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HOOGHLY ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE

Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati, P.O & Dist Hooghly, West Bengal, Pin 712103
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING















QUESTION BANK

Strength of Materials
(ME 302)

Prepared By: Prof. Smitadhi Ganguly
& Prof. Samir Ghosh

2
nd
Year 3
rd
Semester

Session: 2014 - 2015



Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
ii

Syllabus

Contact Week / Semester= 12 minimum
Contact per week: 3L Credit: 3
Module Syllabus Hrs
1.A
1.B
1.C
Concept of mechanics of deformable solids; concept of stress developed against external
force/pressure; brief review of normal and shearing stress and strain
1L
Deformation of axially loaded members, statically determinate and indeterminate problems. 4L
Strain energy in tension and compression 1L
2
Analysis of Biaxial stresses-Mohrs circle for biaxial stress; concept of normal stress, principal
stress and pure shear. Shear strain and shear strain energy. Stresses in thin walled pressure
vessels- tangential and Hoop stress. Relation between shear modulus and Youngs modulus.
6L
3
Stresses in beams; shear force (SF), axial force and bending moment (BM);differential relations
for BM, SF and load; SF and BM diagrams; bending stresses in straight beams symmetric
loading; stresses in beams of various cross sections; stresses in built-up beams and beams of
different materials.
7L
4
Torsion of a circular shaft, shear energy in torsion. Concept of closed and open coiled helical
springs, Stresses and deflection of helical springs under axial pull.
4L
5
Deflection of statically determinate and indeterminate beams due to bending moment,
differential equation of elastic line, Area-moment method, Strain energy method- Castiglianos
theorem, superposition method.
7L
6
Theory of columns; eccentric loading of short strut; column buckling: Euler load for columns with
pinned ends and other end restraints; Eulers curve; empirical column formulae
(i) straight line, (ii) parabolic and (iii) Rankine Gordon.
6L
Note for Teachers:
1. Stress should be given to clarify different concepts of the subject.
2. Deduction of all relevant equations should be worked out and explained.
3. Sufficient number of problems from each topic should be worked out during class and as home
assignment.
Note for examination paper setter:
At least one question should be set from each module.
Books Recommended
1. Elements of Strength of Materials by Timoshenko & Young, 5th Ed.- East west press.
2. Introduction to Solid Mechanics by Shames & Pitarresi, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall India.
3. Mechanics of Materials by Beer & Johnston, TMH
4. Engineering Mechanics of Solids by E.P. Popov; 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall India
5. Fundamentals of Strength of Materials by Nag & Chanda, Wiley India
6. Strength of Materials by R.Subramanian, 2nd Ed., Oxford Univ. Pres
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Multiple Choice Questions
1

Multiple Choice Questions
1. Modulus of elasticity E, modulus of rigidity G and Poissons ratio are related as:
a) E = G(1 + ) b) E =


c) G =


d) G = E(1 + )
2. The relation between the hoop stress (o
h
) and the longitudinal stress (o
l
) in a cylindrical thin
walled pressure vessel is given by:
a) o
h
= 2o
l
b) 2o
h
= o
l
c) o
h
= o
l
d) o
h
= 4o
l

3. The normal stress on the planes of maximum shear is given by:
a) (o
x
- o
y
)/2 b) (o
x
+o
y
)/2 c) o
x
- o
y
d) o
x
+ o
y

4. The bending moment becomes a maximum or a minimum where
a) Shear force is maximum b) Shear force is zero
c) Shear force changes sign d) Both b) and c)
5. The flexural rigidity of a beam is given by:
a) EI b) E/I c) GI d) GJ
Where I is the moment of inertia about the neutral axis (z axis)
6. The strain energy stored in a solid circular shaft is given by:
a) U = TL
2
/(2GJ) b) U = T
2
L/(2GJ) c) U = T
2
J/(2GL) d) U = TL/(2GJ)
Where T is the applied torque, L is the length of the shaft, G is the modulus of rigidity and J is
the polar moment of inertia of shaft cross-section
7. For a simply supported beam of length L having a concentrated load P at the centre the
maximum deflection is given by:
a) PL
3
/(3EI) b) PL
3
/(16EI) c) PL
3
/(24EI) d) none of the above
8. The slenderness ratio for a column is given by:
a) K/L b) K/2L c) L/K
2
d) L/K
Where K is the least radius of gyration and L is the effective length
9. The spring index m for a helical spring is given by:
a) m = d/n b) m = D/d c) m = d/D d) m = D/(dn)
Where d is the diameter of the wire, D is the diameter of the coil and n is the no. of turns
10. The equation of the elastic curve is given by:
a) dy/dx = M/EI b) d
2
y/dx
2
= MI/E c) d
2
y/dx
2
= M/EI d) d
4
y/dx
4
= M/EI
11. A bolt passes through a tube and both are lightly fitted with washer and nut. If the nut is
further tightened, then
a) both bolt and tube are under tension
b) both bolt and nut are under compression
c) bolt is under compression and tube is under tension
d) bolt is under tension and tube is under compression
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Multiple Choice Questions
2

12. At a section where the shear force becomes zero
a) BM is zero b) BM is unpredictable
c) BM is negative d) BM is maximum or minimum
13. The coordinates of the origin of the Mohrs circle is
a) (o
x
- o
y
)/2, 0 b) (o
x
+o
y
)/2, 0 c) o
x
- o
y
, 0 d) o
x
+ o
y
, 0
14. If a closed coil helical spring of stiffness K is cut at the midpoint, the stiffness of the resulting
two springs are
a) 2K b) K c) K/2 d) 4K
15. If the diameter of a solid shaft is doubled, its torque carrying capacity will
a) Become double b) become four times
c) become eight times d) remain same
16. When bending moment M and torque T is applied on a shaft, then equivalent torque is
a) M + T b) c)

d)

