Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer?

Try out the HTML to PDF API


Sign In Create Account
Cheresources.com Community Community Blog Ankur's_Chemical_Engg_Blog Heat Flux And Maximum Film Temperature For Fired Heaters
Google Site Search
Search...
New Content Home Forums Blogs Articles File Library Store FAQ Search FB
Heat Water Heaters Wall Heaters Fired
0
1 votes
Heat Flux And Maximum Film Temperature For
Fired Heaters
18 December 2012
Posted by ankur2061 in Technical
Home Depot Official
Site
www.HomeDepot.com
Latest Visitors
amiprocess
Today, 05:28 AM
Michelle McRobbie
Today, 05:27 AM
chinbas
Today, 05:12 AM
Chalapathi
Today, 05:08 AM
sandiphatkar
Today, 04:42 AM
Other Content: Most Active Topics ChE Links Legacy Articles Legacy Newsletters Contact Us
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
Today I was going through some write-up related to fired heaters from old manuals of a world-class
operations company and found some very good information related to "Heat Flux" and "Maximum Film
Temperature" for fired heaters used in various services. Although process design engineers working for
general engineering consulting firms could never think of designing a fired heater on their own, one of the
most common activity related to fired heaters would be the preparation of a process data sheet for a fired
heater by a process engineer. Data such as average and peak heat flux and maximum film temperature would be required to
be filled in the datasheet for a fired heater.
Before going into the figures for heat flux and maximum film temperature it is important to understand what these terms mean
in context to a fired heater.
In general heat flux is the main determinant for the tube area of a fired heater. It has the units kW / m
2
in SI units and Btu /
hr*ft
2
in English units. It is the rate of heat transmission through the tubes into the process fluid. The area used in the
specification of heat flux is usually the outside tube area in the radiant section. Heat flux can be classified as the average
heat flux and the peak heat flux for a fired heater.
Average Heat Flux
The average flux is obtained by dividing the duty of the radiant section by the total exposed outside tube area. This approach
is valid for "well-mixed" fireboxes where there is little variation of flue gas temperature throughout the box. (Steam reformer
heaters in hydrogen, ammonia and methanol plants are an important exception).
If the flux is too high in the radiant section of an existing heater, the only way to decrease it is by reducing the firing rate.
Peak or Maximum Heat Flux
Suppose a bank of tubes, with a center-to-center spacing of two tube diameters, is placed one or two tube diameters away
from a refractory wall and is uniformly fired from the opposite side of the wall then the side of the tube facing the flame will
receive direct radiation and the opposite side will receive radiation reflected from the wall. The hottest point on the tube will be
on the side facing the flame where the surface is at a right angle to the flux. This is the peak or maximum heat flux and it will
Shop Home Depot's Wide Range of
Whirlpool Brand Water Heaters Now!
QlikView 11 Available
Now
austino
Today, 04:33 AM
mggyi2006
Today, 03:56 AM
monsterh5
Today, 03:21 AM
Shet Gunz
Today, 03:06 AM
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
be about 1.8 times the average value.
When the bank of tubes is placed in the center of the firebox and is fired uniformly from two sides, the ratio of peak to
average flux will be 1.2. This illustrates the advantage of two-sided or double firing. Thus for a given peak flux, the average flux
will be 50% greater than in the case of single or one-sided firing.
For most fired heater applications the peak flux values are in the range of 47 to 69 kW/m
2
(15,000 to 22,000 Btu/hr*ft
2
) and
average flux values are in the range of 25 to 47 kW/m
2
(8,000 to 15,000 Btu/hr*ft
2
). Refer the attached table for average heat
flux values.
Maximum Inside Film Temperature
Flux, either peak or average, is a useful parameter to fix when specifying a fired heater for design. Excessively high flux will
cause tube overheating and even lead to damage of the heater refractory walls. But what is really of concern from the process
view point is the maximum inside fluid film temperature. This is the maximum temperature that the fluid sees.
The maximum temperature difference across the inside film can be calculated as the peak flux (adjusted to the basis of the
inside tube area) divided by the inside (convective) heat transfer coefficient. This difference when added to the maximum
process bulk temperature provides the maximum film temperature. Recommended maximum film temperatures for some
applications are provided in the attached table. Inside heat transfer coefficients range from a minimum of 0.11 kW/m
2
*K (20
Btu/ft
2
*h*degF) for gases up to approximately 5.7 kW/m
2
*K (1000 Btu/ft
2
*h*degF) for boiling water (steam generation).
Fouling
For heaters with with tubes known to be subject to inside fouling, the process engineer may specify a temperature
allowance for fouling. This temperature difference is added to the maximum inside film temperature to get the inside tube
metal temperature. It will affect the mechanical design of the tubes. Temperature allowances are in the range of 10 to 38 deg
C (50 to 100 deg F). Refer the attached table.
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API

So that is about it for heat flux and maximum film temperature for fired heaters. The table attached for recommended values
is the recommendation of a particular company. These values may be different based on design and operating experience of
another company and hence I advise the engineers to verify the figures for suitability to the fired heater design objectives of
any other company for which they are providing the data.
Hoping to have some comments on this entry from the readers of my blog.
Regards,
Ankur.
New Boiler Prices
QualitySmith.com/New_Boilers
How Much Will New Boilers Cost You?
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
chem101
Dec 29 2012 05:22 PM
ashrath
Apr 08 2013 08:19 AM
kem23
Oct 11 2013 09:26 AM
4 Comments
Ankur,
I real l y appreci ate that you take ti me and wri te these benefi ci al arti cl e for young engi neer l i ke us.
thank u for ur valuable info. kindly reply me back with the process design calculation for indirect
water bath heater if possible.
sir, how can i size the shell length and diameter of water bath indirect line heater
Thanks a lot sir for sharing this valuable info with us.

How Much Will New Boilers Cost You?
Enter Your Zip & Get Started Now!
TEP- Removable
Insulation
New Gas Furnace
Estimates
pdfcrowd.com open in browser PRO version Are you a developer? Try out the HTML to PDF API
Guidelines / Rules f or Posting Cheresources.com Community Community Blog Ankur's_Chemical_Engg_Blog Heat Flux And Maximum Film Temperature For Fired Heaters
sharp fire
Oct 14 2013 11:53 PM
Could you please post How to calculate Heater Efficiency/duty and Burner efficiency as well.

Thanks in advance
Mark Community Read Help Select Language Powered by Translate
Community Forum Sof tware by IP.Board 3.4.5