Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 1 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques
OpAmps
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 2 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
RealWorld OpAmp
In earlier courses, opamp were often considered ideal
Infinite input resistance
Infinite openloop gain
Infinite bandwidth
Noiseless
Zero output resistance
Zero amplification for commonmode signals
Modern opamps have remarkable specifications, and in
many cases approximate the ideal opamp quite well
However, there are also many case where a clear
understanding of the limitation of real opamps are very
important
We will start with a quickpaced review of opamps
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 3 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Operational Amplifiers
Schematic symbol
Real amplifiers need
power supplies.
Note the dual power supplies
Integrated circuit (IC) opamp
Inputs
Output
There are singlesupply op
amps on the market
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 4 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Ideal OpAmp Equivalent Circuit
) (
1 2
v v A v
od o
=
Inverting input
Noninverting input
Ideal voltagecontrolled,
voltage source
A
od
= Openloop differential gain
Ideally A
od
=
Commonmode input signal
Commonmode rejection
Control voltage
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 5 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Parameters of Ideal Op Amps
) (
1 2
v v A v
od o
=
Ideally A
od
=
Effective output
resistance = 0
Effective input
resistance = 0
0
) (
1 2
1 2
=
=
od
o
od o
A
v
v v
v v A v
Because A
od
, the implication is that for
finite output voltage, the differential input
voltage is very small (0)
No commonmode
amplification
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 6 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Opamp inverting amplifier
Closedloop/negative feedback
Because A
od
, v
1
~ v
2
= 0
Thus, v
1
is at virtual ground
Virtual ground => terminal is at ground
potential, but not connected to ground
1 1
1
1
R
v
R
v v
i
I I
=
=
2 1
i i =
Assume infinite input resistance.
No current flows into opamp
2 2 1
R i v v
o
=
2
1
0 R
R
v
I

.

\

=
2
1
R
R
v
v
A
I
o
v
= =
2 1
0 R i =
Closedloop voltage gain
Virtual ground
Inverting Amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 7 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
2
1
R
R
v
v
A
I
o
v
= =
Input resistance
1
1
R
i
v
R
I
i
= =
Set gain with two external resistors
Set input impedance/resistance with external resistor
1
i
v
R
I
i
=
Inverting Amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 8 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Integrator & Differentiator
I O
v
Z
Z
v
1
2
=
Similar to inverting amplifier seen before,
except resistances are replaced with
impedances
C
I
i
R
v
=
1
dt
dv
C
R
v
C I
2
1
=
dt
dv
C
R
v
O I
2
1
=
I
O
v
C R dt
dv
2 1
1
=
}
+ =
t
C O
V dt t v
C R
v
0 2 1
) (
1
2 2
0
R
v
R
v
i
O O
C
=
=
2
1
R
v
dt
dv
C
O I
=
dt
t dv
C R v
I
O
) (
1 2
=
Voltage at t = 0
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 9 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short
01 . 0
100 1
1
~
+
=
+
=
S L
L
I
o
R R
R
v
v
1 = =
I
o
v
v
v
A
Impedance transformer
Why?
+
= v v
O I
v v =
Input resistance very high
=> no loading of source
1 =
I
o
v
v
Inverting Amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 10 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Difference Amplifier
1
1
2
1 I O
v
R
R
v =
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short
Superposition
2
4 3
4
2 I b
v
R R
R
v
+
=
b O
v
R
R
v
2
1
2
2
1

.

\

+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v 
.

\

+
+ =
( )
2
3 4
3 4
1 2 2
1
1
I O
v
R R
R R
R R v 
.