( )
17. For two shafts connected in parallel, find which statement is true
a) Torque in each shaft is same
b) Shear stress in each shaft is same
c) Angle of twist in each shaft is same
d) Torsional stiffness of each shaft is same
18. The buckling load will be maximum for a column if
a) One end fixed and other end free b) Both end fixed
c) Both ends are hinged d) One end hinged and other end is fixed

19. Principal stress at a point in a plane stressed element are,

, normal
stress on the plane inclined at 45 to x- axis will be
a) 250 kg/cm
2
b) 500 kg/cm
2
c) 707 kg/cm
2
d) 1000 kg/cm
2
20. A mohrs circle reduces to a point when the body is subjected to
a) Pure shear
b) Uniaxial stress only
c) Equal and opposite axial stress on two mutually perpendicular planes without shear stress
d) Equal axial stress on two mutually perpendicular planes without any shear stress
21. The shear stress distribution over a rectangular cross-section of a beam follows
a) A straight line path b) A circular path
c) A parabolic path d) An elliptical path
22. A circular shaft can transmit a torque of 5 kN-m. If the torque is reduced to 4 kN-m, then the
maximum value of bending moment that can be applied to the shaft is
a) 1 kN-m b) 2 kN-m c) 3 kN-m d) 4 kN-m
23. The plane of maximum shear stress has normal stress that is
a) Maximum b) Minimum c) Zero d) none of these
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Multiple Choice Questions
3

24. If a circular shaft is subjected to a torque T and a bending moment M, the ratio of the
maximum shear stress to the maximum bending stress is
a) 2M/T b) T/2M c) 2T/M d) M/2T
25. The outside diameter of a hollow shaft is twice its inside diameter. The ratio of its torque
carrying capacity to that of a solid shaft of the same material and same outside diameter is
a) 15/16 b) c) d) 1/16
26. Two shafts A and B are made of same material. The diameter of shaft B is twice that of shaft
A. The ratio of power which can be transmitted by shaft A to that of shaft B is
a) 1/2 b) 1/4 c) 1/8 d) 1/16
27. A circular beam of 10.5 cm diameter is subjected to a shear force of 500 N. The maximum
shear stress will be
a) 5.77 N/cm
2
b) 7.69 N/cm
2
c) 7.5 N/cm
2
d) 5.5 N/cm
2

28. The Euler load for a column is 1000kN and crushing load is 1500kN. The Rankine load is
equal to
a) 600kN b) 1000kN c) 1500kN d) 2500kN
29. A stressed element is subjected only a shear stress of 10 N/mm
2
. The maximum tensile
stress in the element will be
a) 20 N/mm
2
b) 10 N/mm
2
c) 10 N/mm
2
d) Zero
30. In Mohrs circle the maximum shear stress is represented by
a) Diameter of Mohrc circle b) Radius of Mohrs circle
c) one-third of diameter of Mohrs circle d) None of these
31. Which one of the following is statically indeterminate structure?
a) A load supported on one member b) A load supported on two members
c) A load supported on three members d) Either (a) or (b)
32. If a composite bar is cooled, then the nature of stress in the part with high coefficient of
thermal expansion will be
a) Tensile b) Zero c) Compressive d) None of these
33. The bulk modulus of a body is equal to
a)

b)

c)

d)


where 1/m is poissons ratio
34. When a body is subjected to a direct tensile stress (o) in one plane, the tangential stress on
one oblique section of the body inclined at an angle () to the normal of the section is equal
to
a) oSin b) ocos2 c) osin2/2 d) osin2/2
35. The strain energy stored in a body, when the load is gradually applied, is equal to
a)

b)
o

c)
o

d)
o


Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Multiple Choice Questions
4

36. The BM at the centre of a simply supported beam carrying uniformly distributed load is
a) b)

c)

d)


37. The section modulus of a circular section of diameter d is
a)

b)

c)

d)


38. A square side of a beam is subjected to a shearing force of F. The value of the shear stress at
the top edge of the section is
a) b)

c)

d)


39. A simply supported beam of span l is subjected to a uniformly distributed load w per unit
length over the whole span. The maximum deflections at the centre of the beam is
a)

b)

c)

d)


40. The strain energy stored in a hollow shaft of external diameter D and internal diameter d
when subjected to a shearing stress is given by
a)
(

b)
(

c)
(

d)
(


41. When a closely coiled spring is subjected to an axial load, it is said to be under
a) Bending b) Shear c) Torsion d)All of these
42. The design of a thin cylinder shell is based on
a) Internal pressure b) Diameter of shell
c) Longitudinal stress d) All of these

Answers to MCQ
1. c) 2. a) 3. b) 4. d) 5. a)
6. b) 7. d) 8. d) 9. b) 10. c)
11. d) 12. d) 13. b) 14. a) 15. c)
16. b) 17. c) 18. b) 19. a) 20. d)
21. c) 22. c) 23. d) 24. b) 25. a)
26. c) 27. b) 28. a) 29. c) 30. b)
31. c) 32. a) 33. a) 34. d) 35. a)
36. d) 37. b) 38. a) 39. d) 40. b)
41. c) 42. d)
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Theory Questions
5

Theory Questions
Module 1
1. Prove that E = 2G(1 + ) where E = Youngs Modulus of Elasticity, G = Modulus of Rigidity and
= Poissons Ratio. (WBUT 2012)
2. Deduce relation between Youngs modulus (E), modulus of rigidity (G) and Poissons ratio ().
(WBUT 2011)
3. Prove the relationship between E (Youngs modulus of Elasticity), K (Bulk Modulus of Elasticity)
and v (Poissons ratio). (WBUT 2008, 2007)
4. Draw the stress strain diagram for a ductile material. (WBUT 2013)

