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Carbon and Alloy Specifications 8
AAR M-201-92 STEEL CASTINGS
These specifications cover carbon and alloy steel castings for locomotive and car equipment and for miscellaneous use graded as
A, B, C, D, and E. AAR Specification M-201 provides for all castings unless another AAR Specification for a particular product
provides for a variation.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsABC C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % % Hardness (BHN)
A Unannealed 60 30 22 30 108
160 0.32D 0.90D 0.04 0.04 1.50
A A or N 60 30 26 38 108
106 0.32D 0.90D 0.04 0.04 1.50
B N or NT 70 38 24 36 137
208 0.32D 0.90D 0.04 0.04 1.50
C NT or QT 90 60 22 45 179
241 0.32 1.85 0.04 0.04 1.50
D QT 105 85 17 35 211
285 0.32 1.85 0.04 0.04 1.50
E QT 120 100 14 30 241
311 0.32 1.85 0.04 0.04 1.50
A Grades D and E steel - composition of the steel, except for coupler locks, shall produce in the standard Jominy test the minimum hardness at 7/16 from the quenched end for the carbon composition as
follows, based on the initial composition: up to 0.25% carbon = 30 HRC minimum, 0.25-0.30% carbon = 33 HRC minimum, and 0.31-0.32% carbon = 35 HRC minimum
B Impact test - the steel shall possess properties determined by testing standard Charpy V-notch Type A specimens prepared as illustrated in Figure 11 in ASTM Designation A 370: grade B 15 ft-lbs @
20 F, grade C (NT) 15 ft-lbs @ 0 F, grade C (QT) 20 ft-lbs @ -40 F, grade D 20 ft-lbs @ -40 F, and grade E 20 ft-lbs @ -40 F
C Dynamic tear and nil ductility test temperature (alternate impact property test): grade B 60 F, grade C (NT) 60 F, grade C (QT) -60 F, grade D -60 F, and grade E -60 F (see original specification for full
details)
D Grades A and B steel for each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted to a maximum of 1.2%
ABS 2/1.7 HULL STEEL CASTINGS
Requirements cover carbon-steel castings intended to be used in hull construction and equipment as distinguished from high-
temperature applications.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % %
A, N, or NT 415 205 24 35
ABS 2/2.23 STEEL CASTINGS FOR MACHINERY, BOILERS, AND PRESSURE VESSELS
Requirements cover carbon-steel castings intended to be used in machinery, boiler, and pressure-vessel construction.
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 9
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi Mpa % %
1 A, N, or NT 415 205 24 35
2 A, N, or NT 485 250 22 30
3 A, N, or NT 415 205 24 35
4 A, N, or NT 485 250 22 35
ASTM A 27/A 27M 95 STEEL CASTINGS, CARBON, FOR GENERAL APPLICATION
This specification covers carbon steel castings for general applications that require up to 70 ksi (485 Mpa) minimum tensile
strength.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
GradeA Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests CB MnB P S Si NiC CrC MoC OtherC
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
N-1
0.25 0.75 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
N-2 A, N, NT, or QT
0.35 0.60 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
U-60-30
[415-205]
60 415 30 205 22 30
0.25 0.75 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
60-30
[415-205]
J03000
A, N, NT, or QT 60 415 30 205 24 35
0.30 0.60 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
65-35
[450-240]
J03001
A, N, NT, or QT 65 450 35 240 24 35
0.30 0.70 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
70-36
[485-250]
J03501
A, N, NT, or QT 70 485 36 250 22 30
0.35 0.70 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
70-40
[485-275]
J02501
A, N, NT, or QT 70 485 40 275 22 30
0.25 1.20 0.05 0.06 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.25 Cu 0.50
A Specify Class 1 (post weld heat treatment required) or Class 2 (no PWHT needed) in addition to grade designation
B For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted to a maximum of 1.40% for grades 70-40 and 1.00%
for other grades
C Supplementary requirement not required unless stipulated by customer - maximum content of unspecified elements; total maximum content of unspecified elements is 1.00%
ASTM A 148/A 148M 93b STEEL CASTINGS, HIGH STRENGTH, FOR STRUCTURAL PURPOSES
This specification covers carbon steel and alloy steel castings that are to be subjected to higher mechanical stresses than those
covered in Specification A 27/A 27M.
ABS 2/2.23 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 10
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA CB MnB P S SiB Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact
80-40
[550-275]
A, N, NT, or QT 80 550 40 275 18 30
0.05 0.06
80-50
[550-345]
A, N, NT, or QT 80 550 50 345 22 35
0.05 0.06
90-60
[620-415]
A, N, NT, or QT 90 620 60 415 20 40
0.05 0.06
105-85
[725-585]
J31575
A, N, NT, or QT 105 725 85 585 17 35
0.05 0.06
115-95
[795-655]
A, N, NT, or QT 115 795 95 655 14 30
0.05 0.06
130-115
[895-795]
A, N, NT, or QT 130 895 115 795 11 25
0.05 0.06
135-125
[930-860]
A, N, NT, or QT 135 930 125 860 9 22
0.05 0.06
150-135
[1035-930]
A, N, NT, or QT 150 1035 135 930 7 18
0.05 0.06
160-145
[1105-1000]
A, N, NT, or QT 160 1105 145 1000 6 12
0.05 0.06
165-150
[1140-1035]
A, N, NT, or QT 165 1140 150 1035 5 20
0.05 0.020
165-150L
[1140-1035L]
A, N, NT, or QT 165 1140 150 1035 5 20 20 ft-lb [27 J]
0.05 0.020
210-180
[1450-1240]
A, N, NT, or QT 210 1450 180 1240 4 15
0.05 0.020
210-180L
[1450-1240L]
A, N, NT, or QT 210 1450 180 1240 4 15 15 ft-lb [20 J]
0.05 0.020
260-210
[1795-1450]
A, N, NT, or QT 260 1795 210 1450 3 6
0.05 0.020
260-210L
[1795-1450L]
A, N, NT, or QT 260 1795 210 1450 3 6 6 ft-lb [8 J]
0.05 0.020
A Impact requirements are only applicable to the L grades; test at 40 F [40 C]
B Alloying elements shall be selected by the manufacturer unless otherwise specified
ASTM A 216/A 216M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, CARBON, SUITABLE FOR FUSION WELDING, FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE
ASTM A 148/A 148M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 11
This specification covers carbon steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, or other pressure-containing parts for high-temperature
service and of quality suitable for assembly with other castings or wrought-steel parts by fusion welding.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si NiE CrE MoE Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
WCA
J02502
A, N, NT 60
85
415
585
30 205 24 35
0.25B 0.70B 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.20 Cu 0.30E V 0.03
WCB
J03002
A, N, NT 70
95
485
655
36 250 22 35
0.30C 1.00C 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.20 Cu 0.30E V 0.03
WCC
J02503
A, N, NT 70
95
485
655
40 275 22 35
0.25D 1.20D 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50 0.50 0.20 Cu 0.30E V 0.03
A Quench and temper may only be applied if supplemental requirement S15 is specified
B For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.10%
C For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.28%
D For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.40%
E Total maximum content of residual elements is 1.00%, unless supplementary requirement S11 is specified
ASTM A 217/A 217M 95 STEEL CASTINGS, MARTENSITIC STAINLESS AND ALLOY, FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING PARTS, SUITABLE FOR HIGH-
TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers martensitic stainless steel and alloy steel castings for values, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-
containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature and corrosive service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
WC1
J12524
NT 1100F [595C] 65
90
450
620
35 240 24 35
0.25
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50AB 0.35AB
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.50AB W 0.10 AB
WC4
J12082
NT 1100F [595C] 70
95
485
655
40 275 20 35 0.20
0.05
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
0.70
1.10
0.50
0.80
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.50AC W 0.10 AC
WC5
J22000
NT 1100F [595C] 70
95
485
655
40 275 20 35 0.20
0.05
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045 0.60
0.60
1.00
0.50
0.90
0.90
1.20 Cu 0.50 AC W 0.10 AC
WC6
J12072
NT 1100F [595C] 70
95
485
655
40 275 20 35 0.20
0.05
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50AB
1.00
1.50
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.50 AB W 0.10 AB
WC9
J21890
NT 1250F [675C] 70
95
485
655
40 275 20 35 0.18
0.05
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50AB
2.00
2.75
0.90
1.20 Cu 0.50 AB W 0.10 AB
WC11
J11872
NT 1250F [675C] 80
105
550
725
50 345 18 45 0.15
0.21
0.50
0.80 0.020 0.015
0.30
0.60 0.50AB
1.00
1.50
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.35 AB V 0.03 AB AI 0.01 AB
C5
J42045
NT 1250F [675C] 90
115
620
795
60 415 18 35
0.20
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045 0.75 0.50AB
4.00
6.50
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.50 AB W 0.10 AB
C12
J82090
NT 1250F [675C] 90
115
620
795
60 415 18 35
0.20
0.35
0.65 0.04 0.045 1.00 0.50AB
8.00
10.00
0.90
1.20 Cu 0.50 AB W 0.10 AB
CI2A
J84090
NT 1350F [730C] 85
110
585
760
60 415 20 45
0.12
0.30
0.60 0.020 0.018
0.20
0.50 0.40
8.0
9.5
0.85
1.05
Cb 0.060 N 0.030 V 0.18
Cb 0.100 N 0.070 V 0.25A Al 0.040A
CA15
J91156
NT 1100F [595C] 90
115
620
795
65 450 18 30
0.15 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.50 1.00
11.5
14.0 0.50
A Maximum specified residual elements
B The total maximum content of specified residual elements = 1.00%
C The total maximum content of specified residual elements = 0.60%
ASTM A 216/A 216M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 12
ASTM A 352/A 352M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, FERRITIC AND MARTENSITIC, FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING PARTS, SUITABLE FOR LOW-
TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for low-
temperature service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % ImpactA
LCA
J02504
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
60
85
415
585
30 205 24 35 13(-25F) [18(-32)]
0.25B 0.70B 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50C 0.50 C 0.20 Cu 0.30 C V 0.30 C
LCB
J03003
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
65
90
450
620
35 240 24 35 13(-50) [18(-46)]
0.30B 1.00B 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50 C 0.50 C 0.20 C Cu 0.30 C V 0.03 C
LCC
J02505
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
70
95
485
655
40 275 22 35 15(-50) [20(-46)]
0.25B 1.20 B 0.04 0.045 0.60 0.50 C 0.50 C 0.20 C V 0.03 C
LC1
J12522
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
65
90
450
620
35 240 24 35 13(-75) [18(-59)]
0.25
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
0.45
0.65
LC2
J22500
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
70
95
485
655
40 275 24 35 15(-100) [20(-73)]
0.25
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
2.00
3.00
LC2-1
J42215
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
105
130
725
895
80 550 18 30 30(-100) [41(-73)]
0.22
0.55
0.75 0.04 0.045 0.60
2.50
3.50
1.35
1.85
0.30
0.60
LC3
J31550
NT or QT 1100F
[590C]
70
95
485
655
40 275 24 35 15(-150) [20(-101)]
0.15
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
3.00
4.00
LC4
J41500
NT or QT 1050F
[570C]
70
95
485
655
40 275 24 35 15(-175) [20(-115)]
0.15
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
4.00
5.00
LC9
J31300
QT 1050-1175F
[595-635C]
85 585 75 515 20 30 20(-320) [27(-196)]
0.13 0.90 0.04 0.045 0.45
8.50
10.0 0.50 0.20 Cu 0.30 V 0.03
CA6NM
J91540
NT 1050-1150F
[565-620C]
110
135
760
930
80 550 15 35 20(-100) [27(-73)]
0.06 1.00 0.04 0.045 1.00
3.5
4.5
11.5
14.0
0.4
1.0
A See original specification for full details units are in ft-lbs @ (F) and [J @ (C)]
B For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted up to a maximum of 1.10% manganese (Grade
LCA), 1.40% manganese (Grade LCC), and 1.28% manganese (Grade LCB)
C Specified residual elements the total content of these elements is 1.00% maximum
ASTM A 356/A 356M 98 STEEL CASTINGS, CARBON, LOW ALLOY AND STAINLESS STEEL, HEAVY WALLED FOR STEAM TURBINES
This specification covers one grade of martensitic stainless steel and several grades of ferritic steel castings for cylinders (shells),
value chests, throttle valves, and other heavy-walled castings for steam turbine applications.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS Ksi MPa Ksi MPa % %
1
J03502
NT 1100F [595C] 70 485 36 250 20 35
0.35A 0.70A 0.035 0.030 0.60
2
J12523
NT 1100F [595C] 65 450 35 240 22 35
0.25A 0.70A 0.035 0.030 0.60
0.45
0.65
5
J12540
NT 1100F [595C] 70 485 40 275 22 35
0.25A 0.70A 0.035 0.030 0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
6
J12073
NT 1100F [595C] 70 485 45 310 22 35
0.20
0.50
0.80 0.035 0.030 0.60
1.00
1.50
0.45
0.65
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 13
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS Ksi MPa Ksi MPa % %
8
J12073
NT 1100F [595C] 80 550 50 345 18 45
0.20
0.50
0.90 0.035 0.030
0.20
0.60
1.00
1.50
0.90
1.20
V 0.05
V 0.15
9
J21610
NT 1100F [595C] 85 585 60 415 15 45
0.20
0.50
0.90 0.035 0.030
0.20
0.60
1.00
1.50
0.90
1.20
V 0.20
V 0.35
10
J22090
NT 1100F [595C] 85 585 55 380 20 35
0.20
0.50
0.80 0.035 0.030 0.60
2.00
2.75
0.90
1.20
12
J80490
NT 1350F [730C] 85 585 60 415 20 - 0.08
0.12
0.3
0.6 0.02 0.01
0.2
0.5 0.4
8.0
9.5
0.85
1.05
V 0.18 Cb 0.06 N 0.03
V 0.25 Cb 0.10 N 0.07 Al 0.04
CA6NM
J91540
NT 1050F [565C] 110 760 80 550 15 35
0.06 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
3.5
4.5
11.5
14.0
0.4
1.0
A For each 0.01% reduction in carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% points of manganese over the maximum specified for that element may be permitted up to 1.00%
ASTM A 389/A 389M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, ALLOY, SPECIALLY HEAT-TREATED, FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING PARTS, SUITABLE FOR HIGH-
TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers alloy steel castings, which have been subjected to special heat treatment, for valves, flanges, fittings,
and other pressure-containing parts intended primarily for high-temperature service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % %
C23
J12080
NT 70 483 40 276 18 35 0.20 0.30
0.80
0.04 0.045 0.60 1.00
1.50
0.45
0.65
V 0.15
V 0.25
C24
J12092
NT 80 552 50 345 15 35 0.20 0.30
0.80
0.04 0.045 0.60 0.80
1.25
0.90
1.20
V 0.15
V 0.25
A Refer to original specification for additional information regarding temperature and time requirements for heat treatment
ASTM A 487/A 487M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, SUITABLE FOR PRESSURE SERVICE
This specification covers low-alloy steels, and martenistic stainless steels in the normalized and tempered, or quenched and
tempered condition suitable for pressure-containing parts. The weldability of the classes in the specification varies from readily
weldable to weldable only with adequate precautions, and the weldability of each class should be considered prior to assembly by
fusion welding.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (min. unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (max. percent unless range given)
Grade Class Austenitizing
Temperature
Media
A
Quenching
Cool Below
Tempering
TemperatureB
Tensile
StrengthH
Yield
Strength
Elong Red
Area
Hardness
(max)
Thickness
(max)
C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Residual Elements Total
min, F [C] F [C] F [C] Ksi Mpa ksi Mpa % % HRC (BHN) in [mm] Cu Ni Cr Mo Mo+W W V Residuals
1
J13002
A
B
C
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
A
L
A or L
450 [230]
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
1150 [620]
85
110
90
115
90
585
760
620
795
620
55
65
65
380
450
450
22
22
22
40
45
45 22 (235)
0.30 1.00 0.04 0.045 0.80 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.25 1.00L
2
J13005
A
B
C
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
A
L
A or L
450 [230]
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
1150 [620]
85
110
90
115
90
585
760
620
795
620
53
65
65
365
450
450
22
22
22
35
40
40 22 (235)
0.30
1.00
1.40 0.04 0.045 0.80
0.10
0.30 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.10 0.03 1.00
ASTM A 356/A 356M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 14
4
J13047
A
B
C
D
E
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
A or L
L
A or L
L
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
1150 [620]
1150 [620]
1100 [595]
90
115
105
130
90
100
115
620
795
725
895
620
690
795
60
85
60
75
95
415
585
415
515
655
18
17
18
17
15
40
35
35
35
35
22 (235)
22 (235)
0.30 1.00 0.04 0.045 0.80
0.40
0.80
0.40
0.80
0.15
0.30 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.60
6
J13855
A
B
1550 [845]
1550 [845]
A
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
115
120
795
825
80
95
550
655
18
12
30
25
0.05
0.38
1.30
1.70 0.04 0.045 0.80
0.40
0.80
0.40
0.80
0.30
0.40 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.60
7J
J12084
A 1650 [900] L 600 [315] 1100 [595] 115 795 100 690 15 30 2.5 [63.5] 0.05
0.20
0.60
1.00 0.04 0.045 0.80
0.70
1.00
0.40
0.80
0.40
0.60 0.50 0.10 0.60M
8
J22091
A
B
C
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
A
L
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
1250 [675]
1250 [675]
1250 [675]
85
110
105
100
585
760
725
690
55
85
75
380
585
515
20
17
17
35
30
35 22 (235)
0.05
0.20
0.50
0.90 0.04 0.045 0.80
2.00
2.75
0.90
1.10 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.60
9
J13345
A
B
C
D
E
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
1600 [870]
A or L
L
A or L
L
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
1150 [620]
1150 [620]
1100 [595]
90
105
90
100
115
620
725
620
690
795
60
85
60
75
95
415
585
415
515
655
18
16
18
17
15
35
35
35
35
35
22 (235)
22 (235)
0.05
0.33
0.60
1.00 0.04 0.045 0.80
0.75
1.10
0.15
0.30 0.50 0.50 0.10 0.03 1.00
10
J23015
A
B
1550 [845]
1550 [845]
A
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
100
125
690
860
70
100
485
690
18
15
35
35
0.30
0.60
1.00 0.04 0.045 0.80
1.40
2.00
0.55
0.90
0.20
0.40 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.60
11
J12082
A
B
1650 [900]
1650 [900]
A
L
600 [315]
600 [315]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
70
95
105
130
484
655
725
895
40
85
275
585
20
17
35
35
0.05
0.20
0.50
0.80 0.04 0.045 0.60
0.70
1.10
0.50
0.80
0.45
0.65 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.50
12
J22000
A
B
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
A
L
600 [315]
400 [205]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
70
95
105
130
485
655
725
895
40
85
275
585
20
17
35
35
0.05
0.20
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045 0.60
0.60
1.00
0.50
0.90
0.90
1.20 0.50 0.10 0.03 0.50
13
J13080
A
B
1550 [845]
1550 [845]
A
L
500 [260]
500 [260]
1100 [595]
1100 [595]
90
115
105
130
620
795
725
895
60
85
415
585
18
17
35
35
0.30
0.80
1.10 0.04 0.045 0.60
1.40
1.75
0.20
0.30 0.50 0.40 0.10 0.03 0.75
14
J15580
A 1550 [845] L 500 [260] 1100 [595] 120
145
825
1000
95 655 14 30
0.55
0.80
1.10 0.04 0.045 0.60
1.40
1.75
0.20
0.30 0.50 0.40 0.10 0.03 0.75
16
J31200
A 1600 [870]C A 600 [315] 1100 [595] 70
95
485
655
40 275 22 35
0.12K 2.10K 0.02 0.02 0.50
1.00
1.40 0.20 0.20 0.10 0.10 0.02 0.50
CA15
J91171
A
B
C
D
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
1750 [955]
A or L
A or L
A or L
A or L
400 [205]
400 [205]
400 [205]
400 [205]
900 [480]
1100 [595]
1150 [620]DE
1150 [260]DE
140
170
90
115
90
100
965
1170
620
795
620
690
110
130
65
60
75
760
895
450
415
515
10
18
18
17
25
30
35
35
22 (235)
22 (235)
0.15 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.50 1.00
11.5
14.0 0.50 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.50
CA15M
J91151
A 1750 [955] A or L 400 [205] 1100 [595] 90
115
620
795
65 450 18 30
0.15 1.00 0.040 0.040 0.65 1.0
11.5
14.0
0.15
1.0 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.50
CA6NM
J91540
A
B
1850 [1010]
1850 [1010]
A or L
A or L
200 [95]
200 [95]
1050-1150 [565-620]
1225-1275 [665-690]
EF
1050-1150 [565-620]
G
110
135
100
760
930
690
80
75
550
515
15
17
35
35 23 (255)I
0.06 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00
3.5
4.5
11.5
14.0
0.4
1.0 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.50
A A = air, L = liquid
B Minimum temperature unless range is specified
ASTM A 487/A 487M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 15
C Double austenitize
D Double temper with the final temper at a lower temperature than the intermediate temper
E Air cool to below 200F [95C] after first temper
F Intermediate
G Final
H Minimum ksi, unless range is given
I Test methods and definitions A 370, Table 3a does not apply to CA6NM the conversion given is based on CA6NM test coupons (for example, see ASTM STP 756)
J Proprietary steel composition
K For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.40% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted up to a maximum of 2.30%
L V 0.04-0.12
M V 0.03-0.10, B 0.002-0.006, Cu 0.15-0.50
ASTM A 597 93 CAST TOOL STEEL
This specification covers tool steel compositions for usable shapes cast by pouring directly into suitable molds and for master
heats for remelting and casting.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % %
CA-2
T90102
0.95
1.05 0.75 0.03 0.03 1.50
4.75
5.50
0.90
1.40
V 0.20
V 0.50A
CD-2
T90402
1.40
1.60 1.00 0.03 0.03 1.50
11.00
13.00
0.70
1.20
V 0.40 Co 0.70
V 1.00A Co 1.00A
CD-5
T90405
1.35
1.60 0.75 0.03 0.03 1.50
0.40
0.60A
11.00
13.00
0.70
1.20
V 0.35 Co 2.50
V 0.55 Co 3.50
CS-5
T91905
0.50
0.65
0.60
1.00 0.03 0.03
1.75
2.25 0.35
0.20
0.80 V 0.35
CM-2
T11302
0.78
0.88 0.75 0.03 0.03 1.00 0.25
3.75
4.50
4.50
5.50
V 1.25 W 5.50
V 2.20 W 6.70 Co 0.25
CS-7
T41907
0.45
0.55
0.40
0.80 0.03 0.03
0.60
1.00
3.00
3.50
1.20
1.60
CH-12
T90812
0.30
0.40 0.75 0.03 0.03 1.50
4.75
5.75
1.25
1.75
V 0.20 W 1.00
V 0.50 W 1.70
CH-13
T90813
0.30
0.42 0.75 0.03 0.03 1.50
4.75
5.75
1.25
1.75
V 0.75
V 1.20
CO-1
T91501
0.85
1.00
1.00
3.00 0.03 0.03 1.50
0.40
1.00
W 0.40
W 0.60 V 0.30
A Optional element tool steels have found satisfactory application, either with or without the element present; if desired they should be specified with order
ASTM A 732/A 732M 98 CASTINGS, INVESTMENT, CARBON AND LOW ALLOY, FOR GENERAL APPLICATION, AND COBALT ALLOY FOR HIGH
STRENGTH AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
This specification covers carbon and low-alloy steel castings made by the investment casting process.
ASTM A 487/A 487M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 16
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % % Stress RuptureB
1A
J02002
A 60 414 40 276 24 0.15
0.25
0.20
0.60 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 0.50C 0.35C Cu 0.50C Mo+W 0.25C
2A
J03011
A 65 448 45 310 25 0.25
0.35
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 0.50C 0.35C Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
2Q
J03011
QT 85 586 60 414 10 0.25
0.35
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 0.50C 0.35C Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
3A
J04002
A 75 517 48 331 25 0.35
0.45
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 0.50C 0.35C Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
3Q
J04002
QT 100 689 90 621 10 0.35
0.45
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 0.50C 0.35C Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
4A A 90 621 50 345 20 0.45
0.55
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 Cu 0.50D W 0.10D
4Q QT 125 862 100 689 5 0.45
0.55
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
1.00 Cu 0.50D W 0.10D
5N
J13052
NT 85 586 55 379 22
0.30
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80 0.50C 0.35C
V 0.05
V 0.15 Cu 0.50C Mo+W 0.25C
6N
J13512
NT 90 621 60 414 20
0.35
1.35
1.75 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80 0.50C 0.35C
0.25
0.55 Cu 0.50C W 0.25C
7Q
J13045
QT 150 1030 115 793 7 0.25
0.35
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25 Cu 0.50D W 0.10D
8Q
J14049
QT 180 1241 145 1000 5 0.35
0.45
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80 0.50C
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25 Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
9Q
J23055
QT 150 1030 115 793 7 0.25
0.35
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30 Cu 0.50D W 0.10D
10Q
J24054
QT 180 1241 145 1000 5 0.35
0.45
0.70
1.00 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30 Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
11Q
J12094
QT 120 827 100 689 10 0.15
0.25
0.40
0.70 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
1.65
2.00 0.35C
0.20
0.30 Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
12Q
J15048
QT 190 1310 170 1172 4 0.45
0.55
0.65
0.95 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80 0.50C
0.80
1.10
V 0.15
Cu 0.50C Mo+W 0.10C W 0.10C
13Q
J12048
QT 105 724 85 586 10 0.15
0.25
0.65
0.95 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.70
0.15
0.25 Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
14Q
J13051
QT 150 1030 115 793 7 0.25
0.35
0.65
0.95 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.70
0.15
0.25 Cu 0.50C W 0.10C
15A
J19966
A HRB 100 max. 0.95
1.10
0.25
0.55 0.04 0.045
0.20
0.80 0.50D
1.30
1.60 Cu 0.50D W 0.10D
21 as cast 52A 360A 10 23.0 [160] 0.20
0.30 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.00
1.75
3.75
25
29
5
6 Fe 3 B 0.007 Co remainder
31 as cast 55A 380A 10 30.0 [205] 0.45
0.55 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.00
9.5
11.5
24.5
26.5
W 7 B 0.005 Co remainder
W 8 B 0.015 Fe 2
A Test at elevated temperature, 1500F [820C]
B Stress rupture test at 1500F [820C], stress units in ksi [MPa], the minimum rupture life is 15 hours with a minimum elongation in 4D of 5%
C Total of unspecified elements is 1.00%
D Total of unspecified elements is 0.60%
ASTM A 757/A 757M 90 STEEL CASTINGS, FERRITIC AND MARTENISTIC FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING AND OTHER APPLICATIONS, FOR LOW-
TEMPERATURE SERVICE
ASTM A 732/A 732M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 17
This specification covers carbon and low-alloy steel castings for pressure-containing and other applications intended primarily for
petroleum and gas pipelines in areas subject to low-ambient temperatures. Castings shall be heat treated by normalizing and
tempering or liquid quenching and tempering. All classes are weldable under proper conditions. Hardenability of some grades
may limit useable section size.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS Ksi MPa Ksi MPa % % ImpactB
A1Q
J03002
QT 1100F [595C] 65 450 35 240 24 35 13(-50) [17(-46)]
0.30 1.00 0.025 0.03 0.60 0.50E 0.40 E 0.25 E V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
A2Q
J02503
QT 1100F [595C] 70 485 40 275 22 35 15(-50) [20(-46)]
0.25D 1.20D 0.025 0.03 0.60 0.50 E 0.40 E 0.25 E V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
B2N, B2Q
J22501
NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
70 485 40 275 24 35 15(-100) [20(-73)]
0.25
0.50
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60
2.0
3.0 0.40 E 0.25 E V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
B3N, B3Q
J31500
NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
70 485 40 275 24 35 15(-150) [20(-101)]
0.15
0.50
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60
3.0
4.0 0.40 E 0.25 E V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
B4N, B4Q
J41501
NT or QT 1050F
[595C]
70 485 40 275 24 35 15(-175) [20(-115)]
0.15
0.50
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60
4.0
5.0 0.40 E 0.25 E V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
C1Q
J12582
QT 1100F [595C] 75 515 55 380 22 35 15(-50) [20(-46)]
0.25 1.20 0.025 0.03 0.60
1.5
2.0 0.40 E
0.15
0.30 V 0.30 E Cu 0.50 E
D1N1, D1Q1
J22092
NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
85
115
585
795
55 380 20 35 C
0.20
0.40
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60 0.50 E
2.0
2.75
0.90
1.20 V 0.03E Cu 0.50E W 0.10 E
D1N2, D1Q2
J22092
NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
95
125
655
860
75 515 18 35 C
0.20
0.40
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60 0.50 E
2.0
2.75
0.90
1.20 V 0.03E Cu 0.50E W 0.10 E
D1N3, D1Q3
J22092
NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
105
135
725
930
85 585 15 30 C
0.20
0.40
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60 0.50 E
2.0
2.75
0.90
1.20 V 0.03E Cu 0.50E W 0.10 E
E1Q
J42220
QT 1100F [595C] 90 620 65 450 22 40 30(-100) [41(-73)]
0.22
0.50
0.80 0.025 0.03 0.60
2.5
3.90
1.35
1.85
0.35
0.60 V 0.03F Cu 0.50 F
E2N1, E2Q1 NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
90
120
620
825
70 485 18 35 30(-100) [41(-73)]
0.20
0.40
0.70 0.020 0.020 0.60
2.75
3.90
1.50
2.0
0.40
0.60 V 0.30F Cu 0.50F W 0.10 F
E2N2, E2Q2 NT or QT 1100F
[595C]
105
135
725
930
85 585 15 30 20(-100) [27(-73)]
0.20
0.40
0.70 0.020 0.020 0.60
2.75
3.90
1.50
2.0
0.40
0.60 V 0.30F Cu 0.50F W 0.10 F
E2N3, E2Q3 NT QT 1100F
[595C]
115
145
795
1000
100 690 13 30 15(-100) [20(-73)]
0.20
0.40
0.70 0.020 0.020 0.60
2.75
3.90
1.50
2.0
0.40
0.60 V 0.30F Cu 0.50F W 0.10 F
E3N
J91550
NT 1050-1150F
[565-620C]
110 760 80 550 15 35 20(-100) [27(-73)]
0.06 1.00 0.030 0.020 1.00
3.5
4.5
11.5
14.0
0.40
1.0 Cu 0.50G W 0.10G
A Refer to the original specification for additional information on toughness requirements and effective section size information
B See original specification for full details units are in ft-lbs @ (F) and [J @ (C)]
C Requirements shall be subject to agreements between the manufacturer and the purchaser
D For each 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% manganese over the maximum specified will be permitted up to 1.40%
E Total of residuals, including phosphorus and sulfur, is 1.00%
F Total of residuals, including phosphorus and sulfur, is 0.70%
G Total of residuals, including phosphorus and sulfur, is 0.50%
ASTM A 915/A 915M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, CARBON, AND ALLOY, CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS SIMILAR TO STANDARD WROUGHT GRADES
This specification covers carbon and low-alloy steel castings having chemical analyses similar to that of the standard wrought
grades.
ASTM A 757/A 757M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 18
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
SC 1020
J02003
as cast, A, N, NT, or
QT
0.18
0.23
0.40
0.80 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1025
J02508
as cast, A, N, NT, or
QT
0.22
0.28
0.40
0.80 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1030
J03012
A, N, NT, or QT 0.28
0.34
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1040
J04003
A, N, NT, or QT 0.37
0.44
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1045
J04502
A, N, NT, or QT 0.43
0.50
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 4130
J13502
A, N, NT, or QT 0.28
0.33
0.40
0.80 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25
SC 4140
J14045
A, N, NT, or QT 0.38
0.43
0.70
1.10 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25
SC 4330
J23259
A, N, NT, or QT 0.28
0.33
0.60
0.90 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30
SC 4340
J24053
A, N, NT, or QT 0.38
0.43
0.60
0.90 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30
SC 8620
J12095
A, N, NT, or QT 0.18
0.23
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
SC 8625
J12595
A, N, NT, or QT 0.23
0.28
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
SC 8630
J13095
A, N, NT, or QT 0.28
0.33
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
ASTM A 958 96 STEEL CASTINGS, CARBON, AND ALLOY, WITH TENSILE REQUIREMENTS, CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS SIMILAR TO
STANDARD WROUGHT GRADES
This specification covers carbon and low-alloy steel castings having chemical analyses similar to that of the standard wrought
grades.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Requirements/Grade SuitabilityAC C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS
65/35 70/36 80/40 80/50 90/60 105/85 115/96 130/115 135/125 150/135 160/145 165/150 210/180
SC 1020
J02003
A, N, NT, or QT X X 0.18
0.23
0.40
0.80 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1025
J02508
A, N, NT, or QT X X 0.22
0.28
0.40
0.80 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1030
J03012
A, N, NT, or QT X X X X 0.28
0.34
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1040
J04003
A, N, NT, or QT XB X X X X 0.37
0.44
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 1045
J04502
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB X X X X X 0.43
0.50
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.040
0.30
0.60
SC 4130
J13502
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB X X X X X X X X 0.28
0.33
0.40
0.80 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25
SC 4140
J14045
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB XB XB X X X X X X X X 0.38
0.43
0.70
1.10 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.80
1.10
0.15
0.25
ASTM A 915/A 915M Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 19
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Requirements/Grade SuitabilityAC C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS
65/35 70/36 80/40 80/50 90/60 105/85 115/96 130/115 135/125 150/135 160/145 165/150 210/180
SC 4330
J23259
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB XB XB X X X X X X X X X 0.28
0.33
0.60
0.90 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30
SC 4340
J24053
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB XB XB XB X X X X X X X X 0.38
0.43
0.60
0.90 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
1.65
2.00
0.70
0.90
0.20
0.30
SC 8620
J12095
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB X X X X X 0.18
0.23
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
SC 8625
J12595
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB X X X X X X X 0.23
0.28
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
SC 8630
J13095
A, N, NT, or QT XB XB X X X X X X X X 0.28
0.33
0.60
1.00 0.035 0.040
0.30
0.60
0.40
0.70
0.40
0.60
0.15
0.25
A X denotes that the properties may be achieved by at least one of the heat treatments for this specification
B These grades are likely to significantly exceed the minimum strength levels; therefore, problems may be experienced when trying to produce castings to low hardness values
C Tensile requirements for the different classes given in the table below
TENSILE REQUIREMENTS
Class 65/35 70/36 80/40 80/50 90/60 105/85 115/95 130/115 135/125 150/135 160/145 165/150 210/180
Tensile (ksi) 65 70 80 80 90 105 115 130 135 150 160 165 210
Tensile [MPa] 450 485 550 550 620 725 795 895 930 1035 1105 1140 1450
Yield (ksi) 35 36 40 50 60 85 95 115 125 135 145 150 180
Yield [MPa] 240 250 275 345 415 585 655 795 860 930 1000 1035 1240
Elong. (%) 24 22 18 22 18 17 14 11 9 7 6 5 4
Red. A (%) 35 30 30 35 35 35 30 25 22 18 12 10 8
FEDERAL QQ-S-681F STEEL CASTINGS
This specification covers mild-to-medium-strength carbon steel castings for general application as described in ASTM A 27 and
high-strength steel castings for structural purposes as described in ASTM A 148.
Canceled May 20, 1985 use ASTM A 27 and ASTM A 148
ISO 3755 CAST CARBON STEELS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING
This International Standard specifies requirements for eight grades of heat-treated cast carbon steels for general engineering
purposes. Four of the grades have a restricted chemical composition to ensure uniform weldability.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIESA (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONH, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield StrengthD
ElongG Red A
Other TestsG CI Mn P S Si NiJ CrJ MoJ OtherJ
and UNS ksi MPa ksi Mpa % % Impact (J)
200-400 400
550
200 25 25 30
0.035 0.035
200-400WC 400
550
200 25 25 45
0.25 1.00 0.035 0.035 0.60 0.40 0.35 0.15 Cu 0.40 V 0.05
230-450 450
600
230 22 22 25
0.035 0.035
230-450WC 450
600
230 22 22 45
0.25 1.20 0.035 0.035 0.60 0.40 0.35 0.15 Cu 0.40 V 0.05
270-480 480
630
270E 18 18 22
0.035 0.035
ASTM A 958 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 20
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIESA (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONH, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield StrengthD
