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# A.

Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 1 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques
Op-Amps
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 2 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Real-World Op-Amp
In earlier courses, op-amp were often considered ideal
Infinite input resistance
Infinite open-loop gain
Infinite bandwidth
Noiseless
Zero output resistance
Zero amplification for common-mode signals

Modern op-amps have remarkable specifications, and in
many cases approximate the ideal op-amp quite well
However, there are also many case where a clear
understanding of the limitation of real op-amps are very
important
We will start with a quick-paced review of op-amps
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 3 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Operational Amplifiers
Schematic symbol

Real amplifiers need
power supplies.

Note the dual power supplies

Integrated circuit (IC) op-amp

Inputs

Output

There are single-supply op-
amps on the market

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 4 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Ideal Op-Amp Equivalent Circuit
) (
1 2
v v A v
od o
=
Inverting input

Noninverting input

Ideal voltage-controlled,
voltage source

A
od
= Open-loop differential gain

Ideally A
od
=

Common-mode input signal

Common-mode rejection

Control voltage

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 5 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Parameters of Ideal Op Amps
) (
1 2
v v A v
od o
=
Ideally A
od
=

Effective output
resistance = 0

Effective input
resistance = 0

0
) (
1 2
1 2
=
=
od
o
od o
A
v
v v
v v A v
Because A
od
, the implication is that for
finite output voltage, the differential input
voltage is very small (0)

No common-mode
amplification

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 6 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Op-amp inverting amplifier

Closed-loop/negative feedback

Because A
od
, v
1
~ v
2
= 0

Thus, v
1
is at virtual ground

Virtual ground => terminal is at ground
potential, but not connected to ground

1 1
1
1
R
v
R
v v
i
I I
=

=
2 1
i i =
Assume infinite input resistance.
No current flows into op-amp

2 2 1
R i v v
o
=
2
1
0 R
R
v
I
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
R
R
v
v
A
I
o
v
= =
2 1
0 R i =
Closed-loop voltage gain

Virtual ground

Inverting Amplifier

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 7 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
2
1
R
R
v
v
A
I
o
v
= =
Input resistance

1
1
R
i
v
R
I
i
= =
Set gain with two external resistors

Set input impedance/resistance with external resistor

1
i
v
R
I
i
=
Inverting Amplifier

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 8 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Integrator & Differentiator

I O
v
Z
Z
v
1
2
=
Similar to inverting amplifier seen before,
except resistances are replaced with
impedances
C
I
i
R
v
=
1
dt
dv
C
R
v
C I
2
1
=
dt
dv
C
R
v
O I
2
1
=
I
O
v
C R dt
dv
2 1
1
=
}
+ =
t
C O
V dt t v
C R
v
0 2 1
) (
1
2 2
0
R
v
R
v
i
O O
C
=

=
2
1
R
v
dt
dv
C
O I
=
dt
t dv
C R v
I
O
) (
1 2
=
Voltage at t = 0
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 9 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short

01 . 0
100 1
1
~
+
=
+
=
S L
L
I
o
R R
R
v
v
1 = =
I
o
v
v
v
A
Impedance transformer

Why?

+
= v v
O I
v v =
Input resistance very high
=> no loading of source

1 =
I
o
v
v
Inverting Amplifier

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 10 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Difference Amplifier

1
1
2
1 I O
v
R
R
v =
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short

Superposition

2
4 3
4
2 I b
v
R R
R
v
+
=
b O
v
R
R
v
2
1
2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
( )
2
3 4
3 4
1 2 2
1
1
I O
v
R R
R R
R R v |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
- Linear circuit
- Analyze with v
i1
= 0
- Analyze with v
i2
= 0
- Add results
0
2
=
b
v
0
1
=
b
v
Non-inverting amplifier
1 2 2 O O O
v v v + = Superposition
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
2 1
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
Inverting amplifier
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 11 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Difference Amplifier

Circuit for measuring differential input resistance
i
v
R
I
id
=
( )
1 1 1
2R i R i R i v
I
= + =
1
2R R
id
=
Note differential source: generator is
not connected to ground. Purely
differential signal.
Difference amplifier
Differential input resistance
(KVL)
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 12 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Solving (Ideal) Op-Amp Circuits
Find v
o
Find v
N
Find v
P
Set v
N
= v
P