Module 2
1. Find the expression of normal stress and shear stress on an oblique section of a body
subjected to direct stresses in two mutually perpendicular directions as shown in figure.
(WBUT 2012)
2. Draw the Mohrs circle and find the expression of normal and shear stress on an oblique
section of a body subjected to direct stresses in one plane. (WBUT 2012)
3. Determine the expression for normal and tangential stresses on a plane at to the plane of
stress in x-direction in a two dimensional stress system and show that (i) sum of normal
stresses in any two mutually perpendicular directions is constant, (ii) principal planes are
planes of maximum normal stresses also. (WBUT 2012)
4. Find the circumferential stress on a thin walled cylindrical shell. (WBUT 2009)
5. For a thin walled cylindrical pressure vessel deduce the expressions for circumferential stress
and longitudinal stress. (WBUT 2009)
6. Write short note on: Principal Stress and Principal Plane (WBUT 2009)
7. Deduce the relation between the longitudinal and circumferential stresses in a thin pressure
vessel. (WBUT 2006)
8. Draw the Mohrs circle diagrams and show normal, tangential and resultant stresses when a
member is subjected to two mutually perpendicular principal stresses, unequal and alike.
(WBUT 2013)


Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Theory Questions
6

Module 3
1. What is point of contra flexure? Derive the relationship between load intensity, shear force
and bending moment. (WBUT 2012)
2. Define shear force and bending moment. (WBUT 2009)
3. A simply supported beam with UVL from zero at one end to w/unit length at other end. Derive
the relations of SF and BM and draw the corresponding diagrams. (WBUT 2013)
4. With assumptions, derive the bending equation

where the symbols have their


usual meaning. (WBUT 2013)

Module 4
1. Prove that a hollow shaft is stronger and stiffer than a solid shaft of the same length and
weight. (WBUT 2010)
2. Write short notes on i) Torsional rigidity ii) Closely coiled helical spring (WBUT 2009)
3. Deduce the equation of torsion of a circular shaft stating the assumptions used. (WBUT 2006,
2012)
4. In the deduction of the relation T=G/J, what is the major assumption made? (WBUT 2013)

Module 5
1. State the theorems of Area-moment method. Also mention its specific use in the deflection
analysis of beams. (WBUT 2011)
2. State Castiglianos theorem to find out deflection of beam. Using this determine the deflection
under load of a simple beam of length L subjected to transverse point load P at the middle
of beam. The flexural rigidity of the beam is EI. (WBUT 2010)

Module 6
1. Find out the expression of Eulers critical load for column, the ends of which are both fixed.
(WBUT 2011)
2. Find the load carrying capacity of a column according to Rankine-Gordon formula. (WBUT
2011)
A B
C
R
A
R
B

l
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Theory Questions
7

3. Deduce the expression for Eulers critical load for a uniform column having one end fixed and
the other end hinged. (WBUT 2012, 2005, 2002)
4. Explain classification of column. (WBUT 2013)
5. Write the assumptions made in the Eulers column theory. (WBUT 2013)
6. Derive an expression for the critical load ina long column when one end fixed and other end
free. (WBUT 2013)

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
8

Problems
Module 1
1. A solid conical bar of uniformly varying diameter has diameter D at one end and zero at the
other end. If length of the bar is L, modulus of Elasticity E and unit weight , find the extension
of the bar due to self weight only. (WBUT 2012) Ans: o = l
2
/6E
2. A solid conical rod of base diameter D is suspended from the roof as shown in figure. Find the
deflection of the free end due to its own weight if the specific gravity and modulus of elasticity
are and E respectively. (WBUT 2011) Ans: o = l
2
/6E
3. Two elastic bars are of equal length and of same material. One is of circular cross section of 80
mm dia and the other is of square cross section of 80 mm side. Both absorb the same amount
of strain energy under axial forces. Compare the stresses in the two bars. (WBUT 2011)
Ans: o
1
: o
2
= 2 : \t
4. Three tubes A, B and C are fitting loosely one over the other. Tube A is inside and tube C is
outside. Each tube has a thickness of 10 mm and length 300 mm. Inner tube A has an internal
diameter of 100 mm. If an axial thrust of 150 kN is applied, find for each tube (a) load carried,
(b) stress developed and (c) shortening due to load. Take E
A
= 200 GPa, E
B
= 100 GPa and E
C
=
50 GPa. (WBUT 2011) Ans: (a) P
A
= 77.65 kN, P
B
= 45.88 kN, P
C
= 26.47 kN; (b) o
A
= 22.47
MPa, o
B
= 11.23 MPa, o
C
= 5.62 MPa; (c) l = 0.0337 mm
5. A steel bar of 25 mm diameter is acted upon by forces as shown in figure. What is the
elongation of the bar? E = 190 GPa. (WBUT 2010) Ans: 3.756 mm
6. A steel rod of 16 mm diameter and 3 m length passes through a copper tube of 50 mm
external and 40 mm internal diameter and of the same length as shown in figure. The tube is
closed at each end with the help of 30 mm thick steel plates which are tightened by nuts till
the length of the copper tube is reduced by 0.6 mm. The temperature of the whole assembly
is then raised by 56C. Determine the stresses in the steel and copper before and after the rise
of temperature. Assume that the thickness of the steel plates at the ends do not change
during tightening of the nuts. Take, E
s
= 200 GPa, E
c
= 100 GPa, o
s
= 1.2 10
-5
per C and o
c
=
1.7 10
-5
per C. (WBUT 2010) Ans: i) o
c
= 20 MPa (compressive), o
s
= 70.3 MPa (tensile) ii)
o
c
= 29.54 MPa (compressive), o
s
= 103.85 MPa (tensile)

