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How did I get this face?

Bio 100 Instructor Deborah Bird Worksheet #5




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Part 3 of worksheet #5
How did I get this face?
Mike Tveten
drawings by Chris Bondante
Modified by Deborah Bird
OBJ ECTIVES
Apply the principles of segregation and independent assortment to the inheritance of human
facial characteristics
Determine the phenotypes and genotypes for yourself and your parents
Define allele, gene, homozygous, heterozygous
Define and give an example of dominant and recessive alleles, codominance, incomplete
dominance, X-linked (sex-linked) traits, and polygenic traits

The purpose of this lab is to illustrate:
1. Mendel's Law of Segregation
2. Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
3. the relationship between genotype and phenotype
4. a variety of patterns of inheritance

INTRODUCTION

As you learned when you studied meiosis in the last unit, you received one half of your
genes from your mother and the other half from your father. The chromosomes went
through segregation from one another when they separated and made sex cells. Each
one of the sex cells carried a gene at a locus. When fertilization took place the
homologous chromosomes were restored and a new set of genetic material was
introduced into the egg from the sperm. The sperm cells were also segregated during
meiosis and depending upon which egg was fertilized by what sperm actually gives you
your individual genetic compliment called the genotype. Human variation happens not
only because of the large number of traits that exist within our species, but also because
of the random mixing of alleles that occurs during sexual reproduction. The expression
of the genes which we see physically is called the phenotype.

There are many patterns of inheritance some are relatively simple and straightforward,
while others are more complex. Many alleles (forms of a gene) are dominant, which
means that they mask or hide the expression of other alleles, called recessive alleles.
Recessive alleles are expressed only when their dominant counterparts are not present
in other words, when we inherit two copies of the recessive allele, one from each
parent. Remember, when we have two copies of the same allele, our genotype is
homozygous for that trait.

For example if you have a round face and inherited a R from mom and a R from dad ,
you are homozygous dominant for that trait. Dominant traits can be expressed even if
there is only one. The genotype Rr is still a round face. The large R is dominating the
rs expression. Even though you are heterozygous (Rr) for the trait. Recessive alleles
are expressed only in the homozygous condition (rr).

How did I get this face? Bio 100 Instructor Deborah Bird Worksheet #5


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If our genotype carries one copy of the dominant trait and one copy of the recessive
trait then it is called heterozygous. In individuals with two different alleles for a trait
heterozygous for the trait), neither allele completely masks the presence of the other,
and the result is a combination of both. Other traits show continuous variation
throughout a population and do not result in a distinctly dominant or recessive
phenotype. These traits are thought to be controlled by many genes and are called
polygenic traits. Another kind of interaction between genes is called epistasis. An
example of this is the interaction between the gene that codes for red hair and the gene
that codes for dark versus blonde. Thus, a person may be a strawberry blonde, or have
dark auburn hair, depending on how these two genes interact.

Some traits are carried on the X chromosome, and there is no counterpart on the Y
chromosome. Because females have two X chromosomes, a recessive allele might be
masked by the presence of a dominant allele. However, because males have only one X
chromosome, recessive traits are often expressed since there is no other allele to mask
them. These traits are called sex-linked, or more accurately, X-linked. Other traits may
be found only on the Y chromosome, so they are found only in males. These traits, such
as beard growth, are sex-limited , which means their expression is confined to one
gender or the other (in this example, males).

Most of the traits used in this activity have been simplified and represent a simplified
model. In this exercise you will be determining your phenotype and guessing at your
genotype . The last column of the table in worksheet 5 is answered mother, father, or
mixture. Before you do this exercise, you need to determine your phenotype, and make
your best guess about your genotype

Unless you have an identical twin, you are unique! Your appearance (your phenotype) is
determined by your genes (your genotype). Even people with the same parents have
slightly different genotypes and therefore different phenotypes. (Remember synapsis in
meiosis makes this possible.) Identical twins have identical genotypes because the
fertilized egg splits after fertilization and grows another individual.

Filling out the Table
Take a long, hard look at yourself in the mirror or have someone look at you. Then use
the illustrations that follow to determine your phenotype for the illustrated traits, such
as eye color, nose size, and freckles. Record your phenotype for each trait in Table 1 on
worksheet number 5.

Then try to determine your genotype, and record your genotype in the table. In a simple
dominant/recessive pattern of inheritance, if you show the recessive phenotype, you
know that you are homozygous recessive for that trait. However, if you show the
dominant phenotype, you may be homozygous or heterozygous. For this exercise,
assume you are heterozygous (that is, you carry both the dominant and recessive
alleles, unless the phenotype tells you the genotype. See the example below.

Remember -- PHENOTYPE is the PHYSICAL FEATURES -- what you see, such as
"rounded face" or "cleft chin." GENOTYPE is the GENES (alleles) present that produce
that phenotype. For example, if the phenotype is "rounded face," then the genotype
is either "RR" or "Rr." You would use Rr for this exercise. For air texture, curly is
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CC, wavy is Cc, straight is cc. In this case we can tell the genotype from the
phenotype.