\

+
+ =
 Linear circuit
 Analyze with v
i1
= 0
 Analyze with v
i2
= 0
 Add results
0
2
=
b
v
0
1
=
b
v
Noninverting amplifier
1 2 2 O O O
v v v + = Superposition
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
2 1
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
Inverting amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 11 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Difference Amplifier
Circuit for measuring differential input resistance
i
v
R
I
id
=
( )
1 1 1
2R i R i R i v
I
= + =
1
2R R
id
=
Note differential source: generator is
not connected to ground. Purely
differential signal.
Difference amplifier
Differential input resistance
(KVL)
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 12 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Solving (Ideal) OpAmp Circuits
Find v
o
Find v
N
Find v
P
Set v
N
= v
P
0 4 =
N o
v v
Find v
N
KVL
4 =
o N
v v
Find v
P
Voltage Division
o P
v v
5
3
=
Set v
N
= v
P
4
5
3
=
o o
v v V 10 =
o
v
Techniques
KVL KCL
Voltage division
Superposition
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 13 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Precision HalfWave Rectifier
Signal v
I
Load
Load Voltage
~ 0.7 V for Si diode
v
I
Diode does not conduct significant current (i.e., turn on)
if the forward voltage across it is less that ~ 0.7 V (Si)
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 14 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
Precision HalfWave Rectifier
For v
I
> 0, the circuit behaves as a voltage
follower. The output voltage v
O
=v
I
, the load
current is positive.
A positive diode current flows such that i
L =
i
D
The feedback loop is closed through the forward
biased diode. The output of the opamp adjusts
itself to absorb the voltage drop of the diode.
Assuming ideal diode, For v
I
< 0, v
O1
tends to go
negative, which tends to produce negative load
and diode currents => v
O
= 0
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 15 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Basics
1
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
Ground
Virtual Ground
2
2
2
R
v
i
I
=
3
3
3
R
v
i
I
=
3 2 1 4
i i i i + + = (no current flows into opamp)
F o
R i v
4
=
F
I I I
o
R
R
v
R
v
R
v
v

.

\

+ + =
3
3
2
2
1
1

.

\

+ + =
3
3
2
2
1
1
I
F
I
F
I
F
o
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
R
R
v
( )
3 2 1
1
I I I
F
o
v v v
R
R
v + + =
Special case: R
1
= R
2
= R
3
Summing inverting
amplifier
Summing Inverting Amplifier
0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=
F
o I I I
R
v v
R
v v
R
v v
R
v v
0
0 0 0 0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=
F
o I I I
R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v
0
3
3
2
2
1
1
=
F
o I I I
R
v
R
v
R
v
R
v
KCL at v_
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 16 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
v
1
= v
2
=0 = > virtual ground
0
1
1
~ =
i
v
R
i
s
i i i = =
1 2
CurrenttoVoltage Converter
In most cases R
S
>> R
i
, so i
1
is
essentially the signal current
F S F O
R i R i v = =
2
Ideal currentcontrolled voltage
source. K = transresistance
(transimpeadance) gain
Transresistance gain = R
F
Application
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 17 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
v
1
= v
2
=0 = > virtual ground
VoltagetoCurrent Converter
Simple voltagetocurrent converter
1
1 2
R
v
i i
I
= =
Problem: output current does not flow to ground
(floating load)
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 18 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
v
1
= v
2
= > virtual short
F
O L L L L I
R
v Z i
R
Z i v
=
1
2 1
i i =
VoltagetoCurrent Converter
Summing currents (KCL) at the noninverting terminal gives
2 3 1
1
R R R
R
F
=
Different topology: load is referenced to ground
L L L
Z i v v v = = =
2 1
2 3
R
Z i
i
R
Z i v
L L
L
L L O
+ =
2 3 1
R
Z i
i
R
v Z i
R
R
L L
L
I L L F
+ =

.

\

=

.

\

3 1 2 3 1
1
R R
R
v
R
Z
R R
Z R
i
F
I
L L F
L
Set
2
R
v
i
I
L
=
Output current independent of load (assuming output voltage
stays between allowable limits)
Ideal voltagetocurrent converter,
g
m
= transconductance gain
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 19 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
Log Amplifier
T D
V v
S D
e I i
/
~
1
1
R
v
i
I
=
D O
v v =
D
i i =
1
T O
V v
S D
I
e I i
R
v
i
= = =
1
1
T
O
S
I
V
v
R I
v
=

.

\

1
ln

.

\

=
1
ln
R I
v
V v
S
I
T O
Output voltage is proportional
to log of input voltage
Simple logarithmic amplifier
T O
V v
S D
e I i
/
=
Problem: V
T
and I
S
are functions
of temperatures, and I
S
varies
between diodes
Solution: Special circuits have
been developed to account for
this. Special logarithmic
amplifiers are available.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 20 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
Antilog or Exponential Log Amplifier
T D
V v
S D
e I i
/
~
R i v
O 2
=
( )
T I
V v
S O
e I R v
/
~
Output voltage is an exponential function of
the input voltage
Simple antilog or exponential amplifier
T I
V v
S
e I
/
=
R i
D
=
Problem: V
T
and I
S
are functions
of temperatures, and I
S
varies
between diodes
Solution: Special circuits have
been developed to account for
this.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 21 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and CommonMode Signals
Commonmode signal
Difference signal
1
v
2
v
Id
v v v =
1 2
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v +
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 22 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and CommonMode Signals
Commonmode
signal
Only difference signal
is amplified
1
v
2
v
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v v
cm
+ =
cm cm d o
v A v v A v + = ) (
1 2
Ideally, common
mode gain is 0
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 23 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Difference and CommonMode Signals
cm cm Id d o
v A v A v + = ) (
( ) 2 /
2 1
v v v
cm
+ =
1 2
v v v
Id
=
2
1 id Icm
v v v =
2
2 id Icm
v v v + =
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 24 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
Difference Amplifier
1
1
2
1 I O
v
R
R
v =
v
1
=v
2
=> virtual short
Superposition
2
4 3
4
2 I b
v
R R
R
v
+
=
b O
v
R
R
v
2
1
2
2
1