ElongG Red A
Other TestsG CI Mn P S Si NiJ CrJ MoJ OtherJ
and UNS ksi MPa ksi Mpa % % Impact (J)
270-480WC 480
630
270E 18 18 22
0.25 1.20 0.035 0.035 0.60 0.40 0.35 0.15 Cu 0.40 V 0.05
340-550 550
700
340F 15 15 20
0.035 0.035
340-550WC 550
700
340F 15 15 20
0.25 1.50 0.035 0.035 0.60 0.40 0.35 0.15 Cu 0.40 V 0.05
A See original specification for additional details on mechanical properties
B The type of heat-treatment is left to the discretion of the manufacturer, unless specifically agreed upon at the time of ordering
C The W-grades restrict the chemical composition and may be ordered to ensure uniform weldability
D If measurable, the upper yield stress, otherwise the 0.2% proof stress
E The casting will have an upper yield stress of [260 Mpa] and a tensile strength of [500-650 MPa] in sections from [28 mm] up to [40 mm]
F The casting will have an upper yield stress of [300 Mpa] and a tensile strength of [570-720 MPa] in sections from [28 mm] up to [40 mm]
G By choice, according to the order
H The choice of chemical composition in the non-weldable grades shall be left to the discretion of the manufacturer
I For each 0.01% reduction of carbon below 0.25%, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted, to a maximum of 1.20% for grade 200-400W and to 1.40% for grade
270-480W
J Maximum content of residual elements, the sum of which shall not exceed 1.00%
ISO 4991 STEEL CASTINGS FOR PRESSURE PURPOSES
See original specification for details.
ISO 9477 HIGH STRENGTH CAST STEELS FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL PURPOSES
This International Standard specifies requirements for four grades of heat-treated cast carbon and alloy steels for general
engineering and structural purposes.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIESA (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact (J)
410-620 620
770
410 16 40 20
0.035 0.035 0.60
540-720 720
870
540 14 35 20
0.035 0.035 0.60
620-820 820
970
620 11 30 18
0.035 0.035 0.60
840-1030 1030
1180
840 7 22 15
0.035 0.035 0.60
A See original specification for additional details on mechanical properties
B The type of heat-treatment is left to the discretion of the manufacturer, unless specifically agreed upon at the time of ordering
ISO DIS 13521 AUSTENITIC MANGANESE STEEL CASTINGS
This International Standard specifies austenitic manganese cast steels for wear resistant service. The grades covered by this
International Standard will experience maximum service life in applications where the surface of the castings is subject to impact.
ISO 3755 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 21
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Testsc C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
GX120MnMo7-1 ST [1040 C] & WQ 1.05
1.35
6.0
8.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
0.90
1.20
GX110MnMo12-1 ST [1040 C] & WQ 0.75
1.35
11.0
14.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
0.90
1.20
GX100Mn13A ST [1040 C] & WQ 0.90
1.05
11.0
14.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
GX120Mn13A ST [1040 C] & WQ 1.05
1.35
11.0
14.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
GX120MnCr13-2 ST [1040 C] & WQ 1.05
1.35
11.0
14.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
1.50
2.50
GX120MnCr13-3 ST [1040 C] & WQ 1.05
1.35
11.0
14.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
3.0
4.0
GX120Mn17A ST [1040 C] & WQ B 1.05
1.35
16.0
19.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
GX90MnMo14 as cast 0.70
1.00
13.0
15.0 0.070 0.045
0.30
0.60
1.00
1.80
GX120MnCr17-2 ST [1040 C] & WQ 1.05
1.35
16.0
19.0 0.060 0.045
0.30
0.90
1.50
2.50
A These grades are sometimes used for non-magnetic service
B For castings with thicknesses less than [45 mm] and containing less than 0.8% carbon, heat treatment is not required
C Bend test, hardness test, and microstructure shall be performed when agreed upon between the purchaser and the manufacturer see original specification for more details
ISO WD 14737(c) CAST CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS FOR GENERAL USE
See original specification for details.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.1 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This Sections gives the general requirements for steel castings intended for use in the construction of ships, other marine
structures, machinery, boilers, pressure vessels, and piping systems.
Castings are to be made at foundries approved by LR. See the original specification for additional information such as general test samples, non-destructive examination, defective casting rectification,
and identification of castings.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.2 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 2: CASTINGS FOR SHIP AND OTHER STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
The requirements for carbon-manganese steel castings intended for ship and other structural applications where the design and
acceptance tests are related to mechanical properties at ambient temperature are given in this Section.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo OtherB
ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact
Normal A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
400 200 25 40
0.23
0.70
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 E E E CuE
Special A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
400 200 25 40 [27 J @ 0 C]
0.23
0.70
1.60 0.035 0.035 0.60 E E E
Al 0.015CD
Al 0.080CD CuE
ISO DIS 13521 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 22
A See original specification for full details on required mechanical tests - castings used in ship construction for the stern-frame, rudder, and propeller shaft supports are to be examined by ultrasonic and
magnetic particle methods
B For the Special grade, the nitrogen content is to be determined
C The total aluminum content may be determined instead of the acid soluble content; in which case the total aluminum content is to be 0.020 0.10%
D Grain refining elements other than aluminum may be used subject to special agreement with LR
E Total of residuals is 0.80% maximum
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.3 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 3: CASTINGS FOR MACHINERY CONSTRUCTION
This Section gives the material requirements for carbon-manganese steel castings intended for use in machinery construction and
which are not within the scope of Sections 4 to 7.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsB CC Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
400 200 25 40
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
440 220 22 30
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
480 240 20 27
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
520 260 18 25
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
560 300 15 20
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A, N, NT [550C], or
QT [550]
600 320 13 20
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40D 0.30D 0.15D Cu 0.30D
A Stress relief may be required depending on what type of part is cast; see original specifications for additional information
B Non-destructive examination varies with the type of part that is cast; see original specifications for additional information
C Castings which are intended for parts of a welded fabrication are to be of weldable quality with a carbon content generally not exceeding 0.23%
D Total of residuals is 0.80% maximum
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.4 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 4: CASTINGS FOR CRANKSHAFTS
This Section gives the requirements for carbon and carbon-manganese steel castings for semi-built and fully built crankshafts.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.2 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 23
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA CB Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact
A & FC to [300C], or NT
[550C] & FC to [300C]
400 200 28 45 [32 J @ ambient]
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A & FC to [300C], or NT
[550C] & FC to [300C]
440 220 26 45 [28 J @ ambient]
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A & FC to [300C], or NT
[550C] & FC to [300C]
480 240 24 40 [25 J @ ambient]
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A & FC to [300C], or NT
[550C] & FC to [300C]
520 260 22 40 [20 J @ ambient]
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A & FC to [300C], or NT
[550C] & FC to [300C]
550 275 20 35 [18 J @ ambient]
0.40
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A Each casting is to be examined by ultrasonic testing, and magnetic particle or dye penetrant examination is to be carried out over all surfaces
B See original specification for full details on rectification of defective castings - weld repairs are not permitted if the carbon content exceeds 0.30%
C Total of residuals is 0.80% maximum
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.5 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 5: CASTINGS FOR PROPELLERS
This Section gives the requirements for cast steel propellers and propeller blades in carbon-manganese, low alloy and stainless
steels. The requirements for copper alloy propellers and blades are given in Chapter 9.1.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
Ksi MPa ksi MPa % % ImpactB
Carbon-
manganese
A, N, or NT [550C] 400 200 25 40 [20 J]
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
Low alloy A, N, or NT [550C] 440 245 20 25 [20 J
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
Martensitic
stainless
A, N, or NT [550C] 540 380 19 20 [20 J]
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
Martensitic
stainless
A, N, or NT [550C] 750 550 19 [30 J]
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
Austenitic
stainless
A, N, or NT [550C] 450 180 35 35
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
Duplex
stainless
A, N, or NT [550C] 590 370 20 35 [20 J]
0.25
0.50
1.60 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C 0.15C Cu 0.30C
A See original specification for full details such as non-destructive testing, rectification of defective castings, identification, and certification
B When a general service notation Ice Class 1AS, 1A, 1B, or 1C is required the tests are to be made at [10 C]; however, for general service or where the notation Ice Class 1D is required the tests are to
be made at [0 C].
C Total of residuals is 0.80% maximum
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.6 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 6: CASTINGS FOR BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND PIPING
SYSTEMS
This Section gives the requirements for carbon-manganese and alloy steel castings for boilers, pressure vessels and piping
systems for use at temperatures not lower than 0 C.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.4 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 24
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
Ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
Carbon-
manganese
A, N, NT, or QT 485
655
275 22 25
0.25
0.50
1.20 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40B 0.30B 0.15B Cu 0.30B
Mo A, N, NT, or QT 460
590
260 18 30
0.20
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C 0.30C
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.30C
1Cr Mo A, N, NT, or QT 480
630
280 17 20
0.20
0.50
0.80 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C
1.00
1.50
0.45
0.65 Cu 0.30C
2Cr 1Mo A, N, NT, or QT 540
630
325 17 20
0.18
0.40
0.70 0.040 0.040 0.60 0.40C
2.00
2.75
0.90
1.20 Cu 0.30C
Cr Mo V A, N, NT, or QT 510
660
295 17 20 0.10
0.15
0.40
0.70 0.030 0.030 0.45 0.40C
0.30
0.50
0.40
0.60
V 0.22
V 0.30 Cu 0.30C
A See original specification for full details such as non-destructive examination and mechanical properties for design purposes
B Total of residuals is 0.80% maximum
C Residual element
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.7 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 7: FERRITIC STEEL CASTINGS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This Section gives the requirements for castings in carbon-manganese and nickel alloy steels intended for use in liquefied gas
piping systems where the design temperature is lower than 0 C, and for other applications where guaranteed impact properties at
low temperatures are required.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
Ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact
400 Carbon-
manganese
N, NT, or QT 400
550
200 25 40 [27 J @ -60 C]B
0.25
0.70
1.60 0.030 0.030 0.60 0.80 0.25C 0.15C Cu 0.30C V 0.03C
430 Carbon-
manganese
N, NT, or QT 430
580
215 23 35 [27 J @ -60 C]B
0.25
0.70
1.60 0.030 0.030 0.60 0.80 0.25C 0.15C Cu 0.30C V 0.03C
460 Carbon-
manganese
N, NT, or QT 460
610
230 22 30 [27 J @ -60 C]B
0.25
0.70
1.60 0.030 0.030 0.60 0.80 0.25C 0.15C Cu 0.30C V 0.03C
490 2Ni N, NT, or QT 490
640
275 20 35 [34 J @ -70 C]
0.25
0.50
0.80 0.030 0.025 0.60
2.00
3.00 0.25C 0.15C Cu 0.30C V 0.03C
490 3Ni N, NT, or QT 490
640
275 20 35 [34 J @ -95 C]
0.15
0.50
0.80 0.025 0.020 0.60
3.00
4.00 0.25C 0.15C Cu 0.30C V 0.03C
A See original specification for full details
B The test temperature for carbon-manganese steels may be [5 C] below the design temperature if the latter is above [55 C], with a maximum test temperature of [20 C]
C Total of residuals is 0.60% maximum
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.9 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 9: STEEL CASTINGS FOR CONTAINER CORNER FITTINGS
This Section gives the requirements for cast steel corner fittings used in the fabrication of freight and tank containers. The fittings
are also to comply with the requirements of the latest edition of International Standard ISO 1161.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.6 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 25
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsA C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
N or QT [550C] 430
600
220 25 40
0.20D
0.90
1.50 0.035 0.035 0.50 0.30B 0.25B 0.08B Cu 0.20B Al 0.015C
A See original specification for full details such as ultrasonic or radiographic non-destructive examination, repair of defects, identification, and certification
B Total of residuals is 0.70% maximum
C The total aluminum content may be determined instead of the acid soluble content; in such cases the total aluminum content is to be not less than 0.02% - aluminum may be replaced partly or totally by
other grain refining elements as stated in the approved specification
D The carbon equivalent must not exceed 0.45%
MIL-C-24707/1 CASTINGS, FERROUS, FOR MACHINERY AND STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
This specification covers steel castings for machinery and structural applications below 775 F where impact strength may be a
consideration.
PREVIOUS SPECIFICATION
MIL-S-15083B
(grade)
REPLACEMENT SPECIFICATION
MIL-C-24707/1
ASTM specification (grade)
FEDERAL GRADE
QQ-S-681F
ASTM specification (grade)
EQUIVALENT GRADE
MIL-C-24707/1
ASTM specification (grade)
(CW) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCA) A 27 (N-1) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCA) or A 217 (WC1)
(B) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCA) A 27 (N-2) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCA) or A 217 (WC1)
(65-35) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCB) A 27 (U60-30) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCB) or A 217 (WC1)
(70-36) A 757 (A2Q) or A 216 (WCB, WCC) A 27 (60-30) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCB) or A 217 (WC1)
(80-40) A 757 (A2Q) or A 487 (2 class A, B, C) A 27 (65-35) A 757 (A1Q) or A 216 (WCB) or A 217 (WC1)
(80-50) A 757 (C1Q) or A 487 (2 class A, B, C) A 27 (70-36) A 757 (A2Q) or A 216 (WCB, WCC)
(90-60) A 757 (E1Q) or A 487 (4 class A) A 27 (70-40) A 757 (A2Q) or A 216 (WCC)
(100-70) A 757 (E2N1/E2Q1) A 148 (80-40) A 757 (A2Q) or A 487 (2 class A, B, C)
(105-85) A 757 (E2N2/E2Q2) or A 487 (4 class B) A 148 (80-50) A 757 (C1Q) or A 487 (2 class A, B, C)
(120-95) A 757 (E2N3/E2Q3) or A 487 (14 class A) A 148 (90-60) A 757 (E1Q) or A 487 (4 class A)
(150-125) Special application only A 148 (105-85) A 757 (E2N2/E2Q2) or A 487 (4 class B)
A 148 (120-95) A 757 (E2N3/E2Q3) or A 487 (14 class A)
Additional notes for specification are as follows; see original military specification booklet for further information, including Quality Assurance Provisions. The specified residual elements shall be
determined for carbon steels. When no impact requirement is given, there shall be a requirement of 20 ft-lbs @ 10 F; except for deck applications, which shall meet a requirement of 20 ft-lbs @ -20 F.
When specified, the stress relieving temperature shall be 50 F [30 C] but not more than 100 F [60 C] below the tempering temperature; mechanical properties shall be determined after the stress relief
heat treatment.
MIL-C-24707/2 CASTINGS, FOR PRESSURE CONTAINING PARTS SUITABLE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers alloy steel castings for machinery, structural, and pressure containing parts for high temperature
applications.
PREVIOUS SPECIFICATION
MIL specification (grade)
REPLACEMENT SPECIFICATION
MIL-C-24707/2
ASTM specification (grade)
MIL-S-870B A 217 (WC1)
MIL-S-15464B(SHIPS) (1) A 217 (WC6)
MIL-S-15464B(SHIPS) (2) A 217 (WC9)
MIL-S-15464B(SHIPS) (3) A 389 (C23)
Additional notes for specification are as follows; see original military specification booklet for further information, including Quality Assurance Provisions. When specified, the stress relieving temperature
shall be 50 F [30 C] but not more than 100 F [60 C] below the tempering temperature; mechanical properties shall be determined after the stress relief heat treatment.
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.9 Continued
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 26
MIL-S-870B STEEL CASTINGS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOY
Canceled January 27, 1989 use MIL-C-24707/2, grade WC1
MIL-S-15083B(NAVY) STEEL CASTINGS
Canceled January 27, 1989 use MIL-C-24707/1
MIL-S-15464B(SHIPS) STEEL ALLOY, CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM; CASTINGS
Canceled January 27, 1989 use MIL-C-24707/2
MIL-S-23008D(SH) STEEL CASTINGS, ALLOY, HIGH YIELD STRENGTH (HY-80 AND HY-100)
This specification covers grade HY-80 and grade HY-100 steel castings intended for critical structural applications where a
weldable, notch-tough, high-strength material is required.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo OtherC
And UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % % Impact
HY-80A
J42015
QT 1190F [643C] 80
99.5
552
686
20 35 B
0.20
0.55
0.75 0.014 0.008 0.50
2.75
3.25
1.35
1.60
0.30
0.60 V 0.03 Ti 0.02 Cu 0.25 As 0.025 Sn 0.030 Sb 0.025
HY-100A
J42240
QT 1150F [621C] 100
120
690
793
18 30 B
0.22
0.55
0.75 0.014 0.008 0.50
3.00
3.50
1.35
1.65
0.30
0.60 V 0.03 Ti 0.02 Cu 0.25 As 0.025 Sn 0.030 Sb 0.025
A Chemical, tension test, Charpy V-notch, and drop-weight test shall be performed on the castings (see original military specification booklet for further information)
B Impact requirements for material in cross-section greater than or equal to 1/2 [13 mm]: 50 ft-lbs [68 J] @ -100 F [-73 C], or 70 ft-lbs [95 J] @ 0 F [-18 C]
C Element shall not be added intentionally
MIL-S-46052A(MR) STEEL CASTINGS, HIGH STRENGTH, LOW ALLOY
This specification covers high strength, low alloy, steel castings.
Canceled May 31, 1983 use ASTM A 148 as follows: for MIL class 180-150 use grade 165-150L, for MIL class 220-180 use grade 210-180L, and for MIL class 260-210 use grade 260-210L.
SAE J435c AUTOMOTIVE STEEL CASTINGS
These specifications cover steel castings used in the automotive and allied industries (last revised July 1974).
Carbon and Alloy Specifications 27
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa Ksi MPa % % Hardness (BHN)C
0022
J01700 187
0.12
0.22
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.045 0.60 B F
0025
J02507
60 413.7 30 206.8 22 30
187 0.25E 0.75E 0.040 0.045 0.80 B F
0030
J03010
65 448.2 35 241.3 24 35 131
187 0.30E 0.70E 0.040 0.045 0.80 B F
0050A
J04501
85 586.0 45 310.3 16 24 170
229
0.40
0.50
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.045 0.80 B F
0050BA
J04501
100 689.5 70 482.6 10 15 207
255
0.40
0.50
0.50
0.90 0.040 0.045 0.80 B F
080 80 551.6 50 344.7 22 35 163
207 0.040 0.045 B F
090 90 620.5 60 413.7 20 40 187
241 0.040 0.045 B F
0105B 105 723.9 85 586.0 17 35 217
248 0.040 0.045 B F
0120B 120 827.4 95 655.0 14 30 248
311 0.040 0.045 B F
0150B 150 1034.2 125 861.8 9 22 311
363 0.040 0.045 B F
0175B 175 1206.6 145 999.7 6 21 363
415 0.040 0.045 B F
HA NQ 1650F, A 1600F D 0.25
0.34
HB NQ 1650F, A 1600F D 0.25
0.34
HC NQ 1600F, A 1550F D 0.25
0.34
A Properties require a liquid quench and temper (casting section should be 1 or less)
B Hardenability requirements when specified
C Obtain from parts in location not over 3 thickness
D HRC hardness per distance from quench (see original specification for full details)
E For each reduction of 0.01% carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted to a maximum of 1% manganese
F 0.003 0.007% B with 1.35% manganese maximum may be used as an optional alloying element when agreed upon
SAE J435c Continued
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High Alloy Specifications 30
ASTM A 128/A128M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, AUSTENITIC MANGANESE
This specification covers Hadfield austenitic manganese steel castings and alloy modifications.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
GradeAB Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
A
J91109
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.05
1.35
11.0
0.07 1.00
B-1
J91119
Q 1800F [1000C] 0.9
1.05
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
B-2
J91129
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.05
1.2
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
B-3
J91139
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.12
1.28
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
B-4
J91149
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.2
1.35
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
C
J91309
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.05
1.35
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
1.5
2.5
D
J91459
Q 1800F [1000C] 0.7
1.3
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
3.0
4.0
E-1
J91249
Q 1800F [1000C] 0.7
1.3
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
0.9
1.2
E-2
J91339
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.05
1.45
11.5
14.0 0.07 1.00
1.8
2.1
F
J91340
Q 1800F [1000C] 1.05
1.35
6.0
8.0 0.07 1.00
0.9
1.2
A Section size precludes the use of all grades and the producer should be consulted as to grades practically obtainable for a particular design required - final selection shall be by mutual agreement
between manufacturer and purchaser
B Unless otherwise specified, Grade A will be supplied
ASTM A 297/A 297M 97 STEEL CASTINGS, IRON-CHROMIUM AND IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL, HEAT RESISTANT, FOR GENERAL APPLICATION
This specification covers iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel alloy castings for heat-resistant service. The grades covered
by this specification are general purpose alloys and no attempt has been made to include heat-resisting alloys used for special
production application.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongB Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr MoC Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
HF
J92603
70 485 35 240 25 0.20
0.40 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.00
12.0
18.0
23.0 0.50
HH
J93503
75 515 35 240 10 0.20
0.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
11.0
14.0
24.0
28.0 0.50
HI
J94003
70 485 35 240 10 0.20
0.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
14.0
18.0
26.0
30.0 0.50
HK
J94224
65 450 35 240 10 0.20
0.60 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
18.0
22.0
24.0
28.0 0.50
HE
J93403
85 585 40 275 9 0.20
0.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.00
11.0
26.0
30.0 0.50
High Alloy Specifications 31
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongB Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr MoC Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
HT
N08605
65 450 4 0.35
0.75 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.50
33.0
37.0
15.0
19.0 0.50
HU
N08004
65 450 4 0.35
0.75 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.50
37.0
41.0
17.0
21.0 0.50
HW
N08001
60 415 0.35
0.75 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.50
58.0
62.0
10.0
14.0 0.50
HX
N06006
60 415 0.35
0.75 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.50
64.0
68.0
15.0
19.0 0.50
HC
J92605
55 380
0.50 1.00 0.04 0.04 2.00 4.00
26.0
30.0 0.50
HD
J93005
75 515 35 240 8
0.50 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
4.00
7.00
26.0
30.0 0.50
HL
N08604
65 450 35 240 10 0.20
0.60 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
18.0
22.0
28.0
32.0 0.50
HN
J94213
63 435 8 0.20
0.60 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
23.0
27.0
19.0
23.0 0.50
HP
N08705
62.5 430 34 235 4.5 0.35
0.75 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.50
33
37
24
28 0.50
A As-cast or as agreed upon by the manufacturer and purchaser
B When ICI test bars are used in tensile tests as provided for in this specification, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4:1
C Castings having a specified molybdenum range agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser may also be furnished under these specifications
ASTM A 351/A 351M 94a CASTINGS, AUSTENITIC, AUSTENITIC-FERRITIC (DUPLEX), FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING PARTS
This specification covers austenitic and austenitic-ferritic (duplex) steel castings for valves, flanges, fittings, and other pressure-
containing parts.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
CF3
J92500
ST 70 485 30 205 35.0
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0 0.50
CF3AA
J92800
ST 77 530 35 240 35.0
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0 0.50
CF8
J92600
ST 70 485 30 205 35.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0 0.50
CF8AA
J92600
ST 77 530 35 240 35.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0 0.50
CF3M
J92800
ST 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.00
3.00
CF3MAA
J92800
ST 80 550 37 255 30.0
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.00
3.00
CF8M
J92900
ST 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
2.00
3.00
CF3MN ST 75 515 37 255 35.0
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.00
3.00
N 0.10
N 0.20
CF8C ST 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0 0.50 CbF
ASTM A 297/A 297M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 32
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
CF-10
J92590
ST 70 485 30 205 35.0 0.04
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0 0.50
CF-10M ST 70 485 30 205 30.0 0.04
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
2.00
3.00
CH8
J93400
ST 65 450 28 195 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0 0.50
CH10
J93401
ST 70 485 30 205 30.0 0.04
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0 0.50
CH20
J93402
ST 70 485 30 205 30.0 0.04
0.20 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0 0.50
CK20
J94202
ST 65 450 28 195 30.0 0.04
0.20 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.75
19.0
22.0
23.0
27.0 0.50
HK30
J94203
as cast 65 450 30 240 10.0 0.25
0.35 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.75
19.0
22.0
23.0
27.0 0.50
HK40
J94204
as cast 62 425 30 240 10.0 0.35
0.45 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.75
19.0
22.0
23.0
27.0 0.50
HT30
N08603
as cast 65 450 28 195 15.0 0.25
0.35 2.00 0.040 0.040 2.50
33.0
37.0
13.0
17.0 0.50
CF10MC
J92971
ST 70 485 30 205 20.0
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
13.0
16.0
15.0
18.0
1.75
2.25 CbG
CN7M ST 62 425 25 170 35.0
0.07 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
27.5
30.5
19.0
22.0
2.00
3.00
Cu 3.0
Cu 4.0
CN3MN ST 2100F [1150C] 80 550 38 260 35.0
0.03 2.00 0.040 0.010 1.00
23.5
25.5
20.0
22.0
6.0
7.0
N 0.18
N 0.26 Cu 0.75
CD4MCuE ST 1900F [1040C]C 100 690 70 485 16.0
0.04 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.00
4.75
6.00
24.5
26.5
1.75
2.25
Cu 2.75
Cu 3.25
CE8MN ST 2050F [1120C]C 95 655 65 450 25.0
0.08 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.50
8.0
11.0
22.5
25.5
3.0
4.5
N 0.10
N 0.30
CG6MMN
J93790
ST 85 585 42.5 295 30.0
0.06
4.00
6.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
11.50
13.50
20.50
23.50
1.50
3.00
Cb 0.10 V 0.10 N 0.20
Cb 0.30 V 0.30 N 0.40
CG8M
J93000
ST 75 515 35 240 25.0
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
18.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
CF10SMnN ST 85 585 42.5 295 30.0
0.10
7.00
9.00 0.060 0.030
3.50
4.50
8.0
9.0
16.0
18.0
N 0.08
N 0.18
CT15C as cast 63 435 25 170 20.0 0.05
0.15
0.15
1.50 0.030 0.03
0.15
1.50
31.0
34.0
19.0
21.0
Cb 0.50
Cb 1.50
CK3MCuN ST 2100F [1150C]C 80 550 38 260 35.0
0.025 1.20 0.045 0.010 1.00
17.5
19.5
19.5
20.5
6.0
7.0
N 0.18 Cu 0.50
N 0.24 Cu 1.0
CE20N ST 2225F [1218C]C 85 550 40 275 30
0.20 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
8
11
23
26 0.50
N 0.08
N 0.20 Fe balance
CG3M ST 75 515 35 240 25
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9
13
18
21
3.0
4.0
CD3MWCuN ST 2010F [1100C] 100 700 65 450 25
0.03 1.00 0.030 0.025 1.00
6.5
8.5
24
26H
3.0
4.0
N 0.20 Cu 0.5 W 0.5
N 0.30 Cu 1.0 W 1.0
ASTM A 351/A 351M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 33
A Because of thermal instability of Grades CF3A, CF3MA, and CF8A, they are not recommended for service at temperatures above 800 F [425 C]
B ST = to be solution treated
C Refer to original specification for additional information on heat treatment requirements
D When ICI test bars are used in tensile tests as provided for in this specification, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4:1
E Because of embrittlement phases of Grade CD4MCu is not recommended for service at temperatures above 600 F [316 C]
F Grade CF8C shall have a columbium content of not less than 8 times the carbon content but not over 1.00%
G Grade CF10MC shall have a columbium content of not less than 10 times the carbon content but not over 1.20%
H % Cr + 3.3% Mo + 16% N 40
ASTM A 447/A 447M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, CHROMIUM-NICKEL-IRON ALLOY (25-12 CLASS), FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers iron-base, heat-resisting alloy castings of the 25% chromium, 12% nickel class, intended for structural
elements, containers, and supports in electric furnaces, petroleum still tube supports, and for similar applications up to 2000 F
[1095 C]. The purchaser should inform the manufacturer when the service temperatures are to exceed 1800 F [980 C].
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile StrengthBC Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsDE C Mn P S Si NiF Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Magnetic Permeability
I
J93303
as cast 80 550 9 1.70 0.20
0.45 2.50 0.05 0.05 1.75
10.00
14.00
23.00
28.00 N 0.20 FeG
II
J93303
as cast 80 550 4 1.05 0.20
0.45 2.50 0.05 0.05 1.75
10.00
14.00
23.00
28.00 N 0.20 FeG
A As agreed upon by manufacturer and purchaser
B Properties after aging
C Short term, high temperature tensile property requirements for the grades are as follows: Type I is to be agreed upon by manufacturer and producer, and Type II is to have a minimum of 20 ksi [140
MPa] tensile strength and a minimum elongation of 8%
D The stress rupture test for the grades is as follows with the tensile stress being sustained for at least 16h: Type I at 5 ksi [34 MPa] and Type II at 8 ksi [55 MPa]
E Refer to original specification for details; note that out of the four tests (tension after aging, magnetic permeability, stress rupture, and short time high-temperature) the purchaser shall specify no more
than two tests
F Commercial nickel usually carries a small amount of cobalt, and within the usual limits cobalt shall be counted as nickel
G The manufacturer and purchaser may agree upon allowable limits of iron and other elements
ASTM A 494/A 494M 98 CASTINGS, NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOY
This specification covers nickel, nickel-copper, nickel-copper-silicon, nickel-molybdenum, nickel chromium, and nickel-
molybdenum-chromium alloy castings for corrosion resistant service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongE Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
CZ-100
N02100
as cast 50 345 18 125 10.0
1.00 1.50 0.03 0.03 2.00
95
Fe 3.0 Cu 1.25
M-35-1A
N24135
as cast 65 450 25 170 25.0
0.35 1.50 0.03 0.03 1.25
bal. Cu 26.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5 Cb 0.5
M-35-2
N04020
as cast 65 450 30 205 25.0
0.35 1.50 0.03 0.03 2.00
bal. Cu 26.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5 Cb 0.5
M-30H
N24030
as cast 100 690 60 415 10 243
294B 0.30 1.50 0.03 0.03
2.7
3.7
bal. Cu 27.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5
M-25SD
N24025
as cast or age-
hardenedF
C
0.25 1.50 0.03 0.03
3.5
4.5
bal. Cu 27.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5
ASTM A 351/A 351M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 34
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongE Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
M-30CA
N24130
as cast 65 450 32.5 225 25 125
150B 0.30 1.50 0.03 0.03
1.0
2.0
bal. Cu 26.0 Cb 1.0
Cu 33.0 Cb 3.0 Fe 3.5
N-12MV
N30012
ST 2000F [1095] 76 525 40 275 6.0
0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
bal.
1.00
26.0
30.0
Fe 4.0 V 0.20
Fe 6.0 V 0.60
N-7M
N30007
ST 2000F [1095] 76 525 40 275 20.0
0.07 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
bal.
1.0
30.0
33.0 Fe 3.0
CY-40
N06040
as cast or ST 1900F
[1040C]
70 485 28 195 30.0
0.40 1.50 0.03 0.03 3.00
bal. 14.0
17.0 Fe 11.0
CW-12MW
N30002
ST 2150F [1180C] 72 495 40 275 4.0
0.12 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
bal. 15.5
17.5
16.0
18.0
Fe 4.5 V 0.20 W 3.75
Fe 7.5 V 0.40 W 5.25
CW-6M
N30107
ST 2150F [1180C] 72 495 40 275 25.0
0.07 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
bal. 17.0
20.0
17.0
20.0 Fe 3.0
CW-2M
N26455
ST 2150F [1180C] 72 495 40 275 20.0
0.02 1.00 0.03 0.03 0.80
bal. 15.0
17.5
15.0
17.5 Fe 2.0 W 1.0
CW-6MC
N26625
ST 2150F [1180C] 70 485 40 275 25.0
0.06 1.00 0.015 0.015 1.00
bal. 20.0
23.0
8.0
10.0
Cb 3.15
Cb 4.50 Fe 5.0
CY5SnBiM
N26055
as cast
0.05 1.5 0.03 0.03 0.5
bal. 11.0
14.0
2.0
3.5
Bi 3.0 Sn 3.0
Bi 5.0 Sn 5.0 Fe 2.0
CX2MW
N26022
ST 2200F [1205C] 80 550 45 280 30.0
0.02 1.00 0.025 0.025 0.08
bal. 20.0
22.5
12.5
14.5
Fe 2.0 W 2.5
Fe 6.0 W 3.5 V 0.35
CU5MCuC
N28820
ST 2100F [1150C]F 75 520 35 240 20.0
0.050 1.0 0.030 0.030 1.0
38.0
44.0
19.5
23.5
2.5
3.5
Cu 1.50 Cb 0.60
Cu 3.50 Cb 1.20 Fe bal.
A When weldability is needed, Grade M-35-1 or M-30C should be ordered
B For information only
C Minimum age-hardened 300 BHN
D M-25S, while machinable in the as cast condition is capable of being solution treated for improved machinability; it may be subsequently age-hardened to the specified hardness and finished machined
or ground
E When ICI test bars are used in tensile tests as provided for per Specification A 732/A 732M, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4:1
F Refer to original specification for additional information on heat treatment requirements
ASTM A 560/A 560M 93 CASTINGS, CHROMIUM-NICKEL ALLOY
This specification covers chromium-nickel alloy castings intended for heat resisting and elevated-temperature corrosion
applications such as structural members, containers, supports, hangers, spacers and the like in corrosive environments up to
2000 F [1090 C].
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo OtherD
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
50 Cr-50 Ni
R20500
as cast 80 550 50 340 5 B
0.10 0.30 0.02 0.02 1.00
bal. 48.0
52.0 N 0.30 Fe 1.0 Ti 0.50 Al 0.25
60 Cr-40 Ni
R20600
as cast 110 760 85 590 C
0.10 0.30 0.02 0.02 1.00
bal. 58.0
62.0 N 0.30 Fe 1.0 Ti 0.50 Al 0.25