Then, determine what alleles (gene form) will be in your gametes. Remember, if you are
heterozygous for a trait such as Rr you can produce gametes with one or the other of
your alleles, but not both in the same gamete. Remember that at the end of meiosis you
have separated these gene forms into a different gamete. Each egg or sperm carries
only one. For polygenic traits (ones in which two or more genes work together to create
the phenotype) such as eye color (E + C genes, each with dominant and recessive
alleles), list ALL the gamete combinations you can produce.

The following are illustrations to help you determine phenotypes and genotypes.
(Phenotypes are what you see, such as a "rounded or squarish" face. Genotypes are the
alleles, such as "RR" or "Rr" or "rr.")

1. Face shape (compare cheekbone width and jawbone width)

Rounded (RR or Rr square (rr


2. Chin prominence

Prominent (CC or Cc) less prominent (cc)


3. Chin shape

Round (RR or Rr square (rr

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4. Cleft chin

No cleft (CC or Cc) cleft (cc)




5. Ear size (incomplete dominance)

Large (EE) medium (Ee) small (ee)


6. Ear lobes

Free (FF or Ff) attached (ff)


7. Hairy ears (sex-linked on Y chromosome)
This affects the child ONLY if he is male. This gene is on the Y chromosome.
If the father has hairy ears, the child will have hairy ears. Females dont have
a Y chromosome. (Sorry, guys.)

Hair present (XY
H
) hair absent (XY
h
)
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8. Hair texture (incomplete dominance)

Curly (CC) wavy (Cc) straight (cc)

9. Widows peak

Present (WW or Ww) absent (ww)



10. Hair color (polygenic)
Several different genes interact to produce hair color. It is still not clear
exactly how many genes are involved, but for this exercise, we will assume
that there are four genes (A/a, B/b, C/c. D/d). The more dominant alleles
you have, the darker your hair color.

8 dominant alleles = black

3 dominant alleles = dark blonde

7 dominant alleles = very dark brown

2 dominant alleles = blonde

6 dominant alleles = dark brown

1 dominant allele = very light blonde

5 dominant alleles = brown

0 dominant alleles = almost white blonde

4 dominant alleles = light brown

11. Eye size (incomplete dominance)
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Large (BB) medium (Bb) small (bb)




12. Eye shape

Almond/wide (AA or Aa) round/narrow (aa)

13. Eye slant

Horizontal (HH or Hh) upward slant (hh)

14. Eye distance (incomplete dominance)

Close together (DD) medium (Dd) far apart (dd)

15. Eye lashes

Long (LL or Ll) short (ll)

16. Eye color (polygenic)
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Again, we have a polygenic trait for which the exact pattern of inheritance is
not clear. We will assume that two genes are involved. The first gene (E/e)
determines the pigment at the front of the iris. The second gene (C/c)
determines the color at the back of the iris.

EECC = almost black

Eecc = gray-blue

EECc = dark brown

eeCC = green

EEcc = brown

eeCc = dark blue

EeCC = brown with green flecks eecc = light blue

EeCc = hazel

17. Eyebrow thickness (bushiness)

Bushy (BB or Bb) fine (bb)


18. Eyebrow separation

Not connected (GG or Gg) connected (gg)

19. Eyebrow color (incomplete dominance)

Darker than hair (WW) same as hair (Ww) lighter than hair (ww)








20. Mouth length (incomplete dominance)
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Long (LL) medium (LL) short (LL)

21. Lip shape

Thick (TT or Tt) thin (tt)

22. Protruding lip (Hapsburg lip) (incomplete dominance)

Very protruding (HH) slightly protruding (Hh) absent (hh)

23. Lip color (incomplete dominance)

Red (RR) rosy pink (Rr) light pink (rr)

24. Dimples

Present (DD or Dd) absent (dd)






25. Nose size (incomplete dominance)
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Big (NN) medium (NN) small (NN)

26. Nose shape

Rounded (RR or Rr) pointed (rr)


27. Nostril shape

Rounded (RR or Rr) pointed (rr)


28. Freckles on cheeks

Present (FF or Ff) absent (ff)

29. Freckles on forehead

Present (FF or Ff) absent (ff)


30. Skin color (polygenic)
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We know that several genes, perhaps as many as seven, contribute to skin
color. For this exercise, assume that there are three genes involved (A/a,
B/b, C/c). The number of dominant alleles determines skin color (we use the
underside of the upper arm to determine skin color, since this area seldom is
exposed to sun).


6 dominant alleles = very dark black
5 dominant alleles = very dark brown
4 dominant alleles = dark brown
3 dominant alleles = medium brown
2 dominant alleles = light brown
1 dominant allele = fair
0 dominant alleles = very fair