.

\

+ =
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v 
.

\

+
+ =
( )
2
3 4
3 4
1 2 2
1
1
I O
v
R R
R R
R R v 
.

\

+
+ =
 Linear circuit
 Analyze with v
i1
= 0
 Analyze with v
i2
= 0
 Add results
0
2
=
b
v
0
1
=
b
v
Noninverting amplifier
1 2 2 O O O
v v v + = Superposition
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
2 1
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
Inverting amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 25 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Applications
Difference Amplifier
What happens when
cm
O
cm
v
v
A =
cm
d
A
A
= CMRR
Thus, output = 0 when v
I1
= v
I2
Difference amplifier
Commonmode gain
Commonmode rejection ratio
( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
/
1
/ 1
I I O
v R R v
R R
R R
R R v 
.

\

+
+ =
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( )
1 2
1
2
I I O
v v
R
R
v =
1 2 3 4
R R R R =
( ) 2
2 1 I I cm
v v v + =
Commonmode signal
cm
d
A
A
10
log 20 CMRR(dB) =
Good differential amplifiers have CMRRs 80100 dB
Answer: output is not 0, when v
I1
= v
I2,
and the
commonmode signal is amplified
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 26 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Effect of Imbalance
Imbalance factor
c 4
1
log 20 CMRR(dB)
1 2
10
R R +
~
Resistors % 1 01 . 0
Resistors % 5 05 . 0
=
=
c
c
What CMMR can we achieve R
2
/R
1
= 10, using 1% resistors? Answer: 50 dB
What tolerance do we need for an 80 dB CMMR? Answer: 0.03%
One can show that
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 27 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Real OpAmps
cm cm od o
v A v v A v + = ) (
1 2
A
od
=
Effective output
resistance = 0
Effective input
resistance = 0
0
) (
1 2
1 2
= =
=
od
o
od o
A
v
v v
v v A v
=> R
L
will load/cause
voltage drop
Commonmode
signal is amplified
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 28 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Real OpAmps
+ Supply rail
 Supply rail
Slope A
od
=
Voltage transfer characteristic
Saturation effect
Real amplifiers need
power supplies.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 29 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Bias Currents
Opamps need bias currents at their inputs. With FET input opamps this current is
very small, but must still come from somewhere
OK
OK
Be careful
What happens when the input
voltage source is removed? Where
will I
P
come from?
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 30 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Errors Caused by I
B
This current causes a small voltage to
develop, that is then amplified
This current is integrated by C and
a voltage develops at the output.
This will saturate the output
Question: Where does this current
come from?
Answer: From the output, v
o
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 31 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Models
P
I
N
I
P
I
N
I
2
N P
B
I I
I
+
=
N P OS
I I I =
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 32 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Bias Currents
N P OS
I I I =
2
N P
B
I I
I
+
=
Input bias current
Input offset current
Depending on the type (pnp/npn), etc.) the
current flow could be in different direction
GP 1020 nA
GP: 100200 nA
JFET: ~0.5 nA
JFET: ~0.05 nA
Note, if I
OS
<< I
B
, then I
P
= I
N
= I
B
is a good approximation
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 33 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Compensating for I
B
A voltage will develop here , which
can be used to cancel the voltage
resulting from I
N
( )  
P P N O
I R I R R
R
R
v


.

\

+ =
2 1
1
2
 1
Using superposition, one can easily show that
2 1
 R R R
P
=
Setting
leads to
( )  
OS O
I R R
R
R
v
2 1
1
2
 1


.