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
9

7. In the figure, an absolutely rigid bar BD is hinged at B and
supported by two guy wires attached to the vertical wall a A. The
steel guy wires are identical except for length and are just taut
but free from stress before the load P is applied. Find the tensile
forces produced in guy wires 1 and 2 by the load P. (WBUT 2009)
Ans: T
1
= 1.07P, T
2
= 1.03P
8. A prismatic steel rod of length l, cross sectional area A and modulus of elasticity E hangs
vertically under its own weight. How much strain energy is stored in the bar if its weight per
unit volume is ?(WBUT 2009) Ans: U =
2
Al
3
/6E
9. A rigid bar AB is hinged at A and supported in a horizontal
position by two identical steel wires as shown in figure.
Find the tensile forces T
1
and T
2
induced in these wires by
a vertical load P applied at B as shown. (WBUT 2008)
Ans: T
1
= Pal/(a
2
+ b
2
), T
2
= Pbl/(a
2
+ b
2
)
10. A brass rod 2 m long is fixed at both ends. If the thermal stress is not to exceed 76.5 MPa
calculate the temperature through which the rod may be heated. Take E = 90 GPa and o = 17
10
-6
/K. (WBUT 2007) Ans: 5K
11. Calculate the strain energy stored in a bar 2 m long, 50 mm wide and 40 mm thick when it is
subjected to a tensile load of 60 KN. Take, E = 200 GPa (WBUT 2007) Ans: 9 Joule
12. A bar of brass 25 mm dia is enclosed in a steel tube of 50 mm external dia and 25 mm internal
dia. The bar and the tube are both 1.5 m long and rigidly fastened at both ends. Find the stress
in brass and steel when temperature rises from 30C to 100C. Take, E
s
= 200 GPa, E
b
= 100
GPa, o
s
= 11.6 10
-6
/C & o
b
= 18.7 10
-6
/C. (WBUT 2007) Ans: o
b
= 42.6 MPa, o
s
= 14.2
MPa
13. Compute the maximum stress and total elongation in the stepped bar shown in figure. Take, E
= 200 GPa. (WBUT 2007) Ans: o
AB
= 10 MPa (compressive), o
BC
= 20 MPa (tensile), o =
1 10
-4
m
14. An aluminium bar 1.8 m long has a 2.5 cm-square cross-section over 0.6 m of its length and 2.5
cm diameter circular cross section over the other 1.2 m. How much will the bar elongate
under a tensile load P = 1750 kg if E = 75 10
4
kg/cm
2
? (WBUT 2006) Ans: 0.794 mm
15. A 12 mm diameter steel rod passes centrally through a copper tube of 48 mm external and 36
mm internal diameter and 2.50 meters long. The tube is closed at each end by 24 mm thick
steel plates which are secured by nuts. The nuts are tightened until the length of the copper
tube is reduced by 0.508 mm. The temperature of the whole assembly is then raised by 60C.
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
10

Calculate the stresses in the steel and copper before and after the rise of temperature,
assuming that the thickness of the plates remains unchanged. Take, E
s
= 2.1 10
5
N/mm
2
, E
c
=
1.05 10
5
N/mm
2
, o
s
= 1.2 10
-5
per C and o
c
= 1.75 10
-5
per C. (WBUT 2006)
Ans: i) o
s
= 149.38 N/mm
2
(tensile), o
c
= 21.34 N/mm
2
(compressive) ii) o
s
= 200.27 N/mm
2
(tensile), o
c
= 28.61 N/mm
2
(compressive)
16. A steel tube 45 mm external diameter and 2.5 mm thick encloses centrally a solid copper rod
of 30 mm diameter. The rod and the tube are rigidly connected together at the ends at a
temperature of 30C. Find the stress in each metal, when heated to 180C. Given: E
s
= 2 10
5

N/mm
2
, E
c
= 1 10
5
N/mm
2
, o
s
= 1.08 10
-5
per C and o
c
= 1.7 10
-5
per C. (WBUT 2005)
Ans: i) o
s
= 95.71 N/mm
2
(tensile), o
c
= 45.14 N/mm
2
(compressive)
17. What stress will be produced in the steel bolt and the copper
sleeve when the nut is tightened by turn against the sleeve?
Assume, E
s
= 200GPa, A
s
(area of c/s of bolt) = 80 mm
2
, E
c
=
100 GPa, A
c
(area of c/s of copper sleeve) = 160 mm
2
, L (length
of copper sleeve) = 200 mm, p (pitch of the bolt thread) = 1.5
mm (WBUT 2004) Ans: i) o
s
= 375 MPa

(tensile), o
c
= 187.5
MPa (compressive)
18. A horizontal bar of uniform section built in at both ends is loaded axially at two intermediate
sections by forces P
1
and P
2
as shown in figure. Find the reactions R
1
and R
2
if P
1
= 2P
2
=
4500N. Ans: R
1
= 3750 N, R
2
= 3000 N
19. A load of 300 kN is applied on a short concrete column 250 mm 250 mm. The column is
reinforced by steel bars of total area 5600 mm
2
. If the modulus of elasticity for steel is 15
times that of concrete, find the stresses in concrete and steel. If the stress in concrete should
not exceed 4 N/mm
2
, find the area of steel required so that the column may support a load of
600 N. Ans: a)
c
= 2.13 N/mm
2
,
s
= 31.95 N/mm
2
, b) A
s
= 6250 mm
2

20. A bar 1 m in length is subjected to a pull such that the maximum stress is equal to 150 N/mm
2
.
Its area of cross section is 200 mm
2
over a length of 950 mm and for the middle 50 mm length
the cross sectional area is 100 mm
2
. If E = 2 10
5
N/mm
2
, calculate the strain energy stored in
the bar. Ans: 2.953 Joule
21. The following details refer to the bar as shown:
Portion Length Cross-section
AB 600mm 40 mm 40mm
BC 800mm 30mm 30mm
CD 1000mm 20mm 20mm
If the load P
4
= 80kN, P
2
=60kN and P
3
= 40kN, find the extension of the bar, where E= 2 10
5

N/mm
2
. (WBUT 2013) Ans: 1.6458 mm (contraction)
B
C
D
P
4

P
2

P
3

A
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
11

22. A composite bar consisting of steel and aluminum components shown in figure. Is connected
to two grips at the ends at a temperature of 60
0
C. Find the stresses in the two rods, when the
temperature falls to 20
0
C and if the ends do not yield, cross-sectional areas of the steel and
aluminum bars are 250 mm
2
and 375 mm
2
respectively. Take Es =210
5
N/mm
2
, Ea=0.7010
5

