so that high starting current is avoided.
4. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum resistance position to get
the rated speed of 1500 rpm.
5. The ammeter, voltmeter and spring balance reading at no load are noted down.
6. The load is increased in steps and corresponding voltmeter, ammeter, speed and
spring balance readings are noted for various loads up to the rated current.
7. Performance characteristic curves are drawn using the tabulated readings and
calculated performance parameters.


MODEL CALCULATIONS






















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
16
MODEL GRAPH


Figure 3.1: Performance Characteristics Curves Figure 3.2: Mechanical Characteristics
Curves


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Give an example for singly excited machine.
2. What is the application of dc compound motor? Give reasons in support of your
answer.
3. Compare the performance of differential compounding and cumulative
compounding of DC compound generators.
4. What is the difference between 3 point starter and 4 point starter?
5. Why is differentially compound motor rarely used?
6. Can a 3 point starter be used to start a compound motor?
7. Why does armature torque differ from shaft torque?
8. In which type of compound motor, flux decreases as load increases?
9. Is compound motor suitable for varied torque operations?
10. Why are dc cumulative compound motor used in applications which require
higher starting torque and need definite no load speed?
11. What is the role of residual magnetism?
12. What is the use of dummy coil in DC machines?






10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
17

RESULT









MARKS ALLOCATION


Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100








Signature of Faculty

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
18































HP V I RPM

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

5A
(0-300)V
MC
230 V
DC SUPPLY


M

D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
FUSE
5A
F1

F2
A2
V
+
_
+
_
(0-300)V
MC
+
_
96/3.2 A
+
_
A1
220 /1.1 A

A
FUSE
(0-5)A
MC
(0-2)A
MC
+
_

NAME PLATE DETAILS
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
19
Ex. No:
SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR
P.Aravindan
Date :

AIM
To study the speed control characteristics of the given dc shunt motor by field
control method and armature control method.



OBJECTIVES

1. To control the speed of dc shunt motor using armature control method.
2. To control the speed of dc shunt motor using field control method.
3. To obtain the speed characteristics of dc shunt motor by different methods.



APPARATUS REQUIRED

S. NO. APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300V) MC 2
2. Ammeter (02 A) MC 1
(05 A) MC 1

3.

Rheostat
220 /1.1A Wire wound 1
96 /3.2A Wire wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1


FORMULA


E
b
= V I
a
R
a
volt
E
b
= K N
N = V Ia Ra /

Where E
b
Back emf in volt
V Terminal voltage in volt
I
a
Armature current in amp
R
a
Armature resistance in ohm

PRECAUTIONS

1. Select fuse in such way that its rating is 120% of the no load current.
2. Keep the spring balance at zero position throughout the experiment.
3. Motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum position and armature rheostat at
maximum position at the time of starting.



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
20
TABULAR COLUMN 4.1:ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD


S.NO
I
f
= Amp I
f
= Amp I
f
= Amp
V
a
Volts
N
rpm
V
a
Volts
N
rpm
V
a
Volts
N
rpm





TABULAR COLUMN 4.2:FIELD CONTROL METHOD


S.NO
V
a
= Volt V
a
= Volt V
a
= Volt
I
f

Amps
N
rpm
I
f

Amps
N
rpm
I
f

Amps
N
rpm





















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
21
PROCEDURE

ARMATURE CONTROL METHOD
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. A 230 V dc supply is given by closing the DPST switch, and motor starts to run.
3. The field current (I
f
) is maintained at constant value by keeping the field rheostat
in constant position.
4. The armature voltage is varied by varying the armature rheostat and
corresponding variations of speed, N with respect to armature voltage, V
a
are
noted down.
5. The same procedure is repeated for different set value of field currents (I
f
).
6. The speed control characteristics of V
a
vs. N are plotted.


FIELD CONTROL METHOD

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. A 230 V dc supply is given by closing the DPST switch, and motor starts to run.
3. The voltmeter connected in parallel to armature should be kept at constant voltage
(V
a
) by keeping the armature rheostat in constant position.
4. The field current is varied by varying the field rheostat and corresponding
variations of speed, N with respect to field current, I
f
are noted down.
5. The same procedure is repeated for different set value of armature voltages (V
a
).
6. The speed control characteristics of I
f
vs. N are plotted.




















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
22
MODEL GRAPH















VIVA QUESTIONS


1. What types of dc motors are suitable for varying torque operations?
2. If the terminal voltage is reduced to half and the torque remains constant, what
will happen to the speed and armature current?
3. What will be the effect of change in supply voltage on the speed of a dc shunt
motor?
4. What will happen to the speed of a dc motor when its flux approaches zero?
5. What is the necessity of a starter for dc motor?
6. Why are speeds above rated speed obtained in field control method?
7. Why are speeds below rated speed obtained in armature control method?
8. What parameters control the speed of a dc motor?
9. What would be the most effective method of increasing the speed of a dc shunt
motor rated at less than 5kw?
10. How many speeds can be obtained by paralleling of fields method for a 4pole
series motor?
11. What are the limitations of each method?
12. What type of motor is used in locomotive?
.







Armature voltage, V
a
in volt Current, I
f
in amp

S
p
e
e
d

i
n

r
p
m

I
f1

I
f2

I
f3

S
p
e
e
d

i
n

r
p
m

V
a3


V
a2

V
a1


Figure 4.1: Armature Control Method Figure 4.2: Field Control Method

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
23


RESULT













MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
24






























NAME PLATE DETAILS
-
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OCC AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY EXCITED DC
GENERATOR


-

V
(0-300V)
MC
+
A1
3 POINT STARTER


M
L F A

D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

1

FUSE
15A

A2
+
220 /2.3 A

F1





F2

230 V
DC SUPPLY

FUSE
15A


G
A1
A2

A
560 /2.3 A


D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

2

A
R
H
E
O
S
T
A
T
I
C

L
O
A
D
SPST

(0-20) A
MC
+ -
(0-2) A
MC
+
-
F1


F2

230 V
/ 18 A
230 V
/ 18 A
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
25



AIM

To conduct a suitable experiment on the given dc generator and draw the open
circuit and load characteristic curves of the same when its field is separately excited.

OBJECTIVES

1. To find the generated voltage (E
g
) of a separately excited dc generator for
different field currents (I
f
) by conducting open circuit test.
2. To determine Internal and External Characteristic curves of given dc generator by
conducting load test.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO. APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Ammeter (020) A MC 1
(02 ) A MC 1
2. Voltmeter (0300) V
(0-50) V
MC 1
1
3. Rheostat 220 / 2.3 A Wire Wound 1
560 / 2.3 A Wire Wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. DPST switch 1
6. Loading Rheostat 230 V / 18 A 1


FORMULA
E
g
= V
L
+ I
a
R
a
volt
Where E
g
Generated emf in volt
V
L
Load Voltage in volt
I
a
Armature current in amp
R
a
Armature resistance in ohm


PRECAUTIONS
1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120 % of rated current.
2. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum position at the time of starting.
3. Keep the generator field rheostat at maximum position at the time of starting.
4. Keep the DPST switch 2 open during OCC test.
5. Keep the SPST switch open at starting to note the residual voltage.
Ex. No:
OCC AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF SEPARATELY
EXCITED DC GENERATOR
Dr.M.K.Elango
Date :
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
26

Figure 5.1: Measurement of Armature Resistance

TABULAR COLUMN 5.1 OPEN CIRCUIT TEST ON SEPARATELY EXCITED
DC GENERATOR

S. No. Field Current
(I
f
)
Amps
Generated Voltage
(E
g
)
Volts





TABULAR COLUMN 5.2 LOAD TEST ON SEPARATELY EXCITED DC
GENERATOR
Armature Resistance, Ra =

S. No.
Field
Current
(I
f
)
Amps
Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps
Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
Armature
Current
(I
a
= I
L
)
Amps
Generated
voltage
E
g
=V
L
+ I
a
R
a
Volts





10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
27
PROCEDURE
OCC TEST
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing the DPST switch 1, the dc motor (prime mover) is supplied with 230 V
dc supply and using 3-point starter the dc motor is started.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated
speed of 1500 rpm is set.
4. The residual voltage (armature voltage at zero excitation) is noted down from the
voltmeter.
5. Close the SPST switch and the generator field rheostat is varied in steps of 0.1 A.
Note down the field current (I
f
) and the corresponding generated voltage (E
g
).
6. The same procedure is repeated until the generator reaches its rated voltage of the
generator.
LOAD TEST
1. By adjusting the motor field rheostat, set the rated speed of 1500 rpm.
2. By adjusting the generator field rheostat, set the rated voltage of generator, i.e.
230 V.
3. Note down the no load voltage and field current.
4. Now the DPST switch 2 is closed.
5. Then the load is applied in step using loading rheostat in steps of 2 A up to the
rated current of 12 A and the load current (I
L
), load voltage (V
L
) and field current
(I
f
) are noted down for all the loads.
6. For every load, check the speed of the motor which is to be maintained at rated
speed of 1500 rpm.
7. The loading rheostat and generator field rheostat are brought back to initial state.
8. The motor field rheostat is brought back to initial state and the motor is switched
off by opening the DPST switch 1.
MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 5.1.
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.
6. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.


10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
28


TABULAR COLUMN 5.3: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)
S. No. Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
a
a
a
V
R
I

Ohms


MODEL GRAPH

Figure 5.1: OCC Characteristics Figure 5.2: Load Characteristics

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What are the basic requirement for the production of emf?
2. In how many ways mmf required to establish the flux in the magnetic circuit of a
dc generator can be had?
3. Which type of winding is selected for low voltage, high current dc machines?
4. Distinguish between separately excited and self excited dc generators.
5. Which generator cant build voltage if there is no residual magnetism?
6. Why should the generator field winding be kept at maximum position at the start
of the experiment?
7. Why should the motor field winding be kept at minimum position at the start of
the experiment?
8. Justify the shape of open circuit characteristics of a dc generator.
9. What is the purpose of the SPST switch in the circuit?
10. What is the voltage drop allowed for all brushes of each polarity?
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
29


MODEL CALCULATION




















RESULT






MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100






Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
30

NAME PLATE DETAILS
230 V
DC SUPPLY
-
F
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OCC AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SHUNT
GENERATOR





































-

V
(0-300V)
MC
+
A1
3 POINT STARTER


M
L F A

D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

1

FUSE
15A

A2
+
220 /2.3 A

F1





F2

FUSE
15A


G
A1
A2

A
560 /2.3 A


D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H

2

A
R
H
E
O
S
T
A
T
I
C

L
O
A
D
SPST

(0-20) A
MC
+ -
(0-2) A
MC
+
-
F1


F2

230 V
/ 18 A
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
31
Ex. No:
OCC AND LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SHUNT
GENERATOR
Dr.M.K.Elango
Date :


AIM
To conduct the suitable experiment on the given dc shunt generator and to draw
the open circuit and load characteristic curves of the same.