\

+ =
This is typically an order of magnitude smaller
v
O
can be further reduced by making resistors
smaller
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 34 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Input Offset Voltage
If we connect the two inputs of an ideal opamp together, the output should be zero.
In practice, however there is a small output voltage.
This is modeled by adding a small voltage source of the ideal opamp.
Manufacturers provide V
OS
in their data sheets.
V
OS
ranges from few mV down to few microvolt
On some opamps one can trim effects of V
OS
away.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 35 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Example
With respect to its offset voltage, the first
amplifier is a noninverting amplifier with
gain 11 so that the worstcase v
o1
 is
This is then amplified by the second
amplifier by a factor 5.
v
o1
 = 110 mV
With respect to its offset voltage, the gain of
the second amplifier is 6, so that the worst
case v
o2
 (using superposition) is
v
o2
 =5 110 + 6 10 = 610 mV
The opamps below have offset voltages of 10 mV,
but are otherwise ideal. What is the worstcase
output voltage with v
o1
= 0?
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 36 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
DominantPole Model
Most internally compensated opamps consist of three distinct amplifier sections:
Differential
transconductance
amplifier
Very high gain
inverting amplifier
with a compensating
capacitor
Unity gain buffer
with shortcircuit
protection,
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 37 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
DominantPole Model
The capacitor and resistor dominates the frequency response and provides a
dominant plot at low frequency ~ 10100 Hz. This is called the dominant
pole frequency.
eq eq
2
1
C R
f
B
t
=
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
DC openloop gain
Dominantpole frequency
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 38 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
DominantPole Model
It is advantageous to have the dominantpole frequency low. To achieve this, required either R
eq
or
C
eq
or both be large., which could consume large IC realestate.
( )
c eq
C a C
2
1+ =
Thus, the actual capacitance is relatively small: ~ 20 pF
IC manufacturers use the Millereffect to scale the capacitance of C C
eq
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 39 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Simplified Schematic of LF353
Output Buffer. Class B,
voltage gain = 1
Difference
Amplifier
Inverting amplifier with
compensation capacitor
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 40 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
DominantPole Model
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
DC open
loop gain
Dominant pole
Transition Frequency
is where openloop
gain = 1 or 0 dB
Slope is 20 dB/decade
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
Dominant pole
Slope is 45
o
decade
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 41 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
DominantPole Model and GBP
b
f f j
A
f A
+
=
1
) (
0
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
b
A
A
e e
e
+
=
1
) (
0
Dominantpole amplifier have a constant
gainbandwidth product (GPB)
t B
f f A = =
0
GPB
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 42 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Closedloop Gain of DominantPole OpAmp
) ( 1
) (
) (
s A
s A
s A
v
 +
=
Closedloop voltage gain of an opamp (general)
b
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) (
0
Openloop gain of dominantpole opamp (by definition)
b
b
v
s
A
s
A
s A
e

e
+
+
+
=
1
1
1
) (
0
0
Closedloop voltage gain of a dominant
pole opamp with feedback
b
s A
A
e  + +
=
) 1 (
0
0
b
b
v
A
s
A
A
s A
A
s A
e 

e 
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
0
0
0
0
0
+
+
+
=
+ +
=
) 1 (
0
 e e A
b H
+ =
Important result: closedloop voltage gain of a dominantpole opamp with
feedback also has a singledominant pole with dc gain and bandwidth
another dominantpole amplifier
H
v
s
A
e
+
=
1
) 0 (
) 1 (
0
0
 A
A
+
Note: gain and bandwidth product (GBP) is constant
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 43 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response
Exponentiallyrising ramp one
would e expect from single
(dominant) pole response
H
v
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) 0 (
) (
s
V
s
A
s v
H
v
o

.