50 Cr-50 Ni-Cb
R20501
as cast 80 550 50 345 5
0.10 0.30 0.02 0.02 0.50
bal. 47.0
52.0
Cb 1.4
Cb 1.7 N 0.16 N+C 0.20 Fe 1.00 Ti 0.50 Al 0.25
A Heat treatment as agreed upon by manufacturer and purchaser
B Impact, unnotched Charpy, 50 ft-lbs [78 J] minimum
C Impact, unnotched Charpy, 50 ft-lbs [78 J] minimum
D The total of the Cr, Ni, and Cb contents must exceed 97.5%
ASTM A 494/A 494M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 35
ASTM A 743/A 743M 98 CASTINGS, IRON-CHROMIUM, IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL, CORROSION RESISTANT, FOR GENERAL APPLICATION
This specification covers iron-chromium and iron-chromium-nickel-alloy castings for general corrosion-resistant application. The
grades covered by this specification represent types of alloy castings suitable for broad ranges of application which are intended
for a wide variety of corrosion environments.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi Mpa Ksi Mpa % %
CF-8
J92600
ST 1900F [1040C] 70E 485E 30E 205E 35 B
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
CG-12
J93001
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 28 195 35
0.12 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
10.0
13.0
20.0
23.0
CF-20
J92602
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30
0.20 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
CF-8M
J92900
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30 B
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
CF-8C
J92710
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30 B
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
9.0
12.00
18.0
21.0 CbG
CF-16F
J92701
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 25
0.16 1.50 0.17 0.04 2.00
9.0
12.00
18.0
21.0 1.50
Se 0.2
Se 0.35
CF-16Fa ST 1900F [1090C] 70 485 30 205 25
0.16 1.50 0.04
0.20
0.40 2.00
9
12
18.0
21.0
0.4
0.8
CH-10 ST 1900F [1090C] 70 485 30 205 30
0.10 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0
CH-20
J93402
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30
0.20 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0
CK-20
J94202
ST 1900F [1040C] 65 450 28 195 30
0.20 2.00 0.04 0.04 2.00
19.0
22.0
23.0
27.0
CE-30
J93423
ST 1900F [1040C] 80 550 40 275 10
0.30 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
11.0
26.0
30.0
CA-15
J91150
NT or A 90 620 65 450 18 30 C
0.15 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.50 1.00
11.5
14.0 0.50
CA-15M
J91151
NT or A 90 620 65 450 18 30 C
0.15 1.00 0.040 0.040 0.65 1.0
11.5
14.0
0.15
1.00
CB-30
J91803
N or A 65 450 30 205 C
0.30 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.50 2.00
18.0
21.0 CuH
CC-50
J92615
N or A 55 380 C
0.50 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.50 4.00
26.0
30.0
CA-40
J91153
NT or A 100 690 70 485 15 25 C 0.20
0.40 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.50 1.0
11.5
14.0 0.50
CA-40F
J91154
NT or A 100 690 70 485 12 C 0.20
0.40 1.00 0.04
0.20
0.40 1.50 1.0
11.5
14.0 0.5
CF-3
J92500
as cast or ST 70 485 30 205 35 B
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
CF10SMnN
J92972
ST 1950F [1065C] 85 585 42 290 30
0.10
7.0
9.0 0.060 0.030
3.50
4.50
8.0
9.0
16.0
18.0
N 0.08
N 0.18
CF-3M as cast or ST 70 485 30 205 30 B
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
CF3MN
J92804
as cast or ST 75 515 37 255 35
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
N 0.10
N 0.20
High Alloy Specifications 36
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi Mpa Ksi Mpa % %
CG6MMN ST 2050F [1120C] 85 585 42 290 30
0.006
4.0
6.0 0.04 0.03 1.00
11.5
13.5
20.5
23.5
1.50
3.00
Cb 0.10 V 0.10 N 0.20
Cb 0.30 V 0.30 N 0.40
CG-3M
J92999
ST 1900F [1040C] 75 515 35 240 25 B
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
18.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
CG-8M
J93000
ST 1900F [1040C] 75 520 35 240 25
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
18.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
CN3M
J94652
ST 2150F [1175C] 63 435 25 170 30
0.03 2.0 0.03 0.03 1.0
23.0
27.0
20.0
22.0
4.5
5.5
CN-3MN
J94651
ST 2100F [1150C] 80 550 38 260 35
0.03 2.00 0.040 0.010 1.00
23.5
15.5
20.0
22.0
6.0
7.0
N 0.18
N 0.26 Cu 0.75
CN-7M ST 2050F [1120C] 62 425 25 170 35
0.07 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
27.5
30.5
19.0
22.0
2.0
3.0
Cu 3.0
Cu 4.0
CN-7MS ST 2100F [1150C] 70 485 30 205 35
0.07 1.00 0.04 0.03
2.50
3.50
22.0
25.0
18.0
20.0
2.5
3.0
Cu 1.5
Cu 2.0
CA-6NM
J91540
NT 1050F [565C] 110 755 80 550 15 35 C
0.06 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00
3.5
4.5
11.5
14.0
0.40
1.0
CA-6N
J91650
NT 1500F [815C] 140 965 135 930 15 50
0.06 0.50 0.02 0.02 1.00
6.0
8.0
10.5
12.5
CA-28MWVF
J91422
QT or A 140 965 110 760 10 24 C 0.20
0.28
0.50
1.00 0.030 0.030 1.0
0.50
1.00
11.0
12.5
0.90
1.25
V 0.20 W 0.90
V 0.30 W 1.25
CK-3MCuN
J93254
ST 2100F [1150C] 80 550 38 260 35
0.025 1.20 0.045 0.010 1.00
17.5
19.5
19.5
20.5
6.0
7.0
N 0.180 Cu 0.50
N 0.240 Cu 1.0
CK-35MN ST 2100-2190F
[1150-1200C]
83 570 41 280 35
0.035 2.0 0.035 0.020 1.00
20.0
22.0
22.0
24.0
6.0
6.8
N 0.21
N 0.32 Cu 0.40
CB-6
J91804
NT 1110F [595C] 115 790 85 580 16 35
0.06 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00
3.5
5.5
15.5
17.5 0.5
A Refer to original specification for additional heat treatment information
B Supplementary intergranular corrosion test if specified by the customer
C Supplementary requirement for hardness tests when desired by the purchaser
D When ICI test bars are used in tensile tests as provided for in this specification, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4:1
E For low ferrite or nonmagnetic castings of this grade, the following values shall apply: tensile strength, min, 65 ksi [450 MPa]; yield point, min, 28 ksi [195 MPa]
F These mechanical properties apply only when heat-treatment (1) has been used
G Grade CF-8C shall have a columbium content of not less than 8 times the carbon content and not more than 1.0% - if a columbium plus tantalum alloy in the approximate Cb:Ta ratio of 3:1 is used for
stabilizing this grade, the total columbium-plus-tantalum content shall not be less than nine times the carbon content and shall not exceed 1.1%
H For Grade CB-30 a copper content of 0.90 to 1.20% is optional
ASTM A 744/A 744M 98 CASTINGS, IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL, CORROSION RESISTANT, FOR SEVERE SERVICE
This specification covers iron-chromium-nickel-alloy, stainless steel castings intended for particularly corrosive applications.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongB Red A
Other TestsC C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
CF-8
J92600
ST 1900F [1040C] 70E 485E 30E 205E 35
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
CF-8M
J92900
ST 1900F [1040C]D 70 485 30 205 30
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
CF-8C
J92710
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
CbF
ASTM A 743/A 743M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 37
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongB Red A
Other TestsC C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
CF-3
J92500
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 35
0.03G 1.50 0.04 0.04 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
CF-3M
J92800
ST 1900F [1040C]D 70 485 30 205 30
0.03G 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
CG-3M
J92999
ST 1900F [1040C] 75 515 35 240 25
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
18.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
CG-8M
J93000
ST 1900F [1040C]D 75 520 35 240 25
0.08 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
9.0
13.0
18.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
CN-7M ST 2050F [1120C] 62 425 25 170 35
0.04 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.50
27.5
30.5
19.0
22.0
2.0
3.0
Cu 3.0
Cu 4.0
CN-7MS
J94650
ST 2100F[1150C] 70 485 30 205 35
0.07 1.00 0.04 0.03
2.50
3.50
22.0
25.0
18.0
20.0
2.5
3.0
Cu 1.5
Cu 2.0
CN-3MN
J94651
ST 2100F[1150C] 80 550 38 260 35
0.03 2.00 0.040 0.010 1.00
23.5
25.5
20.0
22.0
6.00
7.00
N 0.18
N 0.26 Cu 0.75
CD-4Mcu
J93370
ST 1900F [1040C] 100 690 70 485 16
0.04 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.00
4.75
6.00
24.5
26.5
1.75
2.25
Cu 2.75
Cu 3.25
CK3MCuN
J93254
ST 2100F [1150C] 80 550 38 260 35
0.025 1.20 0.045 0.010 1.0
17.5
19.5
19.5
20.5
6.0
7.0
N 0.180 Cu 0.50
N 0.240 Cu 1.0
A Refer to original specification for additional heat treatment information
B When ICI test bars are used in tensile tests as provided for in this specification, the gage length to reduced section diameter ratio shall be 4:1
C Supplementary intergranular corrosion test if specified by the customer
D For optimum tensile strength, ductility and corrosion resistance, the solution annealing temperature should be in excess of 1900 F [1040 C]
E For low ferrite or nonmagnetic castings of this grade, the following values shall apply: tensile strength, min, 65 ksi [450 MPa]; yield point, min, 28 ksi [195 MPa]
F Grade CF-8C shall have a columbium content of not less than 8 times the carbon content and not more than 1.0% - if a columbium-plus-tantalum alloy in the approximate Cb:Ta ration of 3:1 is used for
stabilizing this grade, the total columbium-plus-tantalum content shall not be less than 9 times the carbon content sand shall not exceed 1.1%
G For purposes of determining conformance with this specification, the observed or calculated value for carbon content shall be rounded to the nearest 0.01% in accordance with rounding method of
Recommended Practice E29
ASTM A 747/A 747M 93 STEEL CASTINGS, STAINLESS, PRECIPITATION HARDENING
This specification covers iron-chromium-nickel-copper corrosion-resistant steel castings, capable of being strengthened by
precipitation hardening heat treatment.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
CB7Cu-1
J92180
H-900A 170 1170 145 1000 5 375
0.07 0.70 0.035 0.03 1.00
3.60
4.60
15.50
17.70
Cu 2.50 Cb 0.15B
Cu 3.20 Cb 0.35B N 0.05C
H-925A 175 1205 150 1035 5 375
H-1025A 150 1035 140 965 9 311
H-1075A 145 1000 115 795 9 277
H-1100A 135 930 110 760 9 269
H-1150A 125 860 97 670 10 269
ASTM A 744/A 744M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 38
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
H-1150M
310
H-1150DBL
310
CB7Cu-2
J92110
H-900A 170 1170 145 1000 5 375
0.07 0.70 0.035 0.03 1.00
4.50
5.50
14.0
15.50
Cu 2.50 Cb 0.15B
Cu 3.20 Cb 0.35B N 0.05C
H-925A 175 1205 150 1035 5 375
H-1025A 150 1035 140 965 9 311
H-1075A 145 1000 115 795 9 277
H-1100A 135 930 110 760 9 269
H-1150A 125 860 97 670 10 269
H-1150M
310
H-1150DBL
310
A All mechanical properties are supplementary and are not required unless stipulated by the customer, see original specification for additional information
B When the H900 condition is ordered, the minimum Cb shall not apply
C To be determined and reported when specified by the order or contract
ASTM A 890/A 890M 97 CASTINGS, IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL-MOLYBDENUM CORROSION-RESISTANT, DUPLEX (AUSTENITIC/FERRITIC) FOR
GENERAL APPLICATION
This specification covers a group of cast duplex stainless steels (austenitic/ferritic).
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIESB (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi Mpa % %
1A
J93370
heat to 1900F
[1040C]
100 690 70 485 16
0.04 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.00
4.75
6.00
24.5
26.5
1.75
2.25
Cu 2.75
Cu 3.25
1B
J93372
heat to 1900F
[1040C]
100 690 70 485 16
0.04 1.0 0.04 0.04 1.0
4.7
6.0
24.5
26.5
1.7
2.3
Cu 2.7 N 0.10
Cu 3.3 N 0.25
2A
J93345
heat to 2050F
[1120C]
95 655 65 450 25
0.08 1.00 0.04 0.04 1.50
8.00
11.00
22.5
25.5
3.00
4.50
N 0.10
N 0.30
3A
J93371
heat to 1950F
[1070C]
95 655 65 450 25
0.06 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.00
4.00
6.00
24.0
27.0
1.75
2.50
N 0.15
N 0.25
4A
J92205
heat to 2050F
[1120C]
90 620 60 415 25
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.020 1.00
4.5
6.5
21.0
23.5
2.5
3.5
N 0.10
N 0.30 Cu 1.00
5A
J93404
heat to 2050F
[1120C]
100 690 75 515 18
0.03 1.50 0.04 0.04 1.00
6.0
8.0
24.0
26.0
4.0
5.0
N 0.10
N 0.30
6A
J93380
heat to 2010F
[1100C]
100 690 65 450 25
0.03 1.00 0.030 0.025 1.00
6.5
8.5
24.0
26.0
3.0
4.0
Cu 0.5 N 0.20 W 0.5
Cu 1.0 N 0.30 W 1.0
A See original specification for additional details on heat treatment
B Tensile requirement is a supplementary requirement, see original specification for additional details
ASTM A 747/A 747M Continued
High Alloy Specifications 39
ASTM A 990 98 CASTINGS, IRON-NICKEL-CHROMIUM AND NICKEL ALLOYS, SPECIALLY CONTROLLED FOR PRESSURE RETAINING
PARTS FOR CORROSIVE SERVICE
This specification covers iron-nickel-chromium and nickel alloy castings specially processed with restricted melt practices,
weldability testing and nondestructive examination (NDE) requirements.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsB C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
CW-2M heat to 2250F
[1232C]
72 495 40 275 20.0
0.020 1.00 0.030 0.015 0.80
bal. 15.0
17.5
15.0
17.5 Fe 2.00 W 1.00
A See original specification for additional details on heat treatment
B See original specification for additional details on Nondestructive Examination Requirements
ISO 11972 CORROSION-RESISTANT CAST STEELS FOR GENERAL APPLICATIONS
This International Standard specifies cast steels for general corrosion-resistant applications. The grades covered by this
International Standard represent types of alloy steel castings suitable for broad ranges of application which are intended for a wide
variety of corrosion applications.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi Mpa ksi Mpa % % Impact (J) Ruling Thickness (mm)
GX 12 Cr 12 A [950-1050C] & T
[650-750C]
620 450 14 20
150 0.15 0.8 0.035 0.025 0.8 1.0
11.5
13.5 0.5
GX 8 CrNiMo 12 1 A [1000-1050C] & T
[620-720C]
590 440 15 27
300 0.10 0.8 0.035 0.025 0.8
0.8
1.8
11.5
13.0
0.2
0.5
GX 4 CrNi 12 4 (QT 1) A [1000-1100C] & T
[570-620C]
750 550 15 45
300 0.06 1.5 0.035 0.025 1.0
3.5
5.0
11.5
13.0 1.0
GX 4 CrNi 12 4 (QT 2) A [1000-1100C] & T
[500-530C]
900 830 12 35
300 0.06 1.5 0.035 0.025 1.0
3.5
5.0
11.5
13.0 1.0
GX 4 CrNiMo 16 5 1 A [1020-1070C] & T
[580-630C]
760 540 15 60
300 0.06 0.8 0.035 0.025 0.8
4.0
6.0
15.0
17.0
0.7
1.5
GX 2 CrNi 18 10 ST [1050C] 440 180 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
19.0
GX 2 CrNiN 18 10 ST [1050C] 510 230 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
19.0
N 0.10
N 0.20
GX 5 CrNi 19 9 ST [1050C] 440 180 30 60
150 0.07 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
GX 6 CrNiNb 19 10 ST [1050C] 440 180 25 40
150 0.08 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
Nb 8 x C
Nb 1.00
GX 2 CrNiMo 19 11 2 ST [1080C] 440 180 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
2.0
2.5
GX 2 CrNiMoN 19 11 2
ST [1080C] 510 230 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
2.0
2.5
N 0.10
N 0.20
GX 5 CrNiMo 19 11 2 ST [1080C] 440 180 30 60
150 0.07 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
2.0
2.5
GX 6 CrNiMoNb 19 11 2
ST [1080C] 440 180 25 40
150 0.08 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
2.0
2.5
Nb 8 x C
Nb 1.00
GX 2 CrNiMo 19 11 3 ST [1120C] 440 180 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
3.0
3.5
High Alloy Specifications 40
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi Mpa ksi Mpa % % Impact (J) Ruling Thickness (mm)
GX 2 CrNiMoN 19 11 3
ST [1120C] 510 230 30 80
150 0.03 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
3.0
3.5
N 0.10
N 0.20
GX 5 CrNiMo 19 11 3 ST [1120C] 440 180 30 60
150 0.07 1.5 0.040 0.030 1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
20.0
3.0
3.5
GX 2 CrNiCuMoN 26 5 3 3
ST [1120C] 650 450 18 50
150 0.03 1.5 0.035 0.025 1.0
4.5
6.5
25.0
27.0
2.5
3.5
Cu 2.5 N 0.12
Cu 3.5 N 0.25
GX 2 CrNiMoN 26 5 3 ST [1120C] 650 450 18 50
150 0.03 1.5 0.035 0.025 1.0
4.5
6.5
25.0
27.0
2.5
3.5
N 0.12
N 0.25
A See original specifications for additional information
ISO DIS 11973 HEAT-RESISTANT CAST STEELS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES
This International Standard covers cast steels for heat resistant service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN) Use Temp. (C)C
GX 30 CrSi 7 A [800-850C] or as
cast
750
0.20
0.35
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.040
1.00
2.50 0.50
6.00
8.00 0.50
GX 40 CrSi 13 A [800-850C]
300B 850
0.30
0.50
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50 1.00
12.00
14.00 0.50
GX 40 CrSi 17 A [800-850C]
300B 900
0.30
0.50
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50 1.00
16.00
19.00 0.50
GX 40 CrSi 24 A [800-850C]
300B 1050
0.30
0.50
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50 1.00
23.00
26.00 0.50
GX 40 CrSi 28 A [800-850C]
320B 1100
0.30
0.50
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50 1.00
27.00
30.00 0.50
GX 130 CrSi 29 A [800-850C]
400B 1100
1.20
1.40
0.50
1.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50 1.00
27.00
30.00 0.50
GX 25 CrNiSi 18-9 as cast 450 230 15
900
0.15
0.35 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
8.00
10.00
17.00
19.00 0.50
GX 25 CrNiSi 20-14 as cast 450 230 10
900
0.15
0.35 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
13.00
15.00
19.00
21.00 0.50
GX 40 CrNiSi 22-10 as cast 450 230 8
950
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
9.00
11.00
21.00
23.00 0.50
GX 40 CrNiSiNb 24-24 as cast 400 220 4
1050
0.25
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
23.00
25.00
23.00
25.00 0.50
Nb 1.20
Nb 1.80
GX 40 CrNiSi 25-12 as cast 450 220 6
1050
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
11.00
14.00
24.00
27.00 0.50
GX 40 CrNiSi 25-20 as cast 450 220 6
1100
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
19.00
22.00
24.00
27.00 0.50
GX 40 CrNiSi 27-4 as cast 400 250 3
400 1100
0.30
0.50 1.50 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
3.00
6.00
25.00
28.00 0.50
GX 40 NiCrCo 20-20-20
as cast 400 320 6
1150
0.35
0.60 2.00 0.040 0.030 1.00
18.00
22.00
19.00
22.00
2.50
3.00
Co 18.00 W 2.00
Co 22.00 W 3.00
GX 10 NiCrNb 31-20 as cast 440 170 20
1000
0.05
0.12 1.20 0.040 0.030 1.20
30.00
34.00
19.00
23.00 0.50
Nb 0.80
Nb 1.50
GX 40 NiCrSi 35-17 as cast 420 220 6
980
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
34.00
36.00
16.00
18.00 0.50
ISO 11972 Continued
High Alloy Specifications 41
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN) Use Temp. (C)C
GX 40 NiCrSi 35-26 as cast 440 220 6
1050
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
33.00
36.00
24.00
27.00 0.50
GX 40 NiCrSiNb 35-26 as cast 440 220 4
1050
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
33.00
36.00
24.00
27.00 0.50
Nb 0.80
Nb 1.80
GX 40 NiCrSi 38-19 as cast 420 220 6
1050
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
36.00
39.00
18.00
21.00 0.50
GX 40 NiCrSiNb 38-19 as cast 420 220 4
1000
0.30
0.50 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
36.00
39.00
18.00
21.00 0.50
Nb 1.20
Nb 1.80
GX 45 NiCrWSi 48-28-5
as cast 400 220 3
1200
0.35
0.55 1.50 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.50
47.00
50.00
27.00
30.00
W 4.00
W 6.00
GX 10 NiCrNb 50-50 as cast 540 230 8
1050 0.10 0.50 0.020 0.020 0.50
bal. 47.00
52.00 0.50
Nb 1.4
Nb 1.7 N 0.16 N+C 0.20
GX 50 NiCr 52-19 as cast 440 220 5
1100
0.40
0.60 1.50 0.040 0.030
0.50
2.00
50.00
55.00
16.00
21.00 0.50
GX 50 NiCr 65-15 as cast 400 200 3
1100
0.35
0.65 1.30 0.040 0.030 2.00
64.00
69.00
13.00
19.00
GX 45 NiCrCoW 35-25-15-5
as cast 480 270 5
1200
0.44
0.48 2.00 0.040 0.030
1.00
2.00
33.00
37.00
24.00
26.00
W 4.00 Co 14.0
W 6.00 Co 16.0
GX 30 CoCr 50-28 as cast
A A A
1200 0.50 1.00 0.040 0.030 1.00 1.00
25.00
30.00 0.50
Co 48.0
Co 52.0 Fe 20.0
A Properties as agreed upon by manufacturer and purchaser
B Maximum hardness in annealed condition castings may also be supplied in the as cast condition, in which case hardness limits will not apply
C Maximum use temperature depends upon the actual use conditions and these values are being given only to aid the user; these are given for oxidising environments, the actual alloy composition will
also affect performance
ISO 12725 NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOY CASTINGS
This International Standard specifies requirements for nickel and nickel alloy castings. The grades covered represent types of
alloys suitable for a broad range of application in a wide variety of corrosive and high temperature environments.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
C-Ni99, HC as cast 345
545
125 10
1.00 1.50 0.030 0.030 2.00
95.0
Cu 1.25 Fe 3.0
C-NiCu30Si as cast 450
650
205 25
0.35 1.50 0.030 0.030 2.00
bal. Cu 26.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5 Nb 0.5
C-NiCu30 as cast 450 170 25
0.35 1.50 0.030 0.030 1.25
bal. Cu 26.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5 Nb 0.5
C-NiCu30Si3 as cast 690
890
415 10
0.30 1.50 0.030 0.030
2.7
3.7
bal. Cu 27.0
Cu 33.0 Fe 3.5
C-NiCu30Nb2Si2 as cast 450 225 25
0.30 1.50 0.030 0.030
1.0
2.0
bal. Cu 26.0 Nb 1.0
Cu 33.0 Nb 3.0 Fe 3.5
C-NiMo31 heat to [1095C] WQ 525
725
275 6
0.03 1.00 0.030 0.030 1.00
bal.
1.0
30.0
33.0 Fe 3.0
C-NiMo30Fe5 heat to [1095C] WQ 525
725
275 20
0.05 1.00 0.030 0.030 1.00
bal.
1.0
26.0
33.0
Fe 4.0 V 0.20
Fe 6.0 V 0.60
C-NiCr22Fe20Mo7Cu2 heat to [1095C] WQ 550
750
220 30
0.02 1.00 0.025 0.030 1.00
bal. 21.5
23.5
6.0
8.0
Cu 1.5 Fe 18.0
Cu 2.5 Fe 21.0 W 1.50 Co 5.0 Nb+Ta 0.5
ISO DIS 11973 Continued
High Alloy Specifications 42
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
C-NiCr22Mo9Nb4 heat to [1175C] WQ 485
685
275 25
0.06 1.00 0.030 0.030 1.00
bal. 20.0
23.0
8.0
10.0
Nb 3.2
Nb 4.5 Fe 5.0
C-NiCr16Mo16 heat to [1175C] WQ 495
695
275 20
0.02 1.00 0.030 0.030 0.80
bal. 15.0
17.5
15.0
17.5 Fe 2.0 W 1.00
C-NiMo17Cr16Fe6W4 heat to [1175C] WQ 495
695
275 4
0.06 1.00 0.030 0.030 1.00
bal. 15.5
17.5
16.0
18.0
Fe 4.5 W 3.8 V 0.20
Fe 7.5 W 5.3 V 0.40
C-NiCr21Mo14Fe4W3 heat to [1205C] WQ 550 280 30
0.02 1.00 0.025 0.025 0.80
bal. 20.0
22.5
12.5
14.5
Fe 2.0 W 2.5
Fe 6.0 W 3.5 V 0.35
C-NiCr18Mo18 heat to [1175C] WQ 495
695
275 25
0.03 1.00 0.030 0.030 1.00
bal. 17.0
20.0
17.0
20.0 Fe 3.0
C-NiCr15Fe as cast, heat to
[1040C] WQ
485
685
195 30
0.40 1.50 0.030 0.030 3.00
bal. 14.0
17.0 Fe 11.0
C-NiFe30Cr20Mo3CuNb
heat to [930-980C]
AC
450
650
170 25
0.05 1.00 0.030 0.030
0.75
1.20
bal. 19.5
23.5
2.5
3.5
Cu 1.5 Fe 28.0 Nb 0.70
Cu 3.0 Fe 32.0 Nb 1.00
C-NiSi9Cu3 heat to [970-1000C]
AC
300
0.12 1.50 0.030 0.030
8.5
10.0
bal.
1.0
Cu 2.0
Cu 4.0
A See original specification for full details
Lloyds Register Rule 2.4.8 STEEL CASTINGS PART 2, CHAPTER 4, SECTION 8: AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL CASTINGS
This Section gives the requirements for castings in austenitic stainless steels for piping systems in ships for liquefied gases where
the design temperature is not lower than 165 C, and in bulk chemical tankers.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Impact
304L 430 215 26 40 [41 J @ -196 C]
0.03
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
304 480 220 26 40 [41 J @ -196 C]
0.08
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
316L 430 215 26 40 [41 J @ -196 C]
0.03
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
316 480 240 26 40 [41 J @ -196 C]
0.08
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
317
0.08
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
3.0
4.0
347 480 215 22 35 [41 J @ -196 C]
0.06C
0.50
2.0 0.040 0.040
0.20
1.5
9.0
12.0
17.0
21.0 Nb 8 x C 0.90C
A All castings are to be solution treated at a temperature of not less than [1000 C] and cooled rapidly in air, oil, or water
B See original specification for full details such as non-destructive examination and intercrystalline corrosion tests
C When guaranteed impact values at low temperature are not required, the maximum carbon content may be 0.08% and the maximum niobium may be 1.00%
MIL-C-24707/3 CASTINGS, FERROUS, CORROSION-RESISTANT, AUSTENITIC, CHROMIUM-NICKEL
This specification covers austenitic chromium-nickel alloy castings for corrosion-resistant and low magnetic permeability
applications.
ISO 12725 Continued
High Alloy Specifications 43
PREVIOUS SPECIFICATION
MIL specification (class)
REPLACEMENT SPECIFICATION
MIL-C-24707/3
ASTM specification (grade)
MIL-S-17509 (I) A 744 (CF-8)
MIL-S-17509 (II) A 744 (CF-8C)
MIL-S-17509 (III) A 744 (CF-8M)
MIL-S-867 (I) A 744 (CF-8)
MIL-S-867 (II) A 744 (CF-8C)
MIL-S-867 (III) A 744 (CF-8M)
Additional notes for specification are as follows; see original military specification booklet for further information, including Quality Assurance Provisions. Two different levels may be specified; level I has
no magnetic restrictions and level II has low relative magnetic permeability. For all grades, supplementary requirements SZ1 (intergranular corrosion test) and SZ2 (tension test) of ASTM A 744 shall be
mandatory. When type II is specified, the relative magnetic permeability of the castings shall not exceed 1.3 for first article and 1.6 for quality conformance tests; unless otherwise specified, the field
strength shall be 0.5 oersteds for first article testing. Heat treat casting per ASTM A 744 except the minimum temperature shall be 1950 F. After all cleaning and machining, the casting shall be
passivated in accordance with QQ-P-35.
MIL-C-24707/6 CASTINGS, FERROUS, CHROMIUM STEEL, FOR PRESSURE-CONTAINING PARTS SUITABLE FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE
SERVICE
This specification covers 12% chromium steel castings for high temperatures and for impact at low temperatures.
PREVIOUS SPECIFICATION
MIL specification (class)
REPLACEMENT SPECIFICATION
MIL-C-24707/6
ASTM specification (grade)
MIL-S-16993 (1) A 217 (CA-15)
MIL-S-16993 (2) A 487 (CA-15M, class A)
Additional notes for specification are as follows; see original military specification booklet for further information, including Quality Assurance Provisions. ASTM A 757 grade E3N castings are intended for
use where either CA-15 or CA-15M is used; grade E3N has better weldability, corrosion and erosion resistance, low temperature properties such as notch toughness, and improved soundness and casting
characteristics. CA-15M castings shall be normalized and tempered only with a tempering temperature not less than 1100 F; a liquid quench shall not be used without the permission of the Command or
agency concerned.
MIL-C-24707/3 Continued
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Centrifugally Cast Specifications 45
ASTM A 426 92 CENTRIFUGALLY CAST FERRITIC ALLOY STEEL PIPE FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers centrifugally cast alloy steel pipe intended for use in high-temperature, high-pressure service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsB C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN)
CP1
J12521
NT, QT 1100F
[595C]
65 450 35 240 24 35
201 0.25
0.30
0.80 0.040 0.045
0.10
0.50
0.44
0.65
CP2
J11547
NT, QT 1100F
[595C]
60 415 30 205 22 35
201
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.61 0.040 0.045
0.10
0.50
0.50
0.81
0.44
0.65
CP5
J42045
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
90 620 60 415 18 35
225 0.20
0.30
0.70 0.040 0.045 0.75
4.00
6.50
0.45
0.65
CP5b
J51545
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
60 415 30 205 22 35
225 0.15
0.30
0.60 0.040 0.045
1.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
0.45
0.65
CP9
J82090
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
90 620 60 415 18 35
225 0.20
0.30
0.65 0.040 0.045
0.25
1.00
8.0
10.0
0.90
1.20
CP11
J12072
NT, QT 1100F
[595C]
70 485 40 275 20 35
201
0.05
0.20
0.30
0.80 0.040 0.045 0.60
1.00
1.50
0.44
0.65
CP12
J11562
NT, QT 1100F
[595C]
60 415 30 205 22 35
201
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.61 0.040 0.045 0.50
0.80
1.25
0.44
0.65
CP15
J11522
NT, QT 1100F
[595C]
60 415 30 205 22 35
201 0.15
0.30
0.60 0.040 0.045
0.15
1.65
0.44
0.65
CP21
J31545
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
60 415 30 205 22 35
201
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.60 0.040 0.045 0.50
2.65
3.35
0.80
1.06
CP22
J21890
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
70 485 40 275 20 35
201
0.05
0.15
0.30
0.70 0.040 0.045 0.60
2.00
2.75
0.90
1.20
CPCA15
J91150/71
NT, QT 1250F
[677C]
90 620 65 450 18 30
225 0.15 1.00 0.040 0.040 1.50
11.5
14.0 0.50
A Minimum tempering temperature given
B Hydrostatic test see original specification for further details
ASTM A 451 93 CENTRIFUGALLY CAST AUSTENITIC STEEL PIPE FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers austenitic alloy steel pipe for use in high-temperature, corrosive, or nuclear pressure service.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hydrostatic TestC
CPF3
J92500
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 35
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
CPF3AA
J92500
ST 1900F [1040C] 77 535 35 240 35
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
12.0
17.0
21.0
CPF3M
J92800
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30
0.03 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
13.0
17.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
CPF8
J92600
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 35
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
CPF8AA
J92600
ST 1900F [1040C] 77 535 35 240 35
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
8.0
11.0
18.0
21.0
CPF8M
J92900
ST 1900F [1040C] 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
2.0
3.0
Centrifugally Cast Specifications 46
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentB
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
And UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hydrostatic TestC
CPF10MC ST 1950F [1065C] 70 485 30 205 20.0
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
13.0
16.0
15.0
18.0
1.75
2.25
Cb 10 x C
Cb 1.2E
CPH10
J93402
ST 2100F [1150C] 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.10 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0
CPF8C
J92710
ST 1950F [1065C] 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
9.0
12.0
28.0
21.0
Cb 8 x C
Cb 1E
CPF8C (Ta max)D ST 1950F [1065C] 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
9.0
12.0
18.0
21.0
Cb 8 x C
Cb 1 Ta 0.10
CPH8
J93400
ST 2100F [1150C] 65 448 28 195 30.0
0.08 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.5
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0
CPK20
J94202
ST 2100F [1150C] 65 448 28 195 30.0
0.20 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.75
19.0
22.0
23.0
27.0
CPH20
J93402
ST 2100F [1150C] 70 485 30 205 30.0
0.20F 1.50 0.040 0.040 2.00
12.0
15.0
22.0
26.0
CPE 20N ST 2225F [1218C] 80 550 40 275 30.0
0.20 1.50 0.040 0.040 1.50
8.0
11.0
23.0
26.0
N 0.08
N 0.20
A The properties shown are obtained by adjusting the composition within the limits shown in the table to obtain a ferrite-austentite ratio that will result in the higher ultimate yield strengths indicated a
lowering of impact values may develop in these materials when exposed to service temperature above 800 F
B The pipe shall receive a solution treatment, ST, at the temperature shown with holding time 2 h/in of thickness [50.8 mm] for CPF10MC, CPF8C, and CPF8C (Ta max), and 1 h/in of thickness for all
others, followed by quenching
C Hydrostatic test see original specification for further details
D No designation as yet assigned by ASTM or SFSA
E Grades CPF10MC and CPF8C have a columbium plus tantalum content maximum of 1.35%
F By agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser, the carbon content of Grade CPH20 may be restricted to 0.10% maximum when so agreed, the grade designation shall be CPH10
ASTM A 452 88 CENTRIFUGALLY CAST AUSTENITIC STEEL COLD-WROUGHT PIPE FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers austenitic steel pipe made by the centrifugal casting process, subsequently cold worked, and given a
recrystallizing anneal. Pipe ordered to this specification is suitable for use in high-pressure, high-temperatures services shall be
suitable for bending and for other forming operations and for fusion welding. Selection will depend on design, service conditions,
mechanical properties, and high-temperature characteristics.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD
Red AD
Other TestsE C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
TP304H
J92590
ST 1800F [980C]A 75 517 30 207 45LB 50LB 0.04
0.10 2.00 0.040 0.030 0.75
8.00
11.0
18.0
20.0
45TB 50TB
35LC 30LC
25TC 20TC
TP347H
J92660
ST 2000F [1095C]A 75 517 30 207 45LB 50LB 0.04
0.10 2.00 0.040 0.030 0.75
9.00
13.0
17.0
20.0
Cb+Ta 8 x C
Cb+Ta <1.00
45TB 50TB
35LC 30LC
ASTM A 451 Continued
Centrifugally Cast Specifications 47
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength
ElongD
Red AD
Other TestsE C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
25TC 20TC
TP316H
J92920
ST 1800F [980C]A 75 517 30 207 45LB 50LB 0.040
0.10 2.00 0.040 0.030 0.75
11.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
45TB 50TB
35LC 30LC
25TC 20TC
A Subsequent to final cold working the pipe shall be heated to the temperature shown and then quenched
B For sizes 8 in [203 mm] nominal OD and greater
C For sizes less than 8 in [203 mm] nominal OD
D For elongation and reduction of area values L = longitudinal and T = transverse tests
E Additional tests required are: hydrostatic, flattening, magnetic permeability, and grain size
ASTM A 608 91a CENTRIFUGALLY CAST IRON-CHROMIUM-NICKEL HIGH-ALLOY TUBING FOR PRESSURE APPLICATION AT HIGH
TEMPERATURES
This specification covers iron-chromium-nickel, high-alloy tubes made by the centrifugal casting process intended for use under
pressure at high temperatures.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Pressure Test
HC 30
J92613
as cast 0.25
0.35
0.5
1.0 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00 4.0
26
30 0.50
HD 50
J92615
as cast 0.45
0.55 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
4
7
26
30 0.50
HE 35
J93413
as cast 0.30
0.40 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
8
11
26
30 0.50
HF 30
J92803
as cast 0.25
0.35 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
9
12
19
23 0.50
HH 30
J93513
as cast 0.25
0.35 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
11
14
24
28 0.50
HH 33A
J93633
as cast 0.28
0.38 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
12
14
24
26 0.50
HI 35
J94613
as cast 0.30
0.40 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
14
18
26
30 0.50
HK 30
J94203
as cast 0.25
0.35 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
19
22
23
27 0.50
HK 40
J94204
as cast 0.35
0.45 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
19
22
23
27 0.50
HL 30
N08613
as cast 0.25
0.35 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
18
22
28
32 0.50
HL 40
N08614
as cast 0.35
0.45 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
18
22
28
32 0.50
HN 40
J94214
as cast 0.35
0.45 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
23
27
19
23 0.50
ASTM A 452 Continued
Centrifugally Cast Specifications 48
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Pressure Test
HT 50
N08050
as cast 0.40
0.60 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
33
37
15
19 0.50
HU 50
N08005
as cast 0.40
0.60 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
37
41
17
21 0.50
HW 50
N08006
as cast 0.40
0.60 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
58
62
10
14 0.50
HX 50
N06050
as cast 0.40
0.60 1.50 0.04 0.04
0.50
2.00
64
68
15
19 0.50
A Manufacturing control should ensure that this composition contain a minimal amount of ferrite
ASTM A 660 91a CENTRIFUGALLY CAST CARBON STEEL PIPE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SERVICE
This specification covers carbon steel pipe made by the centrifugal casting process intended for use in high-temperature, high-
pressure service. Pipe ordered under this specification shall be suitable for fusion welding, bending, and other forming operations.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat TreatmentA
Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other TestsB C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % %
WCA
J02504
60 414 30 207 24 35
0.25A 0.70A 0.035 0.035 0.60
WCB
J03003
70 483 36 248 22 35
0.30 1.00 0.035 0.035 0.60
WCC
J02505
70 483 40 276 22 35
0.25B 1.20B 0.035 0.035 0.60
A Heat treatment per design and chemical composition
B Hydrostatic and flattening tests see original specification for further details