0 4 =
N o
v v
Find v
N
KVL
4 =
o N
v v
Find v
P
Voltage Division
o P
v v
5
3
=
Set v
N
= v
P
4
5
3
=
o o
v v V 10 =
o
v
Techniques
KVL KCL
Voltage division
Superposition
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 13 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Precision Half-Wave Rectifier

Signal v
I
Load

Load Voltage

~ 0.7 V for Si diode
v
I
Diode does not conduct significant current (i.e., turn on)
if the forward voltage across it is less that ~ 0.7 V (Si)

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 14 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
Precision Half-Wave Rectifier

For v
I
> 0, the circuit behaves as a voltage
follower. The output voltage v
O
=v
I
, the load
current is positive.
A positive diode current flows such that i
L =
i
D
The feedback loop is closed through the forward
biased diode. The output of the op-amp adjusts
itself to absorb the voltage drop of the diode.
Assuming ideal diode, For v
I
< 0, v
O1
tends to go
negative, which tends to produce negative load
and diode currents => v
O
= 0
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 15 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Basics
1
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
Ground

Virtual Ground

2
2
2
R
v
i
I
=
3
3
3
R
v
i
I
=
3 2 1 4
i i i i + + = (no current flows into op-amp)

F o
R i v
4
=
F
I I I
o
R
R
v
R
v
R
v
v
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
3
3
2
2
1
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
3
3
2
2
1
1
I
F
I
F
I
F
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
( )
3 2 1
1
I I I
F
o
v v v
R
R
v + + =
Special case: R
1
= R
2
= R
3
Summing inverting
amplifier

Summing Inverting Amplifier

0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=

F
o I I I
R
v v
R
v v
R
v v
R
v v
0
0 0 0 0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=

F
o I I I
R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v
0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=
F
o I I I
R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v
KCL at v_

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 16 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
v
1
= v
2
=0 = > virtual ground

0
1
1
~ =
i
v
R
i
s
i i i = =
1 2
Current-to-Voltage Converter

In most cases R
S
>> R
i
, so i
1
is
essentially the signal current

F S F O
R i R i v = =
2
Ideal current-controlled voltage
source. K = transresistance
(transimpeadance) gain

Transresistance gain = -R
F
Application

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 17 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
v
1
= v
2
=0 = > virtual ground

Voltage-to-Current Converter

Simple voltage-to-current converter

1
1 2
R
v
i i
I
= =
Problem: output current does not flow to ground
(floating load)

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 18 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
v
1
= v
2
= > virtual short

F
O L L L L I
R
v Z i
R
Z i v
=

1
2 1
i i =
Voltage-to-Current Converter

Summing currents (KCL) at the noninverting terminal gives

2 3 1
1
R R R
R
F
=
Different topology: load is referenced to ground

L L L
Z i v v v = = =
2 1
2 3
R
Z i
i
R
Z i v
L L
L
L L O
+ =

2 3 1
R
Z i
i
R
v Z i
R
R
L L
L
I L L F
+ =

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|

3 1 2 3 1
1
R R
R
v
R
Z
R R
Z R
i
F
I
L L F
L
Set

2
R
v
i
I
L
=
Output current independent of load (assuming output voltage
stays between allowable limits)

Ideal voltage-to-current converter,
g
m
= transconductance gain

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 19 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
Log Amplifier

T D
V v
S D
e I i
/
~
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
D O
v v =
D
i i =
1
T O
V v
S D
I
e I i
R
v
i

= = =
1
1
T
O
S
I
V
v
R I
v
=
|
.
|

\
|
1
ln
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
ln
R I
v
V v
S
I
T O
Output voltage is proportional
to log of input voltage
Simple logarithmic amplifier
T O
V v
S D
e I i
/
=
Problem: V
T
and I
S
are functions
of temperatures, and I
S
varies
between diodes
Solution: Special circuits have
been developed to account for
this. Special logarithmic
amplifiers are available.
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 20 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
Antilog or Exponential Log Amplifier

T D
V v
S D
e I i
/
~
R i v
O 2
=
( )
T I
V v
S O
e I R v
/
~
Output voltage is an exponential function of
the input voltage
Simple antilog or exponential amplifier
T I
V v
S
e I
/
=
R i
D
=
Problem: V
T
and I
S
are functions
of temperatures, and I
S
varies
between diodes
Solution: Special circuits have
been developed to account for
this.
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 21 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and Common-Mode Signals
Common-mode signal
Difference signal
1
v
2
v
Id
v v v =
1 2
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v +
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 22 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and Common-Mode Signals
Common-mode
signal
Only difference signal
is amplified
1
v
2
v
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v v
cm
+ =
cm cm d o
v A v v A v + = ) (
1 2
Ideally, common-
mode gain is 0