OBJECTIVES

1. To find the generated voltage (E
g
) of a self excited dc shunt generator for different
field currents (I
f
) by open circuit test.
2. To determine the Internal and External Characteristic curves of given dc shunt
generator by conducting load test.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Ammeter (020) A MC 1
(02 ) A MC 1
2. Voltmeter
(0300) V
(0-50)V
MC 1
1
3. Rheostat 220 / 2.3 A Wire Wound 1
560 / 2.3 A Wire Wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. DPST switch 1
6. Loading Rheostat 230 V / 18 A 1

FORMULA
E
g
= V
L
+ I
a
R
a
volt
I
a
= I
L
+ I
f

Where E
g
Generated emf in volt
V
L
Load Voltage in volt
I
a
Armature current in amp
I
L
Load current in amp
I
f
Field current in amp
R
a
Armature resistance in ohm.

PRECAUTIONS
1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120 % of rated current.
2. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum position at the time of starting.
3. Keep the generator field rheostat at maximum position at the time of starting.
4. Keep the DPST switch 2 open during OCC test.
5. Keep the SPST switch open at starting to note the residual voltage.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
32

Figure 6.1 Measurement of Armature Resistance (Ra)

TABULAR COLUMN 6.1: OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS TEST OF DC
SHUNT GENERATOR


S. No.


Field Current
(I
f
)
Amps

Generated Voltage
(E
g
)
Volts



TABULAR COLUMN 6.2: LOAD TEST OF DC SHUNT GENERATOR
Armature Resistance, R
a
=

S.NO Field
Current
(I
f
)
Amps

Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps

Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
Armature
Current
I
a
= I
L+
I
f
Amps
Generated emf
E
g
=V
L
+ I
a
R
a
Volts

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
33
PROCEDURE
OCC TEST
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing the DPST switch 1, the dc motor (prime mover) is supplied with 230 V
dc supply and using 3-point starter the dc motor is started.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated
speed of 1500 rpm is set.
4. The residual voltage (armature voltage at zero excitation) is noted down from the
voltmeter.
5. Close the SPST switch and the generator field rheostat is varied in steps of 0.1 A.
Note down the field current (I
f
) and the corresponding generated voltage (E
g
).
6. The same procedure is repeated until the generator reaches its rated voltage.
LOAD TEST
1. By adjusting the motor field rheostat, set the rated speed of 1500 rpm.
2. By adjusting the generator field rheostat, set the rated voltage of generator, i.e.
230 V.
3. Note down the no load voltage and field current.
4. Now the DPST switch 2 is closed.
5. Then the load is applied in step using loading rheostat in steps of 2 A up to the
rated current of 12 A and the load current (I
L
), load voltage (V
L
) and field current
(I
f
) are noted down for all the loads.
6. For every loading, check the speed of the motor which is to be maintained at rated
speed of 1500 rpm.
7. The loading rheostat and generator field rheostat are brought back to initial state.
8. The motor field rheostat is brought back to initial state and the motor is switched
off by opening the DPST switch 1.
MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 6.1.
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.
6. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
34
TABULAR COLUMN 6.3: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)

S. No Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps

Armature Resistance
a
a
a
V
R
I

Ohms



MODEL GRAPH

Figure 6.2: OCC Characteristics Figure 6.3: Load Characteristics

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. How voltage is build up in a dc shunt generator?
2. What is critical filed resistance of a generator?
3. State the reasons for the drop in terminal voltage of a shunt generator when it
is loaded?
4. List the causes for the failure of self excitation of a DC shunt generator.
5. Why does saturation curve starts from some value higher than zero?
6. What is the use of interpole windings?
7. How does the armature reaction affect the load characteristic?
8. How are the dc shunt generator self protective?
9. Why a dc shunt generator is used for battery charging?
10. What is the net voltage across the armature resistance at the time of plugging?
11. What type of motor is providing zero speed regulation at full load without any
controller?
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
35

MODEL CALCULATION













RESULT



MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100









Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
36
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES GENERATOR


























NAME PLATE DETAILS


HP V I RPM HP V I RPM

_- +
R
H
E
O
S
T
A
T
I
C

L
O
A
D
D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H

2
C
2

A
2

A
1
(0-300V)
MC


220/
1.3A
(0-20A)MC

15A
FUSE
-
F
1





F
2


A
1

A
2

3 POINT STARTER
+
FUSE
_-
+
230 V
DC SUPPLY


G
L F A
D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H

1
15A
V

M
A
C
1

230 V
/ 18 A
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
37


Ex. No:
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES GENERATOR
C.Srinivasan
Date :


AIM
To conduct the load test on dc series generator and draw its load characteristic
curves.
OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the Internal (E
g
vs. I
L
) and External Characteristics (V
L
vs. I
L
) of
given dc series generator by conducting load test.
APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300)V
(0-50) V
MC
MC
1
1
2. Ammeter (020)A MC 1
3. Rheostat 220/2.3A 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. DPST switch 2
6. Loading rheostat 230 V / 18 A 1

PRECAUTIONS

1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120 % of rated current.
2. Keep the motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum position at the time of
starting.

PROCEDURE
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. By closing the DPST switch 1, the dc motor (prime mover) is supplied with 230 V
dc supply and using 3-point starter the dc motor is started.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated
speed of 1500 rpm is set.
4. The DPST switch 2 is closed and the loading rheostat is varied.
5. The voltmeter and ammeter readings are noted down in the tabular column.
6. The same procedure is repeated up to the rated current.
7. The internal and external characteristic curves are plotted.


10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
38

Fig: (a) Fig :(b)
Figure 7.1 Measurements of (a) Armature Resistance (R
a
) and (b) Series Field Resistance (R
se
)

TABULAR COLUMN 7.1: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC SERIES
GENERATOR
S.No. Load Current
(I
L
)
Amps
Load Voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
Generated Voltage
E
g
= V
L
+ I
L
(R
a
+ R
se
)
Volts








TABULAR COLUMN 7.2: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R
A
)
S. No.
Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
a
a
a
V
R
I

Ohms





TABULAR COLUMN 7.3:MEASUREMENT OF SERIES FIELD RESISTANCE (R
SE
)
S. No.
Series Field
Voltage
(V
se
)
Volts
Series Field
Current
(I
se
)
Amps
Series Field Resistance
se
se
se
V
R
I

Ohms



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
39



MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE AND SERIES FIELD RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 7.1 (a).
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat the ammeter and voltmeter readings are noted and
tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.
6. The above procedure is repeated for measuring series filed resistance, by replacing
the armature winding terminals by series filed winding terminals as shown in
Fig. 7.1 (b).
7. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.

MODEL CALCULATION

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
40


MODEL GRAPH













Fig 7.2: Performance Characteristic Curve


VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Which type of winding is selected for high voltage, low current dc machines?
2. Why is a dc series generator not suitable for general electric supply?
3. What is the function of brushes in a dc machine?
4. Why is carbon preferred for manufacturing brushes?
5. Mention the methods of improving commutation.
6. How is the direction of induced emf found in a dc generator?
7. Why does series field winding have only a few turns?
8. What is the reason for sparking at the brushes?
9. Can a generator produce electricity?
10. What is the critical field resistance of a dc series generator?
11. What is the function of armature in the generator?
12. From the nature of characteristics curves, give the applications of dc series
generator.










Internal Characteristics (E
g
vs. I
L
)
External Characteristics (V
L
vs. I
L
)
I
L
(A)
E
g
,

V
L

(
V
)

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
41


RESULT










MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100









Signature of Faculty

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
42

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR


























NAME PLATE DETAILS

HP V I RPM HP V I RPM


560/
2.3A
(0-2A)
MC

_-
+
(0-20A)MC

C
2

A
2

A
1


220/
2.3A
15A
FUSE
-
A
1

A
2

3 POINT STARTER
+
FUSE
230 V
DC SUPPLY


G
L F A
D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H

1
15A
F
1





F
2




M
C
1

F
1





F
2


_- +
R
H
E
O
S
T
A
T
I
C

L
O
A
D
D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H

2
(0-300V)
MC

_-
+
V
A
A
230 V
/ 18 A
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
43

Ex. No:
LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR
Dr.M.K.Elango
Date :

AIM
To conduct the load test on dc compound generator and draw its load characteristic
curves.
OBJECTIVES
1. To study the operation of cumulative and differential compounding.
2. To determine Internal, External Characteristics of given dc compound generator by
conducting load test.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300)V
(0-50) V
MC
MC
1
1
2. Ammeter (02)A MC 1
(020)A MC 1
3. Rheostat 220/2.3A 1
560/2.3A 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. DPST switch 1
6. Loading Rheostat 230 V / 18 A 1

THEORY
E
g
= V
L
+ I
a
(R
a
+ R
se
) volt
Where,
E
g
= Generated Voltage in volt
V
L
= Load Voltage in volt
I
a
= Armature Current in amp
R
a
= Armature Resistance in ohm
R
se=
Resistance of the series field winding in ohm

PRECAUTION
1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120% of the rated current.
2. The field rheostat of the motor should be kept at minimum resistance position and
generator field rheostat should keep at maximum resistance position at the time of
starting.
3. Keep the DPST switch 2 should open during built up of voltage across the armature
of generator

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
44

Figure 8.1: Measurement of Armature Resistance (R
a
)

Figure 8.2: Measurement of Series Field Resistance (R
se
)

TABULAR COLUMN 8.1: LOAD TEST OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR
(CUMULATIVE COMPOUNDING)
Armature and series field resistance (R
a
+ R
se
) =

S.No.
Field
Current
(I
f
)
Amps
Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps
Armature
Current
I
a
= I
L
+ I
f
Amps
Generated emf
E
g
=V
L
+ I
a
(R
a
+ R
se
)
Volts












10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
45
PROCEDURE

1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. By closing the DPST switch 1, the dc motor (prime mover) is supplied with 230 V dc
supply and using 3-point starter the dc motor is started.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated speed of
1500 rpm is set.
4. The field rheostat of the generator is adjusted to get rated voltage in the voltmeter that
is connected across the generator armature.
5. The DPST switch 2 is closed.
6. Then the rheostatic load is applied in steps and the corresponding values of line
current, field current and load voltage are noted.
7. The same procedure is repeated up to the rated current of the generator.
8. The load and field rheostats are brought back to their initial position and the supply is
switched off.
9. The connections of the terminals C1 and C2 are interchanged which makes the
generator to be differentially compounded.
10. The procedural steps 2 to 8 are followed.
11. The characteristic curves are plotted from the tabulated readings.

MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE AND SERIES FIELD RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 8.1.
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.
6. The above procedure is repeated for measuring series filed resistance, by replacing
the armature winding by series filed winding as shown in Fig. 8.2..
7. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.