C For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted to a maximum of 1.10%
D For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum carbon content, an increase of 0.04% manganese above the specified maximum will be permitted to a maximum of 1.40%
ASTM A 872 91 CENTRIFUGALLY CAST FERRITIC/AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL PIPE FOR CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
This specification covers centrifugally cast ferritic/austenitic steel pipe intended for general corrosive service. These steels are
susceptible to embrittlement if used for prolonged periods at elevated temperatures.
GRADE & HEAT TREATMENT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (minimum unless range given) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum percent unless range given)
Grade Heat Treatment Tensile Strength Yield Strength Elong Red A
Other Tests C Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Other
and UNS ksi MPa ksi MPa % % Hardness (HBN / HRC)
J93183
WQ 1900-2100F
[1050-1150C]
90 620 65 420 25
290 / 30.5 0.030 2.0 0.040 0.030 2.0
4.00
6.00
20.0
23.0
2.00
4.00
N 0.08 Co 0.50
N 0.25 Co 1.50 Cu 1.00
J93550
WQ 1900-2100F
[1050-1150C]
90 620 65 420 20
297 / 31.5 0.030 2.0 0.040 0.030 2.0
5.00
8.00
23.0
26.0
2.00
4.00
N 0.08 Co 0.50
N 0.25 Co 1.50 Cu 1.00
ISO WD 13585(c) CENTRIFUGALLY CAST TUBE
See original specification for details.
ASTM A 608 Continued
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1
SFSA Supplement 3
DIMENSIONAL CAPABILITIES OF STEEL CASTINGS
1. Introduction
Dimensional tolerances are selected by the designer or purchaser to make sure that the part can
perform its function reliably and fit into its designed location. Assigning dimensions to a part
requires identifying the desired feature size. Tolerances communicate how much variation from
the desired size can be tolerated. Overly stringent tolerances are costly and do not add value.
They require added work to meet tolerances that may be beyond the process capability.
Inadequate tolerances are a problem because parts may be able to meet the tolerance but fail to
either fit or function in accordance with the design.
To assign dimensions and tolerances to a part that is produced as a casting involves
consideration of function and fit of the finished part, allowances for machining operations involved
in producing the finished part, and production requirements such as draft and taper. Allowances
for castings and the major tolerance considerations in the production of parts as steel castings
are presented below. Along with this information a set of tolerance grades is introduced to
facilitate communication on tolerances.
2. Allowances
The shapes of cast steel components reflect not only the functional requirements of the
component, but also manufacturability requirements dictated by the casting process. Castings
shapes must incorporate the proper use of draft allowances for successful mold making and
machining allowances for surfaces requiring more precision and better surface finishes than can
be achieved in the as-cast conditions. Draft and machine finish allowance guidelines and
practices are presented to assist in the specification of draft and machining allowances for
castings.
Similarly, size or pattern allowances must be incorporated into the production of patterns and
coreboxes from which steel castings are made. These pattern allowances (sometimes call shrink
rules) must also be correctly applied to ensure that final castings can meet customer dimensional
tolerance requirements without extra pattern dimension adjustment cycles. Other castability
guidelines that influence the recommended geometry of steel castings are discussed in Steel
Casting Design.
1
2.1 Draft (Taper) Allowances
Draft should be designated on the casting drawing in consultation with the casting producer
typically in a drawing note. The draft angle selected should be no less than can be tolerated in
the design. Figure 2.1 illustrates the use of draft on a typical pattern and corebox.
2
Figure 2.1 - Schematic illustration of a full split pattern and core box to produce a wheel-
type casting. Note that draft is required on the vertical surfaces to allow the pattern to be
drawn away from the mold. The core that will be made in the core box will form a
cylindrical cavity to reduce machining.
2.1.1 Draft (Taper) Allowance Recommendations
Table 2.1 presents general draft recommendations for steel castings. To ensure moldability, it is
helpful to meet or exceed these draft allowances indicated on all surfaces perpendicular to the
mold parting line.
Table 2.1: Typical Draft (Taper) Allowances
Typical Draft (Taper) Angles
Molding Process
Most Features Deep Pockets
Green Sand - Manual 1.5 2.0
Green Sand - Automated 1.0 1.5
No-bake & shell molding 1.0 1.5
2.1.2 Factors Affecting Recommended Draft Allowances
Machine molding will require a minimum amount of draft. Interior surfaces in green sand molds
usually require more draft than exterior surfaces. Draft can be eliminated in some cases through
special molding techniques, such as investment casting or through the use of cores. These
situations and the specific amount of draft required should be discussed with personnel of the
foundry that will produce the casting.
3
A specific dimensional tolerance on a drafted surface is generally referenced from the drafted
surface rather than from the surface dimension before draft is applied. That is, draft is added to
casting surfaces first before dimensional tolerances or geometric tolerances applied, Figure 2.2.
Draft allowances can be incorporated into dimensional tolerances or geometric tolerances only
upon consultation with the foundry.
The dimensional changes needed to incorporate draft can be expressed as follows:
DA = L tan
Where:
DA = Draft allowance
L = Length
= Draft angle
4
Figure 2.3 Dimensional tolerance zones on drafted (tapered) features (CT is the casting
dimensional tolerance as defined in ISO- 8062)
2.2 Required Machining Allowance Guideline
Castings that are to be machined must have sufficient metal stock on all surfaces requiring
machining. The necessary allowance, commonly called the required machining allowance
(RMA), machine finish allowance, or machining allowance, depends upon the size and shape of
the casting, the surface to be machined, the hardness of the steel, roughness of the casting
surface, and the tendency to distort. The required machining allowance is superimposed upon
draft and pattern allowances. Required machining allowances are typically called out in drawings
with a general note.
5
2.2.1 Required Machining Allowance
Table 2.2 - Required machining allowances (RMA) in millimeters for steel castings based
on ISO 8062.
Largest dimension
mm
Required machining allowance
mm
Note: A minimum of 6 mm RMA required on all cope casting surfaces
Required machining allowance grade over up to and
including
E F G H J K
-
40 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.7 1 1.4
40 63 0.4 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 2
63 100 0.7 1 1.4 2 2.8 4
100 160 1.1 1.5 2.2 3 4 6
160 250 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.5 8
250 400 1.8 2.5 3.5 5 7 10
400 630 2.2 3 4 6 9 12
630 1000 2.5 3.5 5 7 10 14
1000 1600 2.8 4 5.5 8 11 16
1600 2500 3.2 4.5 6 9 13 18
2500 4000 3.5 5 7 10 14 20
4000 6300 4 5.5 8 11 16 22
6300 10000 4.5 6 9 12 17 24
Sand casting, hand molded use grade G K
Sand casting, machine molded (and shell) use grade F H
Investment casting use grade E
6
Table 2.2 - Required Machining allowance (RMA) in inches for steel castings based on ISO
8062.
Largest dimension
in.
Required machining allowance
mm
Note: A minimum of 0.25 in. RMA
Required machining allowance grade over up to and
including
E F G H J K
-
1.6 0.016 0.020 0.020 0.028 0.040 0.055
1.6 2.5 0.016 0.020 0.028 0.040 0.055 0.080
2.5 4 0.028 0.040 0.055 0.080 0.110 0.160
6 10 0.055 0.080 0.110 0.160 0.220 0.320
10 16 0.070 0.100 0.140 0.200 0.280 0.400
16 25 0.087 0.120 0.160 0.240 0.360 0.480
25 40 0.100 0.140 0.200 0.280 0.400 0.560
40 60 0.110 0.160 0.220 0.310 0.430 0.630
60 100 0.130 0.180 0.240 0.350 0.510 0.710
100 160 0.140 0.200 0.280 0.390 0.550 0.790
160 250 0.160 0.220 0.310 0.430 0.630 0.870
250 400 0.180 0.240 0.350 0.470 0.670 0.940
2.2.2 Factors Affecting Required Machining Allowances
The allowances expressed in Table 2.2 are conservative and should apply to short production run
castings. They may be reduced for high production run castings when adequate preliminary
consultation and machining trials have been carried out. Machine allowances for castings of very
large size, such as greater than 15 ft (5000mm), should be determined through consultation with
the foundry.
The required machining allowance, when considered along with the casting feature dimensional
tolerance, should be interpreted as shown in Figure 2.4.
7
A Machining on one side of feature
B External machining of boss
8
C Internal machining
D Machining of step dimension
Figure 2.4 Interpretation of required machining allowances along with casting feature
tolerances.
The dimensional allowance to be added to the casting section for machining purposes will
depend on the design of the casting. Certain faces of a casting may require larger allowances
than others as a result of their position in the mold. In particular, the cope surfaces of a large
casting will require larger machining allowances than the drag surfaces or side walls. For cope
surfaces in particular required machining allowances for cope surfaces of less than 0.25 inches
(6mm) are generally not recommended. For this reason, it is recommended that critical machined
surfaces be molded in the drag whenever possible.
Sufficient excess metal should be allowed to satisfactorily accomplish the necessary machining
operations. One very good rule is to allow enough machining stock so that the first cut remains
below the cast surface on the metal by at least 1/16 in. (1.5 mm). Required machining
allowances must be chosen with care. Critical surfaces that are fixtured using as-cast locators are
sometimes preferred to avoid excess machine stock on critical surfaces.
9
3. Dimensional Tolerances
Tolerances for dimensions of as-cast features are a matter for agreement between the producer
and purchaser (We do not know who the consumer is) of the castings. However, to minimize the
rejection of castings for dimensional reasons, the tolerances selected should be compatible with
the capability of the process selected.
Tolerances affect the cost and delivery of the castings. Most castings have only a few critical
dimensions which require tight tolerances. Placing tight tolerances on dimensions which are not
critical merely increases the final casting cost without benefit to the purchaser. However, where
tolerances tighter than the process can normally produce are required, dimensional upgrading
using one of the operations discussed later may be the least expensive method of satisfying the
requirements.
The best way to make this determination is through a joint effort in a value engineering or value
analysis project. Good communications of requirements on the one hand and the processes
needed to meet them on the other is the key.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has issued, ISO 8062, Castings
System of Dimensional Tolerances. This standard provides a system of tolerances and machining
allowances for all castings, including steel castings. It assigns different dimensional tolerance
grades based on the metal cast, the molding process used, the length of the casting feature, and
the production quantity. The ISO 8062-1994 tolerancing scheme is the basis from which
improved dimensional tolerances for steel castings have been developed by the SFSA. These
SFSA 2000 steel casting dimensional tolerances should be used instead of the specific steel
casting tolerance recommendation contained within ISO-8062-1994 for steel castings.
These new dimensional tolerance also supersede the 1997 (SFSA developed) T grades
dimensional tolerances.
The production quantities, the casting design and the dimension type play an important role in
determining the tolerances which can be met with the process because the complex contraction
behavior of steel during solidification and cooling must be adequately compensated for in the
construction of the pattern. The production of castings in large numbers usually provides the
opportunities to make dimensional adjustments in pattern equipment or to compensate for
unpredictable casting contraction behavior with one or more reverse engineering steps. These
costly reverse engineering steps to adjust pattern dimensions are a function of the dimensional
tolerance requirements established by the customer as well as the foundrys process variability.
The SFSA-2000 dimensional tolerances presented here are based on a statistical analysis of
more than 140,000 casting features on production steel castings weighing from 6.5 to 12,000 lbs.
for common steel molding processes. The dimensional capabilities from which these tolerances
have been developed account for both the expected casting process variability and dimension
centering errors that can be expected for typical short production series and long production
series casting production, Tables 3.1-3.4.
10
3.1 SFSA 2000 Dimensional Tolerances for Steel Castings
Table 3.1 Casting dimensional tolerance grades from ISO 8062-1994. These grade
designations also used for SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances
Raw Casting
basic
dimensions,
Total casting tolerance
mm
mm
Casting tolerance grade CT Over Up to &
including
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
- 10 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.52 0.74 1 2 2 2.8 4.2 - - - -
10 16 0.10 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.38 0.54 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3 4.4 - - - -
16 25 0.11 0.15 0.22 0.3 0.42 0.58 0.82 1.2 1.7 2.4 3.2 4.6 6 8 10 12
25 40 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.32 0.46 0.64 0.9 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 9 11 14
40 63 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.50 0.70 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 10 12 16
63 100 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.40 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6 9 11 14 18
100 160 0.15 0.22 0.30 0.44 0.62 0.88 1.2 1.8 2.5 3.6 5 7 10 12 16 20
160 250 - 0.24 0.34 0.50 0.70 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 14 18 22
250 400 - - 0.40 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6.2 9 12 16 20 25
400 630 - - - 0.64 0.90 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 10 14 18 22 28
630 1000 - - - - 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 6 8 11 16 20 25 32
1000 1600 - - - - - 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.6 7 9 13 18 23 29 37
1600 2500 - - - - - - 2.6 3.8 5.4 8 10 15 21 26 33 42
2500 4000 - - - - - - - 4 6.2 9 12 17 24 30 38 49
4000 6300 - - - - - - - - 7 10 14 20 28 35 44 56
6300 10000 - - - - - - - - - 11 16 23 32 40 50 64
11
Table 3.2 Casting dimensional tolerances adapted from ISO 8062-1994, (inches), also
used for SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances
Raw Casting
basic dimensions,
in.
Total casting tolerance
in.
Casting tolerance grade CT Over Up to &
including
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
- 0.4 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.17 - - - -
0.4 0.6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.17 - - - -
0.6 1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.39 0.47
1 1.6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.35 0.43 0.55
1.6 2.5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.39 0.47 0.63
2.5 4 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.43 0.55 0.7
4 6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.27 0.39 0.47 0.63 0.79
6 10 - 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.43 0.55 0.7 0.87
10 16 - - 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.47 0.63 0.79 0.98
16 25 - - - 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.39 0.55 0.7 0.87 1.1
25 40 - - - - 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.24 0.32 0.43 0.63 0.79 0.98 1.26
40 60 - - - - - 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.28 0.35 0.57 0.7 0.91 1.14 1.46
60 100 - - - - - - 0.1 0.15 0.21 0.32 0.39 0.59 0.83 1.02 1.3 1.65
100 160 - - - - - - - 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.47 0.67 0.95 1.18 1.5 1.93
160 250 - - - - - - - - 0.28 0.39 0.55 0.79 1.1 1.38 1.73 2.21
250 400 - - - - - - - - - 0.43 0.63 0.91 1.26 1.58 1.97 2.52
Table 3.3 SFSA 2000 for steel casting tolerance long-production series.
Conditions
Select Tolerance
Grades
All sand molding process fully capable,
most appropriate for large castings
CT 12-14
Appropriate for most casting types and
sand molding processes
CT 10-12
Within process capabilities, but not
appropriate for all casting types and sand
molding processes
CT 8-10
Investment Casting CT 5-7
12
Table 3.4 SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances for short-production series steel castings
Conditions
Select Tolerance
Grades
All sand molding process fully
capable, most appropriate for large
castings
CT 13-15
Appropriate for most casting types
and sand molding processes
CT 11-13
Within process capabilities, but not
appropriate for all casting types and
sand molding processes
CT 9-11
Additional comments on the use of the SFSA 2000 steel casting dimensional tolerances can be
found in the Appendix.
3.2 Variables Affecting Dimensional Tolerances
The aforementioned steel casting dimensional tolerance recommendations are general
recommendations that can be readily used by casting customers. Comprehensive SFSA steel
casting dimensional capability studies have developed more detailed information on the process
and geometric factors influencing the repeatability of steel casting dimensions. Overall industry
dimensional capabilities as well as the capabilities of individual foundries are fully described.
This information can be used by foundries to benchmark their dimensional capabilities, and to
better quantify the effects of key variables affecting dimensional capabilities. The dimensional
capability data presented here includes measurement uncertainty multiplying factors applied to
the dimensional variability data from which it is based. This accounts for small non-centering
errors expected during tooling validation sampling. The short production series dimensional
capability prediction equations include a larger multiplying factor that accounts for non-centering
errors from less rigorous sampling for tooling validation.
Casting dimensional tolerance capabilities are expressed in terms of 10%, 50%, and 90%
capabilities as follows:
10% Capability = 10% of the feature capabilities were less than this limit.
50% Capability = Average capability.
90% Capability = 90% of the feature capabilities were less than this limit.
Figures 3.6-3.8 show the 10%, 50%, and 90% dimensional capabilities of 15 steel foundries using
various sand molding processes compared to ISO casting tolerance (CT) grades. The foundry-to-
foundry differences in dimensional capabilities reflect the broad range of casting sizes and
shapes produced and the different sand molding processes used, as well as differences in
process control. These keys factors influencing dimensional capabilities are presented here as a
guide to both the casting customer and the casting producer.
13
3.2.1 Production Quantity Issues
The production of castings in large numbers usually provides the opportunities to make
dimensional adjustments in pattern equipment or to compensate for unpredictable casting
contraction behavior with one or more reverse engineering steps. These costly reverse
engineering steps to achieve dimensions may only be appropriate for high production castings. It
requires the detailed dimensional characterization of many first article castings prior to making
accurate pattern adjustments. Figure 3.1 illustrates the influence of centering on overall
dimensional capabilities. The thoroughness of the casting dimensional inspection required to
make adequate pattern adjustments depends on the tolerances assigned to a feature as well as
to the foundries process variability.
Figure 3.1 Schematic representation of total dimensional capability including sampling
Uncertainty errors (e)
The number of replicate castings that must be inspected to minimize the centering error
component of dimensional capability depends on the ratio of the foundrys process capability
compared to the casting dimensional tolerances required. This has been termed the process
capability ratio (PCR).
PCR = Total process variability
Total customer tolerance
Table 3.5 indicates minimum desired lot sizes to be used for sample casting inspection based on
the process capability ratio. The process capability ratio is the ratio of the foundries expected
feature dimensional variability (6) compared to the casting feature total dimensional tolerance. If
fewer sample castings than the desired number are used during pattern validation, a variability
multiplying factor shown in Table 3.6 must be used to reflect additional sampling errors that are a
part of the foundrys dimensional capabilities.
14
Table 3.5 Statistically determined minimum number of sample castings to minimize
numbers of sample castings sampling errors for various process capability ratios
(for =0.05 and =0.05)
Process Capability Ratio Number of sample castings (N)
less than 0.1 1
0.1-0.2 2
0.2-0.3 2
0.3-0.4 3
0.4-0.5 5
0.5-0.6 11
> 0.6 44
Table 3.6 Dimensional variability multiplying factors for determining dimensional
capabilities from dimensional variability estimates
Minimum desired sample size (from Table A1) (N)
1 2 3 5 11 44 Actual number of castings sampled (n)
Dimensional Variability (6) Multiplying Factors
1 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.32 1.32
1 1 1.23 1.23 1.23 1.23
1 1 1 1.18 1.18 1.18
1 1 1 1 1.14 1.14
1 1 1 1 1 1.09
1
2
3
5
11
44
1 1 1 1 1 1
These multiplying factors can be used to more correctly access dimensional capabilities from the
process variability estimates. As casting tolerances tighten, more sample castings must be
inspected to minimize sampling errors. The information from Table 3.6 has been used to
estimate the short production series multiplier of 1.32 and the long production series multiplier of
1.09 used as the basis for the SFSA 2000 steel casting dimensional capabilitys guidelines
presented here.
3.2.2 Dimensional Capability Models
Major factors that influence the dimensional tolerance, which can be held, are casting geometry,
the molding process, and production techniques. In general the dimensional capabilities of green
sand process are similar to that of other sand molding processes for smaller castings below 50
lbs. Above 200 lbs. the no-bake process typically produces castings with tighter tolerances than
green sand. The shell molding process can produce castings with the tightest tolerances of all
sand molding techniques, but is limited in casting size. It is important that these statements are
not taken simply at face value. It is possible for foundries to have developed great expertise and
process control to produce castings to tighter tolerance standards than would be normally
anticipated. When requiring tolerance requirements tighter than these indicated in the guidelines
presented here, the purchaser should discuss these molding process selection issues with the
foundries concerned.
Table 3.7 and Table 3.8 present dimensional capability prediction models for the various molding
processes. Dimensional capabilities are expressed at 10%, 50% (average) and 90% total
tolerance capabilities. For example, 90% capabilities indicate that 90% of the features measured
had less variability than the total tolerance capability limit. These models have been developed
from comprehensive dimensional studies of steel castings in the heat treated condition (as
received by the customer) without any dimensional upgrading. The variables included in the
models are the most significant factors influencing the dimensional variability of steel casting
features.
15
Table 3.7 Dimensional capability models for steel casting (inches)
Short Production Series Long Production Series
Green sand (castings
up to 500 lbs.)
90% Capability
6 = 0.2050+0.0020*L
1.3
+0.0098*W
0.4
50% Capability
6 = 0.0842+0.0020*L
1.3
+0.0098*W
0.4
10% Capability
6 = -0.0363+0.0020*L
1.3
+0.0098*W
0.4
90% Capability
6 = 0.1710+0.0017*L
1.3
+0.0081*W
0.4
50% Capability
6 = 0.0701+0.0017*L
1.3
+0.0081*W
0.4
10% Capability
6 = -0.0303+0.0017*L
1.3
+0.0081*W
0.4
No-Bake (castings up
to 2000 lbs.)
90% Capability
6=0.1410+0.010*L
0.9
+0.0002*W
0.8
+0.0483*PL
50% Capability
6=0.0616+0.0087*L
0.9
+0.0003*W
0.8
+0.0484*PL
10% Capability
6=-0.0181+0.0073L
0.9
+0.0003*W
0.8
+0.0485*PL
90% Capability
6 = 0.1180+0.0084*L
0.9
+0.0002*W
0.8
+0.0403*PL
50% Capability
6 = 0.0513+0.0073*L
0.9
+0.0002*W
0.8
+0.0403*PL
10% Capability
6 = -0.0151+0.0061*L
0.9
+0.0002*W
0.8
+0.0404*PL
Shell (castings less
than 100 lbs.)
90% Capability
6 = 0.0805+0.0039*L
1.4
+0.0195*PL
-0.0018*PL*L
1.4
50% Capability
6 = 0.0430+0.0038*L
1.4
+0.0196*PL
-0.0018*PL*L
1.4
10% Capability
6 = 0.0054+0.0037*L
1.4
+0.0198*PL
-0.0018*PL*L
1.4
90% Capability
6 =0.0671+0.0032*L
1.4
+0.162*PL-0.0015*PL*L
1.4
50% Capability
6 = 0.0358+0.0032*L
1.4
+0.164*PL-0.0015*PL*L
1.4
10% Capability
6 = 0.0045+0.0031*L
1.4
+0.165*PL-0.0015*PL*L
1.4
6 = total tolerance capability, in.
PL = 1 if feature across the parting line, otherwise 0
L = feature length, in.
W = casting weight, lbs.
16
Table 3.8 Dimensional capability models for steel castings (mm)
Short Production Series Long Production Series
Green sand (castings less than 230
kg)
90% Capability
6=5.200+0.0007*L
1.3
+0.340*W
0.4
50% Capability
6 = 2.140+0.0007*L
1.3
+0.340*W
0.4
10% Capability
6 = -0.922+0.0007*L
1.3
+0.340*W
0.4
90% Capability
6 = 4.330+0.0006*L
1.3
+0.284*W
0.4
50% Capability
6 = 1.780+0.0006*L
1.3
+0.284*W
0.4
10% Capability
6 = -0.768+0.0006*L
1.3
+0.284*W
0.4
No-Bake (castings up to 900 kg) 90% Capability
6=3.590+0.014*L
0.9
+0.010*W
0.8
+1.230*P
L
50% Capability
6=1.560+0.012*L
0.9
+0.012*W
0.8
+1.230*P
L
10% Capability
6=0.460+0.010*L
0.9
+0.014*W
0.8
+1.230*P
L
90% Capability
6 = 2.990+0.018*L
0.9
+0.009*W
0.8
+1.020*PL
50% Capability
6 = 1.300+0.010*L
0.9
+0.010*W
0.8
+1.020*PL
10% Capability
6 = -0.383+0.008*L
0.9
+0.012*W
0.8
+1.030*PL
Shell (castings less than 50 kg) 90% Capability
6=2.040+0.001*L
1.4
+0.494*PL-
0.0005*PL*L
1.4
50% Capability
6=1.090+0.001*L
1.4
+0.499*PL-
0.0005*PL*L
1.4
10% Capability
6=0.138+0.001*L
1.4
+0.504*PL-
0.0005*PL*L
1.4
90% Capability
6 = 1.700+0.0009*L
1.4
+0.412*PL-0.0004*PL*L
1.4
50% Capability
6 = 0.909+0.0009*L
1.4
+0.416*PL-0.0004*PL*L
1.4
10% Capability
6 = 0.115+0.0008*L
1.4
+0.420*PL-0.0004*PL*L
1.4
6 = total tolerance capability, mm
PL = 1 if feature across the parting line, otherwise 0
L= feature length, mm
W = casting weight, kg
These models, from which the steel casting dimensional tolerance guidelines have been based,
give a more complete picture of the expected influence of key factor influencing dimensional
variability. The correlation coefficients (r
2
) for these predictive equations ranged from 0.4-0.7,
indicating that foundry-to-foundry variations dimensional capabilities were also significant.
The ISO 8062-based dimensional tolerance guidelines indicated the feature length alone
influences the expected dimensional variability for a given molding process and production series.
However, as these models indicate, casting weight and whether or not a casting feature crosses
the mold parting line also influences feature dimensional variability. The use of these predictive
equations for assigning tolerances for steel casting features better reflects the expected process
capabilities for the steel casting industry than the simpler SFSA 2000 dimensional tolerance
guidelines.
17
3.2.3 Molding Process
The specific molding process used to produce a steel casting can be expected to affect the
dimensional capabilities. For a given size and shape sand casting shell molding can be expected
to be the most dimensionally capable molding process followed by no-bake molding and green
sand molding. However, the differences in dimensional capabilities for the various molding
processes are less than the within foundry and foundry-to-foundry variation in dimensional
capabilities for a given molding process. Therefore, although a given steel foundry may need to
use the more repeatable shell molding process to hold close dimensional tolerances, another
foundry may be readily able to achieve these close dimensional tolerances using green sand
molding.
Figures 3.6-3.8 illustrate the dimensional capabilities of steel foundries for the individual molding
processes. They are expressed as 10%, 50%, and 90% capability conformance to ISO 8062
tolerance grades for both short and long production series castings.
a) Short production series b) Long production series
Figure 3.6 Dimensional capabilities of green sand casting producers
a) Short production series b) Long production series
Figure 3.7 Dimensional capabilities of no-bake casting producers
18
a) Short production series b) Long production series
Figure 3.8 Dimensional capabilities of shell casting producer
3.2.3 Casting Geometry Features Influencing Dimensional Variability
3.2.3.1 Casting Length and Weight
It is more difficult to maintain close feature tolerances in larger castings than on small castings.
Both the casting weight and the feature length influence the process capability relative to
dimensional tolerances in a nonlinear fashion as shown in the predictive equations shown
previously in Table 3.7 and 3.8.
As a general guideline, the expected influence of feature length and casting weight on
dimensional variability can be more simply estimated,Table 3.9.
Table 3.9 Estimate of the effect of feature length and casting weight on dimensional
variability
Dimensional Variability and Influence Factor
(in.) (mm.)
Feature length 0.006 in. additional
6 variability per inch of
feature length
0.06 mm. additional
6 per mm of feature length
Casting Weight 0.00004 in. additional
6 variability per lb. of casting
weight
0.002 mm. additional
6 variability per kg of
casting weight
3.2.3.2 Mold Parting Line
Many casting features cross the mold parting line. The expected dimensional variability of these
features perpendicular to the parting line includes a component of parting line variability. The
expected magnitude of this parting line variability component depends on the molding process,
Table 3.10.
19
Table 3.10 Magnitude of parting line variability
Parting Line Dimensional Variability Component
Green Sand Molding No significant additional variability expected
No-bake Molding 0.040 in. (1 mm) additional 6 variability across the
parting line
Shell Molding 0.008 in. (0.2 mm) additional 6 variability across the
parting line
The additional variability for no-bake casting features that cross the parting line is particularly
significant. This parting line variability can be expected to vary significantly from foundry to
foundry depending on the molding and tooling systems in use. The parting line component of
dimensional variability for no-bake castings must be considered when selecting feature
orientation for close-tolerance features.
3.2.3.3 Dimension Type
From a manufacturability standpoint various casting feature types can be described depending on
whether they are controlled by the mold alone, by a core only, or by combinations of these, with
and without the effect of the mold parting line, Figure 3.9. In particular, features created between
the mold and a core are affected by core placement during mold closing and the relative
tolerances of the core and its mating core print. These additional degrees of freedom created
by multiple mold pieces create additional feature dimensional variables.
Similarly, close tolerance casting features exhibiting less dimensional variability can be expected
when these features are created from a single component of mold or core tooling.
A mold to mold across casting E mold to core across casting
B mold to mold across mold F core to core across core
C mold to mold across mold and casting G mold to core across casting and core
D mold to mold across casting/mold/casting H mold to mold across casting/core/casting
Figure 3.9 Schematics representation of different mold relationships for dimension types
C
B A
CASTING MOLD MOLD MOLD CASTING
D
CASTING Core MOLD MOLD CASTING
G
F E
H
20
3.2.4 Foundry Process Factors Influencing Dimensional Variability
The ability of a foundry to control casting feature variability is impacted by their ability to control
critical aspects of process variability. The role of individual foundry process factors on
dimensional variability have been evaluated independent of casting geometry and molding
process. Table 3.11 summarizes the influence of foundry process factors on dimensional
variability. Major trends from this Table indicated factors that were statistically significant at
confidence levels> 90%. Minor trends were also identified even though no strict statistical
significance of these variables was established. Also listed are variables that appeared to have
no effect on resultant casting dimensional variability independent of casting size, shape and
molding process.
Table 3.11 Foundry process factor correlations influencing dimensional variability
Factor Increase 6 dimensional varaibility
Significant Correlations
Daily, instead of monthly, pin and
flask alignment monitoring
Very poor pattern condition instead
of good pattern condition
Use of separate cope and drag
instead of match plate patterns
Use of weighted instead of
clamped molds
Lesser Correlations
Largest casting dimension
Cope or drag height
Green sand compactibility
Use of chills
Use of reclaimed sand for molding
No Correlation
Alloy being cast
Pour weight
Mold area
Casting bounding box
Projected area of the casting
Use of facing sand
Use of mold wash
0.08 in. (2 mm)
0.04 in. (1 mm)
0.03 in. (0.8 mm)
0.02 in. (0.5 mm)
0.0004 in. (mm) additional 6
variability per in. (mm) of largest
casting dimension
0.003 in. (mm) additional 6 variability
per in. (mm) of cope or drag height
0.02 in. (0.5 mm) additional 6
variability per unit increase in green
sand compactibility number
0.02 in. (0.5 mm) additional 6
variability for features impacted by hills
0.01 in. (0.25 mm) additional 6
Variability for no-bake molding
compared to new sand
21
3.3 DIMENSIONAL CAPABILITIES INVESTMENT CASTING
Most, if not all, investment castings are produced in long production series, where more thorough
sample casting inspection and comprehensive tooling adjustments are performed prior to casting
production. Therefore, only long production series capabilities are indicated in the SFSA 2000
guidelines for investment casting. The SFSA 2000 dimensional tolerance guidelines for steel
castings include recommended tolerance guidelines for steel investment castings.
These recommendations better reflect the dimensional capabilities of steel investment casting
than the recommendations contained in ISO 8062, or in alternative dimensional tolerance
guidelines promulgated by the Investment Casting Institute.
The capability of investment casters to produce castings to the ISO 8062 casting tolerance
grades is shown in Figure 3.10, expressed in terms of their 90%, 50% and 10% conformance.
Considerable producer-to-producer variation is observed. This overall dimensional behavior is
modeled in Table 3.12.
Figure 3.10 Long production series dimensional capabilities of investment castings
Table 3.12a Long Production Series Dimensional Capability Investment Castings (in.)
90% Capability 6 = 0.285 + 0.005L + 0.0002W - 0.005PL
50% Capability 6 = 0.083 + 0.0005L + 0.0002W - 0.005PL
10% Capability 6 = 0.0011 + 0.005L + 0.002W - 0.005PL
Where
6 = total tolerance, in.
PL = 1 if feature across the parting line, otherwise 0
L = feature length, in.
W = casting weight, lbs.
0
2
4
6
8
10
A B C D E F Overall
I
S
O