\

+
=
e 1
) 0 (
) (
) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v
=
Laplace
transform of
input
) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v
=
BW
t
r
35 . 0
~
BW in Hz
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 44 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response
Not an exponentiallyoutput,
but close to linear.
Amplifier is said to be slewing,
and the slope is called the slew
rate or SR
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 45 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
SlewRate Limited Response
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 46 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
SlewRate Limited Response
Full slewing
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 47 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and FullPower Bandwidth
Recall, that opamps are normally internallycompensated with a capacitor to create a
dominant pole.
Thus far we have considered smallsignal gains and bandwidth. If the input is large, the
current source do not have enough current to charge the compensation capacitor, and this
places a limit on the rate of change:
dt
dv
C i
o
=
C
i
t
v
o
s
A
A
max
i
The maximum rate of change at the
output is called the slewrate and is
measured V/s
The fullpower bandwidth is the highest frequency at which a fullscale signal can be
developed. This is less than the GBP.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 48 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and FullPower Bandwidth
Problem. Derive an equation that relates the fullpower bandwidth of an opamp to its
slew rate (SR).
Solution. Consider an opamp with an output signal
) sin( t V v
M o
e =
The maximum rate of change of this signal occurs at the zero crossings and is given by
max
max
) cos( t V
dt
dv
M
o
e e =
M
V e =
For no signal distortion, this maximum rate of change must be less than the slew rate
SR V
M
s e
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 49 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Slew Rate and FullPower Bandwidth
Problem. An amplifier has a slew rate of 10V/s . What is the fullpower bandwidth for
signals with output amplitude of 15 V?
Solution
SR V
M
s e
kHz 106
) 15 ( 2
10 10
2
6
=
= s
t t
M
V
SR
f
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 50 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Transient Response Summary
H
v
s
A
s A
e +
=
1
) 0 (
) (
Exponentiallyrising ramp one would e
expect from single (dominant) pole response
) 1 ( ) (
t t
o
e V t v
=
BW
t
r
35 . 0
~ BW in Hz
Smallsignal
SR V
M
s e
Fullpower
bandwidth
Large Signal
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 51 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Effect of Finite Gain
Consider an opamp that is ideal (infinite input impedance, zero output impedance, ) except
that it has finite differentialmode gain.
The output voltage is
I od o
v A v =
1
1
1
R
v v
i
I
=
2
2
R
v v
i
o I
=
od
o
I
A
v
v =
2
2
1
1
R
v
A
v
i
R
A
v
v
i
o
od
o
od
o
I
= =
+
=
1 2
i i =
(

.

\

+ +
= =
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
R
R
A
R
R
v
v
A
od
I
o
v
O = k 10
1
R O = k 100
2
R
Most opamps have A
od
~ 10
5
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 52 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Make sure you can derive this equation
Gainsetting
resistor
Very high
input
resistance
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 53 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Instrumentation Amplifiers
Ground Reference
Sense Output
Monolithic IA
Reference
Sense Output
Single gainsetting resistor
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 54 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
INA126
$2
Single gainsetting resistor
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 55 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Biasing Input Stage
Input stage must be biased
Input stage must be biased
Input stage must be biased
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 56 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Using the REF Pin
Voltage at REF pin is the
reference ground
Sense is connected
internally
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 57 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
INA121
$7
Downside: GBP = 600 kHz
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 58 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
Input bias current: 25 fA = 0.025 pA = 0.000025 nA 100% tested
$12
Electrometer Ion counting PH meters
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 59 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 60 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 61 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 62 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 63 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
Connect guard at a low impedance
with same voltage as input(s)
Stray currents
Stray currents
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 64 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 65 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 66 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Guard Rings
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 67 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Air Wiring
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 68 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp Powering
Dual power supply: for many years: 15 V, supply currents measured in mA
Output voltage swings to 12 V of the supply rails
Often not shown, but
decoupling capacitors close
to power supply pins are
highly recommended.
Many modern opamps can run on much lower power supplies: 1V to 18V,
supply current as low as 1A, 0.5 pA input bias currents,
Many modern opamps are railtorail on input and/output
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 69 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Using a Single Power Supply
Must supply a half supply here
Half supply does not have to be exactly 0.5 of supply voltage.
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 70 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Generating Vcc/2
Resistor provide dc voltage at Vcc/2
Capacitor provides ac short (at what frequency?)
Voltage is at Vcc/2
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 71 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Generating Vcc/2
Resistors provide dc voltage at Vcc/2
Capacitor provides ac short (at what frequency?)
Output voltage is at Vcc/2
with no input signal
Much lower output resistance and lower
cutoff frequency
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 72 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Operation
TLE2426 Precision Rail Splitter
Vcc
Vcc/2
$0.70 in bulk
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 73 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Amplifier
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 74 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Non Inverting Amplifier
Can you spot the bug in this circuit?
Answer: no bias current for V
+
input .
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 75 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Summer
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 76 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Simulated Inductor
Can you derive this
equation?
1 2 1
C R R L =
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 77 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting Low Pass Filter
in
C
1 2
dB 3
2
1
C R
f
t
=
1
2
Gain
R
R
=
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 78 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
Single Supply Inverting HighPass Filter
1 Gain =
1 1
dB 3
2
1
C R
f
t
=
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 79 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012
OpAmp HighSpeed Considerations
Designed
With parasitics
A Practical Guide to HighSpeed
PrintedCircuitBoard Layout, Analog
Dialogue, Volume 39 September
2005, John Ardizzoni
A. Kruger
OpAmps, Slide 80 55:141 Advanced Circuit Techniques The University of Iowa, 2012