10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
46

TABULAR COLUMN 8.2: LOAD TEST OF DC COMPOUND GENERATOR
(DIFFERENTIAL COMPOUNDING)
Armature and series field resistance (R
a
+ R
se
) =

S.No.
Field
Current
(I
f
)
Amps
Load
Voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps
Armature
Current
I
a
= I
L
+ I
f
Amps
Generated emf
E
g
=V
L
+ I
a
(R
a
+ R
se
)
Volts


TABULAR COLUMN 8.3: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R
a
)
S. No
Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
a
a
a
V
R
I

Ohms


TABULAR COLUMN 8.4: MEASUREMENT OF SERIES FIELD RESISTANCE (R
se
)
S. NO
Series Field
Voltage
(V)
Volts

Series Field
Current
(I)
Amps

Series Field Resistance
se
V
R
I

Ohms











10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
47


MODEL CALCULATION


























































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
48



MODEL GRAPH






















Figure 8.3: Differential Compounding Figure 8.4: Cumulative Compounding

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Mention the reasons for compounding dc generator.
2. When the dc generator is said to be over compounded?
3. Discuss the effect of differential compounding and cumulative compounding on the
performance of DC compound generators.
4. Mention merits and demerits of the types of compounding.
5. Why is only a differentially compounded generator suitable for arc welding?
6. Why are only over compounded dc generators employed for supplying power to
lighting and commercial services?













E
g
/I
g

E
g
/
V
L

(
V
)

Internal characteristics
External characteristics
I
a
R
a
drop
I
g
/I
L
(A)
V
L
/I
L

E
g
/I
g

E
g
/
V
L

(
V
)

Internal characteristics
External characteristics
I
a
R
a
drop
I
g
/I
L
(A)
V
L
/I
L

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
49



RESULT











MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100










Signature of Faculty



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
50











































HP V I RPM

F

NAME PLATE DETAILS
L F A
F1




F2

+
+
V
L
+
-
+
A1
(0-2A)MC

A2
-
(0-300V)
MC
220 /1.2 A

3 POINT STARTER
I
L
(0-5A)MC

FUSE
-
+
5A
FUSE
_
230 V
DC SUPPLY


M
D
P
S
T
S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
5A
A
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SWINBURNES TEST ON DC MACHINE
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
51

Ex. No:
SWINBURNES TEST ON DC MACHINE
P.Aravindan
Date :

AIM
To predetermine the efficiency of the given dc shunt machine while running as a
motor and as a generator by conducting Swinburnes test.
OBJECTIVE
To determine the efficiency at various load current while operating as a motor and
generator and plot a graph output Vs %
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300)V
(0-50) V
MC
MC
1
1
2. Ammeter (05)A &
(02)A
MC 2
3. Rheostat 220/1.2A Wire wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULA USED
Input Power = Output power + Total losses (Watts)
At no load output power = 0
Input power = Total losses (Watts)
Total losses = Copper loss + Constant loss (W
c
) (W.atts)
Constant loss = Total loss Copper loss
W
c
= Input power at no load Copper loss

FOR MOTOR
Armature current, I
a
= I
L
I
f
in A
Constant loss, W
C
= V
L
I
L
(at no load) I
a
2
R
a

Copper loss = I
a
2
R
a
in W
Total loss = Copper loss + Constant loss in W
Input power, P
i
= V
L
I
L
in W
Output power P
o
= Input power Total losses in W
Percentage efficiency =
i
o
P
P
x 100
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
52


Figure 9.1 Measurement of Armature Resistance (Ra)

TABULAR COLUMN 9.1: SWINBURNES TEST ON DC MACHINE

S.No No load line voltage
(V
L
)
Volts
No load line current
(I
L
)
Amps
No load field current
(I
f
)
Amps












TABULAR COLUMN 9.2: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)

S. No Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
(R
a
)
Ohms
















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
53

FOR GENERATOR
Armature current, I
a
= I
L
+ I
F
in A
Constant loss, W
C
= V
L
I
L
(at no load) I
a
2
R
a

Copper loss = I
a
2
R
a
in W
Total loss = Copper loss + Constant loss in W
Output Power, P
o
= V
L
I
L
in W
Input power, P
i
= Output power + Total losses in W
Percentage efficiency =
i
o
P
P
x 100
PRECAUTIONS
1. Fuse should be selected such that its current rating is 120% of no load current of the
motor.
2. Motor field rheostat should be kept at minimum resistance position at the time of
starting.
PROCEDURE
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DPST switch is closed to apply 230 V dc supply to motor and the motor is started
using threepoint starter.
3. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated speed of
1500 rpm is set.
4. At rated speed, the values of line voltage, no load current and field current are noted.
5. The efficiency of the machine as a motor and as a generator for each assumed load
current is calculated using the formulas up to the rated current and tabulated in the
respective tabular column.
6. The characteristic curve between the output power and efficiency are plotted for both
the cases.







10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
54
TABULAR COLUMN 9.3: PERFORMANCE OF DC MACHINE AS A MOTOR
Armature Resistance, R
a
=
Line Voltage, V
L
=
Constant Loss, W
c
=
Field Current If =
S.No

Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps
Armature
Current
I
a
= I
L
I
f

Amps
Armature
Copper
Loss
I
a
2
R
a
Watts

Total
Losses
W
C
+ W
CU
Watts
Input
Power
P
i
= V
L
I
L

in Watts
Output
Power
P
0

Watts


Efficiency
in %



TABULAR COLUMN 9.4: PERFORMANCE OF DC MACHINE AS A GENERATOR
Line Voltage =
Constant Loss =
S.No

Load
Current
(I
L
)
Amps

Armature
Current
I
a
= I
L
I
f
Amps

Armature
Copper
Loss
I
a
2
R
a
Watts

Total
Losses
W
C
+ W
CU
Watts

Input
Power
P
i
Watts
Output
Power
P
0
= V
L
I
L
Watts

Efficiency
in %







10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
55



MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 9.1.
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.
6. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.

MODEL CALCULATION
DC MACHINE AS A MOTOR





















DC MACHINE AS A GENERATOR











10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
56

MODEL GRAPH















Figure 9.2: Output Characteristics Curves

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Can we operate same dc machine as a generator and as a motor?
2. What are the losses taking place in a dc machine?
3. How do the losses vary with load current?
4. How can iron losses be reduced?
5. Differentiate stray losses and constant losses.
6. State the condition for maximum efficiency in a DC motor.
7. Why is power consumed at no load in Swinburnes test?
8. Differentiate determination and predetermination tests.
9. What are the sources of heat generation in rotating electrical machines?
10. What are the limitations of the Swinburnes test?










As a MOTOR
As a GENERATOR
OUTPUT POWER
(Watt)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
57



RESULT






MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100






Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
58
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF HOPKINSONS TEST ON DC MACHINES SET



























NAME PLATE DETAILS
DC MOTOR ALTERNATOR


HP V I RPM HP V I RPM

15A

220
/ 2.3 A
(0-20A)MC
I
2


(0-300V)
MC

-
_- +
(0-2A)
MC
I
4

_-
+
F
1





F
2



570
/1.1A

+
(0-20A)MC
I
1

A
2

A
1

(0-300V)
MC

F
1





F
2


A
1

A
2

3 POINT STARTER
_-
+


G
L F A
V
FUSE
-
+
FUSE
230 V
DC SUPPLY
D
P
S
T

S
W
I
T
C
H
15A


M
_-
+
(0-2A)MC
I
3


A
A
A
SPSTS
A
V
+
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
59
Ex. No:
HOPKINSONS TEST ON DC MACHINES
C.Srinivasan
Date :

AIM
To conduct full load test on two identical dc shunt machines and draw the
performance characteristic curves.
OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the stray losses of the machines.
2. To obtain efficiency curves for the motor and generator and draw the
performance characteristic curves.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300)V
(0-50) V
MC
MC
2
1
2. Ammeter (02)A &
(020)A
MC 2
3. Rheostat 220/2.3A
570/1.1A
Wire wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. SPST 2 1

FORMULA USED
1. Motor input = V ( I
1
+ I
2
)
Where, V = supply voltage to motor
I
1
= current delivered by the generator (generator current)
I
2
= current taken from the supply (motor current)
2. Generator output = V I
1
Watt
3. Let R
a
= Armature resistance of each machine
I
3
= Exciting current of the generator
I
4
= Exciting current of the motor
Armature cu loss in generator = (I
1
+ I
3
)
2
R
a
watt . (1)
Armature cu loss in motor = (I
1
+ I
2
I
4
)
2
R
a
watt . (2)
Shunt cu loss in generator = V I
3
watt . (3)
Shunt cu loss in motor = V I
4
watt . (4)
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
60
TABULAR COLUMN 10.1: PERFORMANCE OF THE DC MACHINE AS A DC MOTOR
Stray Loss per Machine =
2
w
= Watts
Armature Resistance (R
a
) =
S. NO.
Supply
Voltage
(V)
Volt s
Generator
Current
(I
1
)
Amps
Motor
Current
(I
2
)
Amps
Generator
Field
Current
(I
3
)
Amps
Motor
Field
Current
(I
4
)
Amps
EFFICIENCY OF DC MOTOR
Input
Power
P
i

Watts
Armature
Copper Loss
in Watts
Shunt
Copper
Loss in
Watts
Total
Loss in
Watts
Output
Power
P
o

Watts
Efficiency
%

















































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
61
Stray losses of both machine = w (say) . (5)
Power drawn from the supply = V I
2
watt . (6)
(1) + (2) + (3) + (4) + (5) = (6)
Total stray loss for the set, w = V I
2
[(I
1
+ I
3
)
2
R
a
+ (I
1
+ I
2
I
4
)
2
R
a
+ V I
3
+ V I
4
]
4. Efficiency for generator
Generator output = VI
1
watt
Total losses = (I
1
+ I
3
)
2
R
a
+ VI
3
+w/2 = W
g
watt
Generator input = VI
1
+ W
g
watt
Efficiency of the generator = VI
1
/ (VI
1
+ W
g
)
5. Efficiency for Motor
Motor input = V (I
1
+ I
2
) watt
Total losses = (I
1
+ I
2
I
4
)
2
R
a
+ VI
4
+ w/2 = W
m
watt
Motor output = V (I
1
+ I
2
) W
m
watt
Efficiency of the motor = V (I
1
+ I
2
) W
m
/ V (I
1
+ I
2
)
PRECAUTION
1. Keep the field rheostat of the machine marked M at minimum position at the time of
starting.
2. Keep the field rheostat of the Machine marked G at maximum position at the time of
starting.
3. Keep the SPST switch open at the time of starting.
PROCEDURE
1. The circuit connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. SPST switch between two machines is still kept opened.
3. DPST switch is closed to apply 230 V dc supply to the machine M and machine M is
started using three-point starter.
4. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum position and the rated speed of
1500 rpm is set.
5. Machine M drives machine G as a generator and its voltage is read on voltmeter V
1
.
6. The generator field rheostat is adjusted. If the voltage is increasing instead of
reducing, interchange the field winding terminals of machine G and adjust the field
rheostat until voltmeter V
1
reads zero. It means that now its voltage is the same as
that of the main supply.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
62
TABULAR COLUMN 10.2: PERFORMANCE OF THE DC MACHINE AS A DC GENERATOR
Stray Loss per Machine =
2
w
= Watts
Armature Resistance (R
a
) =
S.
NO.
Supply
Voltage
(V)
Volts
Generator
Current
(I
1
)
Amps

Motor
Current
(I
2
)
Amps
Generator
Field
Current
(I
3
)
Amps
Generator
Field
Current
(I
4
)
Amps
EFFICIENCY OF DC GENERATOR
Input
Power
P
i

Watts
Armature
Copper Loss
in
Watts
Shunt
Copper
Loss in
Watts
Total
Loss in
Watts
Output
Power
P
o

Watts
Efficiency
in %

















































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
63
7. Now the switch SPST is closed.
8. By adjusting the respective field rheostat, any load can be applied on to the machine.
9. Generator current I
1
is adjusted step by step by increasing the excitation of machine G
or by reducing the excitation of machine M.
10. From the tabulated readings, efficiency of the motor (machine M) and efficiency of
the generator (machine G) for different I
1
up to rated current can be calculated.
11. Performance characteristic curves can be drawn for both the machines (Output power
vs. Efficiency in %).
