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 23 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and Common-Mode Signals
cm cm Id d o
v A v A v + = ) (
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v v
cm
+ =
1 2
v v v
Id
=
2
1 id Icm
v v v =
2
2 id Icm
v v v + =
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 24 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
Difference Amplifier

1
1
2
1 I O
v
R
R
v =
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short

Superposition

2
4 3
4
2 I b
v
R R
R
v
+
=
b O
v
R
R
v
2
1
2
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
( )
2
3 4
3 4
1 2 2
1
1
I O
v
R R
R R
R R v |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
- Linear circuit
- Analyze with v
i1
= 0
- Analyze with v
i2
= 0
- Add results
0
2
=
b
v
0
1
=
b
v
Non-inverting amplifier
1 2 2 O O O
v v v + = Superposition
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
2 1
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
Inverting amplifier
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 25 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Applications
Difference Amplifier

What happens when
cm
O
cm
v
v
A =
cm
d
A
A
= CMRR
Thus, output = 0 when v
I1
= v
I2

Difference amplifier
Common-mode gain
Common-mode rejection ratio
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
1 2
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( ) 2
2 1 I I cm
v v v + =
Common-mode signal
cm
d
A
A
10
log 20 CMRR(dB) =
Good differential amplifiers have CMRRs 80100 dB
Answer: output is not 0, when v
I1
= v
I2,
and the
common-mode signal is amplified
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 26 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Effect of Imbalance
Imbalance factor
c 4
1
log 20 CMRR(dB)
1 2
10
R R +
~
Resistors % 1 01 . 0
Resistors % 5 05 . 0
=
=
c
c
What CMMR can we achieve R
2
/R
1
= 10, using 1% resistors? Answer: 50 dB
What tolerance do we need for an 80 dB CMMR? Answer: 0.03%
One can show that
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 27 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Real Op-Amps
cm cm od o
v A v v A v + = ) (
1 2
A
od
=

Effective output
resistance = 0

Effective input
resistance = 0

0
) (
1 2
1 2
= =
=
od
o
od o
A
v
v v
v v A v
=> R
L
will load/cause
voltage drop

Common-mode
signal is amplified

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 28 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Real Op-Amps
+ Supply rail

- Supply rail

Slope A
od
=

Voltage transfer characteristic

Saturation effect

Real amplifiers need
power supplies.

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 29 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Bias Currents
Op-amps need bias currents at their inputs. With FET input op-amps this current is
very small, but must still come from somewhere
OK
OK
Be careful
What happens when the input
voltage source is removed? Where
will I
P
come from?
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 30 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Errors Caused by I
B
This current causes a small voltage to
develop, that is then amplified
This current is integrated by C and
a voltage develops at the output.
This will saturate the output
Question: Where does this current
come from?
Answer: From the output, v
o
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 31 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Models
P
I
N
I
P
I
N
I
2
N P
B
I I
I
+
=
N P OS
I I I =
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 32 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Bias Currents
N P OS
I I I =
2
N P
B
I I
I
+
=
Input bias current
Input offset current
Depending on the type (pnp/npn), etc.) the
current flow could be in different direction
GP 10-20 nA
GP: 100-200 nA
JFET: ~0.5 nA
JFET: ~0.05 nA
Note, if I
OS
<< I
B
, then I
P
= I
N
= I
B
is a good approximation
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 33 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Compensating for I
B
A voltage will develop here , which
can be used to cancel the voltage
resulting from I
N
( ) | |
P P N O
I R I R R
R
R
v
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 1
1
2
|| 1
Using superposition, one can easily show that