C
T

G
R
A
D
E
S
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
10%
50% 50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
50%
90%
90%
90%
90%
90%
90%
90%
22
Table 3.12b Long Production Series Dimensional Capabilities Investment Castings (mm)
90% Capability 6 = 0.724 + 0.005L + 0.012W 0.013PL
50% Capability 6 = 0.212 + 0.005L + 0.012W 0.013PL
10% Capability 6 = 0.029 + 0.005L + 0.012W 0.013PL
Where
6 = total tolerance, mm
PL = 1 if feature across the parting line
L = feature length, mm
W = casting weight, kg
3.4 GAGING AND DIMENSIONAL UPGRADING
The appropriate dimensional tolerances of as-cast surfaces are a matter for agreement between
the producer and purchaser of the castings. However, to minimize the rejection of castings for
dimensional reasons the tolerances selected should be comparable to the process capability for
the particular set of operating conditions under consideration. Tolerances tighter than the
process capability will necessitate that the casting be subject to special processing to upgrade the
dimensional characteristics. Table 3.13 lists some of the additional operations or special
manufacturing processes that may be performed to provide castings within tighter tolerance limits
than can be expected from standard process capabilities.
Table 3.13 Additional operations employed to provide tighter tolerances
Pattern Upgrading
Changes in Construction, mounting and/or material
Alteration of patterns after production of sample castings (i.e. movement toward long
production series tolerances)
Molding and core making
Changes in mold making equipment or molding process
Upgrading of coreboxes or adjustments in core processes
Finishing
Gage grinding
Straighten or press to gage
Coining to gage
Machine locating points
Rough machine to gage
Target machine casting
Finish machine part
23
3.5 Weight Tolerances
When weight considerations are important to the customer, and weight tolerances are necessary,
a weight allowance is necessary to account for variations from average casting weight. Steel
casting weight allowances, based on ISO 4990-1986 are summarized in Table 3.14.
Table 3.14 Casting Weight (Mass) Tolerances
Machine Molded Castings 5% of average casting mass
1
Hand Molded Castings 7% of average casting mass
2
All other castings < + 15% of calculated casting mass
2
1
Average casting weight based on the average weight of the first five true dimension castings
manufactured.
2
Calculated casting weight based on the casting drawing which includes all casting allowances
such as machining allowances.
4 Geometric Tolerances
Geometric tolerances are tolerances that apply to the shape features of a casting. This category
of tolerances is used to control form, profile orientation and location. To completely describe the
shape of a component and assign tolerances on all aspects of its shape, geometric tolerances
are needed for such features as parallelism, concentricity, flatness, etc. Tables 4.1-4.4 show the
geometric tolerances that can be expected for steel castings, these values are based on work
involved in the development of ISO 8062-2. The reader is referred to the specification for further
details regarding the use of ISO 8062-2. The nominal lengths indicated in Table 4.1-4.4 shall be
the largest dimension of the considered feature or features. Table 4.5, indicates which CTG from
the previous tables should be used depending on the steel casting molding process used.
Table 4.1a - Tolerances on straightness, mm
Total geometrical tolerance mm
1
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 Over Up to and
including
10 0.18 0.27 0.4 0.6
10 30 0.27 0.4 0.6 0.9
30 100 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.4
100 300 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0
300 1000 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0
1000 3000 2.0 3.0 4.6
3000 10000 3.0 4.6 6.8
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
24
Table 4.1b - Tolerances on straightness, in.
Total geometrical tolerance in
1
.
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 8 Over Up to and
including
0.4 0.007 0.011 0.016 0.024 0.035
0.4 1.2 0.011 0.016 0.024 0.035 0.055
1.2 4 0.016 0.024 0.035 0.055 0.079
4 12 0.024 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118
12 40 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118 0.181
40 120 0.079 0.118 0.181 0.268
120 400 0.118 0.181 0.268 0.343
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
Table 4.2a - Tolerances on flatness, mm
Raw casting nominal length of the feature, mm
Total geometrical tolerance mm
1
*for reference
Over
Up to and
including
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
10 4 5 6 7 8
10 30 0.27 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.4
30 100 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0
100 300 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0
300 1000 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0 4.6
1000 3000 1.4 2.0 3.0 4.6 6.8
3000 10000 3.0 4.6 6.8 10
10000 4.6 6.8 10 15

1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
Table 4.2b - Tolerances on flatness, in.
Raw casting nominal length of the feature, in. Total geometrical tolerance, in
1
.
Over
Up to and
including
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
0.4 4 5 6 7 8
0.4 1.2 0.011 0.016 0.024 0.035 0.055
1.2 4 0.016 0.024 0.035 0.055 0.079
4 12 0.024 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118
12 40 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118 0.181
40 120 0.055 0.079 0.118 0.181 0.268
120 400 0.118 0.181 0.268 0.394
0.181 0.591

1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
25
Table 4.3a - Tolerances on circularity, perpendicularity and symmetry.
Raw casting; nominal length of the
feature, mm
Total geometrical tolerance, mm
1
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 8 Over Up to and
including
10 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0
10 30 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0
30 100 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0 4.6
100 300 1.4 2.0 3 4.6 6.8
300 1000 2.0 3.0 4.6 6.8 10
1000 3000 4.6 6.8 10 15
3000 10000 6.8 10 15 23
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
Table 4.3b - Tolerances on circularity, perpendicularity and symmetry.
Raw casting; nominal length of the
feature, in.
Total geometrical tolerance,in.
1
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 Over Up to and
including
0.4 0.16 0.024 0.055 0.079
0.4 1.2 0.024 0.035 0.079 0.118
1.2 4 0.035 0.055 0.118 0.181
4 12 0.055 0.079 0.181 0.268
12 40 0.079 0.118 0.268 0.343
40 120 0.181 0.343 0.591
120 400 0.268 0.591 0.906
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
Table 4.4a - Tolerances on coaxiality
Raw casting; nominal length of the
feature mm
Total geometrical tolerance mm
1
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 8 Over Up to and
including
10 0.6 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0
10 30 0.9 1.4 2.0 3.0 4.6
30 100 0.4 2.0 3.0 4.6 6.8
100 300 2.0 3.0 4.6 6.8 10
300 1000 3.0 4.6 6.8 10 15
1000 3000 6.8 10 15 23
3000 10000 10 15 23 35
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
26
Table 4.4b - Tolerances on coaxiality
Raw casting; nominal length of the
feature, in.
Total geometrical tolerance in
1
.
Casting geometrical tolerance grade (CTG)
4 5 6 7 8 Over Up to and
including
0.4 0.024 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118
0.4 1.2 0.035 0.055 0.079 0.118 0.181
1.2 4 0.055 0.079 0.118 0.181 0.268
4 12 0.079 0.118 0.181 0.268 0.343
12 40 0.118 0.181 0.268 0.343 0.591
40 120 0.268 0.343 0.591 0.906
120 400 0.343 0.591 0.906 1.378
1) When a value is outside the table, individual tolerances shall be indicated.
Table 4.5 Casting geometrical tolerances grades
Method Steel
Sand cast, hand molding 6 to 8
Sand cast machine molding and
shell molding
5 to 7
Investment casting 4 to 6
5. Patterns and Pattern Allowances
Patterns are manufactured so that the castings produced from the pattern are typically at the
nominal (aim) dimensions of the casting drawing. The pattern and its associated coreboxes must
be produced with dimensions that compensate for feature-specific contraction and distortion that
takes place during casting, solidification, heat treatment and subsequent processing. This is
known as the pattern allowance (or shrink rule). If can be expressed as:
Pattern Allowance (PA) = Pattern feature size Casting feature size x 100%
Casting feature size
Foundry-to-foundry differences during processing also must be taken into account when selecting
the proper pattern allowance. Castings produced from the same pattern by different foundries, or
by different sand molding methods such as green sand or no-bake sand will typically not be
dimensionally identical. The type of molding method can be expected to influence the effective
overall casting contraction of green sand castings. Harder green sand molds produced with high
pressure molding machines may require different pattern allowances that are used for similar
castings using manual jolt-squeeze molding methods.
Pattern wear, as well as the shrinking and swelling of wood pattern materials due to humidity
changes, can also be a source of casting dimensional variability. Dimensional variations will be
greater from some pattern materials than for others. Table 5.1 contains a listing of common types
of pattern materials for steel castings in order of decreasing pattern dependent dimensional
variability.
27
Table 5.1 Degree of Variability in Dimensions for Different Pattern Materials
Loose wood pattern
Pine pattern, mounted on cope and drag boards
Hard wood pattern, mounted on cope and drag boards
Plastic pattern, mounted on cope and drag boards
Metal pattern, mounted on cope and drag boards
Metal matchplate
Greatest variation
Least variation
Lowest Cost
Highest Cost
Table 5.2 summarizes commonly used pattern allowances used for the production of steel
castings. These overly simplified pattern allowances shrink rules are only a general rule-of-
thumb that do not consider these important influences of feature type and mold type on the
pattern allowance. Even though these standard, uniform pattern allowance rules-of-thumb are
widely used, the shrinkage of individual casting features can be expected to deviate significantly
from these pattern allowance nominal values.
Table 5.2 General pattern allowance values for common steel casting alloys
Alloy Pattern Allowance
Carbon and low alloy steel 2.08% 1/4 in/ft
High alloy steels 2.60% 5/16 in/ft
The pattern allowance value must account for more than just the shrinkage of the metal during
solidification and cooling. The mold itself can be expected to undergo dimensional changes
during filling, solidification and cooling. Certain casting features are restrained from contraction
during solidification by the presence of the mold, others are not. Also oxide scale removed from
the casting surface after cooling and subsequent heat treatment result in casting dimensional
changes. The heat produced during the cooling of large castings can cause the sand mold to
expand before even solidification begins. All of these factors contribute to casting dimensional
changes requiring the use of not a single pattern allowance by different feature-dependent pattern
allowance values to assure the conformance of all casting feature dimensions to customer
dimensional specifications.
Table 5.3 gives more detailed information on pattern allowance selection for casting features not
crossing the mold parting line. These pattern allowance estimates for high and low alloy steels
are based on comprehensive studies of pattern allowances measured in production foundries for
green sand, no-bake and shell molding.
28
Table 5.3 Pattern Allowance Summary (for features not crossing the mold parting line)
Condition
Average Pattern
Allowance
80% Confidence Interval
for Pattern Allowances
Low Alloy Steel
Overall 1.96% 1.85 to 2.07%
Green sand molding, overall 1.60% 1.43 to 1.77%
Un-restrained features 1.56% 1.15 to 1.97%
Partially restrained features 1.74% 1.56 to 1.92%
Fully restrained features 1.61% 1.48 to 1.74%
No bake molding, overall 2.39% 2.20 to 2.58%
Un-restrained features 2.33% 1.94 to 2.74%
Partially restrained features 2.32% 2.06 to 2.59%
Fully restrained features 2.03% 1.75 to 2.30%
Shell molding, overall 2.31% 2.10 to 2.51%
Un-restrained features 2.87% 2.58 to 3.16%
Partially restrained features 2.31% 2.13 to 2.48%
Fully restrained features 1.27% 0.91 to 1.63%
High Alloy Steel
Overall
2.92% 2.72 to 3.11%
Green sand molding, overall 4.21% 3.82 to 4.59%
Un-restrained features 3.62% 3.34 to 3.83%
Partially restrained features -- --
Fully restrained features 5.37% 4.98 to 5.76%
No bake molding, overall 3.50% 3.08 to 3.92%
Un-restrained features 4.04% 3.46 to 4.63%
Partially restrained features* -- --
Fully restrained features* -- --
Shell molding, overall 2.58% 2.35 to 2.81%
Un-restrained features 2.90% 2.57 to 3.24%
Partially restrained features 2.42% 2.29 to 2.54%
Fully restrained features 1.57% 1.28 to 1.85%
29
6. Summary
Table 6.1 summarizes the general dimensional and cost considerations for common steel casting
methods. It reflects the general capabilities common to the steel foundries. Individual foundries
may have even greater dimensional capabilities and lower cost and lead time performance.
Table 6.1 General Comparison of Steel Casting Methods*
Casting
requirements
Green sand Chemically
bonded
Shell Investment
Surface
smoothness
Fair Good Good Excellent
Minimum metal
section-mm (in).
6 (0.25) 5 (0.19) 4 (0.16) 2 (0.06)
Total (6)
tolerance for a
100 mm (4in.)
features mm
(in.)
3.4 (0.13) 2.5 (0.10) 1.7 (0.07) 0.8 (0.03)
Added total
tolerance-mm
(in.) across a
parting face
3 (0.12) 4 (0.16) 2 (0.06) No parting
-
Intricacy Fair Good Very good Excellent
General Machine
Finish
allowances **mm
(in.)
6 (0.25) Most
5 (0.19)
2 (0.06) Least
0.5 (0.02)
Normalized
Pattern costs
100% 80% 250% 175%
Lead time
(pattern)
18 weeks 12 weeks 20 weeks 22 weeks
Lead time
(existing pattern)
6 weeks 6 weeks 6 weeks 8 weeks
* Values are presented for comparison only and should not be used directly as design tolerances
on drawings, or for pattern procurement.
References
(1) Steel Casting Handbook, 5
th
Edition, SFSA (1980).
(2) Karve, A., J. Chandra, and R. Voigt, "Determining Dimensional Capabilities from Short
Run Sample Casting Inspection", AFS Transactions (1998).
30

Appendix: Guidelines for the use of SFSA 2000 Dimensional Tolerances
General
The tolerance guidelines are provided for information to be used by foundries and customers to address
dimensional deviations. A customer can express the dimensional accuracy desired. A foundry can, with
reference to the tolerance grade, give information on which tolerance grade or grades it normally attains with
different molding methods and for different casting types.
It is recommended that the customer ask the foundry about the dimensional accuracy obtained with different
molding methods and resources at its disposal. With this knowledge, the designer can decide if closer
tolerances are needed for selected dimensions.
Scope
This appendix describes the tolerances, which may be achieved on steel castings produced in sand molds
and for steel investment castings. Steel sand castings may be produced by molding processes such as
green sand, chemically bonded sands, shell and other processes.
Purchasing information
The customer should indicate on the drawing the dimensions which are to be subject to the tolerance tables
and the tolerance grades to be achieved. The required machining allowance should also be indicated when
a machined part drawing is used.
Where the purchaser has supplied a drawing which indicates the machined surfaces and the machining
allowance, but has not indicated the tolerance grade required for these surfaces, the foundry is free to
supply the casting to their normal performance capability.
Tolerance grades
Typically, the lowest sand molding tolerance values may be expected in castings produced by the shell
process. However, manufacturers may be able to achieve similar tolerances with other molding processes.
The lower number tolerance grades are more applicable to shell and no-bake molding methods. Higher
number tolerance grades are applicable for many green sand-molding processes where few pattern
changes and/or process adjustments can be made.
The tolerance grade specified should also reflect the extent of pattern dimensional re-engineering to center
casting feature dimensions within the specified tolerances. The extent of inspection required to achieve the
specified tolerance values is indicated by the selection of short production series or long production series
tolerance values.
Where tighter tolerances than those found in the tables are required, these shall be agreed between the
purchaser and supplier.
Inspection
The foundry will determine the compliance of the part with the purchasers requirements.
The SFSA-2000 tolerance grades (Tables A1 to A4) are to be applied to heat treated and shot blasted
production steel castings which have not been upgraded by gaging, grinding, coining, pressing or other
dimensional upgrading procedures. They express the 90% conformance of foundries in terms of ISO-8062
dimensional tolerance grades.
31

Table A.1 Casting dimensional tolerance grades from ISO 8062-1994. These grade
designations also used for SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances
Raw Casting
basic
dimensions,
mm
Total casting tolerance, mm
Casting tolerance grade CT Over Up to &
including
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
- 10 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.52 0.74 1 2 2 2.8 4.2 - - - -
10 16 0.10 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.38 0.54 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3 4.4 - - - -
16 25 0.11 0.15 0.22 0.3 0.42 0.58 0.82 1.2 1.7 2.4 3.2 4.6 6 8 10 12
25 40 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.32 0.46 0.64 0.9 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 9 11 14
40 63 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.50 0.70 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 10 12 16
63 100 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.40 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6 9 11 14 18
100 160 0.15 0.22 0.30 0.44 0.62 0.88 1.2 1.8 2.5 3.6 5 7 10 12 16 20
160 250 - 0.24 0.34 0.50 0.70 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 14 18 22
250 400 - - 0.40 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6.2 9 12 16 20 25
400 630 - - - 0.64 0.90 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 10 14 18 22 28
630 1000 - - - - 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 6 8 11 16 20 25 32
1000 1600 - - - - - 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.6 7 9 13 18 23 29 37
1600 2500 - - - - - - 2.6 3.8 5.4 8 10 15 21 26 33 42
2500 4000 - - - - - - - 4 6.2 9 12 17 24 30 38 49
4000 6300 - - - - - - - - 7 10 14 20 28 35 44 56
6300 10000 - - - - - - - - - 11 16 23 32 40 50 64
32

Table A.2 Casting dimensional tolerances adapted from ISO 8062-1994
(inches) also used for SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances
Raw Casting
basic dimensions,
in.
Total casting tolerance, in.
Casting tolerance grade CT Over Up to &
including
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
- 0.4 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.17 - - - -
0.4 0.6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.17 - - - -
0.6 1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.39 0.47
1 1.6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.35 0.43 0.55
1.6 2.5 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.39 0.47 0.63
2.5 4 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.43 0.55 0.7
4 6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.27 0.39 0.47 0.63 0.79
6 10 - 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.22 0.32 0.43 0.55 0.7 0.87
10 16 - - 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.47 0.63 0.79 0.98
16 25 - - - 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.39 0.55 0.7 0.87 1.1
25 40 - - - - 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.16 0.24 0.32 0.43 0.63 0.79 0.98 1.26
40 60 - - - - - 0.06 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.28 0.35 0.57 0.7 0.91 1.14 1.46
60 100 - - - - - - 0.1 0.15 0.21 0.32 0.39 0.59 0.83 1.02 1.3 1.65
100 160 - - - - - - - 0.17 0.24 0.35 0.47 0.67 0.95 1.18 1.5 1.93
160 250 - - - - - - - - 0.28 0.39 0.55 0.79 1.1 1.38 1.73 2.21
250 400 - - - - - - - - - 0.43 0.63 0.91 1.26 1.58 1.97 2.52
Table A.3 SFSA 2000 for steel casting tolerance long-production series.
Conditions Select Tolerance
Grades
All sand molding process fully capable,
most appropriate for large castings
CT 12-14
Appropriate for most casting types and
sand molding processes
CT 10-12
Within process capabilities, but not
appropriate for all casting types and sand
molding processes
CT 8-10
Investment Casting CT 5-7
33