10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
64

Figure 10.1 Measurement of Armature Resistance (Ra)

TABULAR COLUMN 10.3: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra)



















S.
No
Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
(R
a
)
Ohms






10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
65
MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 10.1
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.
6. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.

MODEL CALCULATION

































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
66

MODEL GRAPH















Figure 1.2 Output Characteristics Curves

VIVAQUESTIONS

1. If the progressive connections of the armature are replaced by retrogressive
connections, how will it affect the operation of the motor?
2. What happens to a dc motor when connected across an AC supply?
3. Why do dc motors sometimes run too fast under load?
4. What causes overheating of the commutator in a DC machine?
5. What are the advantages of Hopkinsons test?
6. What are the conditions for conducting the test?
7. If the voltmeter across the SPST switch reads zero what does it indicate? If it does
not read zero value what does it indicate?
8. What are the other names of Hopkinsons test?
9. How the interpoles are connected?
10. A DC motor fails to start when switched on. What could be the reasons and
remedies?
11. What are the conditions to be satisfied before connecting two dc generators in
parallel?
12. If the voltmeter across the SPST switch reads zero what does it indicate? If it does not
read zero value what does it indicate?

MOTOR
GENERATOR
OUTPUT POWER
(watt)
E
F
F
I
C
I
E
N
C
Y

(
%
)

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
67

RESULT











MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100









Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
68
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER




























NAME PLATE DETAILS
KVA V
P
I
P
V
S
I
S

LAMP
LOAD
W
2
300 V/10A/UPF
W
1
300 V/10A/UPF
LINK
100%
0%
(0-5)A
MI
(0-300)V
MI
0%
100%
5A
FUSE
N
P
D
P
S
T
S
W
I
T
C
H
230 V
50 HZ 1
AC SUPPLY
V
A
Single Phase Transformer
230V/ 230V
P S

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
69
Ex. No:
LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
C.Srinivasan
Date :

AIM
To draw the load characteristic curves of a given single phase transformer by
conducting load test.
OBJECTIVE
To plot the following performance characteristics curves
1. Load current vs. % Efficiency
2. Load current vs. % Regulation

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Transformer 1
2. Ammeter (05)A MI 1
3. Voltmeter (0300V) MI 1
4. Wattmeter 300V/5A UPF 2
5. Lamp Load 1

FORMULA USED
1. Percentage of efficiency =
1
2
W
W
x 100
2. Percentage of up regulation =
fl
fl nl
V
V V
x 100
3. Percentage of down regulation =
nl
fl nl
V
V V
x 100
Where W
1
= Input power in watt
W
2
= Output power in watt
V
fl
= Full load voltage in volt
V
nl
= No load voltage in volt

PRECAUTIONS

1. Fuse should be selected such that its current rating is 120% of rated current of the
transformer.
2. Keep the DPST switch open at the time of starting the experiment while giving
connections.
3. Load should be in the off position while at the start of the experiment.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
70
TABULAR COLUMN 11.1: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

Multiplying Factor for W
1
=
Multiplying Factor for W
2
=
No Load Voltage, V
NL
=
S.NO

Secondary
Voltage in
Volts
Secondary
Current in
Amp
Input
Power in
Watts
Output
Power in
Watts
Efficiency in
%
Up
Regulation in
%
Down
Regulation in
%









MODEL GRAPH


Figure 11.1 Load Current Vs Efficiency and Regulation Curves

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
71
PROCEDURE
1. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The ac supply of 230 V is applied to the circuit by closing the DPST switch.
3. Before applying the load, the no load readings are noted.
4. By varying the lamp load step by step, corresponding ammeter, voltmeter and
wattmeter readings are noted down.
5. The same procedure is repeated up to the rated current of the transformer.
6. All the readings are tabulated in tabular column and required performance parameters
are calculated to draw their characteristic curves.

MODEL CALCULATION
































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
72
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Does the efficiency of a transformer depend on kVA rating? Why?
2. Why the efficiency of transformer is very high compared to other machines.
3. How is magnetic leakage reduced to a minimum in commercial transformers?
4. Which is the other method of finding efficiency and regulation?
5. What is the normal nature of output power vs. efficiency curve & why?
6. Give the difference between core type and shell type transformer.
7. Why is the efficiency of a transformer higher than that of motors?
8. What is the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformer? From the graph, find
the load at which it occurs.
9. Why do we perform load test when the efficiency can be determined by O.C. and S.C.
tests?
10. Why the excessive insulation is harmfull to a coil ?
11. What is the function of transformer oil ?
12. What type of load should be connected to the transformer for getting maximum voltage
regulation?
13. By knowing the losses at full load, how can you calculate the efficiency of a
transformer at any other load?





















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
73



RESULT















MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
74
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
















































NAME PLATE DETAILS




KVA V
P
I
P
V
S
I
S


LINK
1 Auto transformer
230V/(0-270V)
230 V
50 HZ 1
AC SUPPLY
(0-2)A
MI
(0-300)V
MI
W
300 V/5A/LPF
5A
FUSE
N
P
D
P
S
T
S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
Single Phase Transformer
230V/230V)
100%
0%
0%
100%
OPEN
CIRCUIT

P S
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
75
Ex. No: OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE
PHASE TRANSFORMER
T.R Manikandan
Date :

AIM
To conduct the open circuit and short circuit test on given single phase transformer and
predetermine its efficiency and regulation of the same machine.
OBJECTIVE
1. Predetermine the efficiency at different load at various power factor.
2. Predetermine the full load regulation at different power factor.
3. Draw the following characteristic curves
a. Output vs. %
b. Power factor vs. % Regulation
APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Single phase Transformer 1kVA/230V 1
1. Ammeter (02)A MI 1
2. Voltmeter (0300)V MI 1
3. Wattmeter 300V/5A LPF 1
4. Autotransformer 230V/(0270V) 1
5. Ammeter (05) A MI 1
6. Voltmeter (075) V MI 1
7. Wattmeter 150 V / 5 A UPF 1


FORMULA USED

1.
o o
o
I V
W
Cos
0
2.
0
cos
o
o o
V
R
I
ohm
3.
0
sin
o
o o
V
X
I
ohm 4.
2
01
SC
SC
I
W
R
ohm
5.
SC
SC
I
V
Z
01
ohm 6.
2 2
01 01 01
X Z R ohm
7. Percentage Efficiency =
2
0
( )
100
( )
X x KVA rated x pf
x
X x KVA rated x pf W X Wsc
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
76

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER





KVA V
P
I
P
V
S
I
S

W
75 V/5A/UPF
230 V
50 HZ 1
AC SUPPLY
LINK
(0-5)A
MI
(0-75)V
MI
5A
FUSE
N
P
D
P
S
T
S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
Single Phase Transformer
230V/(230V)
100%
0%
0%
100%
1 Auto transformer
230V/(0-270V)
P S
SHORT
CIRCUIT

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
77
8. Percentage Regulation =
01 01
0 2
X * Isc(R cos sin
V
X
x 100
Leading pf
% Regulation =
01 01
0 2
X * Isc( R cos sin )
V
X
x 100
Lagging pf
% Regulation =
01 01
0 2
X * Isc(R cos sin )
V
X
x 100
9. Output power = X * VA rated x power factor watt

10. Input power = (X * VA rated x power factor) + W
o
+ X
2

W
sc
watt

Where,
cos = Power factor
W
o
= Open circuit wattmeter reading or core loss in watt.
I
o
= Open circuit ammeter reading in amp.
V
o
= Open circuit voltmeter reading in volt.
R
0
= Primary no load resistance in ohm.
X
0
= Primary no load reactance in ohm.
W
sc
= Short circuit wattmeter reading in watt.
I
sc
= Short circuit ammeter reading in amp.
V
sc
= Short circuit voltmeter reading in watt
X = Load ratio
R
01
= Equivalent Resistance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm
X
01
= Equivalent Reactance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm
Z
01
= Equivalent impedance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm
oV
2
= Voltage across the secondary under open circuit in volt

PRECAUTIONS
1. Fuse should be selected such that its current rating is 120% of rated current of the
transformer.
2. Keep the DPST switch open while making circuit connections.
3. At the time of starting and at the end of the experiment the autotransformer is kept at
minimum position.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
78

MODEL GRAPH


Figure 12.1: Performance Characteristic Curves

TABULAR COLUMN 12.1: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
Multiplying Factor =
S. NO.

Open Circuit
Voltmeter Reading
(V
0
)
Volts
Open Circuit
Ammeter
Reading
(I
0
)
Amps
Open circuit
Wattmeter
Reading
(W
0
)
Watts


CORE LOSS ...

TABULAR COLUMN 12.2: SHORT CIRCUIT TEST ON SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
Multiplying Factor =
S. NO.


Short Circuit
Voltmeter Reading
(V
sc
)
Volts
Short Circuit
Ammeter Reading
(I
sc
)
Amps
Short circuit
Wattmeter
Reading
(W
sc
)
Watts


FULL LOAD COPPER LOSS...

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
79

PROCEDURE
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DPST switch is closed and the autotransformer is adjusted to get rated voltage 230 V
in the secondary winding of the transformer.
3. The open circuit readings are taken and tabulated in tabular column.
4. Determine the core loss of the transformer from the obtained no load readings.

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The DPST switch is closed and the auto transformer is adjusted to get the rated current in
the secondary of the transformer.
3. The short circuit readings are taken and tabulated in tabular column.
4. Determine the full load copper loss of the transformer from the obtained short circuit
readings. From the open and short circuit test readings, percentage regulation and
percentage efficiency of single phase transformer are calculated using the formula and
tabulated in tabular column.




