2 1
|| R R R
P
=
Setting

leads to

( ) | |
OS O
I R R
R
R
v
2 1
1
2
|| 1
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
This is typically an order of magnitude smaller

v
O
can be further reduced by making resistors
smaller

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 34 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Offset Voltage
If we connect the two inputs of an ideal op-amp together, the output should be zero.
In practice, however there is a small output voltage.
This is modeled by adding a small voltage source of the ideal op-amp.
Manufacturers provide V
OS
in their data sheets.
V
OS
ranges from few mV down to few microvolt
On some op-amps one can trim effects of V
OS
away.
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 35 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Example
With respect to its offset voltage, the first
amplifier is a noninverting amplifier with
gain 11 so that the worst-case |v
o1
| is
This is then amplified by the second
amplifier by a factor 5.
|v
o1
| = 110 mV
With respect to its offset voltage, the gain of
the second amplifier is 6, so that the worst-
case |v
o2
| (using superposition) is
|v
o2
| =5 110 + 6 10 = 610 mV
The op-amps below have offset voltages of 10 mV,
but are otherwise ideal. What is the worst-case
output voltage with v
o1
= 0?
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 36 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Dominant-Pole Model
Most internally compensated op-amps consist of three distinct amplifier sections:
Differential
transconductance
amplifier
Very high gain
inverting amplifier
with a compensating
capacitor
Unity gain buffer
with short-circuit
protection,
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 37 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Dominant-Pole Model
The capacitor and resistor dominates the frequency response and provides a
dominant plot at low frequency ~ 10-100 Hz. This is called the dominant-
pole frequency.
eq eq
2
1
C R
f
B
t
=
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
DC open-loop gain
Dominant-pole frequency
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 38 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Dominant-Pole Model
It is advantageous to have the dominant-pole frequency low. To achieve this, required either R
eq
or
C
eq
or both be large., which could consume large IC real-estate.
( )
c eq
C a C
2
1+ =
Thus, the actual capacitance is relatively small: ~ 20 pF
IC manufacturers use the Miller-effect to scale the capacitance of C C
eq

A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 39 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Simplified Schematic of LF353
Output Buffer. Class B,
voltage gain = 1
Difference
Amplifier
Inverting amplifier with
compensation capacitor
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 40 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Dominant-Pole Model
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
DC open-
loop gain
Dominant pole
Transition Frequency
is where open-loop
gain = 1 or 0 dB
Slope is -20 dB/decade
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
Dominant pole
Slope is -45
o
decade
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 41 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Dominant-Pole Model and GBP
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
Dominant-pole amplifier have a constant
gain-bandwidth product (GPB)
t B
f f A = =
0
GPB
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 42 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Closed-loop Gain of Dominant-Pole Op-Amp
) ( 1
) (
) (
s A
s A
s A
v
| +
=
Closed-loop voltage gain of an op-amp (general)
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
Open-loop gain of dominant-pole op-amp (by definition)
b
b
v
s
A
s
A
s A
e
|
e
+
+
+
=
1
1
1
) (
0
0
Closed-loop voltage gain of a dominant-
pole op-amp with feedback
b
s A
A
e | + +
=
) 1 (
0
0
b
b
v
A
s
A
A
s A
A
s A
e |
|
e |
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
0
0
0
0
0
+
+
+
=
+ +
=
) 1 (
0
| e e A
b H
+ =
Important result: closed-loop voltage gain of a dominant-pole op-amp with
feedback also has a single-dominant pole with dc gain and bandwidth
another dominant-pole amplifier
H
v
s
A
e
+
=
1
) 0 (
) 1 (
0
0
| A
A
+
Note: gain and bandwidth product (GBP) is constant
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 43 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response
Exponentially-rising ramp one
would e expect from single
(dominant) pole response
H
v
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) 0 (
) (
s
V
s
A
s v
H
v
o
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
e 1
) 0 (
) (

) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v

=
Laplace
transform of
input
) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v

=
BW
t
r
35 . 0
~
BW in Hz
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 44 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response
Not an exponentially-output,
but close to linear.
Amplifier is said to be slewing,
and the slope is called the slew
rate or SR
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 45 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew-Rate Limited Response
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 46 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew-Rate Limited Response
Full slewing
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 47 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and Full-Power Bandwidth
Recall, that op-amps are normally internally-compensated with a capacitor to create a
dominant pole.
Thus far we have considered small-signal gains and bandwidth. If the input is large, the
current source do not have enough current to charge the compensation capacitor, and this
places a limit on the rate of change:
dt
dv
C i
o
=
C
i
t
v
o
s
A
A
max
i
The maximum rate of change at the
output is called the slew-rate and is
measured V/s
The full-power bandwidth is the highest frequency at which a full-scale signal can be
developed. This is less than the GBP.
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 48 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and Full-Power Bandwidth
Problem. Derive an equation that relates the full-power bandwidth of an op-amp to its
slew rate (SR).
Solution. Consider an op-amp with an output signal
) sin( t V v
M o
e =
The maximum rate of change of this signal occurs at the zero crossings and is given by
max
max
) cos( t V
dt
dv
M
o
e e =
M
V e =
For no signal distortion, this maximum rate of change must be less than the slew rate
SR V
M
s e
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 49 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and Full-Power Bandwidth
Problem. An amplifier has a slew rate of 10V/s . What is the full-power bandwidth for
signals with output amplitude of 15 V?
Solution
SR V
M
s e
kHz 106
) 15 ( 2
10 10
2
6
=