Table A.4 SFSA 2000 steel casting tolerances for short-production series steel castings
Conditions Select Tolerance
Grades
All sand molding process fully
capable, most appropriate for large
castings
CT 13-15
Appropriate for most casting types
and sand molding processes
CT 11-13
Within process capabilities, but not
appropriate for all casting types and
sand molding processes
CT 9-11
STEEL
CASTINGS
HANDBOOK
Supplement 7
Welding of High Alloy Castings
Steel Founders' Society of America
2004
Welding of high alloy steel castings
by
E. A. Schoefer
Consultant
Steel Founders Society of America
Edited by M. Blair
Steel Founders Society of America
1. Introduction
Iron-base and nickel-base high alloys - by definition those containing eight percent or
more of another element - are widely used for construction of industrial process
equipment that must resist the deteriorating effect of a corrosive of high temperature
environment. Both wrought and cast forms of such alloys may be welded during the
manufacture of finished components so the weldability of the alloys often is a matter of
concern to the user. The same welding processes are applied to wrought and cast
products and, in general, similar techniques and practices are employed. Differences
between wrought and cast alloys in chemical composition and microstructure, however,
influence the welding characteristics of each form and must be given consideration. In
addition, the high alloys differ markedly from carbon and low alloy steels in physical
properties such as electrical resistance, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity. It
is essential, therefore, to employ procedures allowing for all these factors when welding
high alloy castings.
1.1 All the casting alloys have equal or better weldability than the corresponding
wrought alloys, but there are variations from grade to grade in the ease with which
satisfactory welds are obtained. The low-carbon, austenitic grades usually are
considered easier to weld than high-carbon austenitic or straight-chromium ferritic or
martensitic types. Nevertheless, each of the standard alloy compositions can be
welded successfully in the foundry. Using information derived from the extensive
research of Alloy Casting Institute and Steel Founders Society of America, the
foundryman often is able to tailor the composition balance especially to provide the
optimum weldability. Accordingly, castings are readily welded into fabricated structures
and welding is considered a regular part of the foundry production process.
1.2 Welding is used a procedure for upgrading casting quality during the course of
manufacture through improvement of surface conditions, or by elimination of shrinkage
voids. It is also used for producing large or complex assemblies where the size of the
completed structure precludes production as a one-piece castings, or where total quality
will be improved by dividing the structure into simpler components which can later be
welded int an integral assembly.
1.3 Welds properly made do not impair high alloy castings with respect to their corrosion
resistance or their mechanical properties from sub-zero to elevated temperatures.
1
Proven welding techniques that are procedurally correct and metallurgically sound
involve consideration of the following factors:
a. Characteristics of the alloy type
b. Choice of filler material
c. Preparation of the weld cavity or joint
d. The weld process to be used
e. Preweld and postweld heat treatment
f. Methods of demonstrating weld quality
All of these topics will be covered in subsequent sections of this discussion or in the
accompanying welding procedure descriptions.
2. Properties of the alloy types
At the outset it is necessary to review the microstructures and the physical and
mechanical properties of the different high alloy types because the effects of exposure
to welding temperatures vary among the alloy grades. The microstructures that are
developed during welding influence the physical and mechanical properties of the
alloys, and they, in turn, influence the soundness of the welds. Four classes of high
alloy castings will be discussed: a) Iron-Chromium, b) Iron-Chromium-Nickel, c) Iron-
Nickel-Chromium, and d) Nickel-base. The cast alloys are also classified according to
their end use as corrosion resistant or heat resistant and there are important
differences in the alloy compositions used in each group. In the corrosion resistant
category by far the greatest tonnage of castings is produced in the iron-chromium-nickel
class, with iron-chromium types in second place; whereas in the heat resistant group
the iron-nickel-chromium alloy types rank almost equally with the iron-chromium-nickel
class. The heat resistant alloys are generally higher in alloy content than the corrosion
resistant types and in nearly all cases are substantially higher in carbon content. These
differences make it desirable to consider the corrosion and heat groups separately.
2.1 Corrosion resistant grades
Electrical resistivity of the corrosion resistant alloys is five to ten times higher than
carbon steel. Welding current requirements therefore, are lower than for carbon steel
and attention should be given to the amperage and voltage recommendations of the
filler metal manufacturer. Excessive heat input should be avoided because the low
thermal conductivities of the high alloys (about 50 percent less than steel) combined
with the generally higher thermal expansion coefficients (about 50 percent greater than
steel) tend to create steep temperature gradients and high thermal stresses in the weld
zone.
2.1.1 Iron-chromium alloy types are martensitic or ferritic in microstructure depending on
the chromium and carbon content in the composition. They are sub-divided, therefore,
into hardenable and non-hardenable groups.
2.1.1.1 The CA15 and CA40 (11.5 - 14 Cr) hardenable alloys transform to austenite in
the weld and in the heat affected zone of the base metal. Transformation of the
austenite to hard, brittle martensite is essentially completed at about 300
o
F (149
o
C) on
cooling from welding temperature and will promote weld cracking - the higher the
carbon content the greater the cracking tendency. For this reason castings are
preheated to about 500
o
F (260
o
C) and maintained above the martensite transformation
temperature during welding. As soon as possible after welding, and without cooling
below 300
o
F (149
o
C), castings are heated to 1100 - 1450
o
F (593 - 788
o
C) and cooled to
temper any martensite that has formed and to restore the ductility and impact strength
of the metal. Stray arc strikes can cause hard spots and should be avoided. These
alloys have coefficients of thermal expansion similar to carbon steel but are sometimes
welded using austenitic, iron-chromium-nickel filler metal which has a coefficient about
50 percent greater. In addition to the differences in ductility and hardness, the
difference in expansion characteristics of the base and weld metals should be
considered before using such filler metal, particularly if the welded structure will be
subjected to heating and cooling in service.
2.1.1.2 The CB30 (18 - 22 Cr) and CC50 (26 - 30 Cr) non-hardenable alloys are subject
to rapid grain growth during welding which reduces their ductility and promotes
cracking. Furthermore, although the alloys are essentially ferritic, it is possible for some
austenite to form and subsequently transform to martensite. Preheating to above 400
o
F
(204
o
C) sometimes as high as 1300
o
F (704
o
C) usually is necessary, therefore to obtain
satisfactory welds. Postweld heat treatment is required to reduce brittleness in the weld
zone. The CB30 alloy customarily is heated to 1450
o
F (788
o
C) and the CC50 alloy to
1650
o
F (899
o
C) or higher then air cooled. Rapid cooling through the range 1100 - 750
o
F
(593 - 399
o
C) is advisable to avoid embrittlement. If conditions of service permit the
welded area to have mechanical properties different from the remainder of the casting,
an austenitic filler metal can be used to improve the ductility of the weld deposit. This
does not change the need for pre- and pot-weld heat treatments, however, because the
dilution of the base metal with nickel increases the probability of martensite formation.
Consideration also must be given to difficulties that might arise from the difference in
thermal expansion coefficients of the weld and base metals.
2.1.2 Iron-chromium-nickel alloys with additions of copper (CB7Cu) or copper and
molybdenum (CD4MCu) are high-strength, two-phase austenite-martensite or austenite-
ferrite structures.
At elevated temperatures the CB7Cu grade is transformed to austenite most of which
forms martensite on cooling below 300
o
F (149
o
C). This is a relatively soft martensite,
however because of the low carbon content. Copper, retained in the martensite as a
super-saturated solution, precipitates sub-microscopically if the alloy is reheated to the
range 900-1100
o
F (482-593
o
C) and subsequently increases the strength and hardness
of the casting. In either the annealed or hardened condition castings can be welded
without preheat, although it sometimes desirable to preheat tp 500
o
F (260
o
C) when
welding heavy sections. Sections which require multi-pass welds are handled better in
the annealed condition than after aging since the prolonged heat of welding will
introduce non-uniform hardening characteristics to the weld zone. Thus, such castings
require a solution heat treatment in the temperature range 1850 -1950
o
F (1010 -
1066
o
C) followed by rapid cooling before being hardened by reheating to the
precipitation temperature. Only the low temperature aging treatment is needed to
harden the weld zone on single pass welds.
The CD4MCu alloy has very low carbon content, but the two-phase, austenite-ferrite
microstructure is strengthened by the copper and molybdenum contents. Properties of
the alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition balance so it is essential
that the filler metal used in welding this grade create a weld deposit closely matching
the base metal. Castings are welded in the solution annealed condition and preheat is
not required. To restore the ductility and maximum corrosion resistance to the weld
zone, castings require a postweld solution heat treatment at 2050
o
F (1121
o
C) or higher,
slow cooling to 1900
o
F (1038
o
C) to allow transformation of some ferrite to austenite,
followed by rapid cooling to room temperature.
2.1.3 Iron-chromium-nickel alloy types CE30, CF3, CF8, CF20, CF8C, CF3M, CF8M,
CG8M, CH20 and CK20 are all austenitic in microstructure. Depending on the balance
in the chemical composition among the austenite-promoting elements (nickel, carbon,
manganese and nitrogen) and the ferrite-promoting elements (chromium, silicon,
molybdenum, and columbium), the structure may vary from wholly austenite to austenite
plus ferrite in the range 0 to 40 percent. In this respect the casting alloys differ from the
corresponding wrought stainless steels which normally are balanced to be wholly
austenitic since partially ferritic alloys have inferior rolling qualitites. The corrosion
resistance of the alloys is greatest when the carbon is completely dissolved and this
accomplished by heating them to 1900
o
F (1038
o
C) or higher, followed by rapid cooling
through the range 1600 to 800
o
F 871 tp 427
o
C). If the alloys cool slowly through the
sensitizing temperature range, there is a danger that the carbon will combine with
some of the chromium and precipitate as chromium carbide. Since a high chromium
content is essential to maximum corrosion resistance, any area that has been depleted
of chromium by the precipitation of chromium carbide will be subject to increased
corrosive attack. This is so-called weld-decay in which severe corrosion is
experienced in the heat affected zone adjacent to a weld.
When wholly austenitic microstructures such as usually found in wrought alloys are
exposed to sensitizing temperatures they suffer from intergranular corrosion because
the chromium carbides precipitate along the grain boundaries and thus form a
continuous network along which corrosion can proceed. Due to the presence of some
ferrite in castings, on the other hand, the carbides precipitate in the discontinuous ferrite
pools so that intergranular attack is less likely to occur. Nevertheless, to restore
maximum corrosion resistance to the weld zone, the carbides must be redissolved by a
high temperature heat treatment and a rapid quench. The extra-low carbon content of
alloys CF3 and CF3M can be welded without postweld heat treatment because very
little chromium carbide can be formed. Chromium depletion is avoided in the CF8C
alloy type by the intentional addition of columbium carbides instead of chromium
carbides.
The presence of ferrite in the microstructure of the austenitic alloys is also helpful in
avoiding cracking or microfissuring of welds. Consequently, the CE30, CF3, CF8,
CF16F, CF3M, CF8M, CF8C and CG8M grades, which normally contain over 5 percent
ferrite, are less susceptible to cracking than the wholly austenitic types CH20 and CK20.
Because as previously noted, wrought stainless steels of the AISI 300 series are
generally balanced to have wholly austenitic structures, they are prone to cracking when
welded so the filler compositions used are usually balanced to a partially ferritic weld
deposit and thereby take advantage of the improved resistance to microfissuring
provided by this structure. Since may of the casting alloys are themselves partially
ferritic, these grades can be welded more readily than the wrought types without the use
of filler metal, as in the case of the inert gas tungsten welding process often used for
fusion of root passes or elimination of small surface discontinuities.
Upper limits on the ferrite contents of castings and weld deposits are frequently set
when heavy sections are to be welded or where the service temperature may exceed
800
o
F (427
o
C). High chromium alloys held for appreciable times at elevated
temperatures may transform partially to the sigma phase with resultant decrease in high
temperature strength and room temperature ductility. This transformation can take
place after long exposure of alloys that are initially wholly austenitic, but may occur quite
rapidly in partially ferritic alloys. Embrittlement and possible cracking of high ferrite
content weld deposits may result form the slow cooling of heavy sections so that
nominal ferrite contents are usually limited to maximum amounts depending on
experience with specific casting configurations. Small amounts of sigma that may form
in a ferrite-containing weld of a heavy section will be eliminated, however, through
retransformation to ferrite by a postweld solution heat treatment.
Although there are several methods for estimating the amount of ferrite present in an
austenitic alloy, the one most often used is based on the fact that ferrite is ferro-
magnetic whereas austenite is not. Instruments for measuring the magnetic attraction
of a weld deposit or casting have assumed to be capable of determining the true
percentage of ferrite present. Recent investigations have shown, however, that no
method is yet available for the accurate determination of absolute ferrite content.
Accordingly, a method has bee approved by the Advisory Subcommittee of the Welding
Research Council for calibrating magnetic measuring instruments to read in Ferrite
Numbers. (See Item 20 in the Bibliography.) It should be recognized that considerable
variation of indicated ferrite content will occur over the surface of a casting or weld
zone, and due allowance should be made for this in any specification. For example, a
spread of ferrite number from 4 to 16 should not be unexpected when the nominal value
is 10.
2.1.4 The iron-nickel-chromium and nickel-base alloys CN7M, CW12M, CY40, N12M,
M-35, and CZ100 are austenitic in microstructure and do not undergo change in phase
when cooling from welding temperature. They are subject to carbide precipitation,
however, and have lowered ductility in the 1200 to 1800
o
F (649 to 928
o
C) temperature
range. Cracking of the weld zone may occur for this reason if there is substantial
restraint, and in such cases preheat is sometimes helpful as indicted on the individual
alloy procedure sheets. Another cause of cracking in high alloys is embrittlement from
contamination of the weld by lead, sulfur, phosphorous and other elements such as
arsenic and antimony. Producers o castings exert great care to ensure low levels of
these contaminants in the alloys, and similar care must be exercised in keeping weld
areas and the heat affected zones clean. Anything that might contribute one or more of
the detrimental elements-marking crayon, paint, oil and even some degreasing
compounds can be such sources - should be removed by a final washing with alcohol,
acetone of hot water before starting to weld. Removal of all traces of molding sand by
grinding the surface in the weld area is desirable for type 35 and sometimes for other
alloys.
Castings are usually welded in the solution annealed condition and are given a postweld
heat treatment to restore corrosion resistance and relieve stresses.
2.2 Heat resistant grades
These have physical properties similar to the corrosion resistant grades so that some of
the same considerations apply with regard to electrical characteristics and thermally
imposed stresses. The generally higher carbon contents of the heat resistant alloys
makes them stronger at elevated temperatures than the corrosion resistant types and
the extensive carbide networks in the microstructures result in relatively low room
temperature ductility.
2.2.1 Iron-chromium alloy type HA is a hardenable, pearlitic-martensitic alloy that has
good oxidation resistance at temperatures up to about 1200
o
F (649
o
C). Its behavior in
welding is similar to that described for the CA alloys in Section 2.1.1.1.
Type HC has the same microstructure and welding characteristics as the CC50 alloy
discussed in Section 2.1.1.2. It is especially difficult to weld castings that have been in
elevated temperature service because of embrittlement.
2.2.2 Iron-chromium-nickel alloy types HD and HE have two-phase austenite-ferrite
microstructures containing chromium carbides. They have substantially better ductility
as-cast than the iron-chromium HC type but will become embrittled upon long exposure
to temperatures around 1500
o
F (816
o
C) through formation of the sigma phase. Ductility
of the alloys can be restored by heating them to the range 1800 - 2000
o
F (982 - 1093
o
C)
and cooling rapidly to below 1200
o
F (649
o
C). It is unnecessary to preheat castings for
welding and postweld heat treatment is required only for relief of welding stresses in
complicated sections.
The HF, HH, HI, HK and HL grades, as normally made, have a microstructure of
carbides in a wholly austenitic matrix. The HH and HI alloys are borderline and unless
balanced to be wholly austenitic will contain some ferrite. Ferrite-free compositions are
preferred for high temperature strength and less susceptibility to sigma formation.
Because increase in carbon content tends to decrease the microfissuring of wholly
austenitic welds, the alloys with carbon at the higher end of the composition range are
somewhat easier to weld than those on the low side. Furthermore, welding filler metal
matching the carbon content of the cast alloys is available and is preferred to the low-
carbon, partially ferritic type used for welding corrosion resistant alloys since it provides
high temperature strength comparable to the base metal.
2.2.3 Iron-nickel-chromium alloys in which the nickel content exceeds the chromium are
grades HN, HT, HU, HW and HX. They are wholly austenitic in microstructure and
contain substantial amounts of carbides but do not form sigma phase under any
conditions. The ratio of silicon to carbon is important to the weldability of these alloys -
especially the HT and HU grades. Depending on the actual silicon and carbon contents,
a ratio in the general neighborhood of 2:1 is considered to give the best balance
between weld soundness and ductility. With sufficiently high carbon, the weld is sound
at any silicon level but ductility decreases as carbon content increases. Ductility falls off
sharply at high silicon-low carbon ratios and welds are badly fissured. Welding
electrodes and filler metal that create weld deposits having silicon and carbon ion the
ranges 0.75 to 1.50 percent and 0.40 to 0.55 percent, respectively, are available and
are preferred for successful welds. Preheat is not required for welding these alloys in
general, but complex shapes and heavy sections of the HN, HT and HU grades have
improved weldability if preheated to around 400
o
F (204
o
C). Contamination of the weld
by lead, sulfur or phosphorous is also very detrimental to these alloys and the same
precautions regarding cleaning of the weld zone should be observed as described for
the high nickel corrosion resistant grades in Section 2.1.4.
2.3 Welding dissimilar metals
Welds between different high alloys or between a high alloy and low alloy or carbon
steel, can be made successfully with most of the heat and corrosion resistant grades.
When such welds are attempted, the effects of dilution of the filler metal in the weld
deposit must be given attention. The microstructure in the weld zone between a wholly
austenitic and ferritic alloy, for example, will be different from either of the base
materials and will have properties determined by the chemical composition balance of
the diluted metal. Prediction of the structure to be expected can be obtained form the
Schaeffler diagram. (See items 3 and 12 in the Bibliography.) Filler metals of higher
alloy content than the high alloy base metal. are often used when welding high alloys to
carbon steel. The use of carbon or low alloy steel filler metal on high alloys must be
avoided since brittle, crack-prone welds will result. In order to prevent martensite
formation in the weld zone under conditions of restraint, the low alloy should first be
buttered with a layer of high alloy weld metal which should subsequently be shaped to
provide the weld groove. The high alloy piece than can be welded to this prepared
groove by using the normal filler metal.
3. Welding as a casting production and utilization process
Few processes are more important to the production and utilization of high alloy
castings than welding. Although it may be obvious why welding is an important means
for incorporating castings into composite structures (pipe lines, for example, where
mechanical connections are undesirable), it may seem a misnomer to call welding a
foundry production process. Welding frequently is looked on as just a repair technique
whereby defective castings are salvaged. It is implied, therefore, that improved foundry
practices would result in production of defect-free castings and obviate the need for
weld repair. Such a viewpoint overlooks the fact that the use of welding in casting
production is dictated largely by specification requirements of the user and by the
casting design.
3.1 Surface irregularities on castings are inherent in varying degree in the available
molding processes. The foundry often can offer a choice of manufacturing methods
and, where relative freedom from surface irregularities is desired, the purchasers
selection may then be based on economic considerations. If warranted by a large
quantity of pieces and savings in cost to the purchaser on subsequent manufacturing
processes in his operation, a casting technique requiring the most costly pattern
equipment may be selected with the result that little or no welding on the surface of the
castings will be involved. On the other hand, if the least costly molding method is
chosen, then welding becomes a production tool for the cosmetic improvement of
surface quality by elimination of excessive irregularities or for the structural rebuilding of
surface discontinuities. Where surfaces are machined, machining is the production tool
for the improvement of the surface finish, yet it is seldom, if ever, considered a salvage
or repair operation. On occasion, both welding and machining may be required if
rough machining discloses shallow sub-surface voids.
3.2 The relative versatility of the casting process among the various methods for
producing desired shapes, leads many designers into the belief that any configuration,
no mater how complex, should be castable with all sections completely free of internal
voids or inclusions. Such is not the case, however, so that if the casting design makes
it impossible to feed every portion of the mold effectively, unacceptable shrinkage must
be corrected by the deposition of weld metal to fill the voids.
3.2.1 Preparation fo welding involves removal of metal inward from the surface of the
as-cast section to eliminate the internal shrinkage or non-metallic inclusion. The cavity
is then inspected to determine that all unsound metal has been removed before the
section is rebuilt with layers of weld beads. This inspection may be visual or it may be
specified to be done by radiographic or dye penetrant examination. What constitutes
removal of porosity or inclusions to sound base metal is subject to interpretation and
should be a matter of agreement between the purchaser and the foundry. Visual
determination that unsound metal has been removed is usually considered sufficient to
allow welding to proceed. If dye penetrant or radiographic examination is required the
same criteria of acceptability are often applied to the prepared cavity as those applying
(or which would apply, if specified) to the casting a s a whole.
3.2.2 Where design considerations prevent the proper feeding of casting sections, an
otherwise uneconomical or impractical configuration may become feasible by welding
together several less complex components. When the structure is assembled from two
or more smaller and simpler castings, production of the individual parts can be arranged
for optimum soundness, and higher over-all quality achieved than possible with a one-
piece casting. It is obviously more economical to weld sound cast sections to one
another in a preplanned fashion than to search for an internal void by non-destructive
inspection, to remove good as-cast metal in order to get to the flaw, and then rebuild the
section with weld metal. The usefulness of cast-weld construction, however, is not
confined to exceptionally large or complex castings. Economies also can be obtained,
for example, where a part is too big to be machine-molded in one piece but which can
be divided into two machine-molded castings and then reunited by welding. For large
structures that require machining in only one area, it is sometimes advantageous to cast
and machine that portion separately and afterward to weld the two parts together.
3.3 Quality of welds in most of the high alloy types is not affected by the size of the
sections or the cavity dimensions. Thus the distinction between so-called minor and
major welds has no real significance and is often over-emphasized in purchase
specifications. The strength of properly made welds is equivalent to that of the base
metal (if the filler metal used creates a weld deposit of the same alloy composition) so
that arbitrary limitations on the amount of welding permitted on castings, or time-
delaying inspection and approval requirements prior to welding, are both costly and
frequently unnecessary.
4 Welding processes in general use for high alloy castings
Cast high alloys can be welded by electric arc, electroslag, and oxyacetylene
processes. The great majority of welds are made by arc-welding techniques and of
these the shielded metal-arc process is the most popular. All the processes provide
protection of the metal from the atmosphere during welding which is essential to ensure
quality of the weld. The type of weld to be made and the characteristics of the alloy
being welded, however, are influential in the choice of welding process to be employed.
4.1 detailed descriptions of the equipment used in each process, suggested joint
designs, and discussions of each welding technique, are contained in equipment
manufacturers literature and in several of the references listed in the appended
bibliography. The appropriate chapters in Volume 6 Welding and Brazing of the
Metals Handbook, Eight Edition, published by the American Society of Metals, are
especially informative. The following comments, therefore, are confined to the
application of the processes to high alloy castings.
4.1.1 Shielded metal-arc process
Used for repair and fabrication welding on both corrosion and heat resistant alloy types,
this process is adaptable to many of the situations encountered in casting manufacture
or assembly. Electrodes are available in small or large quantities for all alloy
compositions. It is a manual process that lends itself to wide variation in size and
configuration of welds and to conditions of shop or filed welding. The slag developed
during welding is a drawback, however, since it may result in weld inclusions and must
be cleaned carefully from each bead before deposition of the next one. Although in
carbon steel weld slags on one bead may sometimes be floated out through the next
pass, this cannot be relied on in high alloys. Considerable skill is required of the
operator in control of the arc and weld metal. Electrode coatings must be guarded
against pick up of moisture in order to minimize pinholing.
4.1.2 Gas metal-arc process
Known frequently as MIG welding but currently designated as GMAW by the
American Welding Society, this process is used mainly for fabrication welding where
advantage can be taken of the high speed and relatively long periods of welding made
possible by the continuous feeding of filler metal in the form of uncoated wire. Shielding
of the weld by an inert gas practically eliminates development of slag, but slag can be
formed by reactions within the molten pool so that cleaning of each weld pass is
advisable. In addition to fabrication welding, the process is used for repair welding of
some alloy types as noted on the individual welding procedure sheets. The need for
protection of the shielding gas from drafts and reduced portability of the equipment
make this process less attractive tan shielded metal-arc welding or gas tungsten-arc
welding fo casting repair.
4.1.3 Gas tungsten-arc process
Like the gas metal-arc process described earlier, gas tungsten-arc (TIG or GTAW) uses
an inert gas to protect the weld zone from the atmosphere but heat for fusion is
provided by an arc between the casting and a non-consumable tungsten electrode.
Thus welds can be made merely by fusion of the base metal without the addition of filler
metal, or filler metal, if needed, may be added as bare wire. High heating rates and low
heat inputs are characteristic of the tungsten arc which is especially desirable in welding
in welding corrosion resistant alloys, particularly where postweld heat treatment is
inconvenient. For this reason many superficial welds are made by this process. Gas
tungsten-arc welding is also used for the root pass of fabrication welds because of the
excellent visibility of the weld pool to the operator and the high quality of welds obtained.
Subsequent passes often are laid down by other processes where large welds are
involved. The process suffers from the same disadvantage as the gas metal-arc in that
the weld zone must be protected from drafts that might dilute the shielding gas and
cause inferior weld quality.
4.1.4 Electroslag welding
This process is used almost exclusively for the production of fabrication welds joining
very large and heavy-walled castings where considerable quantities of metal are
required in the joint. Filler metal is added through an electrically conductive molten slag
which melts the surface of the base metal, and the entire weld pool is retained by water-
cooled copper shoes bridging the joint on each side of the pieces being welded. This
requires extensive auxiliary equipment for positioning the castings and for automatically
feeding the filler metal to the weld. The process is used for high alloys, but because of
its limited application, no welding procedure sheets are being issued.
4.1.5 Oxyacetylene welding
Welding using the flame of a torch burning a mixture of oxygen and acetylene gases to
heat the work and simultaneously protect the weld pool from the air can be done on
high alloy castings. As in the GTAW process, filler metal is added to the weld in the
form of bare wire. The process is never advisable for use with the corrosion resistant
alloys because of the pick up of carbon from the flame which reduces the corrosion
resistance of the weld. This is not a serious factor with high-chromium, heat resistant
alloy types, but oxyacetylene welding has no advantage over electric are welding which
has almost completely superseded it commercially.

4.2 Individual alloy welding procedures
The following pages covering individual alloy types provide specific welding procedure
information for may of the standard grades of corrosion resistant and heat resistant
casting alloys.
Some general comments are in order regarding the production of good welds on high
alloy castings and their acceptability. Proper training of welders is essential. Safety
precautions should be observed. These are covered by American National Standard Z
49.1, Safety in Welding and Cutting. For many types of construction, compliance must
be established with the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code and the American National
Standard Code for Pressure Piping both of which are published by the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers. The qualification of welders and welding procedures
necessary to meet the requirements of these codes are set forth in Section IX of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.
Care must be taken to keep the coatings on coated electrodes free from moisture.
Once the container in which such electrodes are received is opened, the coating may
absorb water from the atmospheric humidity and a porous weld deposit may result.
Several hours exposure to high humidity can raise the coating moisture to a detrimental
level. For this reason, unused electrodes should be stored at 200
o
F (93
o
C) or higher.
Electrodes from freshly opened packages are considered best for critical welds.
The coatings on electrodes (for direct current welding) can be either the lime of titania
type. A large, hot arc pool is characteristic of the lime coatings and the slag freezes
quickly. Titania coatings which can be used for either AC or DC welding are
distinguished by small arc puddles and a thin, low viscosity slag. Although welds made
with titania-coated electrodes have generally smoother surfaces than those made with
the lime-coated types, and slag that is easier to remove, lime coatings give better weld
pool protection and are more frequently used for welding cast high alloys.
The need for cleanliness for the surfaces of prepared cavities or joints cannot be over
emphasized. Cleaning of the entire weld zone before, during and after welding is
essential to successful welding of high alloy castings. Contamination of the weld itself
or the adjacent base metal can seriously affect the performance of the casting in
service.
The requirements for postweld heat treatment as set forth in Section 12 of the individual
alloy welding procedures should be given careful attention. A weld zone that is
mechanically sound may be unfit for its intended service if it has not been restored to a
microstructure having adequate corrosion resistance.
Bibliography
For additional information on the subjects covered in the foregoing review, the reader
will find details in the following references:
1. R.D. Thomas, Jr., Crack Sensitivity of Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Weld
Metal, Metal Progress, 50, pp 474 - 479, September, 1946 [Advantages of ferritic lime-
coated electrodes, danger of changes in weld metal composition from dilution by base
metal]
2. D. Rozet, H.C. Campbell and R. D. Thomas, Jr., Effect of Weld Metal Composition
on the Strength and Ductility of 15%Cr - 35%Ni Welds, Welding Journal, 13, No. 10, pp
481-s to 491-s, 1948 [Importance of Si/C ratio]
3. A.L. Schaeffler, Constitution Diagram for Stainless Steel Weld Metal, Metal
Progress, 56, pp 680 - 680B, November 1949 [Determination of ferrite content from
chemical composition of an alloy]
4. E.M. Anger, W.E. Dundin and G. Thompson How to Weld High Alloy Castings, The
Welding Engineer, April, May and September, 1953
5. Anon., Welding Cracks in Columbium - Bearing Stainless Steel, Metal Progress,
67, pp 109 - 111, May 1955 [cracking in type 347 reduced by 4 - 8 percent ferrite]
6. W. Hirsch and H.W. Fritze, The Hot Cracking of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steel
Welds, Scweissen und Schneiden, 8, No. 3, 1956 [Columbium favors cracking of
austenite by forming an austenite - FeCb eutectic; cracking does not occur if ferrite is
present]
7. B.I. Medovar and Yu. B. Malevsky, The Effect of Chemical Composition of
Austenitic 25-20 Weld Metal on the Gamma-Sigma Transformation. Welding
Production (Russian), April 1959 [Increase of carbon to 0.20 percent suppresses sigma
formation]
8. J.C. Borland and R.N. Younger, Some Aspects of Cracking in Welded Cr-Ni
Austenitic Steels, British Welding Journal, January, 1960 [Extensive bibliography on
subject from 1920 to 1959]
9. R.W. Emerson, R.W. Jackson and C.A. Dauber, Transition Joints Between
Austenitic and Ferritic Steel Piping for High Temperature Steam Service, Welding
Journal, 27, No.9, pp 385-ss to 393-s, 1962 [Use of higher alloy filler metal]
10. R.M. Evans, Joining of Nickel-Base Alloys, DMIC Report 181, December 20, 1962
11. E.A. Schoefer, ACI Data Sheets, Steel Founders Society of America [Chemical,
physical and mechanical properties of corrosion and heat resistant cast alloys]
12. H.C. Campbell, Identifying Corrosion and Welding Failures in Stainless Steels,
Materials Protection, NACE, October 1963 [Distinction between failure of a weld due to
its corrosion resistance or to its mechanical characteristics]
13. D.M. Haddrill and R.G. Baker, Microcracking in Austenitic Weld Metal, British
Welding Journal, August 1965 [Higher carbon in weld reduces cracking]
14. F.C. Hull, Effects of Delta Ferrite on the Hot Cracking of Stainless Steel, Welding
Journal, 46, No.9, pp 399-s to 490-s 1967 [Ferrite-austenite grain boundaries are not
wet by last freezing liquid and hence sustain contraction stresses imposed by restraint;
whereas austenite-austenite grain boundaries are so wet and, therefore, cannot resist
contraction and cracking results. 5-10 percent ferrite the preferred range]
15. G.E. Linnert, Weldability of Austenitic Stainless Steel as Affected by Residual
Elements, ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 418, July, 1967 [Possibility of slag
formation from reactions within the weld pool]
16. G.E. Linnert, Welding Characteristics of Stainless Steels, Metals Engineering
Quarterly, ASM, 7, No. 4, pp 16-41 [Details of welding processes and techniques]
17. R.P. Sullivan, Fusion Welding of Stainless Steel, Ibid., pp 16 - 41 [Details of
welding processes and techniques]
18. K.A. Ebert, Influencing the Weldability of Austenitic Chromium Nickel Steels by
Means of Their Ferrite Contents, Schweissen und Schneiden, 20, No.2, 1968 [Ferrite is
location of precipitated phosphorus, silicon, carbon, etc. in preference to austenite grain
boundaries and thus reduces crack sensitivity of weld]
19. American Welding Society Specifications for Electrodes: AWS A5.4-69; AWS A5.9-
69; AWS A5.11-69; AWS A5.12-69; AWS A5.14-69; also Terms and Definitions, AWS
A3.0-69
20. W.T. Delong, Calibration Procedure for Instruments to Measure the Delta Ferrite
Content of Austenitic Stainless Weld Metal, published by High Alloys Committee of the
Welding Research Council, July 1972
21. American Welding Society Handbook, Section IV, Fifth Edition, 1966, Chapters 64
and 65, Metals and Their Weldability
22. American Society for Metals Metals Handbook, Vol. 6, Eighth Edition, Welding and
Brazing, 1971
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CA6NM alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CA6NM (11.5-14 Cr, 3.5-4.5 Ni, .40-1.0 Mo) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E410 Ni Mo-15 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.)
AWS E410 Ni Mo-16 Titania coated electrode is preferred for AC welding and may be
used for DC. This type rod is useful for welding positions other
than vertical-down.
3 Position
Whenever possible, all welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove
with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the castings as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
CA6NM can normally be welded at room temperature (70F) (21C). For large welds in
heavy or highly stressed sections, castings may be preheated in the range of 212 to
300F (100 to 150C), and the interpass temperature may be maintained at 500 to 600F
(260 to 315C) as a guideline. Welding of castings in the heat treated condition is
preferred to welding as-cast metal.
7 Section Size
Section size normally is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. If section thickness
is under inch, it may be desirable to limit electrode size to 1/8 inch maximum. For
section thicknesses over three inches, preheating may be employed.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Techniques
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter, or twice the gas cup orifice
diameter. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and a stainless wire brush,
or a needle gun. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, one 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting
and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16
inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's
specifications for the particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless
steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should
be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a
weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result
in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice to
use small diameter electrodes and low heat to prevent distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds normally are heated to the range 1100-1150F (593-620C) and then air cooled. In
cases where a special hardness requirement must be attained, the welded casting is
given a full reheat treatment followed by tempering.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, ultrasonic, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CA15 (11.5-14 Cr, 0.15 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E410-15 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.)
AWS E410-16 Titania coated electrode is preferred for AC welding and may be
used for DC. This type rod is useful for welding positions other
than vertical-down.

3 Position
Whenever possible, all welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove
with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Heat this alloy to the range 300-600F (149-315C) and maintain the metal above 300F
(149C) during the welding operation. Welds sometimes are made successfully without
preheat, especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0.10 percent. In general,
preheat is preferred. Heating in the range 600-1100F (315-593C) is avoided because it
will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength. Welding of castings in the annealed
condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. If section thickness is
under inch, it may be desirable to limit electrode size to 1/8 inch maximum. For section
thicknesses over three inches, preheat temperature should be at the high end of the
range.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 are sometimes used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between
passes with a hammer and a wire brush, or a needle gun using stainless steel needles.
No peening is done unless the welds are large and/or the cavity or weld groove is deep. If
a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a
3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in
place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a
size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to
minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as
possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc
sometimes can be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process can be used for welding machined castings by keeping heat to a minimum
through use of small electrodes, and by cooling to room temperature between passes.
Type AWS E309-15 or AWS E310-15 electrodes sometimes are used.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450F (593-788C), and then either air or
furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting, they are
given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800F (982C) minimum, followed by air
cooling and tempering at the specified temperature. Minor, superficial welds sometimes
are not post-heat treated when the presence of hard spots resulting from untempered
martensite in the weld deposits can be tolerated.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, pressure, or ultrasonic.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.

Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CA15 (11.5-14 Cr, 0.15 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER410 - Bare wire is used in this process.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Heat this alloy to the range 300-600F (149-315C) and maintain the metal above 300F
(149C) during the welding operation. Welds sometimes are made successfully without
preheat, especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0.10 percent. In general,
preheat is preferred. Heating in the range 600-1100F (315-593C) is avoided because it
will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength. Welding of castings in the annealed
condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. For section
thicknesses over two inches, preheat should be above 400F (204C).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited to about
the diameter of the gas nozzle. No peening is done. It is customary to remove any defects in the weld by
grinding before laying down the next bead. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be
fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a
size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding
should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a
crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.094
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%)
oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25
percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh also is used.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is seldom used to weld machined castings; when it is, AWS ER309 or AWS
ER310 type electrode wire is used.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450F (593-788C), and then either air or
furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting, they are
given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800F (982C) minimum, followed by air
cooling and tempering at the specified temperature. Minor, superficial welds sometimes
are not post-heat treated when the presence of hard spots resulting from untempered
martensite in the weld deposits can be tolerated.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, pressure, or ultrasonic.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of types CA15 and CA40 alloys as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CA15 (11.5-14 Cr, 0.15 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER410 - Bare wire is used to weld this alloy.