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
80

TABULAR COLUMN 12.3 PREDETERMINATION OF % REGULATION OF SINGLE
PHASE TRANSFORMER
S. No. Load Ratio
X
Power Factor
cos
Percentage Regulation
Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.
1. 0.25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

2. 0.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

3. 0.75
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

4. 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0


TABULAR COLUMN 12.4 PREDETERMINATION OF % EFFICIENCY OF SINGLE
PHASE TRANSFORMER
S. No. Power Factor Load Ratio
X
Output Power
in Watts
Input Power
in Watts
Efficiency in
%
1. 0.25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

2. 0.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

3. 0.75
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

4. 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
81

MODEL CALCULATION

% REGULATION OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER



























% EFFICIENCY OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER



















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
82


VIVA QUESTIONS

1. State the conditions under which OC test is conducted on a transformer.
2. State the conditions under which SC test is conducted on a transformer.
3. What is the significance of OC & SC test?
4. Why h.v. winding is kept open during OC test and 1.v. winding is shorted during SC test
in case of large transformers?
5. In OC test, secondary winding is in open condition, still there is a small current flowing
in the primary winding. Why?
6. Which is the alternate method for finding efficiency and regulation of a transformer other
than OC & SC tests? What are their advantages over each other?
7. What is the importance of equivalent circuit?
8. Why regulation of transformer is negative for leading p.f. load?
9. The wattmeter reading during OC test is considered as core loss while wattmeter
reading during S.C. test is considered as copper loss Justify.
10. State why the open circuit test on a transformer is conducted at rated voltage.
11. Explain why only a low voltage is applied to the transformer during SC test.
12. Which losses are found by using OC test?
13. Which losses are found by using SC test?















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
83

RESULT











MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
84


SPSTS
(0-600)V
MI
Auto transformer
230V/(0-270V)
( 0-5)A
MI
(0-75)V
MI
230 V
50 HZ 1
AC SUPPLY
LINK
(0-2)A
MI
(0-300)V
MI
N
P
D
P
S
T
S
W
I
T
C
H
5A
FUSE
W1

300 V/5A/LPF
V
A
100%
0% 0%
100%
V
A
100%
0%
0%
100%
V
W2

75 V/5A/UPF
P S
S P
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SUMPNERS TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERS
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
85
Ex. No:
SUMPNERS TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMERS
T.R Manikandan
Date :

AIM
To conduct Sumpners test on given two identical single phase transformers and to
predetermine the regulation and efficiency of the transformer.
OBJECTIVE
1. To study the paralleling process for two identical transformers.
2. To determine the equivalent circuit parameters of each transformer.
3. To predetermine the efficiency at different loads at 0.8 and 1.0 power factors.
4. To predetermine the full load regulation for different power factors.
5. To draw the following performance characteristic curves
a. Output vs. %
b. Power factor vs. %Regulation
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Single phase
Transformer
1 kVA
230/230 V
2
2. Ammeter (02)A MI 1
(05)A MI 1
3. Voltmeter (0300)V MI 1
(075)V MI 1
(0600)V MI 1
4. Wattmeter 75V/5A UPF 1
300V/5A LPF 1
5. Auto transformer (230V/0270V) 1

FORMULA USED
1.
0 0
0
0
I V
W
Cos
2.
o
R
cos I
V
0
0
0
ohm
3.
o
X
sin I
V
0
0
0
ohm
4. R
01
=
2
SC
SC
I
W
ohm
5. Z
o1
=
SC
SC
I
V
ohm

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
86

TABULAR COLUMN 13.1 SUMPNERS TEST ON SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

S. No.


Primary
Voltage
(V
0
)
volts
Primary
Current
(I
0
)
Amps
Primary
Power
(W
0
)
Watts
Secondary
Voltage
(V
SC
)
Volts

Secondary
Current
(I
SC
)
Amps
Secondary
Power
(W
SC
)
Watts


















MODEL GRAPH





Figure 13.1: Performance Characteristics Curve

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
87

6. X
01
=
2 2
01 01
Z R ohm

7. Total loss =W
o
+X
2

W
sc
watt

8. Output power = X x VA rated x cos watt

9. Input power = (X x VA rated x cos ) + W
o
+X
2

W
sc
watt

10. % efficiency = (output power / input power) x 100 watt

11. % Regulation = (X x I
sc
( R
01
cos + X
01
sin )/
0
V
2
) X 100 for lagging pf

12. % Regulation = (X x I
sc
( R
01
cos X
01
sin )/
0
V
2
) X 100 for leading pf

Where,
cos = power factor
W
o
= open circuit wattmeter reading or core loss in watt.
I
o
= open circuit ammeter reading in amp.
V
o
= open circuit voltmeter reading in volt.
R
0
= primary no load resistance in ohm.
X
0
= primary no load reactance in ohm.
W
sc
= short circuit wattmeter reading in watt.
I
sc
= short circuit ammeter reading in amp.
V
sc
= short circuit voltmeter reading in watt
X= load ratio.
R
01
= Equivalent Resistance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm
X
01
=Equivalent Reactance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm
Z
01
=Equivalent impedance of the transformer as referred to primary in ohm

0
V
2
=voltage across the secondary winding under open circuit

PRECAUTIONS

1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120% of transformers rated current.
2. Keep the DPST switch open at the initial condition.
3. Keep the auto transformer at minimum position at the starting and at the end of the
conduction of the experiment.






10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
88
TABULAR COLUMN 13.2 PREDETERMINATION OF % REGULATION OF
SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
S. No. Load Ratio
X
Power Factor
cos
Percentage Regulation
Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.
1. 0.25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

2. 0.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

3. 0.75
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

4. 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0


TABULAR COLUMN 13.3 PREDETERMINATION OF % EFFICIENCY OF
SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER
S. No. Power Factor Load Ratio
X
Output Power
in watt
Input Power
in watt
Efficiency
in %
1. 0.25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

2. 0.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

3. 0.75
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0

4. 1
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
89

PROCEDURE

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. SPST switch is kept in open condition.
3. 230 V ac supply is applied to the primary of the two transformers by closing the
DPST switch.
4. If the voltmeter across the SPST switch reads zero, then SPST is closed. If not,
then the polarity of any one of the transformer secondary is changed and then
SPST is closed.
5. All meter readings on the primary side are noted down.
6. The auto transformer is adjusted to get rated current in the ammeter (5 A)
connected in secondary winding of transformers.
7. All meter readings on the secondary side are noted.
8. From the primary meter readings (OC readings) and the secondary meter readings
(SC readings) % efficiency and % regulation of given two identical single phase
transformer are predetermined and they are tabulated.



























10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
90
VIVA QUESTIONS

1. How is an autotransformer advantageous over an ordinary transformer?
2. The efficiency of two identical transformers under load conditions can be
determined by which test?
3. Why is Sumpners test called as Back to Back test?
4. What is the condition to be satisfied by the two transformers to be tested using this
method?
5. Other than losses and efficiency, what else can be determined from this test?
6. Explain how correct polarity is important in parallel operation of transformers
7. What is inrush current in transformers?
8. What is the effect of magnetic saturation on the excitation current of transformers?



MODEL CALCULATION

% EFFICIENCY OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER












% REGULATION OF SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORME

















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
91











RESULT












MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty


10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
92



C
I
R
C
U
I
T

D
I
A
G
R
A
M

O
F

S
E
P
A
R
A
T
I
O
N

O
F

N
O

L
O
A
D

L
O
S
S
E
S

I
N

A

S
I
N
G
L
E

P
H
A
S
E

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
93

Ex. No: SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES IN A SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
T.R Manikandan
Date :

AIM
To conduct a suitable test on a singlephase transformer and then separate the iron
loss at a frequency of 50Hz.
OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the iron loss of the machine
2. To separate the Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss from the iron loss.
APPARATUS REQUIRED

S. NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Ammeter (05)A MC 1
2. Ammeter (02)A MI 1
3. Voltmeter (03000V MC 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5. Rheostat
300 /1.7A
500 /1.2A
Wire wound Each 1
6. Wattmeter 300V / 1A LPF 1
7.
Single phase
Transformer
1 kVA
230/230 V
1

FORMULA
1. Speed (N) = 120*f / p rpm
2. Voltage (V
cal
) = Rated voltage (V) / Rated frequency (f) X Variable frequency(f
v
)
where, f
v
= 30, 35, 40, , 50 Hz
3. Hysterics loss, W
h
= Af
v
watt
A = Constant (obtained from graph)
4. Eddy current loss, W
e
= Bf
v
watt
B = Constant (slope of the tangent drawn to the curve)
5. Total iron loss, W
i
= W
h
+ W
e
watt
Here the Constant A is distance from the origin to the point where the line cuts the Y-
axis in the graph between Wi / f and frequency f. The Constant B is (W
i
/f
v
) / f
v

PRECAUTIONS
1. Keep the DPST switches open at the time of starting.
2. Motor field rheostat should be in minimum resistance position.
3. Alternator field rheostat should be in maximum resistance position.
4. Secondary terminals of the transformer should be open circuited.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
94
TABULAR COLUMN 14.1: SEPARATION OF LOSSES IN A SINGLE PHASE
TRANSFORMER
S.
No.
Frequency
f
v
Hz
Speed
N
rpm
V
cal
in Volts
V
m

in Volts
W
i

in Watts
W
i
/f
v

in Watts
W
h
=Af
v

in
Watts
W
e
=Bf
v

in watts




MODEL GRAPH














10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
95
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. The motor is started by using three-point starter and hence the flow of high
starting current is avoided.
4. The motor field rheostat is adjusted from its minimum resistance position to get
the rated speed of 1500 rpm.
5. DPST switch is closed and supply is given to the transformer.
6. Adjust the alternator field rheostat until the rated voltage is shown in the voltmeter
and take the corresponding meter readings.
7. Again the alternator field rheostat is varied for the calculated voltage and note the
corresponding meter readings.
8. This procedure is repeated for above and below the rated speed by adjusting the
field rheostat of motor and alternator.
9. The alternator filed rheostat is brought back to its original position.
10. The DPST switch is opened which is connected to the field of the alternator.
11. The motor field rheostat is brought back to its minimum position and the DPST
switch is opened.

























10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
96
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. How can eddy current loss be minimized?
2. In practice, what determines the thickness of the laminations or stampings?
3. Is copper loss affected by power factor? How?
4. Mention the factors on which hysteresis loss depends.
5. How are the losses separated?
6. How will you reduce the iron loss of a transformer?
7. How is magnetic leakage reduced to a minimum in commercial transformers?
8. What effects are produced by change in input voltage of a transformer?
9. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer?
10. Can you reduce the hysteresis loss by making the core laminated? If not how?




