N/mm
2
,
s
=1.1710
-5
/
0
C and
c
=2.34 10
-5
/
0
C. (WBUT 2013). Ans: o
s
= 63.9 MPa, o
A
=
95.9 MPa



Module 2
1. The state of stress at a point is given:
xx
= 150 MPa,
yy
= -50 MPa and
xy
= 25 MPa.
Determine:
i) Principal stresses and their directions
ii) Maximum shear stresses and their directions
iii) Normal and shear stresses if the plane is inclined at 50 with X axis. (WBUT 2012)
Ans:
1
= 153.1 MPa,
2
= -53.1 MPa, = -7, 83,
max
= 103.1 MPa, = 38, 128,
n
= 92
MPa, = 94.14 MPa
2. A cast-iron pipe of 750 mm diameter is used to carry water under a head of 60 m. Determine
the thickness of the pipe if the permissible stress is to be 20 MPa. (WBUT 2011) Ans: 11 mm
3. An element in a strained body is subjected to a tensile stress of 150 MPa and a shear stress of
50 MPa tending to rotate the element in an anticlockwise direction. Find (i) the magnitude of
the normal and shear stress on a section inclined at 40 with the tensile stress and (ii) the
magnitude and direction of maximum shear stress that can exist on the element. (WBUT 2011)
Ans: (i) o
n
= 111.21 MPa, t = 82.54 MPa, (ii) t
max
= 90.14 MPa, u = 61.85, 151.85
4. A cylindrical shell 90 cm long, 15 cm internal diameter, having a thickness of metal 8 mm, is
filled with a fluid at atmospheric pressure. If an additional 20 cm
3
of fluid is pumped into the
cylinder, find (i) the pressure exerted by the fluid on the cylinder and (ii) the hoop stress
induced. Take E = 2 10
7
N/cm
2
and (1/m) = 0.3. (WBUT 2010) Ans: p = 1.4 10
3
N/cm
2
,

h
= 13.24 10
3
N/cm
2

Aluminium
Steel
800mm 400mm
250mm
2

375mm
2

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
12

5. The state of stress at a point of a machine is shown in figure. Determine the principal stresses
and maximum shear stress and their inclinations. (WBUT 2009)
Ans:
1
= 60 MPa,
2
= -40 MPa, u = 18.43 or 108.43,
max
= 50 MPa, u = -26.56, 63.43
6. A cylindrical shell is 4 m long and is having 1 m internal diameter and 15 mm thickness.
Calculate the maximum intensity of shear stress induced, if it is subjected to an internal fluid
pressure of 1.5 N/mm
2
. (WBUT 2008) Ans:
max
= 12.5 N/mm
2

7. A state of stress at a point on an element has been shown in figure. Find a) principal stresses
and their planes b) maximum shear stresses and their planes, and c) the stresses on a plane
whose normal is 30 with X-axis. Show the result on an element. (WBUT 2008)
Ans: a)
1
= 78.72 MPa,
2
= -44.72 MPa, u = 20.2 or 110.2, b)
max
= 61.72 MPa, u = -24.8,
65.2, c)
n
= 75.14 MPa, = 20.70 MPa
8. A 20 m diameter spherical tank is to be used to store gas. The shell plating is 10 mm thick and
the working stress of the material is 125 MPa. What is the maximum permissible gas pressure?
(WBUT 2007) Ans: p = 250 KPa
9. The state of stress at a point is given as
xx
= 200 MPa,
yy
= -100 MPa and
xy
= 50 MPa.
Compute (a) principal stresses and their planes, (b) maximum shear stresses and their planes,
(c) the stresses at a plane 50 from X-axis. (WBUT 2007) Ans: a)
1
= 208.1 MPa,
2
=
-108.1 MPa, u = 9.22 or 99.22, b)
max
= 158.1 MPa, u = -35.78, 54.22, c)
n
= 26.8 MPa, =
156.4 MPa
10. A rectangular element is subjected to the following stresses: i) normal compressive stress of
250 MPa in the X-direction ii) normal tensile stress of 400 MPa in the Y-direction Iii) shear
stress of 300 MPa. Determine either analytically or graphically A) principal stresses and their
planes, B) normal stresses and shear stresses on a plane inclined at 30 to Y-direction, C)
absolute maximum shear stress. (WBUT 2006) Ans: A)
1
= 517.3 MPa,
2
= -367.3 MPa,
u = -21.35 or 68.65, B)
n
= 172.3 MPa, = 431.46 MPa, C)
max
= 442.3 MPa
11. A cylindrical shell 1.0 m long, 0.18 m internal diameter, 8 mm thick in wall is filled with
incompressible fluid at atmospheric pressure. If an additional 0.2 10
-4
m
3
of the fluid is
pumped into the cylinder, find the pressure exerted by the fluid on the wall of the cylinder.
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
13

Find also the hoop stress induced. Take the modulus of elasticity E = 200 GPa and poissons
ratio = 0.3. (WBUT 2005) Ans: p = 7.35 MPa,
h
= 82.7 MPa
12. The biaxial state of stress on an element is shown in figure. Using Mohr Circle, determine i)
principal stresses and their planes ii) normal stresses and shear stresses on a plane inclined at
30 to Y-direction iii) maximum shear stress. (WBUT 2005) Ans: A)
1
= 366.1 MPa,

2
= -466.1 MPa, u = -16.36 or 73.64, B)
n
= -69.85 MPa, = 415.6 MPa, C)
max
= 415.6 MPa
13. The figure shows an element under pure shear stresses
xy
=
yx
= 200 MPa. Find graphically or
analytically the following: a) principal stresses and principal directions, and b) the normal and
shear stresses on a plane making an angle u = 60 with the X-axis. (WBUT 2004)
Ans: a)
1
= 200 MPa,
2
= -200 MPa, u = 45 or 135, b)
n
= -173.2 MPa, = 100 MPa
Module 3
1. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam shown in figure. (WBUT
2012) Ans: M
max
= 50 kNm, point of contraflexure 0.5714 m to the left of B
2. A rectangular beam 200 mm deep is simply supported over a beam of span 2 m. Find the
uniformly distributed load the beam can carry if the bending stress is not to exceed 30 MPa.
Take I for the beam as 8 10
6
mm
4
. (WBUT 2010) Ans: 4.8 kN/m

3. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram of the loaded beam as shown in Fig. Also
find the section modulus of the beam if allowable bending stress, o
w
= 84 kg/cm
2
.
(WBUT 2010) Ans: Z = 130.14 cm
3
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
14

4. Determine the maximum tensile stress o
t
and maximum compressive stress o
c
due to load P
acting on simple T-section beam AB (see figure). Given: P = 5.4 kN, L = 30 m, d = 1.2 m, b = 75
mm, t = 25 mm, h = 100 mm and h
1
= 75 mm. (WBUT 2010) Ans: o
t
= 70.26 N/mm
2
,
o
c
= 117 N/mm
2
5. Draw shear force diagram and bending moment diagram of loading shown in figure and find
the maximum shear force, maximum bending moment and contra-flexure points if any. Write
singularity function only. (WBUT 2009) Ans: BM
max
= 15 kN-m, contra-flexure at x = 6.4 m
from right end
6. A simply supported CI beam is to have inverted T section as sho2wn in the
figure. If the allowable stresses for cast iron in tension is 280 kg/cm
2
and in
compression is 650 kg/cm
2
, calculate the proper stem thickness t of the section.
(WBUT 2009) Ans: t = 2.317 cm
7. A beam of I-section 500 mm deep and 190 mm wide has flanges 25 mm thick and web 15 mm
thick. It carries a shearing force of 400 kN at a section. Calculate the maximum intensity of
shear stress in the section assuming the moment of inertia to be 6.45 10
8
mm
4
. Also
calculate the total shear force carried by the web and sketch the total shear stress distribution
across the section. (WBUT 2008) Ans: t
max
= 62.34 N/mm
2
, F = 382.2 kN
8. Construct shear force and bending moment diagrams for the simply supported beam with
overhangs, loaded as shown in figure. (WBUT 2008, 2011)
9. Compute the maximum bending stress in a simply supported beam of 4 m length and of 10 cm
20 cm (depth) cross-section loaded with UDL load of 10 kN/m. (WBUT 2007)
Ans: o
max
= 30 MPa

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
15

10. Draw shear force diagram (SFD) and bending moment diagram (BMD) for the beam loading
shown in figure. Also find the maximum BM, maximum SF and contra-flexure point if any.
(WBUT 2007) Ans: BM
max
= 13.5 kN-m, contra-flexure at x = 2.67 m from right end
11. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the beam as per load shown in figure.
Show also the points of contra-flexures, if any, on the beam. (WBUT 2006)
Ans: BM
max
= 7.78 t-m, contra-flexure at x = 2.616 m and x = 8.49 m from right end
12. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the beam as per load shown in figure.
Show also the points of contra-flexures, if any. (WBUT 2005)
Ans: BM
max
= (-)72 kN-m, contra-flexure at x = 2.689 m from right end
13. A compound beam made of two bars AC and CD hinged together at C is supported and loaded
as shown in the figure. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagrams of the beam. Each
portion of the beam is a standard ISMB 125 section for which the section modulus Z = 71.8
cm
3
. What is the safe value of the intensity w of the uniformly distributed load if the allowable
working stress in bending is
w
= 1400 kg/cm
2
? Ans: w = 112 kg/m
14. A beam AB supported at its ends has a span l = 1.2 m and carries a uniform
load of intensity w = 30 kg/cm over the full span. The cross section of the
beam is a T-section having the dimensions shown in figure. Calculate the
maximum shear stress
max
, induced in the beam.
Ans:
max
= 51kg/cm
2

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
16

15. A cantilever beam built in at B carries a bracket at A, to the
free end of which a vertical load P is applied as shown in figure.
Construct shear force and bending moment diagrams for the beam
AB, if a = l/3.

16. A cantilever of length 2m fails when a load of 2kN is applied at the free end. If the section of
the beam is 40 mm 40mm, find the stress at the failure. (WBUT 2013) Ans: 375 MPa
17. A square beam 20mm 20mm in section and 2m long is supported at the ends. The the beam
fails when a point load of 400N is applied at the centre of the beam. What uniformly
distributed load per m length will break a cantilever of same material 40 mm wide, 60mm
deep and 3m long? (WBUT 2013) Ans: 800 N/m
18. Draw the S.F. and B.M. diagrams for the overhanging beam carrying uniformly distributed load
of2 kN/m over the entire length as shown in following figure. Also locate the point of contra
flexure. (WBUT 2013) Ans: 3 m from left


Module 4
1. A closely coiled helical spring is required to carry a load of 150 N. If the mean coil diameter is
to be 8 times that of wire, calculate these diameters. Take maximum shear stress as 100 MPa.
(WBUT 2012) Ans: d = 32 mm, D = 256 mm
2. Determine the diameter of the solid shaft which will transmit 440 kW at 280 rpm. The angle of
twist must not exceed 1 per meter length and the maximum torsional shear stress isto be
limited to 40 N/mm
2
. Assume G = 84 kN/mm
2
. (WBUT 2012) Ans: 0.124m
3. A solid shaft of 200 mm diameter has the same cross-sectional area as a hollow shaft of the
same material with inside diameter 150 mm. Find the ratio of
i) powers transmitted by both the shafts at the same angular velocity
ii) angles of twist in equal lengths of these shafts, when stressed to the same intensity.
(WBUT 2012) Ans: P
1
: P
2
= 10 : 17,
1
:
2
= 5 : 4
4. Two shafts AB and BC are connected in series. The diameters of AB and BC are respectively
100 mm and 50 mm and their lengths are 2 m and 3 m respectively. Both the shafts are made
of the same material having modulus of rigidity as 8 10
4
N/mm
2
. Dtermine i) shear stress set
A
B
C
2N/m
R
A
R
B