= s
t t
M
V
SR
f
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 50 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response Summary
H
v
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) 0 (
) (
Exponentially-rising ramp one would e
expect from single (dominant) pole response
) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v

=
BW
t
r
35 . 0
~ BW in Hz
Small-signal
SR V
M
s e
Full-power
bandwidth
Large Signal
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 51 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Effect of Finite Gain
Consider an op-amp that is ideal (infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, ) except
that it has finite differential-mode gain.

The output voltage is

I od o
v A v =
1
1
1
R
v v
i
I

=
2
2
R
v v
i
o I

=
od
o
I
A
v
v =
2
2
1
1
R
v
A
v
i
R
A
v
v
i
o
od
o
od
o
I

= =
+
=
1 2
i i =
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
= =
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
R
R
A
R
R
v
v
A
od
I
o
v
O = k 10
1
R O = k 100
2
R
Most op-amps have A
od
~ 10
5
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 52 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Make sure you can derive this equation
Gain-setting
resistor
Very high
input
resistance
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 53 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Ground Reference
Sense Output
Monolithic IA
Reference
Sense Output
Single gain-setting resistor
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 54 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
INA126
\$2
Single gain-setting resistor
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 55 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Biasing Input Stage
Input stage must be biased
Input stage must be biased
Input stage must be biased
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 56 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Using the REF Pin
Voltage at REF pin is the
reference ground
Sense is connected
internally
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 57 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
INA121
\$7
Downside: GBP = 600 kHz
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 58 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
Input bias current: 25 fA = 0.025 pA = 0.000025 nA 100% tested
\$12
Electrometer Ion counting PH meters
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 59 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 60 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 61 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 62 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 63 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
Connect guard at a low impedance
with same voltage as input(s)
Stray currents
Stray currents
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 64 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 65 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 66 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 67 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Air Wiring
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 68 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp Powering
Dual power supply: for many years: 15 V, supply currents measured in mA
Output voltage swings to 1-2 V of the supply rails
Often not shown, but
decoupling capacitors close
to power supply pins are
highly recommended.
Many modern op-amps can run on much lower power supplies: 1V to 18V,
supply current as low as 1A, 0.5 pA input bias currents,
Many modern op-amps are rail-to-rail on input and/output
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 69 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Using a Single Power Supply
Must supply a half supply here
Half supply does not have to be exactly 0.5 of supply voltage.
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 70 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Generating Vcc/2
Resistor provide dc voltage at Vcc/2
Capacitor provides ac short (at what frequency?)
Voltage is at Vcc/2
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 71 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Generating Vcc/2
Resistors provide dc voltage at Vcc/2
Capacitor provides ac short (at what frequency?)
Output voltage is at Vcc/2
with no input signal
Much lower output resistance and lower
cutoff frequency
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 72 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Operation
TLE2426 Precision Rail Splitter
Vcc
Vcc/2
\$0.70 in bulk
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 73 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Amplifier
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 74 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Non Inverting Amplifier
Can you spot the bug in this circuit?
Answer: no bias current for V
+
input .
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 75 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Summer
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 76 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Simulated Inductor
Can you derive this
equation?
1 2 1
C R R L =
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 77 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Low Pass Filter

in
C
1 2
dB 3
2
1
C R
f
t
=
1
2
Gain
R
R
=
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 78 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting High-Pass Filter
1 Gain =
1 1
dB 3
2
1
C R
f
t
=
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 79 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Op-Amp High-Speed Considerations
Designed
With parasitics
A Practical Guide to High-Speed
Printed-Circuit-Board Layout, Analog
Dialogue, Volume 39 September
2005, John Ardizzoni
A. Kruger
Op-Amps, Slide 80 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012