10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
97
MODEL CALCULATION


















RESULT





MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty











10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
98












C
I
R
C
U
I
T

D
I
A
G
R
A
M

O
F

L
O
A
D

T
E
S
T

O
N

S
C
O
T
T

C
O
N
N
E
C
T
E
D

T
R
A
N
S
F
O
R
M
E
R

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
99
Ex. No:
LOAD TEST ON SCOTT CONNECTED TRANSFORMER
C.Srinivasan
Date :


AIM
To convert a three phase system into two independent single phase system using
two single phase transformer & to study their performance.

OBJECTIVE
1. To study about the Scott connection
2. To draw the performance curve of Scott connected transformer.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S. NO APPARATUS RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Ammeter
(010) A MI 3
(05) A MI 2
2. Voltmeter
(0300) V MI 2
(0600) V MI 1
3. Wattmeter 300 V/ 5 A UPF 2
4. Rheostatic load 2
5.
Single phase transformer with
86.6% tapping
1 kVA 1
6.
Single phase transformer with
50% tapping
1 kVA 1

FORMULA
As the loads applied to the secondaries are resistive, the P.F is unity.
Total output of the secondaries = (V
1
I
1
+V
2
I
2
) watt
Input to the primary = (W
1
+W
2
) watt
Efficiency of the Scott connected transformer = (V
1
I
1
+V
2
I
2
) X 100 / (W
1
+W
2
)

PRECAUTION
1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120% of transformers rated current.
2. Keep the autotransformer in minimum position at the initial condition.
3. Keep the rheostatic load in minimum position at initial condition.
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
100
TABULAR COLUMN 15.1: LOAD TEST ON SCOTT CONNECTED
TRANSFORMER





MODEL GRAPH










Figure 15.1: Output Characteristic Curves





S. No.
I
Y
in
Amps
W
1
in
Watts
W
2
in
Watts
I
1
in
Amps
I
2
in
Amps
V
1
in
Volts
V
2
in
Volts
in
%
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
%
Equal loads
Output Power in watt
Unequal loads
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
101
PROCEDURE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram
2. With the autotransformer at minimum position the three phase supply is switched
on by closing the TPST switch.
3. The autotransformer is now adjusted and a line to line voltage of 230V is supplied
to the primary winding of the Scott connected transformer.
4. The no load readings are noted.
5. The secondaries are now loaded equally in steps (above 3 amp). At each step, the
readings of all the meters are noted.
6. The loads on the secondaries are now removed.
7. One of the secondarys is now loaded to a fixed value (say I = 3 A).
8. The load on the other secondary is increased in steps. At each step, the readings of
all the meters are noted and tabulated.
9. The % is calculated for both equal and unequal load condition and characteristic
curve of % vs. output in watt is drawn.

MODEL CALCULATION


















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
102
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Where does the Scott connection find its use?
2. If the two transformers used in Scott Connection are identical, then how many
primary turns of the teaser transformer are actually used?
3. What is the ratio of number of turns on the primaries of teaser transformer in case
of Scottconnection?
4. Are the two transformers connected for Scottconnection coupled magnetically?
5. Do you know any other method of conversion of 3phase a.c. supply from 2
phase a.c. supply?
6. Is it possible to obtain a 3 phase a.c. supply from 2 phase a.c. supply by using
Scottconnection?
7. Why regulation of transformer is negative for leading p.f. load?
8. What is inrush current in transformers?
9. What is the effect of magnetic saturation on the excitation current of transformers?
10. What will happen if dc supply instead of ac supply is applied to a transformer?
11. Is the supply frequency is doubled, which loss component of transformer will
double?


















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
103

RESULT











MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty
10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
104
(a) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF STAR STAR CONNECTED TRANSFORMER

(b) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DELTA DELTA CONNECTED TRANSFORMER

(c) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF STAR DELTA CONNECTED TRANSFORMER

(d) CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DELTA STAR CONNECTED TRANSFORMER


10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
105
Ex. No:
THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS
C.Srinivasan
Date :

AIM
To make and study the various three phase connections using three phase
transformers.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
S. NO
APPARATUS NAME
TYPE RANGE QUANTITY
1 Voltmeter
MI (0300) V 2
MI (0600) V 3
2
Single Phase
Transformer Bank

230 V / 230 V
1 kVA
1
3
Three phase
Autotransformer
415 V / (0470)V 1

PROCEDURE
STAR STAR CONNECTION
1. Both the primary and secondary windings are star connected as per the circuit
diagram (a).
2. The three phase ac supply is applied by switching on the TPST switch.
3. The autotransformer is adjusted to set the voltage of 410 V in primary side and
corresponding primary and secondary voltmeter readings are noted down.
4. The advantage of this connection is that two levels of voltage can be obtained for
the load (namely V
L
and V
ph
) since neutral is available.

DELTA DELTA CONNECTION
1. Both the primary and secondary windings are Delta connected as per the circuit
diagram (b).
2. The three phase ac supply is applied by switching on the TPST switch.
3. The autotransformer is adjusted to set the voltage of 410 V in primary side and
corresponding primary and secondary voltmeter readings are noted down.
4. The disadvantage of this connection is that only one voltage is made available for
the load, because a neutral connection is not available in the secondary side.



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
106
TABULAR COLUMN 16.1: THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS
S. No.
Types of
Connection
Primary Voltage
(line to line)
in Volts
Secondary
Voltage (line to
line) in Volts
1.

Star Star


2.

Delta Delta


3.

Star Delta


4.

Delta Star


























10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
107
STAR DELTA CONNECTION
1. The primary and secondary windings are star and delta connected as per the circuit
diagram (c).
2. The three phase ac supply is applied by switching on the TPST switch.
3. The autotransformer is adjusted to set the voltage of 410 V in primary side and
corresponding primary and secondary voltmeter readings are noted down.
4. The ratio between the secondary and primary line voltage is 1/3 times of the
transformation ratio of the transformer.

DELTA STAR CONNECTED
1. The primary and secondary windings are delta and star connected as per the circuit
diagram (d).
2. The three phase ac supply is applied by switching on the TPST switch.
3. The autotransformer is adjusted to set the voltage of 410 V in primary side and
corresponding primary and secondary voltmeter readings are noted down.
4. The ratio between the secondary are primary line voltage is 3 times of the
transformation ratio of the transformer.


















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
108
VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Why polarity check is important in parallel operation of transformers?
2. Which type of connection is suitable for power distribution purpose?
3. When does a TT connection have a higher ratio of utilization than a VV
connection?
4. What is the limitation of Star / Star connection?
5. What is the increase in capacity of the system when VV system is converted into
a DeltaDelta system?
6. What are the connections used to stepup and stepdown the voltage?
7. What are the necessary conditions required to connect two transformers in
parallel?
8. What is the necessity of tap changing transformers?
9. What are the phase groups of transformers?
10. What is meant by vector grouping?
11. Why is it preferred to determine the efficiency of a transformer indirectly rather
than by directly loading it?



















10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
109

RESULT









MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100















Signature of Faculty

10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
110

FIGURE 17.1 SCREENSHOT OF A SIMPLE LABVIEW PROGRAM



10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
111

Ex. No:
STUDY OF LabVIEW PACKAGES
P.M.Manoj kumar
Date :

AIM
To study in brief about the LabVIEW packages.

THEORY

NI LabVIEW

LabVIEW is a graphical programming environment used by millions of engineers and
scientists to develop sophisticated measurement, test, and control systems using intuitive
graphical icons and wires that resemble a flowchart. It offers unrivalled integration with
thousands of hardware devices and provides hundreds of builtin libraries for advanced
analysis and data visualization all for creating virtual instrumentation. The LabVIEW
platform is scalable across multiple targets and OSs, and, since its introduction in 1986, it
has become an industry leader.

KEY FEATURES

Faster Programming
Data Display and User Interfaces
Multicore Programming
Hardware Integration
Multiple Targets and OSs
Data Storage and Reporting
Advanced Analysis
Multiple Programming Approaches

PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS

LabVIEW is a proven integrated development environment for interfacing with
measurement and control hardware, analyzing data, publishing results, and distributing
systems using a graphical programming approach. This single environment includes
software for the following:

1. Signal processing, analysis, and connectivity
2. Integration with realtime systems, FPGAs, and other deployment hardware
3. Data management, logging, and reporting
4. Control and simulation
5. Development tools and validation
6. Application distribution




10EE 306 ELECTRICAL MACHINES LABORATORY -I
112
1. Signal Processing, Analysis, and Connectivity

NI Vision Development Module: The NI Vision Development Module helps address
machine vision and scientific imaging applications with its comprehensive library of
imaging functions for building highly customized solutions. Also included is the NI
Vision Assistant prototyping software that generates readytorun LabVIEW code and
the Vision Acqusition Software driver package to acquire from hundreds of cameras.
This module can be used with Windows and realtime targets, including NI Smart
Cameras, NI Vision Systems, NI frame grabbers, and NI CompactRIO.

NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection: The NI Vision Builder for Automated
Inspection simplifies the development process of your imaging applications in
LabVIEW by replacing the complexities of programming with an interactive menu
driven configuration environment, without sacrificing performance or range of
functionality. NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection can be used with realtime
devices such as NI Smart Cameras and NI Vision Systems for image acquisition,
processing, pass/fail analysis and communications while integrating seamlessly into
large LabVIEW applications and with other hardware targets including CompactRIO
and host devices.

NI Sound and Vibration Measurement Suite: The NI Sound and Vibration
Measurement Suite is a comprehensive collection of NI analysis and signal processing
tools for noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); machine condition monitoring; and
audio test applications. It includes all of the functionality of the NI Sound and
Vibration Toolkit (sold separately) with the additional ability to implement torsional
vibration measurements, tachometer processing, order tracking and extraction, human
vibration filters, and spectral maps, among others. It also includes the NI Sound and
Vibration Assistant, which is standalone interactive software for quickly acquiring,
analyzing, and logging acoustic, noise, and vibration data.

NI Sound and Vibration Toolkit: The NI Sound and Vibration Toolkit provides tools
to help you simply make audio measurements, fractionaloctave analysis, sweptsine
analysis, sound level measurements, frequency analysis, and transient analysis. It also
includes the NI Sound and Vibration Assistant, a standalone interactive software for
quickly acquiring, analyzing, and logging acoustic, noise, and vibration data.

NI LabVIEW Internet Toolkit for Windows: Using the NI LabVIEW Internet
Toolkit, you can easily incorporate a variety of communications capabilities, such as
HTTPS, Telnet, and FTP transfers, into your virtual instrumentation applications.

NI LabVIEW Internet Toolkit for Mac: Using the NI LabVIEW Internet Toolkit,
you can easily incorporate a variety of communications capabilities, such as HTTPS,
Telnet, and FTP transfers, into your virtual instrumentation applications.