l
1
=4m l
2
= 2m
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
17

up in each shaft and ii) the angle of twist. Take torque applied at one end is 10
4
Nm. (WBUT
2012) Ans: i)
AB
= 50.93 MPa,
BC
= 407.4 MPa, ii) = 0.6365 rad
5. The stepped steel shaft is shown in figure is subjected to a torque (T) at the free end and
torque (2T) in the opposite direction at the junction of the two sizes. What is the total angle of
twist at the free end, if max shear stress in the shaft is limited to 70 MPa? Assume the
modulus of rigidity to be 84 GPa. (WBUT 2011) Ans: | = 3 18'
6. Two closed coiled helical springs wound from the same wire, but with different core ratio &
equal no. of coils are compressed between rigid plates at their ends. Calculate the maximum
shear stress induced in each spring, if the wire diameter is 10 mm and the load applied
between the rigid plates is 500. The core radius of the springs are 100 mm and 75 mm
respectively. (WBUT 2011) Ans: t
o
= 77.44 MPa, t
I
= 138.8 MPa
7. Two concentric springs have a solid length of 50 mm. When they are subjected to an axial load
of 6 kN the maximum deflection is found to be 40 mm. The springs are made of the same
material and wire diameter for both are same. The maximum permissible shear stress is 160
MPa. Determine the load shared by each spring and the wire diameter if the inner spring
diameter is 120 mm and the radial clearance is 2.5 mm. Rigidity modulus of the material G =
84 GPa. (WBUT 2010)
8. A shaft composed of segments AC, CD and DB is fastened to rigid supports and loaded as
shown in figure. For bronze, G = 35 GPa, for aluminum G = 28 GPa and for steel G = 83 GPa.
Determine the maximum shearing stress developed in each segment. (WBUT 2009)
Ans: t
B
= 132.4 MPa, t
Al
= 4.33 MPa, t
S
= 193.53 MPa
9. A closely coiled helical spring of round steel wire of 6 mm diameter having 12 complete coils
of 60 mm mean diameter is subjected to an axial load of 100 N. Find the deflection of the
spring, maximum shearing stress and strain energy stored. Given G = 80 GPa. (WBUT 2009)
Ans: o = 20 mm, t
max
= 74.27 N/mm
2
, U = 1 J
10. A closely coiled helical spring is made with 12 mm diameter wire and is having mean diameter
of 150 mm and 10 complete turns. The modulus of rigidity of the material of the spring is 80
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
18

kN/mm
2
. Find the stiffness of the spring and deflection when a load of 450 N is applied.
(WBUT 2008) Ans: o = 73.24 mm, K = 6.144 N/mm
11. A stepped shaft is subjected to torque as shown in figure. Determine the angle of twist at the
free end. Assume, G = 84 kN/mm
2
. (WBUT 2008) Ans: | = 0.244
12. A hollow shaft 3 m long transmits a torque of 25 kN-m. The total angle of twist in this length is
not to exceed 2.5 and the allowable shearing stress is 90 MPa. Determine the inside and
outside diameters of the shaft if G = 85 GPa. (WBUT 2007) Ans: d
o
= 145.6 mm, d
i
= 125 mm
13. A mild steel shaft of diameter 10 cm is subjected to a bending moment of 50 N-m and a
twisting moment of 40 N-m. Determine the maximum normal stress induced in the shaft and
locate its plane. (WBUT 2007) Ans: o
1
= 580.7 kPa, u
1
= 19.33
14. A hollow steel shaft of 300 mm external diameter and 200 mm internal diameter has to be
replaced by a solid alloy shaft. Assuming the same values of polar modulus for both, calculate
the diameter of the latter and work out the ratio of their torsional rigidities. Take modulus of
rigidity of alloy as 2.4 times the modulus of rigidity of steel. (WBUT 2006) Ans: d = 278.78
mm, 0.448,
15. A closed coil helical spring has a stiffness of 10 N/mm. Its length when fully compressed, with
adjacent coils touching each other (solid length) is 400 mm. The modulus of rigidity of the
material of the spring is 8 10
4
N/mm
2
. i) Determine the wire diameter and the mean coil
diameter if the spring index is 10. ii) If the gap between any two adjacent coils is 2 mm, what
maximum load can be applied before the spring becomes solid (i.e. adjacent coils touch)? iii)
What is the corresponding maximum shear stress in the spring? (WBUT 2006) Ans: i) d = 20
mm, D = 200 mm ii) F = 400 N iii) t
max
= 25.46 N/mm
2

16. A slightly tapered shaft with circular cross section has diameter D at one end and diameter D/2
at the other. The length of the shaft is l. Determine the total angle of twist | between the two
ends of the shaft if it is subjected to uniform torque T. (WBUT 2005) Ans: | = 448Tl /(3tD
4
G)
17. A solid steel shaft of diameter d = 12 mm is built in at its ends A
and B and carries a disk at C as shown in Figure. If the working
stress in shear for the shaft is 700 kg/cm
2
, what is the maximum
safe angle of rotation that can be given to the disk which is
rigidly attached to the shaft? For steel, G = 84 10
4
kg/cm
2
.
Ans: 135'
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
19

18. For the system shown in figure, power is transmitted from
the gear A to the gear D. If the pitch diameters of the gears B and
C are in the ratio 1:2, what is the proper ratio of shaft diameters
d
1
:d
2
for both shafts to have the same maximum shear stress t?
Ans: d
1
:d
2
= 0.794



Module 5
1. A beam ABC of length 8 metres is supported and loaded as shown in figure. Calculate (i) the
deflection at A, (ii) slope at B and (iii) the maximum deflection of the beam. (WBUT 2011)
Ans: o
A
= 620 10
3
/EI, u
B
= 210 10
3
/EI
2. A cantilever of length L carries a uniformly distributed load of w/unit length over the entire
length. Find the deflection at the free end by moment area method using the following values:
L = 2 m, w = 20 kN/m, E = 200 GPa, I = 10
8
mm
4
. (WBUT 2009) Ans: wL
4
/8EI
3. Find the maximum deflection and the maximum slope for the beam loaded as shown in figure
by double integration or any other method. EI = constant. (WBUT 2008)
Ans: Y
max
= 236.7 10
3
/EI at a distance of x = 2.94 m from left end; u
max
= 126.6 10
3
/EI at A
and B
4. Determine the deflection and slope at point D of the beam shown in figure. Take flexural
rigidity EI to be constant for entire length. (WBUT 2007) Ans: Y
D
= 746.5 10
3
/EI,
u
D
= 86.8 10
3
/EI
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
20

5. A simply supported bean AB loaded at the middle as shown in the following figure has cross-
sectional moments of inertia I and 2I as indicated. Find the slope at the points A and B. Also
find out the deflection at the middle of the beam. (WBUT 2006)
Ans: u
A
= u
B
= 117Pl
2
/2592EI, o
m
= 35Pl
3
/2592EI
6. Find the equation of elastic line for the overhanging beam ABC supported and loaded as
shown in figure. Assuming the beam to be weightless, calculate the deflection at C. Calculate
also the maximum deflection between span AB. Take flexural rigidity for the beam EI = 4.8
10
6
Nm
2
. (WBUT 2005) Ans: o
C
= 2.5 10
-5
m, between A & B Y
max
= 6.415 10
-6
m
7. A uniform beam, simply supported with an overhang on the left hand side, is shown in figure.
Assuming the flexural rigidity (EI) of the beam as 500 Nm
2
, determine the deflection under the
concentrated load P = 50 N by the Strain Energy or any other method. (WBUT 2004)
Ans: o = -0.0133 m
8. Find the deflection of the free end A and rotation at point C of the beam as shown below. Use
moment area method. (WBUT 2003) Ans: o
A
= 1/4EI, u
C
= 5/12EI
9. Find out the deflection at load points and rotation at supports of the beam as loaded shown in
figure. Assume EI = constant. (WBUT 2002) Ans: o
B
= 110/3EI , o
C
= 38/EI , u
A
= 41/2EI
, u
D
= 43/2EI
Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
21

10. A stepped shaft supported as a cantilever beam carries a concentrated load P at its free end as
shown in figure. The cross-sectional moments of inertia of the two parts of the shaft are I and
2I as shown. Using the moment area method, find the deflections and slopes at the points A
and B. Ans: o
A
= 3Pl
3
/16EI, u
A
= 5Pl
2
/16EI, o
B
= 5Pl
3
/96EI, u
B
= 3Pl
2
/16EI
11. Using the Castigliano theorem, calculate the vertical deflection o at the middle of a simply
supported beam of length L which carries a uniformly distributed load of intensity w over the
full span. The flexural rigidity EI of the beam is constant and only strain energy of bending is to
be considered. Ans: o = 5wL
4
/384EI


Module 6
1. A hollow circular column of steel, of outer diameter 200 mm and thickness 5 mm has a length
of 4 m, with both ends fixed. Find the euler critical load if E = 200 GPa. If the yield stress is 300
MPa, determine the length below which Eulers formula cannot be applied. (WBUT 2012)
Ans: P
cr
= 7.19 MN, l = 11.2 m
2. A steel column with I section of dimensions given in the figure deflects 12 mm when used as a
simply supported beam carrying a uniformly distributed load of 50 kN/m. Find what axial
compression load can it carry when used as a column fixed at both ends. Use Eulers formula
with a factor of safety 3. Given, E = 200 GPa. (WBUT 2011) Ans: 2.52 10
6
N
3. Calculate the critical load for a 1500 mm long strut that is pin-jointed at both ends in the
landing gear mechanism of a small aircraft. The cross-section of the strut is circular. The same
strut when arranged as a simply supported beam produces a maximum deflection of 5 mm
under a load of 800 N at its mid-span. (WBUT 2005) Ans: P
cr
= 49.35 kN
4. A short strut of square cross-section has a notch cut in its side as shown in figure. Calculate the
maximum compressive stress o at the section mn due to a centrally applied load P.
Ans: o
max
= 8P/a
2

Hooghly Engineering & Technology College
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Strength of Materials (ME 302)
Problems
22

5. Find the equation of the boundary of the core (kern) for the case of an eccentrically loaded
strut of rectangular cross-section with width b and depth h. Ans: 6m/h + 6n/b = 1 where m
and n are the eccentricities about axes parallel to b and h respectively.
6. Show that the core (kern) of a circular cross-section is circular and find its radius if d is the
diameter of the section. Ans: d/8
7. A strut 2.5 m long is 60 mm in diameter. One end of the strut is fixed and the other end
hinged. Find the safe compressive load using Eulers formula allowing a factor of safety of 3.5.
Take, E = 2.1 10
5
N/mm
2
. Ans: Safe load = 120.52 kN
8. A column of mild steel 3.5 m long with both ends fixed has a T-section as shown in figure. Find
the safe axial load on the column. Take, crushing stress
c
= 335 N/mm
2
, = 1/7500 and a
factor of safety of 3. Ans: Safe load = 439.83 kN










9. A steel column is of length 8m and diameter 600mm with both ends hinged. Determine the
crippling load by Eulers formula. Take E = 2.110
5
N/mm
2
. (WBUT 2013) Ans: 206 MN
10. A mild steel tube 4 m long, 3 cm internal diameter and 4 mm thick is used as astrut with both
ends hinged. Find the collapsing load. What will be the crippling load if
i) both ends are built-in?
ii) one end is built-in one end is free. (WBUT 2013) Ans: i) 32.43 kN, ii) 2.027 kN