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NI LabVIEW Internet Toolkit for Linux: Using the NI LabVIEW Internet Toolkit,
you can easily incorporate a variety of communications capabilities, such as HTTPS,
Telnet, and FTP transfers, into your virtual instrumentation applications.

NI LabVIEW Advanced Signal Processing Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Advanced
Signal Processing Toolkit features software tools, example programs, and utilities to
simplify experimentation and development involving timefrequency analysis, time
series analysis, and wavelets. It includes a full version of the NI LabVIEW Digital
Filter Design Toolkit, which is also available separately.

NI LabVIEW Adaptive Filter Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Adaptive Filter Toolkit
provides tools for designing, analyzing, and simulating adaptive filters, including both
floating and fixedpoint. You can use these filters for applications like adaptive noise
cancellation, adaptive echo cancellation, and system identification. You also can create
and implement fixedpoint adaptive filters on NI fieldprogrammable gate array
(FPGA) targets.

NI LabVIEW Digital Filter Design Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Digital Filter Design
Toolkit provides tools for rapidly designing, analyzing, and implementing digital
filters. Use the builtin interactive tools to explore classical filter designs or use the
included algorithms, filter topologies, and analysis tools to design floatingpoint
digital filters and fixedpoint digital filters for deployment on a digital signal processor
(DSP) or fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA).

NI LabVIEW MathScript RT Module for Windows: The NI LabVIEW MathScript
RT Module helps you integrate your custom .m files into the LabVIEW graphical
environment. Combining the benefits of textbased math with graphical programming
presents a new hybrid approach to programming that offers you the freedom to choose
the most appropriate syntax.

NI Spectral Measurements Toolkit: The NI Spectral Measurements Toolkit gives
you tools to perform spectral measurements such as power spectrum, peak power and
frequency, inband power, adjacentchannel power, and occupied bandwidth. It can
also help you perform modulationdomain operations such as pass band (IF) to
baseband (IQ) conversion, IQ to IF conversion, and generation and analysis of
analog modulated signals.

NI LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Modulation Toolkit offers
tools for the signal generation, analysis, visualization, and processing of standard and
custom digital and analog modulation formats. With this toolkit, you can rapidly
develop custom applications for research, design, characterization, validation, and test
of communications systems and components that modulate or demodulate signals.

NI LabVIEW Robotics Module: The NI LabVIEW Robotics Module provides a
standard hardware and software development platform for designing your robotic
control system. The module delivers an extensive robotics library with builtin
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connectivity to robotic sensors and actuators, foundational algorithms for intelligent
operation and robust perception, and motion functions for making your robot or
vehicle move.

NI ECU Measurement and Calibration Toolkit: The NI ECU Measurement and
Calibration Toolkit provides tools to help you develop measurement and calibration
applications for the design and validation of electronic control units (ECUs). Use the
included functions and examples to quickly setup applications to measure ECU
variables for analysis, presentation, or logging or learn how to manipulate ECU
characteristics using 1D to 3D user interfaces.

NI GPS Simulation Toolkit: The NI GPS Simulation Toolkit helps you create
simulated global positioning system (GPS) waveforms for use with NI RF signal
generators to produce a customized and repeatable GPS receiver test. Use the include
functions and examples to create custom motion trajectories, adjust individual satellite
power levels, and incorporate realtime feedback from the device under test (DUT)
into your test system.

NI Measurement Suites for WiMAX: The NI measurement suites for Fixed and
Mobile WiMAX provide generation and analysis functions for IEEE 802.162004
(OFDM) and IEEE 802.16e2005 (OFDMA) signals. Combined with PXI RF
instrumentation, the toolkits included in these suites help PXI Express WiMAX
measurement systems achieve R&Dgrade accuracy and measurement times three to
10 times faster than traditional box instruments.

NI WLAN Measurement Suite: The NI WLAN Measurement Suite helps you
perform common IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n measurements with industryleading speed and
accuracy. You can use this toolkit, combined with PXI Express RF hardware, to test a
wide range of wireless devices including GPS, GSM/EDGE, WCDMA, WiMAX, FM,
Bluetooth, and ZigBee at measurement speeds five to 10 times faster than traditional
box instruments. This measurement suite includes the NI WLAN Generation and
Analysis Toolkits which can also be purchased separately.

NI Automotive Diagnostic Command Set: The NI Automotive Diagnostic Command
Set helps you design and implement a wide variety of automotive diagnostic
applications for electronic control unit (ECU) production using protocols such as
Keyword Protocol 2000 and Diagnostics on CAN.

CURE Pattern ID Toolkit Neural ID: Neural ID's CURE Pattern ID Toolkit offers
a Virtual Instrument Library (VIL) for the NI LabVIEW development environment.
You can acquire data in a manner familiar to you, preprocess it, extract features, and
then forward these features to the CURE VIL for pattern learning and identification.




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2. Integrating With Deployment Hardware

NI LabVIEW RealTime Module: The LabVIEW RealTime Module helps you
develop applications that execute reliably and deterministically as autonomous systems
on NI realtime devices such as PXI, Compact FieldPoint, and CompactRIO, as well
as standard desktop PCs. The embedded realtime OS for these targets is a single
dedicated kernel that provides maximum reliability for embedded code.

NI LabVIEW FPGA Module: The NI LabVIEW FPGA Module helps you configure
fieldprogrammable gate arrays (FPGAs) on NI hardware without the complexities of
VHDL. You can create embedded FPGA VIs that combine direct access to I/O with
userdefined LabVIEW logic. Applications include custom devices for rapid
prototyping, highspeed simulations, custom communication protocols, and closed
loop control.

NI LabVIEW Embedded Module for ARM Microcontrollers with Keil ARM7
Hardware: The NI LabVIEW Embedded Module for ARM Microcontrollers takes
graphical programming to the popular embedded 32bit reduced instruction set
computing (RISC) processor. This module provides a comprehensive development
environment for ARM7 microcontrollers and includes a Keil ARM7 microcontroller.
ARM, Keil, and Vision are trademarks or registered trademarks of ARM Ltd or its
subsidiaries.

NI LabVIEW Embedded Module for ARM Microcontrollers with Texas
Instruments CortexM3 Hardware: The NI LabVIEW Embedded Module for ARM
Microcontrollers takes graphical programming to the popular embedded 32bit
reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor. This module provides a
comprehensive development environment for CortexM3 microcontrollers and
includes a Texas Instruments CortexM3 microcontroller. ARM, Keil, and Vision are
trademarks or registered trademarks of ARM Ltd or its subsidiaries.

NI LabVIEW Touch Panel Module: The LabVIEW Touch Panel Module helps you
develop custom human machine interface (HMI) applications for Windows CE and
Windows XP Embedded touch panel devices such as the NI TPC2106. These HMIs
provide a means to display data from and control autonomous realtime systems. The
module includes tools for user interface development as well as functions for
communication, data analysis, and data storage.

NI LabVIEW Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Module Pioneer: The NI
LabVIEW Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) Module Pioneer helps you create and
deploy embedded applications to programmable NI WSN measurement nodes. Use
LabVIEW WSN Pioneer to extend battery life by optimizing node behavior, perform
custom analysis, and embed decision making on programmable NI WSN measurement
nodes.

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ImagingLab Robotics Library for DENSO ImagingLab: ImagingLab's Robotics
Library for DENSO features easytouse graphical functions for commanding and
controlling DENSO robotics directly from the NI LabVIEW graphical development
environment. Using this approach, you do not need to learn specialized robotics
programming software, which means you can achieve higher performance from your
machine in less time. Disclaimer: This is a thirdparty addon for LabVIEW, offered
by an independent thirdparty provider who is solely responsible for this product.


3. Data Management, Logging, and Reporting

NI DIAdem Base Edition: DIAdem is software specifically designed to help
engineers and scientists quickly locate, inspect, analyze, and report on measurement
and simulation data using one integrated software tool. DIAdem works with custom
file formats and is optimized to be able to load and operate on large volumes of data.
The flexibility of DIAdem saves LabVIEW developers time by offering the benefits of
a customized data management system in an outofthebox solution.

NI LabVIEW Datalogging and Supervisory Control (DSC) Module: The NI
LabVIEW Datalogging and Supervisory Control (DSC) Module helps you produce
highchannelcount datalogging or HMI/SCADA applications, which require alarm
and event management, realtime and historical data trending, and OPC connectivity.

NI LabVIEW Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office: The NI LabVIEW
Report Generation Toolkit for Microsoft Office is a library of flexible, easytouse
VIs for programmatically creating and editing Microsoft Word and Excel reports from
LabVIEW.

NI LabVIEW Database Connectivity Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Database
Connectivity Toolkit is a set of easytouse tools you can use to quickly connect to
local and remote databases and implement many common database operations without
having to perform structured query language (SQL) programming. It readily connects
to popular databases, such as Microsoft Access, SQL Server, and Oracle. If you need
advanced database functionality and flexibility, the Database Connectivity Toolkit also
offers complete SQL capabilities.

NI LabVIEW DataFinder Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW DataFinder Toolkit helps you
create custom data management systems for handling the large amounts of data
generated during tests and simulations. With this toolkit, you can design interfaces for
searching an NI DataFinder index to find valuable information in your test files.






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4. Control and Simulation

NI LabVIEW PID and Fuzzy Logic Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW PID and Fuzzy
Logic Toolkit allows you to combine the included proportional integral derivative
(PID) and fuzzy logic control functions with the builtin math and logic functions in
LabVIEW to develop automated control applications. Integrate these control tools with
NI data acquisition hardware and the LabVIEW RealTime Module to create robust
and deterministic control systems.

NI LabVIEW Control Design and Simulation Module: Use the NI LabVIEW
Control Design and Simulation Module to develop simple to complex control
applications. Use the model to analyze openloop model behavior, design closedloop
controllers, simulate online and offline systems, and conduct physical
implementations. You can also import thirdparty control algorithms, like a model you
developed in The MathWorks, Inc. Simulink software.

NI LabVIEW System Identification Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW System
Identification Toolkit combines data acquisition with system identification algorithms
for accurate plant modeling, allowing you to acquire data from the plant and
automatically identify a dynamic system model. It includes builtin functions for
common tasks such as data preprocessing, model creation, and system analysis.

NI LabVIEW Simulation Interface Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Simulation Interface
Toolkit gives control system design and test engineers a link between the NI
LabVIEW graphical development environment and The MathWorks, Inc. Simulink
software. This toolkit provides a plugin for use with The MathWorks, Inc. RealTime
Workshop, so you can connect, using LabVIEW, your model developed in the
Simulink environment to the real world through a variety of realtime I/O platforms.

NI LabVIEW NI SoftMotion Module Premium Edition: The NI LabVIEW NI
SoftMotion Module Premium Edition builds on the Standard Edition by adding
support to create custom motion applications that target hardware options other than
the NI C Series drive interfaces. You can also create custom axes using standard I/O
devices such as NI data acquisition plugin devices, C Series I/O modules for NI
CompactRIO, or thirdparty EtherCAT drives. With this edition, you can apply your
custom motion application to a 3D CAD model and visualize, simulate, and validate
your application before deploying to hardware.

NI LabVIEW NI SoftMotion Module Standard Edition: The NI LabVIEW NI
SoftMotion Module Standard Edition helps you create custom motion controllers for
better machine performance and implement advanced control algorithms for motion
control. The Standard Edition offers full support for coordinated motion, including the
ability to create coordinate spaces, easily achieve multiaxis synchronization, and
perform electronic gearing and camming. With this edition, you can apply your custom
motion application to a 3D CAD model and visualize, simulate, and validate your
application before deploying to hardware.
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NI LabVIEW MathScript RT Module for Windows: The NI LabVIEW MathScript
RT Module helps you integrate your custom .m files into the LabVIEW graphical
environment. Combining the benefits of textbased math with graphical programming
presents a new hybrid approach to programming that offers you the freedom to choose
the most appropriate syntax.

NI LabVIEW Statechart Module: The NI LabVIEW Statechart Module provides a
programming model that you can use to design applications at a higher level than was
previously possible. With the LabVIEW Statechart Module, you can develop statechart
diagrams, define behaviors with LabVIEW dataflow programming, and deploy the
statecharts to desktop PCs, realtime controllers, fieldprogrammable gate arrays
(FPGAs), and embedded targets.

Intelligent Controller Parameterization (ecICP) ExpertControl: ExpertControl's
Intelligent Controller Parameterization (ecICP) software enables even nonexperts to
analyze openloop model behavior based on measured data and design controllers for
immediate use in lab and industrial applications. Disclaimer: This is a thirdparty add
on for LabVIEW, offered by an independent thirdparty provider who is solely
responsible for this product.

Industry Feedback Controller (ecCST) ExpertControl: ExpertControl's Industry
Feedback Controller (ecCST) is a flexible control algorithm capable of working as a
variety of controllers: PID, observerbased state controller, LQR, and so on. To
achieve the desired control loop behavior over the entire operating range, you may
need different controller parameter sets and controller structures. ecCST supports
automatic and bumpless switching between them. Disclaimer: This is a thirdparty
addon for LabVIEW, offered by an independent thirdparty provider who is solely
responsible for this product.


5. Development Tools and Validation

NI TestStand Development System: NI TestStand is a test management environment
you use to organize and execute code modules written in a variety of languages and
application development environments (ADEs), including LabVIEW. TestStand
handles core test management functionality, including the definition and execution of
the overall testing process, user management, report generation, database logging, and
more. TestStand can work in a variety of different testing scenarios and environments
because it allows extensive customization of components.

NI LabVIEW VI Analyzer Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW VI Analyzer Toolkit can help
you improve the quality and readability of graphical code developed in LabVIEW.
Configure more than 60 tests for automated code review and static code analysis of all
VIs in an application. Track industrystandard code metrics such as cyclomatic
complexity.
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NI LabVIEW Desktop Execution Trace Toolkit: The LabVIEW Desktop Execution
Trace Toolkit can help you debug and troubleshoot LabVIEW applications by
providing lowlevel details about the execution of VIs and executables at run time.
You can monitor code and easily identify the source of problems such as reference
leaks, memory leaks, unhandled errors, and other issues that can negatively impact the
performance and reliability of an application.

NI Requirements Gateway: NI Requirements Gateway is a requirements traceability
solution that links your development and verification documents to formal
requirements stored in documents and databases. It is ideal for applications that
simulate or test complex components against documented requirements in industries
such as automotive, defense, aerospace, and consumer electronics.

NI LabVIEW RealTime Execution Trace Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW RealTime
Execution Trace Toolkit provides an interactive utility that you can use to debug and
benchmark LabVIEW RealTime applications so you can easily identify jitter sources,
such as memory allocations, priority inversions, and race conditions.

NI LabVIEW Unit Test Framework Toolkit: The NI LabVIEW Unit Test
Framework Toolkit helps you automate LabVIEW VI unit testing to perform
functional validation and demonstrate that an application behaves properly. Right
click on any VI in the LabVIEW Project Explorer to generate a unit test, or import test
parameters from a text document created in an editor such as Microsoft Excel. Tests
can encompass multiple test cases, which define input values and the expected output
for any data type, including arrays and clusters.

LTK LabVIEW Localization Toolkit S.E.A. GmbH: S.E.A.'s LabVIEW
Localization Toolkit (LTK) is an addon package for LabVIEW developers to
maintain LabVIEW software applications for worldwide distribution in different
languages. You can switch user interfaces with all of their elements and menus to any
language on the fly and can set a variety of text attributes (for example, font size)
depending on the selected language. Disclaimer: This is a thirdparty addon for
LabVIEW, offered by an independent thirdparty provider who is solely responsible
for this product.

LabVIEW PlugIn for Ranorex NTE Systems: NTE Systems' LabVIEW PlugIn
for Ranorex enables the automation of manual user interaction performed on
LabVIEW front panels. By taking advantage of the integrated plugin within the
Ranorex Test Automation Framework, you can reduce manual work on the VIs used to
perform test scenarios, which saves you time and money. Disclaimer: This is a third
party addon for LabVIEW, offered by an independent thirdparty provider who is
solely responsible for this product.



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6. Application Distribution

NI LabVIEW Application Builder for Windows: Use the NI LabVIEW Application
Builder to create and deploy standalone applications developed in LabVIEW
software. Distribute professional copies of software as enduse applications or provide
other developers with shared libraries for use in other development environments.
Create installers to bundle all drivers and required runtime engines with executables.

NI LabVIEW Application Builder for Mac: Use the NI LabVIEW Application
Builder to create and deploy standalone applications developed in LabVIEW
software. Distribute professional copies of software as enduse applications or provide
other developers with shared libraries for use in other development environments.

NI LabVIEW Application Builder for Linux: Use the NI LabVIEW Application
Builder to create and deploy standalone applications developed in LabVIEW
software. Distribute professional copies of software as enduse applications or provide
other developers with shared libraries for use in other development environments.

VI Package Manager (VIPM) JKI Software: JKI's VI Package Manager (VIPM)
helps you reduce project costs by implementing a code reuse process in your
organization. VIPM makes it easy to manage and share reusable VIs across multiple
projects, computers, and teams of developers. Disclaimer: This is a thirdparty addon
for LabVIEW, offered by an independent thirdparty provider who is solely
responsible for this product.

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RESULT















MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF SEPARATION OF LOSSES BY SINGLE MOTOR METHOD


5A
(0-300)V
MC
230 V
DC SUPPLY


M

D
P
S
T


S
W
I
T
C
H
V
A
FUSE
5A
F1

F2
A2
V
+
_
+
_
(0-300)V
MC
+
_
96/3.2 A
+
_
A1
220 /1.1 A

A
FUSE
(0-5)A
MC
(0-2)A
MC
+
_
NAME PLATE DETAILS
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Ex. No:
SEPARATION OF LOSSES BY SINGLE MOTOR METHOD
Date :

AIM
To conduct a suitable test on DC shunt machine to separate the losses.
OBJECTIVE
1. To determine the mechanical losses of the given DC shunt motor
2. To find the iron losses of the DC shunt motor
APPARATUS REQUIRED
S.NO APPARATUS NAME RANGE TYPE QUANTITY
1. Voltmeter (0300V) MC 2
2. Ammeter (02 A) MC 1
(05 A) MC 1

3.

Rheostat
220 /1.1A Wire wound 1
96 /3.2A Wire wound 1
4. Tachometer Digital 1

FORMULA
Armature current, I
a
= I
L
I
f
amp
Back emf, E
b
= V I
a
R
a
volt
Armature Copper loss = I
a
2
R
a
watt
Mechanical and Iron losses = V I
a
I
a
2
R
a
watt

PRECAUTION
1. Select fuse such that its rating is 120% of motors rated current.
2. Keep the spring balance at zero position throughout the experiment.
3. Keep the motor field rheostat at minimum position at the time of starting.
4. Keep the armature rheostat at maximum position at the time of starting.








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Figure 18.2 Measurement of Armature Resistance (RA)

TABULAR COLUMN 18.1:SEPARATION OF LOSSES BY SINGLE MOTOR
METHOD
S.
No.
Line
current
(I
L
)
Amps
Field
Current
(I
f
)
Amps
Armature
voltage
(V
a
)
Volts

Armature
current
(I
a
)
Amps

Back emf
(E
b
)
Volts
Armature
Copper
loss
in Watts
Armature
input (or)
Mechanical
and Iron
losses
in Watts


TABULAR COLUMN 18.2:MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
S. No Armature Voltage
(V
a
)
Volts
Armature Current
(I
a
)
Amps
Armature Resistance
(Ra)
Ohms





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PROCEDURE
SEPARATION OF LOSSES BY SINGLE MOTOR METHOD
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The 230 V dc supply is given to the motor by closing the DPST switch.
3. The resistance of the armature rheostat is gradually reduced to zero.
4. By increasing the resistance of the field rheostat, the speed of the motor is
adjusted to its rated value of 1500 rpm.
5. All the meter readings are noted and tabulated.
6. The resistance of the field rheostat is increased so that the speed increases.
7. The resistance of the armature rheostat is increased to bring the speed to the rated
value again.
8. The meter readings are noted down in the tabular column.
9. The same procedure is repeated till very small voltage is applied to the armature
and the corresponding readings are noted.
10. Calculate armature copper loss, mechanical and iron losses using the given
formula.
11. A curve is plotted taking the armature voltage, V
a
along Xaxis and the armature
input along Yaxis.

MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram as shown in Fig. 18.1
2. The dc supply voltage of 230 V is applied by closing the DPST switch.
3. By varying the loading rheostat in steps, the ammeter and voltmeter readings are
noted and tabulated.
4. This procedure is repeated for four steps of readings.
5. Calculate the armature resistance and take average of the above values.
6. Loading rheostat is brought back to initial state and the DPST switch is opened.








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MODEL GRAPH

A curve is plotted taking the armature voltage Va along Xaxis and the armature
input along Yaxis.
Since the speed is kept constant, the mechanical loss is constant.
As the excitation is reduced gradually, the flux per pole is reduced and therefore
the iron loss is reduced with the voltage.
When the armature voltage is almost zero the flux per pole is also almost zero and
so the iron loss is zero.
So if the curve is produced backwards to meet the Yaxis at A the intercept OA
on the Yaxis represents the mechanical loss.
Then a horizontal line AB is drawn. For the rated voltage OP the iron loss is BC.











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MODEL CALCULATION


































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VIVA QUESTIONS:


































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RESULT









MARKS ALLOCATION

Details Marks Allotted Status Marks
Awarded
Preparation 20


Conducting 20


Calculation / Graphs 15


Results 5


Basic understanding (Core
competency learned)
15


Viva 10


Record 15


Total 100







Signature of Faculty