3 Position
Whenever possible, all welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove
with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. Successful welds can be made by
this process, however, in all positions.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
grinding. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the
following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Heat this alloy to the range 300-600F (149-315C) and maintain the metal above 300F
(149C) during the welding operation. Welds sometimes are made successfully without
preheat, especially if the carbon content of the alloy is less than 0.10 percent. In general,
preheat is preferred. Heating in the range 600-1100F (315-593C) is avoided because it
will result in a loss of ductility and impact strength. Welding of castings in the annealed
condition is preferred to welding of as-cast metal.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
not restricted in extent. Peening may be done between successive passes on deep
welds. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to
the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which
should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of
3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be
performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of
initiating a crack at the tack weld (6).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used normally are followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds usually are heated to the range 1100-1450F (593-788C), and then either air or
furnace cooled depending on the specification of mechanical properties for the casting. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting, they are
given a full re-heat treatment of heating to 1800F (982C) minimum, followed by air
cooling and then tempering at the specified temperature. Minor, superficial welds often
are not post-heat treated.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, magnetic particle, radiography, pressure, or ultrasonic.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15.5-17.0 Cr, 3.6-4.6 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) and CB7Cu-2
(14.0-15.5 Cr, 4.5-5.5 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E630-15 Lime coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. This rod
should not be used for AC.
AWS E630-16 Titania coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used
for DC.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 500F
(260C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Thick sections may
require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two and one-half times the electrode diameter. Fully hardened castings are
frequently preheated (6) and welded with low heat and small rods. No peening is done.
All slag is removed with a stainless steel wire brush or slagging hammer, or needle gun
using stainless steel needles. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be
fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of
the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after
welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the
edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting
has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack
weld (6 and 7).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the
amperage and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the
particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off
rate of the electrode is higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as
short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a
long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be
subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each
pass. For small welds on heavy sections, this may not be necessary since the heavy
mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by
low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100F (482-593C). But
to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections, they are
heated to the range 1850-1950F (1010-1066C), held until uniformly at temperature,
rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air, and followed by the desired aging
treatment. Single-pass welds usually do not require postweld solution heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15.5-17.0 Cr, 3.6-4.6 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) and CB7Cu-2
(14.0-15.5 Cr, 4.5-5.5 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER630 Bare wire is used.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1.).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 500F
(260C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Thick sections may
require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two and one-half times the wire diameter. No peening is done. If a defect
penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch
backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The
backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it
extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack
welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize
the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/64 to 3/32 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc sometimes can be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30
to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone
rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by
low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100F (482-593C). But
to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections, they are
heated to the range 1850-1950F (1010-1066C), held until uniformly at temperature,
rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air, and followed by the desired aging
treatment. Single pass welds usually do not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CB7Cu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy types CB7Cu-1 (15.5-17.0 Cr, 3.6-4.6 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) and CB7Cu-2
(14.0-15.5 Cr, 4.5-5.5 Ni, 2.5-3.2 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER630 Bare wire is used. For repair of small surface
irregularities, welds are sometimes made without the use
of any filler metal.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Alcohol and
acetone are solvents frequently used for cleaning.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 500F
(260C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. Thick sections may
require preheat (6) for satisfactory welds.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used, but very little
weaving is done. No peening is done. Because no slag is formed during the welding
operation, interpass cleaning is not necessary. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly,
a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in
place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a
size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to
minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld (6 and 7).
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 15 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary since the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone
rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Both annealed and aged type CB7Cu castings can be restored to specified hardness by
low temperature postweld hardening treatment in the range 900-1100F (482-593C). But
to restore hardenability properties to multiple-pass welds on heavy sections, they are
heated to the range 1850-1950F (1010-1066C), held until uniformly at temperature,
rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air, and followed by the desired aging
treatment. Single pass welds usually do not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CD4MCu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CD4MCu (24.5-26.5 Cr, 4.75-6 Ni, 1.75-2.25 Mo, 2.75-3.25 Cu, 0.04 max. C)
static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
Lime coated electrodes that will deposit weld metal of the CD4MCu composition are
available and are used. The weld deposit should approximate the base metal because
the properties of this alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition, however,
some minor variation in composition may be necessary to obtain the desired
microstructure.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CD4MCu alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. No peening is done. All slag is
removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush. If a defect
penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch
backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The
backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it
extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. This alloy
cannot be welded satisfactorily to other metals.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16
inch may be used with the current and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's
specifications for the particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless
steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length
should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when
starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and
may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CD4MCu castings, they are
heated to 2050F (1121C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, furnace cooled
to 1900F (1038C), and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CD4MCu alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CD4MCu (24.5-26.5 Cr, 4.75-6 Ni, 1.75-2.25 Mo, 2.75-3.25 Cu, 0.04 max. C)
static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal. When filler metal is used, it is frequently cast rod of
the CD4MCu composition. The weld deposit should approximate the base metal because
the properties of this alloy are influenced critically by the chemical composition, however,
some minor variation in composition may be necessary to obtain the desired
microstructure.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects usually are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is
accomplished by grinding. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of
one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for fabrications of type CD4MCu castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CD4MCu alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. This alloy cannot be
welded satisfactorily to other metals.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CD4MCu castings, they are
heated to 2050F (1121C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, furnace cooled
to 1900F (1038C), and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8 (18-21 Cr, 8-11 Ni, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types CF3 (17-21 Cr, 8-12 Ni, 0.03 max. C) and
CF16F (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 1.5 max. Mo, 0.20-0.35 Se, 0.16 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS E308-15 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.) Used for types CF8 and CF16F.
AWS E308L-15 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.) Used for type CF3.
AWS E308-16 Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used
for DC.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. When sections are
under inch in thickness, use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to four times the electrode wire diameter. No peening is done. All slag
should be removed between passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush, or
a needle gun using stainless steel needles. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or
if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside
contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be
removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch
beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings, they are heated to
1900F (1038C) (2000F [1093C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum, held until uniformly at
temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which
have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected
to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3
castings may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW) Process
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8 (18-21 Cr, 8-11 Ni, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types CF3 (17-21 Cr, 8-12 Ni, 0.03 max. C) and
CF16F (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 1.5 max. Mo, 0.20-0.35 Se, 0.16 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER308L Bare wire is used for CF3.
AWS ER308 Bare wire is used for CF8 and CF16F.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.1.2).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to about inch, or not in excess of the diameter of the gas nozzle. No peening is
done. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush. If a defect
penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch
backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The
backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it
extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.094
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%)
oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25
percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh is also used, but may affect the corrosion
resistance of the weld adversely on multipass welds.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings, they are heated to
1900F (1038C) (2000F [1093C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum, held until uniformly at
temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which
have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected
to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3
castings may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW) Process
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8 (18-21 Cr, 8-11 Ni, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types CF3 (17-21 Cr, 8-12 Ni, 0.03 max. C) and
CF16F (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 1.5 max. Mo, 0.20-0.35 Se, 0.16 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER308L Bare wire is used for CF3. Small defects and root passes are
sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only, without the
addition of any filler metal.
AWS ER308 Bare wire is used for CF8.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Minor, superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than
sandblasting. Defects usually are removed, however, before attempting repair. Removal
normally is accomplished by grinding. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by
the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or
radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. It is more frequently
used for combining wrought and cast components. Parts to be joined are ground or
machined to provide a groove when placed together. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly. A good fit of the
mating parts is essential for production of good welds.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. When section
thickness is under 1/4 inch, use a copper back-up strip for through welds.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited; very little weaving is done in this process. No peening is done and, because no
slag is formed during the welding operation, interpass cleaning usually is unnecessary. If
a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a
3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in
place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a
size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8 castings, they are heated to
1900F (1038C) (2000F [1093C] for CF16F and CF20) minimum, held until uniformly at
temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which
have been made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected
to corrosive attack in service may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3
castings may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8M (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
Also types CF3M (17-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.03 max. C) and
CG8M (18-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 3-4 Mo, 0.08 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS E308 Mo-15 Lime-coated electrode is preferred
AWS E316-15 for DC welding. (This rod should
AWS E317-15 * not be used for AC.)
AWS E316L-15 Used for welding type CF-3M alloy.
AWS E308 MoL-15
AWS E308 Mo-16 Titania-coated electrode is used for
AWS E316-16 AC welding and may be used for DC.
AWS E317-16 *
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
* For welding type CG8M castings.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between
passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush, or a needle gun using stainless
steel needles. No peening is done on most welds, but occasionally light peening of the
bead edges may prove beneficial. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to
be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour
of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed
after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond
the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion, it is
desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds
on heavy sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool
the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings, they are heated
to 1900F (1038C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld
heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8M (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
Also types CF3M (17-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.03 max. C) and
CG8M (18-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 3-4 Mo, 0.08 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER308 MoL Bare wire is used for CF3M.
AWS ER316L
AWS ER316 Bare wire is used for CF8M.
AWS ER308 Mo
AWS ER317 Bare wire is used for type CG8M.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to about inch, or not in excess of the diameter of the gas nozzle. No peening is
done. Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush. If a defect
penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch
backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The
backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it
extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.063
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%)
oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be
subject to corrosion, quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For
small welds on heavy sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will
tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings, they are heated
to 1900F (1038C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld
heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CF8M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CF8M (18-21 Cr, 9-12 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.08 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
Also types CF3M (17-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 0.03 max. C) and
CG8M (18-21 Cr, 9-13 Ni, 3-4 Mo, 0.08 max. C).
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER308 MoL Bare wire is used for CF3M.
AWS ER316L
AWS ER316 Bare wire is used for CF8M.
AWS ER308 Mo
AWS ER317 Bare wire is used for type CG8M.
Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Minor, superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than
sandblasting. Defects usually are removed, however, before attempting repair. Removal
normally is accomplished by grinding. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by
the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or
radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. It is sometimes used
for the root pass with subsequent passes laid down by some other process. More
frequently, it is used for combining wrought and cast components. Parts to be joined are
ground or machined to provide a groove when placed together. A good fit of the mating
parts is essential for production of good welds. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CF8M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited; very little weaving is done in this process. Interpass cleaning usually is not
required because no slag is formed unless coated electrodes (even with the coating
removed) have been used as filler metal. Any cleaning should be done with a stainless
steel wire brush. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting
and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion, it is
desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds
on heavy sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool
the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CF8M castings, they are heated
to 1900F (1038C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment. Type CF3M castings may not require postweld
heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CK20 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CK20 (23-27 Cr, 19-22 Ni, 0.20 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E310-15 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.)
AWS E310-16 Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used
for DC.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CK20 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between
passes with a hammer and/or a stainless steel wire brush, or a needle gun using stainless
steel needles. No peening is done on most welds, but light peening of each pass is
sometimes helpful in producing sound welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting,
or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the
inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should
be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16
inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CK20 castings, they are heated
to 2000F (1093C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CK20 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CK20 (23-27 Cr, 19-22 Ni, 0.20 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER310 Bare wire is preferred in this process.
Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Minor, superficial defects are occasionally welded without any preparation other than
sandblasting. Defects usually are removed, however, before attempting repair. Removal
normally is accomplished by grinding. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by
the use of one or more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or
radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is seldom used for fabrication of composite castings. It is sometimes used
for the root pass with subsequent passes laid down by some other process. More
frequently, it is used for combining wrought and cast components. Parts to be joined are
ground or machined to provide a groove when placed together. A good fit of the mating
parts is essential for production of good welds. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant and to clean the parts thoroughly before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CK20 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Stringer bead placement is used. Beads are cleaned between passes
with a stainless steel wire brush if required because of slag formation. No peening is
done. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together
poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack
welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CK20 castings, they are heated
to 2000F (1093C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr, 27.5-30.5 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 3-4 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and
centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E320-15 Lime-coated electrode is preferred for DC welding. (This rod
should not be used for AC.)
AWS E320-16 Titania-coated electrode is used for AC welding and may be used
for DC.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally, this alloy is not preheated; however, if the extent of the weld is substantial, the
alloy may be preheated to 400-600F (204-315C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to four times the electrode wire diameter. Interpass temperature is kept as low as
possible. All slag is removed with chisel, hammer, and/or stainless steel wire brush.
Beads are lightly peened at edges first, then at center. If a defect penetrates through the
casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed
to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which
should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of
3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. If preheating is done, tack
welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize
the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage on the low side of the range suggested by the electrode manufacturer's
specifications for the particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless
steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length
should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when
starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and
may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings, they are heated
to 2050F (1121C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr, 27.5-30.5 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 3-4 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and
centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER-320 Bare wire is used in this process.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
This process is not being used for repair welding of castings.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally, this alloy is not preheated; however, if the extent of the weld is substantial, the
alloy may be preheated to 400-600F (204-315C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Good fitting, well prepared joints are essential, but dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Special attention is
paid to directing the arc into the side walls and root of the joint. No peening is done.
Beads are cleaned between passes with a stainless steel wire brush.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.094
inch. For root passes, the smaller size wires are used. Currents and voltages suggested
by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used are normally followed.
Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is not being used to weld machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat
TreatmentTo restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings, they are heated
to 2050F (1121C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CN7M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CN7M (19-22 Cr, 27.5-30.5 Ni, 2-3 Mo, 3-4 Cu, 0.07 max. C) static and
centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER320 Bare wire is used in this process.
Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, sandblast, or machining, or by some combination of
these operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or
more of the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for fabrication of castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CN7M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited. Beads are cleaned with a stainless steel wire brush. No peening is done.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CN7M castings, they are heated
to 2050F (1121C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CW12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CW12M (15.5-20 Cr, 16-20 Mo, 7.5 max. Fe, 5.25 max. W, 2.5 max. Co, 0.12
max. C, balance Ni) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCrMo-4-15 Lime coated electrode is used.
AWS ENiCrMo-5-15
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following
inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or
radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in
excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such
areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to
machine dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally, this alloy is not preheated; however, if the extent of the weld is substantial, the
alloy may be preheated to 400-600F (204-315C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two and one-half times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed
between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Light peening of the
first pass is sometimes helpful in producing a sound weld. If a defect penetrates through
the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is
formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate,
which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends to a
minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be
subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each
pass. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy
mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CW12M castings, they are
heated to 2150
o
F (1177
o
C) minimum, held for two hours or until uniformly at temperature,
and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been
made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to
corrosive attack in service may not require post weld heat treatment
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following
precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CW12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CW12M (15.5-20 Cr, 16-20 Mo, 7.5 max. Fe, 5.25 max. W, 2.5
max. Co, 0.12 max. C, balance Ni) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCrMo-4 Bare wire is used.
AWS EniCrMo-5
AWS EniCrMo-7
Small defects and root passes are sometimes welded by fusion of the
base metal only, without the addition of any filler metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following
inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or
radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in
excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such
areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for the fabrication of castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CW12M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
The process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Beads are cleaned
with hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush if any slag is present. No peening is done.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. A non-consumable electrode made
of thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a scratch start to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Amperage and voltage suggested by the
electrode manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed.
Where filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon
may be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be
subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each
pass. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy
mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type CW12M castings, they are
heated to 2150
o
F (1177
o
C) minimum, held for two hours or until uniformly at temperature,
and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds which have been
made to improve the appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to
corrosive attack in service may not require post weld heat treatment
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following
precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CY40 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CY40 (14-17 Cr, 11 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.40 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCrFe-1 Coated electrodes of the types listed are used for DC welding.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally, this alloy is not preheated; however, if the extent of the weld is substantial, the
alloy may be preheated to 400-600F (204-315C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to two and one-half times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed
between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. No peening is done. If
the casting will be exposed to high temperature in service, remove all traces of slag from
the finished weld area. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be
fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of
the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after
welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the
edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded type CY40 castings are heated to 1900F (1038C) minimum, held until uniformly
at temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds may
not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CY40 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CY40 (14-17 Cr, 11 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.40 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ERNiCrFe-5 Bare wire is used.
Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
sandblasting and grinding, or by some combination of these operations. Defect removal
to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for fabrication of castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CY40 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Beads are cleaned
with hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush if any slag is present. No peening is done.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded type CY40 castings are heated to 1900F (1038C) minimum, held until uniformly
at temperature, and then rapidly cooled by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds may
not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type CZ100 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type CZ100 (95 min. Ni, 3 max. Fe, 1.00 max. C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENi-1 A coated electrode with 0.10 max. carbon.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type CZ100 alloy. For complicated castings where high
stresses may be developed in welding, preheat of 200-300F (93-149C) sometimes is
desirable.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. If sections are under
inch in thickness, however, use small electrodes and keep the heat low.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 80 should be
maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be
provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. When breaking the arc, it should be
shortened and the rate of travel increased to avoid crater oxidation. All slag is removed
between passes and from the completed weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire
brush, or a needle gun using stainless steel needles. Light peening of the first pass is
helpful, but no peening is done on later passes. If a defect penetrates through the
casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed
to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which
should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of
3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be
performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of
initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 or 5/32 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very
important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial
hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
No postweld heat treatment is given to welded type CZ100 alloy.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type N-12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type N-12M (26-33 Mo, 6 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.12 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiMo-1-15 Lime coated electrode is used.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly. Cleanliness is
especially important in welding this alloy. Minimum weld restraint is arranged.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated: however, if section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness,
and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 800-1000F (427-
538C).
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy (6).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Stringer beads usually are preferred.
All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush.
Light peening of the first pass is sometimes helpful in producing a sound weld. If a defect
penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch
backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The
backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it
extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack
welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order to minimize
the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 5/32 inch may be used with the
amperage and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the
particular size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off
rate of the electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be
maintained as short as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld
pass since a long arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in
weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be
subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each
pass. For small welds on heavy sections this may not be necessary since the heavy
mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type N-12M castings, they are heated
to 2100
o
F (1149
o
C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type N-12M alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type N-12M (26-33Mo, 6 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.12 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ERNiMo-1 Bare wire is used.
AWS ERNiMo-7
Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following
inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for fabrication of castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type N-12M alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Stringer bead placement is used. No peening is done. Any slag or
oxide present is removed by chipping or brushing with a stainless steel wire brush.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Amperages and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where
filler metal is used, wire sizes range from 1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, it is good
practice, however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area
will be subject to corrosion, it is desirable to quench the weld zone with a wet cloth
between each pass. For small welds on heavy sections, this may not be necessary
because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
To restore maximum corrosion resistance to welded type N-12M castings, they are heated
to 2100
o
F (1149
o
C) minimum, held until uniformly at temperature, and then rapidly cooled
by quenching in water, oil or air. Small welds that have been made to improve the
appearance of casting surfaces that will not be subjected to corrosive attack in service,
may not require postweld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type M-35 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type M-35 (26-33 Cu, 3.5 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.35 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCu-7 Electrode is preferred for welding this alloy.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so
that a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry
with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type M-35 alloy. For complicated castings where high stresses
may be developed in welding, preheat of 200-300F (93-149C) is sometimes desirable.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. For sections under
inch in thickness, small electrodes and low current are used to keep temperature as low
as possible.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up
to 90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a
root radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Stringer beads are preferred. All slag
is removed between passes with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. No peening
is done. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together
poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack
welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in
order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular
size rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
No postweld heat treatment is used for type M-35 castings.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection:
Visual, dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity,
undercutting or lack of penetration.
4. Grind surface area around the groove or cavity to be welded to remove silica from
molding sand to prevent surface cracking around weld-base metal interface.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type M-35 alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type M-35 (26-33 Cu, 3.5 max. Fe, balance Ni, 0.35 max. C) static and centrifugal
castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ERNiCu-1 Bare wire is used.
AWS ERNiCu-7
Small defects and root passes sometimes are welded by fusion of the base metal only,
without the addition of any filler metal.

3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, grinding, or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following
inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
This process is not being used for fabrication of castings.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type M-35 alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
This process is used mainly for surface welds, hence very little metal excavation is
necessary and dimensions are not critical.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Agitation of the
molten puddle is avoided, and the puddle plus the hot end of filler metal wire is kept within
the shielding gas at all times. Care is taken to prevent air contamination of the shielding
gas from drafts.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated
tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a
"scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck
on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications
for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where filler metal is used, wire sizes
range from 1/16 to 1/8 inch. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding
gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. If the welded area will be subject to corrosion,
quench the weld zone with a wet cloth between each pass. For small welds on heavy
sections, this may not be necessary because the heavy mass will tend to cool the weld
zone rapidly.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
No postweld heat treatment is used for type M-35 castings.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography, or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4), and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting
or lack of penetration.
4. Grind surface area around the groove or cavity to be welded to remove silica from
molding sand to prevent surface cracking around weld-base metal interface.

Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HC alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HC (26-30Cr, 4max. Ni, 0.50max.C) static and centrifugal castings.
NOTE: This alloy is considered extremely difficult to weld because of low ductility and
tendency toward cleavage type fractures. Several re-welds may be required.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E446-15 Lime coated electrodes are preferred for welding type HC castings.
AWS E310-15 Lime coated electrodes are also
AWS E312-15 used where improved ductility of
AWS E329-15 the weld is required.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine
dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Preheat temperatures from 400-600F (204-313C) are used in welding this alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. If section thickness is 1/4
inch or less, preheat is sometimes omitted but on heavier sections
preheat is required. Although successful welds are made with low preheat temperatures, it
may be necessary to go to the high end of the range to obtain good welds. When the
depth of a defect exceeds 15 percent of the wall thickness, attempts to repair by welding
are often considered to be useless.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. (Refer to
Secs. 6 and 7)

9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Staggered stringer beads are used on
heavy sections. All slag is removed between passes with a hammer and/or wire brush.
Generally, peening is not done but a light peen after each pass is sometimes helpful. If
parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside
contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be
removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch
beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the
casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the
tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size
rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (see Sec. 9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good
practice, however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds are usually heated to the range 1550-1900F (843-1038C) and then cooled rapidly.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HC alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HC (26-30Cr, 4max. Ni, 0.50max.C) centrifugal castings.
NOTE: This alloy is considered extremely difficult to weld because of low ductility and
tendency toward cleavage type fractures.
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield metal-
arc process (SMAW).
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine dry with
no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Preheat temperatures from 400-600F (204-313C) are used in welding this alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. (See procedure for shielded
metal-arc welding of type HC alloy.)
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. If parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is
formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which
should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16
inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after
the casting has been preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the
tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred
over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be
struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's
specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 15 to 25 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welds are usually heated to the range 1550-1900F (843-1038C) and then cooled rapidly.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
In order to produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, it is customary to take the
following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HF (19-23Cr, 9-12Ni, 0.20-0.40C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E308-15 Lime coated electrodes are used
AWS E310-15 (0.30C) for DC welding of this alloy.
AWS E330-15 (These rods should not be used
for AC)
AWS E308-16 Titania coated electrodes are
AWS E309-16 preferred for AC welding and may

be used for DC.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation. (See Introduction, welding (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) is often used before
welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. Heavy sections may
require preheat or postheat. (6 and 12)
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Sometimes stringer beads are used
exclusively, or are used for root passes with weave beads use for later passes. No
peening is done. All slag is removed between passes and from finished weld with
hammer, grinder and/or wire brush. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high
temperature. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been
preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size
rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
In general no post-weld heat treatment is given to type HF alloy, but when section size
exceeds one inch castings may be stress relieved at 1600F (871C) after welding.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HF (19-23Cr, 9-12Ni, 0.20-0.40C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER310 (0.30C) Bare wire is used.
3 Position
This process is being used mainly for fabrication of tubes positioned horizontally on rolls.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
This process is not being used for repair welding of castings.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) is often used before
welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Stringer beads are used on the root pass, then weave beads on
subsequent filler passes. Beads are cleaned between passes by wire brushing. No
peening is done.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.062
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus 2-5 percent oxygen at
a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is not being used to weld machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings may be stress relieved by heat to 1600F (871C) and held for one hour.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HF alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HF (19-23Cr, 9-12Ni, 0.20-0.40C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield
metal-arc process (SMAW).
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine
dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HF alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is
preferred over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc
should not be struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the
manufacturer's specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Either
helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow
of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Usually no postweld heat treatment is required.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HH (24-28CR, 11-14Ni, 0.20-0.50C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HE (26-30Cr, 8-11Ni, 0.20-0.50C) and HI (26-30Cr, 14-19Ni, 0.20-0.50C)
2 Filler Metal
AWS E309-15HC Lime coated, high carbon electrode is preferred for DC welding. (Should
not be used for AC)
AWS E309-16HC Titania coated, high carbon electrode is used for AC welding and may be
used for DC.
AWS E312-15 or AWS E310-15HC are used for welding alloy types HE and HI.
3 Position
All welding usually is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the
horizontal plane normally is considered flat (8).
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine
dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace or
air cooling is often used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. When sections are under
inch in thickness, good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. For large
defects, a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between passes and
from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Residual slag is very
corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. No peening is done. Any undercuts or rough
spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. Interpass temperatures are held
to 300F (149C). If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been
preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size
rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; it is good practice,
however, to use small rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HH, HE and HI usually are not given any post-weld heat
treatment. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of
geometrically complicated castings, they are given a heat treatment of 3-4 hours at 1900-
2050F (1038-1121C) and either furnace cooled or air cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HH (24-28CR, 11-14Ni, 0.20-0.50C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HE (26-30Cr, 8-11Ni, 0.20-0.50C) and HI (26-30Cr, 14-19Ni, 0.20-0.50C)
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER309 Bare wire is used with composition modified to match carbon content of the
HH alloy.
AWS ER310 Bare wire is used for types HE and HI.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by air or
furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 are sometimes used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to the diameter of the gas nozzle. Maximum bead thickness is held to 1/8 inch. All
oxides are cleaned from beads by hammer and/or wire brush. No peening is done. If a
defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16
inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and tack welded in place.
The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally of such a size that
it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.094
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%)
oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh. An alternate mixture of 75 percent argon plus 25
percent carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 20 cfh is also used but may affect that corrosion
resistance of the weld adversely on multipass welds.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is not being used to weld machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HH, HE and HI usually are not given any post-weld heat
treatment. In some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of
geometrically complicated castings, they are given a heat treatment of 3-4 hours at 1900-
2050F (1038-1121C) and either air cooled or furnace cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HH alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HH (24-28CR, 11-14Ni, 0.20-0.50C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HE (26-30Cr, 8-11Ni, 0.20-0.50C) and HI (26-30Cr, 14-19Ni, 0.20-0.50C)
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shield metal-
arc process. (See procedure for that process.)
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine dry with
no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HH alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of
thoriated tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred
over a "scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be
struck on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's
specifications for the electrode size used are normally followed. Either helium or argon may
be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Usually no postweld heat treatment is required.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)

Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HK (24-28CR, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HL (28-32Cr, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C),HN (19-23Cr, 23-27Ni, 0.20-0.50C) and HP
2 Filler Metal
AWS E310-15HC Lime coated, high carbon electrode is preferred for DC welding. (Should
not be used for AC)
AWS E310-16HC Titania coated, high carbon electrode is used for AC welding and may be
used for DC.
AWS E330-15HC Lime coated electrode is used for welding alloy type HN. The carbon
content of the electrode used is matched to that of the base metal as closely as possible.
HP
3 Position
All welding usually is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the
horizontal plane normally is considered flat (8).
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. It is considered good practice to machine
dry with no lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace or
air cooling is often used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. Changes in welding
technique sometimes are made when section thickness exceeds one inch (8 and 9).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. For large
defects, castings may be preheated (6) and a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes
used.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. On heavy sections, the sides of the
cavity or groove are "buttered" with stringer beads before the central portion of the weld is
completed. Very little peening is done. All slag is removed between passes and from
finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Residual slag is very
corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are
faired in by grinding before next pass. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts
to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour
of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after
welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge
of the cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been
preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size
rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HK usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. For
large welds and heavy sections it is sometimes desirable to give a stress relief treatment of
one hour at 1600F (871C) minimum and either air cool or furnace cool.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.

Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HK (24-28CR, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HL (28-32Cr, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C), HN (19-23Cr, 23-27Ni, 0.20-0.50C), and HP
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER310HC Bare wire with carbon content matched to that of the base metal as
closely as possible.
AWS ER330HC Bare wire is used for welding type HN.
HP
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
This process is not being used for repair of casting defects.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by air or
furnace cooling is often used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to filler passes after stringer bead root pass. Beads are carefully cleaned between
passes with a stainless steel wire brush. No peening is done.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.062
inch. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire
size used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%)
oxygen at a flow rate of 30 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of type HK alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. For
large welds and heavy sections it is sometimes desirable to give a stress relief treatment of
one hour at 1600F (871C) minimum.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HK alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HK (24-28CR, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C) static and centrifugal castings.
Also types HL (28-32Cr, 18-22Ni, 0.20-0.60C), HN (19-23Cr, 23-27Ni, 0.20-0.50C), and
HP
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER310HC Bare wire is used for filler passes on multipass welds. Root passes are
usually made by fusion of the base metal without the addition of any filler metal.
Subsequent passes are laid down by this or by the shielded metal-arc process (SMAW).
Carbon content of wire is matched to that of the base metal.
AWS ER330HC Bare wire is used for welding type HN.
HP
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation(3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HK alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to 3/8 inch. No peening is done. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if
parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside
contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be
removed after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch
beyond the edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated
tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a
"scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck
on a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications
for the electrode size used are normally followed. Where filler metal is used, wire size is
1/16 inch. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon is
preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use low
heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Usually no postweld heat treatment is required.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HT (15-19CR, 33-37Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrodes is modified to deposit weld metal with carbon
content approximately matching the composition of the base metal are preferred.
3 Position
Whenever possible, all welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove
with the horizontal plane normally is considered flat. (8)
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by
arc-air, chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these
operations. Defect removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of
the following inspection processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye
penetrant or radiographic inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity
not in excess of that specified for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld
such areas without further preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace
cooling is often used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. When sections are under
inch in thickness, good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter.
For sections thicker than 3/4 inch, preheat may be helpful (6).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. For large
defects, a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to three times the electrode wire diameter. Sides of the cavities are sometimes
"buttered" to minimize dilution of weld deposit by base metal. Any undercuts or rough
spots in beads are faired in by grinding before next pass. No peening is done. All slag is
removed between passes and from finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire
brush. Residual slag is very corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Interpass
temperatures are held to 300F (149C). Inspection of weld quality during course of work
is desirable (13). If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is
generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the
cavity in all directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been
preheated in order to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made,
however, using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current
and voltage suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size
rod. Due to the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the
electrode is much higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short
as possible. A short arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long
arc can sometimes be caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or
porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small
rods and low heat to avoid distortion. Weld beads are peened to counteract contraction.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HT usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated
castings, they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2100F (1038-1149C) and furnace
cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that
surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HT (15-19CR, 33-37Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER330 Bare wire with composition modified to deposit weld metal approximately
matching the carbon content of the base metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
This process is not being used for repair of casting defects.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together.
The mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that
a good fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no
lubricant. Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in
thickness, and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F
(93-204C). Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) is often used before
welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. In welding sections
over inch thick the type of weld bead is changed (9).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or
weld groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result
in defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is
limited to sections thicker than inch. Parts to be welded are carefully tacked to maintain
good fit and matching of groove lands.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 1/16 inch.
Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size
used are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually 100 percent argon at a flow rate of 30
to 35 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is not being used for welding of machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of type HT alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated
castings, they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2100F (1038-1149C) and furnace
cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual,
dye penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or
lack of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HT alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HT (15-19CR, 33-37Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded
metal-arc process (SMAW).
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HT alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated
tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a
"scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck on
a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the
electrode size used are normally followed. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert
shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Usually no postweld heat treatment is required.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HU (17-21CR, 37-41Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrodes modified to deposit weld metal with carbon content
approximately matching the composition of the base metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat (8).
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness,
and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F (93-204C).
Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) is often used before welding.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy. When sections are under
inch in thickness, good practice is to use an electrode no larger than 1/8 inch diameter. For
sections thicker than 3/4 inch, preheat may be helpful (6).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root. For large defects,
a vertical uphill welding position is sometimes used.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited
to three times the electrode wire diameter. Sides of the cavities are sometimes "buttered" to
minimize dilution of weld deposit by base metal. Any undercuts or rough spots in beads are
faired in by grinding before next pass. No peening is done. All slag is removed between
passes and from finished weld with a hammer, stainless steel wire brush, or needle gun using
stainless steel needles. Residual slag may be corrosive to the alloy at high temperature.
Interpass temperatures are held to 300F (149C). Inspection of weld quality during course
of work is desirable (13). If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated
fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions. Tack welding should be performed after the casting has been preheated in order
to minimize the possibility of initiating a crack at the tack weld.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made, however,
using AC. Electrode sizes from 3/32 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage
suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Due to
the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much
higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short
arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be
caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small rods
and low heat to avoid distortion. Weld beads are peened to counteract contraction.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HU usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated
castings, they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2050F (1038-1121C) and furnace
cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Gas Metal-Arc (GMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HU (17-21CR, 37-41Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ER330 Bare wire with composition modified to deposit weld material approximately
matching the carbon content of the base metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
This process is not being used for repair of casting defects.
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness,
and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F (93-204C).
Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace cooling is often
used before welding.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy. In welding sections over
inch thick the type of weld bead is changed (9).
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited
to sections thicker than inch. Parts to be welded are carefully tacked to maintain good fit
and matching of groove lands.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC reverse polarity. Wire diameter range is from 0.035 to 0.063 inch.
Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the wire size used
are normally followed. Shielding gas is usually argon plus two percent (2%) oxygen at a flow
rate of 30 to 50 cfh.

11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
This process is not being used for welding of machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of type HU alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In some
cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of geometrically complicated castings,
they are heat treated for 3-4 hours at 1900-2050F (1038-1121C) and furnace cooled.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that surfaces to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HU alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HU (17-21CR, 37-41Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded
metal-arc or gas metal-arc processes. (See procedure for those processes.) When gas
tungsten-arc process is used for entire weld AWS ER330(high carbon), bare wire is used for
filler metal.
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HU alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated
tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a
"scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck on
a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the
electrode size used are normally followed. Where filler metal is used, wire sizes range from
1/16 to 3/16 inch. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert shielding gas, but argon
is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of type HU alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HW alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HW (10-14CR, 58-62Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCr-1 and AWS EniCrFe-1 Lime coated electrodes are preferred.
AWS E330-15 Lime coated electrode is also used.
3 Position
Welding is usually done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat. Successful welds can be made in all positions.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness,
and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F (93-204C).
Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace cooling is often
used before welding.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited
to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between passes and from
finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Light peening of each pass
before laying down next pass is sometimes helpful. If a defect penetrates through the casting,
or if parts to be fabricated fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside
contour of the casting and tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed
after welding, is generally of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the
edge of the cavity in all directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made, however,
using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 1/4 inch may be used with the current and voltage
suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Due to
the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much
higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short
arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be
caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small rods
and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HW usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment. In
some cases where welds are large or located in critical areas of the casting, they are given
a stress relief treatment of heating to 1750F (955C) for two hours.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Shielded Metal-Arc (SMAW)

Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HX alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HX (15-19CR, 64-68Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
AWS ENiCrFe-1 Lime coated electrode is preferred.
AWS e330-15HC Lime coated electrode is also used.
3 Position
Welding usually is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal
plane normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
Normally this alloy is not preheated; however, if the section size is over 3/4 inch in thickness,
and the extent of the weld substantial, the alloy may be preheated to 200-400F (93-204C).
Prior solution annealing at 1800-2100F (982-1149C) followed by furnace cooling is often
used before welding of aged castings.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered important in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. Either stringer or weave bead placement is used. Weaving, if any, is limited
to three times the electrode wire diameter. All slag is removed between passes and from
finished weld with a hammer and/or stainless steel wire brush. Residual slag may be
corrosive to the alloy at high temperature. Interpass temperatures held to 200F (93C)
maximum is sometimes helpful. Light peening of each pass before laying down next pass is
sometimes desirable. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated
fit together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding normally is done using DC reverse polarity. Successful welds can be made, however,
using AC. Electrode sizes from 1/8 to 3/16 inch may be used with the current and voltage
suggested by the electrode manufacturer's specifications for the particular size rod. Due to
the high electrical resistance of stainless steel, the burn-off rate of the electrode is much
higher than for carbon steel. Arc length should be maintained as short as possible. A short
arc length is very important when starting a weld pass since a long arc can sometimes be
caused by initial hand recoil and may result in weld spatter or porosity.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings; however, use small rods
and low heat to avoid distortion.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of alloy types HX usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
Gas Tungsten-Arc (GTAW)
Procedure followed by experienced producers of high alloy castings in welding
of type HX alloy as reported in a survey of SFSA members
Section Subject/Procedure
1 Base Metal
Alloy type HX (15-19CR, 64-68Ni, 0.35-0.75C) static and centrifugal castings.
2 Filler Metal
This process is used mainly for root passes which are welded by fusion of the base metal
without the addition of any filler metal. Subsequent passes are laid down by the shielded
metal-arc process (SMAW).
3 Position
All welding is done in the "flat" position. A 15 angle of the groove with the horizontal plane
normally is considered flat.
4 Base Metal Preparation for Repair
Defects are removed before attempting any repair. Defect removal is accomplished by arc-air,
chipping, gouging, grinding or machining, or by some combination of these operations. Defect
removal to sound base metal is assured by the use of one or more of the following inspection
processes: Visual, dye penetrant, or radiography. Where dye penetrant or radiographic
inspection of a prepared cavity discloses shrinkage of a severity not in excess of that specified
for the casting as a whole, acceptable practice is to weld such areas without further
preparation (3.2.1).
5 Base Metal Preparation for Fabrication
Parts to be fabricated by welding are shaped to provide a groove when placed together. The
mating areas are either cast to shape and then ground, or ground or machined so that a good
fit of the welding groove can be obtained. Good practice is to machine dry with no lubricant.
Components are thoroughly cleaned before assembly.
6 Preheat Temperature
No preheat is required for type HX alloy.
7 Section Size
Section size usually is considered unimportant in welding this alloy.
8 Cavity Dimensions
Cavity dimensions are not critical. A minimum included angle of 30 (included angles up to
90 sometimes are used) should be maintained between the sides of the cavity, and a root
radius of 3/16 to 1/4 inch should be provided to allow full access to the root.
9 Welding Technique
Surfaces to be welded should be dry and cleaned to remove any residue from cavity or weld
groove preparation or other previous operations. Lack of attention to this may result in
defective welds. If a defect penetrates through the casting, or if parts to be fabricated fit
together poorly, a 3/16 inch backing plate is formed to the inside contour of the casting and
tack welded in place. The backing plate, which should be removed after welding, is generally
of such a size that it extends a minimum of 3/16 inch beyond the edge of the cavity in all
directions.
10 Electrical Characteristics
Welding is done using DC straight polarity. A non-consumable electrode made of thoriated
tungsten (EWTh-2) is used. A high frequency method of starting the arc is preferred over a
"scratch start" to avoid tungsten contamination of the weld. The arc should not be struck on
a carbon block. Currents and voltages suggested by the manufacturer's specifications for the
electrode size used are normally followed. Either helium or argon may be used for the inert
shielding gas, but argon is preferred with a flow of 20 to 50 cfh.
11 Technique for Welding Machined Castings
No special technique (9) is necessary for welding machined castings.
12 Post-Weld Heat Treatment
Welded castings of type HX alloy usually are not given any post-weld heat treatment.
13 Non-Destructive Tests
Welds are tested for quality by one or more of the following methods of inspection: Visual, dye
penetrant, radiography or pressure.
14 Summary
To produce welds that will satisfy the user's requirements, take the following precautions:
1. Make sure that all defects have been removed to sound base metal (4) and that surfaces
to be welded are thoroughly cleaned (5 and 9).
2. Use the proper filler metal (2).
3. Use a welding technique (9) which will produce welds free of porosity, undercutting or lack
of penetration.
STEEL
CASTINGS
HANDBOOK
Supplement 8
High Alloy Data Sheets
Corrosion Series
Steel Founders' Society of America
2004
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo Fe
min. 11.5 3.5 0.4
max. 0.060 1.00 1.00 0.040 0.030 14.0 4.5 1.0 bal
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.278
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.78
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2750
Magnetic permeability Ferromagnetic
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ _______________________
At 212
o
F 14.5 70 - 212
o
F 6.0
At 1000
o
F 16.7 70 - 1000
o
F 7.0
Mechanical properties
at room temperature
Representative Minimum tensile
tensile properties & toughness
air cooled from requirements
>1900
o
F ASTM A743,
temper at 1100- A757
1150
o
F
_______________ ______________
Tensile strength, ksi 120.0 110.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 100.0 80.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 24 15
Reduction of area, % 60 35
Brinell hardness (HBW) 268 -
Charpy V-notch, @ -100
o
F, ft.lbs - 20/12
(A757)
A
Toughness and impact properties
Impact, Charpy V-notch - see Fig.1
Fracture toughness,
Kic
- see Fig.2
At elevated temperatures
Short time elevated temperature properties - see Fig.3
Creep rupture properties - see Table 1 and Figs. 4 - 6
______________________
A
20 ft.lb average on three specimens, 15 ft.lb minimum allowed on one
specimen only
Corrosion Resistant Type CA6NM (UNS J91540)
Description
Type CA6NM is an iron-chromium-
nickel-molybdenum alloy that is
hardenable by heat treatment. It is
similar in general corrosion resistance to
type CA15, but the addition of nickel and
molybdenum to the CA6NM composition
improves its resistance to attack by sea
water. Although the tensile strength
properties of CA6NM are comparable to
those of CA15, the impact strength is
about twice as high, as is the resistance
to damage from cavitation effects.
Heavy sections and complex structures
are cast in CA6NM with less difficulty
than experienced with the CA15 alloy,
and for cast-weld construction, or where
field welding is involved, type CA6NM
offers the advantage of not requiring a
preheat. A major application of the alloy
has been in large hydraulic turbine
runners for power generation.
The alloy normally is used in the
normalized and tempered condition in
which the microstructure is essentially
100 percent martensite. CA6NM can
contain appreciable amounts of retained
austenite because this structure provides
the optimum combination of strength,
ductility, hardness, and toughness.
Variations in heat treatment can be
selected to enhance one or more of
these properties. Improved corrosion
resistance, particularly resistance to
sulfide stress corrosion, can be obtained
with a lower carbon as in grade CA6NM
Class B (ASTM A487). A lower carbon
content, as in grade CA6NM Class B,
permits heat treating to a lower
maximum hardness (and strength) which
results in improved corrosion resistance,
particularly resistance to sulfide stress
corrosion cracking.
Castings of type CA6NM alloy have good
machining and welding properties if
proper techniques are employed. The
alloy is magnetic and has a coefficient of
thermal expansion slightly less than that
of carbon steel. Thermal conductivity is
about 45 percent less than carbon steel but almost 60 percent greater than the CF alloy types. Electrical
resistivity is about five times that of carbon steel.
Heat Treatment
The alloy is hardened by heating between 1900 and 1950F (1038 to 1066C) followed by cooling in either
air or oil. After the castings have cooled below the martensite finish temperature, which varies with the
compositional balance, they should be tempered as soon as possible. Depending on strength requirements,
the alloy is tempered at 600F (316C) or more commonly in the range of 1100 to 1150F (593 to 621C).
Tempering in the vicinity of 900F (482C) should be avoided because lower toughness will result. Some re-
austenitization may occur if tempering temperatures above 1200F (649C) are employed, and upon cooling,
the microstructure may contain untempered martensite. Double tempers are employed to achieve hardness
values below 22 HRC for castings intended for wet H
2
S environments. A typical double temper heat treatment
would consist of a 1250F (677C) temper followed by a 1125F (607C) temper.
Highest strength and hardness are obtained by tempering at 600F (316C); however, impact strength is
reduced by 50 percent and ductility is reduced to about 12 percent. Holding times for austenitizing and
tempering will vary with the thickness of casting sections involved, but should be sufficiently long to heat all
sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of
typical applications where type CA6NM alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive,
nor are they intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical, Marine, Oilfield, Petroleum Refining, Pollution Control, Power Plant.
Castings Casings, compressor impellers, diaphragms, diffusers, discharge spacers, Francis runners,
hydraulic turbine parts, impulse wheels, packing housings, propellers, pump impellers, suction spacers, valve
bodies and parts.
Corrosives Boiler feed water [250F (115C)], sea water, steam, sulfur, water to 400F (204C).
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents
are helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CA6NM is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CA6NM. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification
or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CA6NM alloy. Somewhat lighter sections
are feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Complex designs involving light and heavy
sections are successfully made in this alloy, but drastic changes in section should be avoided as far as
possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces
to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Welds in light sections and in unstressed areas can be made without preheating. Welding in the
heat treated condition is generally preferred. For welding very heavy sections or highly stressed regions,
castings may require preheating in the range of 212 to 350F (100 to 176C) and should be maintained at 300
to 500F (176 to 260C) during welding as a guideline. After welding, cool to at least 212F (100C) or below
the martensite finish temperature prior to re-tempering at 1100 to 1150F (593 to 621C). Cooling through
the range of 1100 to 950F (593 to 266C) should be as rapid as possible to avoid loss in toughness.
Welding procedure utilizing SMAW technique is described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CA6NM alloy. The
work-hardening rate of this grade is much lower than the iron-chromium-nickel types, but it is advisable in all
cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid
machines are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings
should provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Chips
are stringy but not abrasive. Chip curlers are recommended for carbide tools.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings
Handbook, 6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
Cast ASTM: A743 (CA6NM), A757 (E3N), A487 (CA6NM), A352 (CA6NM).
Wrought A-182, Grade F6NM.
Table 1 Creep-Rupture Properties for CA6NM
B
[Air cooled from above 1900F (1038C);Tempered at 1100-1150F (593-621C)]
Rupture strength, ksi
o
F
o
C 10
4
hrs
10
5
hrs
800 427 54.5 41.0
850 454 39.0 29.0
900 482 28.0 20.0
950 510 19.7 14.3
1000 538 14.2 10.1
Creep strength, ksi
o
F
o
C 0.1%/1000 hrs. 0.01%/1000 hrs.
800 427 41.0 31.0
850 454 29.6 22.5
900 482 22.0 16.3
950 510 16.0 11.8
1000 538 11.8 --
B
"The Elevated Temperature Properties of Alloy CA6NM", G.V. Smith, CAST METALS FOR
STRUCTURAL AND PRESSURE CONTAINMENT APPLICATIONS, ASME 1979.
Chemical composition, %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo Fe
min. 11.5
max. 0.15 1.00 1.50 0.04 0.04 14.0 1.0 0.5
1
bal
1
Mo not intentionally added
Physical propeties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.275
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.56
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2750
Magnetic permeability (at H = 100 Oersted) 500
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 14.5 70 - 212
o
F 5.5
At 1000
o
F 16.7 70 - 1000
o
F 6.4
70 - 1300
o
F 6.7
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Minimum
Representative values tensile
air cooled from 1800
o
F requirements
ASTM A743
Tempered at,
o
F 600 1100 1200 1450
_______________________________ _________
Tensile strength, ksi 200 135 115 100 90
Yield strength, 0.2%
offset, ksi 150 115 100 75 65
Elongation, in 2 in % 7 17 22 30 18
Reduction of area, % 25 55 55 60 30
Brinell hardness (HBW) 390 260 225 185
a
Charpy, keyhole,
ft.lbs 15 10 20 35 -
a
241 max. unless otherwise specified
At elevated temperatures
Short-time elevated temperature tensile properties - See Fig. 1
Corrosion Resistant Type CA15 (UNS J91150)
Description
Type CA15 is an iron-chromium alloy
containing the minimum amount of
chromium necessary to make the metal
virtually rustproof, and is similar to the
original "stainless steel" used for cutlery.
In addition to good atmospheric
corrosion resistance, the alloy provides
excellent resistance to corrosion or
staining by many organic media in
relatively mild service.
The alloy has a high hardenability so that
a wide range of hardness (144 to about
400 BHN) and other mechanical
properties may be obtained even in
heavy sections. In the annealed
condition, the ferrite matrix contains
aggl omerated carbide particles.
Depending on the temperature of heat
treatment, the hardened alloy exhibits a
pearlitic to martensitic structure that
results in a tough, erosion resistant
material.
Castings of type CA15 alloy have fairly
good machining and welding properties
if proper techniques are employed. For
improved machinability, this grade is
sometimes made with the addition of
selenium. The alloy is magnetic and has
a coefficient of thermal expansion less
than that of carbon steel.
Heat Treatment
To obtain maximum softness, castings of
type CA15 alloy may be annealed at
1450F (788C) minimum, usually 1550
to 1650F (843 to 899C), and slowly
furnace cooled. The alloy is hardened by
heating to 1800 to 1850F (982 to
1010C), and cooling in oil or air. After
hardening, castings should be tempered
as soon as possible at 600F (316C)
maximum, or in the range 1100 to
1500F (593 to 816C). Tempering in
the vicinity of 900F (482C) should be
avoided because low impact strength will result. Highest strength and hardness is obtained by tempering at
600F (316C) or below, and the alloy has best corrosion resistance in this fully hardened condition. When
tempered above 1100F (593C), castings have improved ductility and impact strength, but corrosion resistance
is somewhat decreased. Poorest corrosion resistance results from tempering around 1100F (593C). Holding
times for hardening and tempering will vary with the thickness of casting sections involved, but should be
sufficiently long to heat all sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CA15 alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Aircraft, Architecture, Chemical Processing, Food Processing, Marine, Oil Refining, Metallurgical,
Power Plant, Pulp and Paper.
Castings Burning torch gas distributor heads, bushings and liners, catalyst trays, fittings, furnace burner tips
and pilot cones, gears, hydrafiner parts, impellers, jet engine components, letters, plaques, pump casings,
railings, shafts, ship propellers, skimmer ladles, stuffing boxes, turbine blades, valve bodies, valve trim.
Corrosives Abrasive chemicals, alkaline liquors, ammonia water, atmosphere, boiler feed water, brass dross,
coke oven gas, corrosive oils at high pressures and temperatures, food products, oxidizing acids, pulp, sodium
carbonate, sodium nitrate, steam.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CA15 is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CA15. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification
or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CA15 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Some difficulty is encountered in running thin
sections, however, and designs involving appreciable changes in section should be avoided. This applies to
the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. Unless the
hardness and strength attainable with CA15 (or physical properties such as expansion coefficient or heat
conductivity) are required, consideration should be given to other grades when designs are intricate. Normally
used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CA15 castings can be welded by metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods.
Metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of
corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Castings should be heated in the range 400 to 600F (204 to
316C) before welding. After welding, cool to not less than 300F (149C), heat to 1125 to 1400F (607 to
760C), hold until uniform temperature throughout, then air cool.
Welding procedures utilizing SMAW, GMAW and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CA15 alloy. The work-
hardening rate of this grade is much lower than the iron-chromium-nickel types, but it is advisable in all cases
that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal. The alloy should not be too soft; hardness of about 225
BHN is recommended. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results.
Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Both
high speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Chips are stringy but not abrasive.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
Cast ASTM: A217 (CA15), A426 (CFCA15), A743 (CA15), A487 (CA15), SAE 60410, MIL-S 16993A(1), AMS
5351B.
Wrought AISI 410.
Chemical composition, %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo Fe
min. 0.20 11.5
max. 0.40 1.00 1.50 0.04 0.04 14.0 1.0 0.5
1
bal
1
Mo not intentionally added
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.275
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.56
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2750
Magnetic permeability (at H = 100 Oersted) 500
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ _______________________
At 212
o
F 14.5 70 - 212
o
F 5.5
At 1000
o
F 16.7 70 - 1000
o
F 6.4
70 - 1300
o
F 6.7
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Minimum
Representative values tensile
air cooled from 1800
o
F requirements
ASTM A743
Tempered at,
o
F 600 1100 1200 1450
_______________________________ _________
Tensile strength, ksi 200 135 115 100 90
Yield strength, 0.2%
offset, ksi
150 115 100 75 65
Elongation, in 2 in % 7 17 22 30 18
Reduction of area, % 25 55 55 60 30
Brinell hardness (HBW) 390 260 225 185 269
2

Charpy, keyhole, 1 2 4 3 -
ft.lbs
2
Maximum
Corrosion Resistant Type CA40 (UNS J91153)
Description
Type CA40 is an iron-chromium alloy
similar to type CA15, but its higher
carbon content permits hardening this
grade to a maximum of about 500 BHN.
Corrosion resistance and other
characteristics are about the same as
for the lower carbon CA15 alloy.
Heat Treatment
To obtain maximum softness, castings
of type CA40 alloy may be annealed at
1450F (788C) minimum, usually 1550
to 1650F (843 to 899C), and slowly
furnace cooled. The alloy is hardened
by heating to 1800 to 1850F (982 to
1010C), and cooling in oil or air. After
hardening, castings should be tempered
as soon as possible at 600F (316C)
maximum, or in the range 1100 to
1500F (593 to 816C). Tempering in
the vicinity of 900F (482C) should be
avoided. Highest strength and hardness
is obtained by tempering at 600F
(316C) or below, and the alloy has best
corrosion resistance in this fully
hardened condition. When tempered
above 1100F (593C), castings have
improved ductility and impact strength,
but corrosion resistance is somewhat
decreased. Poorest corrosion
resistance results from tempering
around 1100F (593C). Holding times
for hardening and tempering will vary
with the thickness of casting sections
involved, but should be sufficiently long
to heat all sections to a uniform
temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming
industries, cast parts, and corrosive
materials are useful as examples of
typical applications where type CA40
alloy has been employed successfully;
they are not comprehensive, nor are
they intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Food Processing, Glass, Oil Refining, Power Plants, Pulp and Paper.
Castings Choppers, cutting blades, cylinder liners, dies, grinding plugs, hot oil plungers, flow control, molds,
pump parts, casings, impellers, pump sleeve, shredder sleeves, steam turbine parts, valve trim, seat rings, and
wedges.
Corrosives Air, abrasives, dilute oxidizing acids, food products, glass, oxidizing atmosphere to 1200F, sour
crude oil (hot, high pressure), steam.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CA40 is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CA40. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification
or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CA40 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Some difficulty is encountered in running thin
sections, however, and designs involving appreciable changes in section should be avoided. This applies to
the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. Unless the
hardness and strength attainable with CA40 (or physical properties such as expansion coefficient or heat
conductivity) are required, consideration should be given to other grades when designs are intricate. Normally
used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CA40 castings can be welded by metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods.
Metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of
corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Castings should be heated in the range 400 to 600F (204 to
316C) before welding. After welding, cool to not less than 300F (149C), heat to 1125 to 1400F (607 to
760C), hold until uniform temperature throughout, then air cool.
The welding procedures outlined for alloy CA15 are applicable to alloy CA40. Welding procedures utilizing
SMAW, GMAW and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CA40 alloy. The work-
hardening rate of this grade is much lower than the iron-chromium-nickel types, but it is advisable in all cases
that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal. Hardness of about 225 BHN is recommended. Slow
feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly mounted
and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel and carbide tools
may be used successfully. Chips are stringy and abrasive to tools.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges
are not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A743 (CA40), SAE 60420.
Wrought AISI 420.
Chemical composition, %
C Mn Si P S Cr
CB7Cu-1 min. 15.50
max. 0.07 0.70 1.00 0.035 0.03 17.70
CB7Cu-2 min. 14.00
max. 0.07 0.70 1.00 0.035 0.03 15.50
Ni Cu Cb
1
N Fe
CB7Cu-1 min. 3.60 2.50 0.20
max. 4.60 3.20 0.35 0.05 bal
CB7Cu-2 min. 4.50 2.50 0.20
max. 5.50 3.20 0.35 0.05 bal

1
Cb not added when alloy is to be hardened by 900
o
F aging treatment
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
28.5
2
Density, lb/in
3
0.280
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.77
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2750
Magnetic permeability (at H = 100 Oersted) ferromagnetic
2
See Fig.1 for effect of temperature on modulus
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ _______________________
Aged at 900
o
F 1100
o
F
At 212
o
F 9.9 70 - 200
o
F 6.0 6.6
At 500
o
F 11.3 70 - 400
o
F 6.1 6.9
At 860
o
F 13.0 70 - 600
o
F 6.3 7.1
At 900
o
F 13.1 70 - 800
o
F 6.5 7.2
Mechanical properties at room temperature

Representative values air cooled from 1925
o
F
Aged at,
o
F 900 925 1025 1075 1100 1150
________________________________________
Tensile strength, ksi 187 189 165 155 145 140
Yield strength, 0.2%
offset, ksi
161 165 158 141 132 120
Elongation, in 2 in % 10 11 14 14 15 16
Reduction of area, % 21 26 35 35 39 42
Brinell hardness (HBW) 412 412 350 319 315 307
Impact, Charpy V
ft.lbs 7 12 22 27 30 37
Minimum requirements - ASTM A747
Aged at,
o
F 900 925 1025 1075 1100 1150
________________________________________
Tensile strength, ksi 170 175 150 145 135 125
Yield strength, 0.2%
offset, ksi
145 150 140 115 110 97
Elongation, in 2 in % 5 5 9 9 9 10
Reduction of area, % - - - - - -
Brinell hardness (HBW) 412 412 350 319 315 307
Impact, Charpy V
ft.lbs - - - - - -
at Elevated temperatures - see Fig.2
Corrosion Resistant Type CB7Cu
(UNS J92110 [CB7Cu-2]) (UNS J92180 [CB7Cu-1])
Description
Type CB7Cu is a high strength, precipitation
hardenable iron-chromium-nickel-copper
al l oy havi ng corrosi on resi stance
intermediate between the non-hardenable
austenitic type CF alloys and the hardenable
martensitic type CA grades. Castings of type
CB7Cu have good resistance to atmospheric
corrosion and many aqueous corrodents
including sea water, food products, and
paper mill liquors. Because of the range of
mechanical properties attainable, the alloy
finds wide application in service requiring
both corrosion resistance and high strength
at temperatures up to 600F (316C). It is
especially useful where machining is involved
since the work can be done when castings
are in the solution annealed condition.
Subsequent precipitation hardening to the
desired mechanical strength may then be
conducted at relatively low temperature so
that there is little danger of cracking,
distortion or oxidation of the machined
surfaces.
As shown in the table of properties, the broad
alloy type covers two sub-grades differing
only in chromium and nickel contents.
Although the mechanical properties are
essentially the same for both grades, the 15
Cr, 4 Ni type CB7Cu-2 retains ductility
somewhat better than the 17 Cr, 4 Ni type as
thickness increases. For this reason, it is
useful for parts with heavy sections. In the
solution annealed state, the microstructure of
the alloy consists of martensite formed upon
cooling the casting from the solution
temperature at which the original as-cast
structure was austenite containing dissolved
copper. This copper remains in the
martensite as a super-saturated solution but,
if the alloy is later reheated to the range 900-
1150F (482-621C), it precipitates sub-
microscopically and substantially increases
the strength and hardness of the casting.
Castings of type CB7Cu alloy have good
machining and welding properties if proper
techniques are employed. The alloy has a
low coefficient of thermal expansion similar to
the type CA alloys. Electrical resistance is about five times that of carbon steel and thermal conductivity is 40
percent less. Because the alloy is ferromagnetic, magnetic particle testing is sometimes used for non-
destructive inspection. If minor amounts of non-magnetic retained austenite occur in the form of stringers, or
if untransformed ferrite stringers are present, false linear indications may be obtained. (The type CB7Cu-2 is
less susceptible than the type CB7Cu-1 alloy to ferrite stringer formation.) Such stringers do not in any way
affect the soundness of the casting. It is preferable to use dye penetrant or fluorescent dye inspection instead
of magnetic particle for testing this alloy.
Heat Treatment
Type CB7Cu castings are supplied in either the solution annealed or hardened condition, depending on the
desire of the user. Solution annealing consists of heating the castings to 1925F (1050C) 50F (30C),
holding them for 30 minutes per inch of the heaviest section (30 minutes minimum), and then cooling them to
below 90F (30C).
To ensure complete transformation of austenite, it is occasionally necessary to cool the castings in dry ice.
Prior to solution annealing, castings sometimes are specified to be given a homogenizing heat treatment
consisting of heating the castings to 1900F (1040C) minimum, holding them 1.5 hours minimum, and then
cooling them to below 90F (30C). Castings of type CB7Cu alloy are intended to be used only in the
precipitation hardened condition, but may be supplied in the solution annealed condition if machining is to be
done prior to hardening. Precipitation hardening involves heating the solution annealed castings: a) at 900F
(480C) for 1 hour; b) at 925F (495C) for 1.5 hours; or c) at 1025F (550C), 1075F (580C), 1100F (595C)
or 1150F (620C) for 4 hours. After the required time at temperatures the castings are air cooled. Because
of the expansion that occurs when austenite transforms to martensite, it is advisable to avoid steep thermal
gradients in castings when they are cooling from the solution annealing temperature. Lack of attention to this
may result in cracking of the surfaces that cooled earliest on the casting.
A dimensional change also takes place upon hardening and should be given consideration when large castings
in the solution annealed condition are to be machined to close tolerances prior to hardening. This change is
a contraction of 0.0004 to 0.0006 inch per inch.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CB7Cu alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are
they intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Aerospace, Aircraft, Chemical, Food Processing, Gas Turbine, Marine, Petrochemical, Pulp and
Paper.
Castings Airframe components, centrifuge bowls, compressor impellers, food machinery parts, machine tool
parts, propeller shafts, pump impellers, rotors, screw flights, valve bodies, discs, and trim.
Corrosives Air, ethylene glycol-water (-65 to 200F), food products, pulp liquor, sea water, water (up to
400F).
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CB7Cu is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloys
CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for
either specification or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from
appropriate technical associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CB7Cu alloy. Somewhat lighter sections
are feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Complex designs involving light and heavy
sections are successfully made in this alloy, but drastic changes in section should be avoided as far as
possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces
to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CB7Cu castings can be welded by shielded metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas
methods. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of both corrosion resistance
and mechanical properties caused by carbon pick-up. In either the annealed or overaged condition (i.e.,
1000F or over), castings can be welded without preheat, although it is sometimes desirable to preheat to
500F (260C) when welding heavy sections. Sections which require multiple-pass welds are handled better
in the annealed condition than after aging because the prolonged heat of welding will introduce non-uniform
hardening characteristics to the weld zone. Thus, after welding, such castings may require a solution heat
treatment in the temperature range 1875-1975F (1024-1079C) followed by rapid cooling before being
hardened by reheating to the precipitation temperature. Only the aging treatment is needed to harden the weld
zone on single pass welds. Castings having a copper content near the high end of the copper range may suffer
underbead cracking when welded. Accordingly, when castings are intended to be welded, it is desirable to
have the copper content below 3.00 percent.
Welding procedures utilizing SMAW, GMAW and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CB7Cu alloy. It is
important in all cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal in order to avoid work-hardening
the surface from rubbing or scraping. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for
best results. Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum
stiffness. Both high speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Type CB7Cu castings can be
machined in either the annealed or hardened condition. An advantage of this alloy is that it can be machined
in the annealed condition and later hardened by a low temperature heat treatment with minimal scaling or
distortion.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Localized heating such as resulting from heavy grinding or abrasive wheel cutting may cause castings to crack.
For this reason, cold sawing is preferred for cutting, and care should be taken to avoid overheating during
grinding operations.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who want to determine corresponding
wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges are not the same as the wrought
composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A747 (CB7Cu-1 and CB7Cu-2); AMS 5398B.
Wrought 17-4PH; 15-5PH.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Fe
min. 18
max. 0.30 1.00 1.50 0.04 0.04 21 2.0 bal
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.272
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.76
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2725
Magnetic permeability Ferromagnetic
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 12.8 70 - 212
o
F 5.7
At 1000
o
F 14.5 70 - 1000
o
F 6.5
70 - 1300
o
F 6.7
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative Minimum tensile
values
1
requirements
Annealed at
1450
o
F
F.C. to 1000
o
F ASTM A743
then A.C.
_______________ ______________
Tensile strength, ksi 95.0 65.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 60.0 30.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 15 -
Brinell hardness (HBW) 195
2
Charpy V-notch, @ -100
o
F, ft.lbs -
Toughness and impact properties
________________________________
1
Values may vary considerably depending on composition balance and heat
treatment
2
241 max unless otherwise specified
Corrosion Resistant Type CB30 (UNS J91803)
Description
Type CB30 is an iron-chromium alloy
sufficiently high in chromium content to
provide excellent resistance to
corrosion by nitric acid, alkaline
solutions, and many organic chemicals.
Maximum corrosion resistance is
obtained when the carbon content is
held below 0.20 percent, but the alloy is
normally made with carbon 0.20 to 0.30
percent in order to improve castability.
The alloy maintains predominantly
ferritic structure, and even at the higher
carbon levels only a small amount of
ferrite transforms at elevated
temperature to austenite for subsequent
change to martensite upon cooling.
Thus, in contrast to the hardenable
CA15 grade, the CB30 type is
practically non-hardenable by heat
treatment. By balancing the
composition toward the low end of the
chromium and the high end of the nickel
and carbon ranges, however, the
hardening characteristics of the alloy
are increased. In this case, the grade
corresponds more nearly to the wrought
alloy AISI type 431, whereas normally
the properties of the alloy correspond to
those of AISI type 442.
Castings of the type CB30 alloy have
fair ductility, but poor impact strength.
They are readily machinable and can be
welded successfully if proper technique
is employed. The alloy is magnetic and
has a lower coefficient of thermal
expansion than carbon steel.
Heat Treatment
Type CB30 castings are normally
supplied in the annealed condition. Annealing consists of heating to 1450F (788C) minimum, furnace cooling
to about 1000F (538C), then air cooling. Holding time at temperature will vary with the thickness of casting
sections involved, but should be sufficiently long to heat all sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CB30 alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical Processing, Food Processing, Heat Treating, Oil Refining, Ore Roasting, Power Plants.
Castings Furnace brackets and hangers, pump parts, rabble arms, tube supports, valve bodies, valve parts.
Corrosives Food products, hot ore, nitric acid, oil, oxidizing atmospheres to 1400F (760C), steam, sulfur
atmospheres.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CB30 is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CB30. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification
or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CB30 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Some difficulty is encountered in running thin
sections, however, and designs involving appreciable changes in section should be avoided. This applies to
the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. If
toughness is an important requirement, consideration should be given to one of the CF, CH or CK grades
unless the greater thermal expansion of these alloys cannot be tolerated. Normally used patternmakers'
shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CB30 castings can be welded by metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods.
Metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of
corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Castings should be heated in the range 600 to 800F (316 to
427C) before welding. After welding, cool to 150F (666C) or lower, heat to 1450F (788C) minimum, hold
until uniform temperatures throughout, then air cool.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CB30 alloy. The work-
hardening rate of this grade is much lower than the iron-chromium-nickel types, but it is advisable in all cases
that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines
are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should
provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Chips are
short and brittle.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges
are not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A743 (CB30); SAE 60442.
Wrought AISI 442.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Fe
min. 26
max. 0.50 1.00 1.50 0.04 0.04 30 4.0 bal
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.272
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.12
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.77
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2725
Magnetic permeability Ferromagnetic
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 12.6 70 - 212
o
F 5.9
At 1000
o
F 17.9 70 - 1000
o
F 6.4
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative values Minimum tensile
Annealed at 1450
o
F requirements
F.C. to 1000
o
F
then Air Cool ASTM A743
As Cast
(a)
1
____(b)
2
___(b)
2
_ _____________
Tensile strength, ksi 70.0 95.0 97.0 55.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 65.0 60.0 65.0 -
Elongation, in 2in., % 2 15 18 -
Brinell hardness (HBW) 212 193 210 -
Impact, Izod V-notch, ft.lbs. 2 45 - -
________________________________
1
(a) Under 1.0% Ni
2
(b) Over 2.0% Ni with 0.15% N min.
Corrosion Resistant Type CC50 (UNS J92615)
Description
Type CC50 is an iron-chromium alloy
containing about 28 percent chromium
and up to 4 percent nickel. It provides
excellent resistance to dilute sulfuric acid
in mine waters, mixed nitric and sulfuric
acids, and oxidizing acids of all types.
The alloy has a ferritic structure at all
temperatures and for this reason cannot
be hardened by heat treatment. The
ductility and impact strength are very low
unless some nickel is present. In the
CC50 type containing over 2 percent
nickel, substantial improvement in the
strength and ductility is obtained by
increasing the nitrogen content to 0.15
percent or more.
Castings of the type CC50 alloy are
readily machinable. They can be welded
successfully if proper technique is
employed. The alloy is magnetic and
has a lower coefficient of thermal
expansion than carbon steel.
Heat Treatment
Type CC50 castings are normally
supplied in the annealed condition.
Annealing consists of heating to 1450F
(788C) minimum followed by air or
furnace cooling. Holding time at
temperature will vary with the thickness
of casting sections involved, but should
be sufficiently long to heat all sections to
a uniform temperature throughout.
Heating in the range 850 to 950F (454
to 510C) will result in a significant loss
of ductility and toughness.
Applications
The following lists of consuming
industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical applications where type CC50
alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they intended as guides to alloy
selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical Manufacturing, Mining, Pulp and Paper, Synthetic Fibre Manufacturing.
Castings Bushings, cylinder liners, digester parts, pump casings and impellers, valve bodies, valve seats.
Corrosives Acid mine water, alkaline liquors, nitric acid, sulfurous liquors.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data
surveys published by the NACE to determine whether type CC50 is suitable for the particular corrosive
involved, and the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on
operating conditions before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CC50. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification
or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CC50 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Some difficulty is encountered in running thin
sections, however, and designs involving appreciable changes in section should be avoided. This applies to
the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. If
toughness is an important requirement, consideration should be given to one of the CF, CH or CK grades
unless the greater thermal expansion of these alloys cannot be tolerated. Normally used patternmakers'
shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding
Type CC50 castings can be welded by metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods. Metal-arc is
most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of corrosion
resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Castings should be heated in the range 400 to 1300F (204 to 704C)
before welding. After welding, heat to 1550 to 1900F (879 to 1038C), hold until uniform temperature
throughout, then air cool.
The welding procedures outlined for alloy HC are applicable to alloy CC50. Welding procedures utilizing
SMAW, and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CC50 alloy. The work-
hardening rate of this grade is much lower than the iron-chromium-nickel types, but it is advisable in all cases
that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines
are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should
provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Chips are
short and brittle. Local overheating caused by dull tools or excessive speed may result in cracking the work.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges
are not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A743 (CC50); SAE 60446.
Wrought AISI 446.
Corrosion Resistant Types
Duplex Stainless Steels; CD4MCu (UNS J93370), CD4MCuN (UNS J93372),
CD3MCuN (J93373),CE8MN (UNSJ93371), CD3MN (UNSJ92205),
Super Duplex Stainless Steels; CE3MN (UNS93404), CD3MWCuN (J93380)
Description
This data sheet includes both duplex stainless steels and super duplex stainless steels. The difference between
duplex stainless steels (DSS) and super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) is a function of the Pitting Resistance
Number (PREN). The PREN is a function of the chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen content. For SDSS the
PREN is generally 40 or higher.
It should be recognized that the ferrite balance of duplex alloys must be controlled to avoid cracking during
processing and welding. To this end nitrogen levels must be controlled. ASTM has addressed this issue by
introducing CDMCuN into A890. Although CD4MCu still exists in A890 it is strongly recommended that
CD4MCuN be substituted for this grade.
Type CD4MCuN is an iron-chromium-nickel-copper-molybdenum alloy having corrosion resistance in many
media superior to the CF8 and CF8M types, but having about double the yield strength of those alloys.
Combining good ductility with high hardness, castings of type CD4MCuN alloy have excellent resistance to
environments involving abrasion or erosion-corrosion. The alloy also shows exceptional resistance to stress-
corrosion cracking in chloride-containing solutions or vapors, and is usefully employed in handling both
oxidizing and reducing corrodents.
As cast, these alloys have a two-phase, ferrite plus austenite structure. Because of the low carbon content
(0.04 percent maximum), there are only small amounts of chromium carbides distributed throughout the matrix,
but for maximum corrosion resistance, these must be dissolved by suitable heat treatment. Generally these
alloys are used only in the solution annealed condition, aging of these grades will result in a loss of ductility
and toughness. Elevated temperature applications in the range 500 to 950F (260 to 510C) should be avoided
Chemical composition - %
ASTM A890 C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo Cu W N Fe UTS YS Elong.
CD4MCu
1
min. 24.5 4.75 1.75 2.7 ksi ksi %
max. 0.04 1 1 0.04 0.04 26.5 6 2.25 3.3 bal 100 70 16
CD4MCuN
1
min. 24.5 4.7 1.7 2.7 0.1
max. 0.04 1 1 0.04 0.04 26.5 6 2.3 3.3 0.25 bal 95 65 25
CD3MCuN
1
min. 24 5.6 2.9 1.4 0.22
max. 0.03 1.2 1.1 0.03 0.03 26.7 6.7 3.8 1.9 0.33 bal 95 65 25
CE8MN
1
min. 22.5 8 3 0.1
max. 0.08 1 1.5 0.04 0.04 25.5 11 4.5 0.3 bal 90 60 25
CD6MN
1
min. 24 4 1.75 0.15
max. 0.06 1 1 0.04 0.04 27 6 2.5 0.25 bal 100 75 18
CD3MN
1
min. 21 4.5 2.5 0.1
max. 0.03 1.5 1 0.04 0.02 23.5 6.5 3.5 1 0.3 bal 100 65 25
CE3MN
2
min. 24 6 4 0.1
max. 0.03 1.5 1 0.04 0.04 26 8 5 0.3 bal 100 70 16
CD3MWCuN
2
min. 24 6.5 3 0.5 0.5 0.2
max. 0.03 1 1 0.03 0.025 26 8.5 4 1 1 0.3 bal 100 65 25
1
DSS
2
SDSS
because long time heating at
this range will result in a
serious loss of ductility and
toughness.
Castings of these types have
good machining and welding
characteristics. Thermal
expansion of this alloy is about
20 percent greater than for
carbon steel, but about 30
percent less than for the CF
al l oy t ypes. Thermal
conductivity and electrical
resistivity are comparable to
the CF alloys and are roughly
five times the values for carbon
steel. The alloys are
ferromagnetic.
Heat Treatment
For complete solution of
carbi des and maxi mum
corrosion resistance, castings
should be heated for a
sufficient time to be uniformly at
the temperatures shown in
Table 1, and quenched in water, oil or air. The temperature from which castings are quenched should be as
close to the high side of the previously stated range as is consistent with avoidance of cracking for the casting
configuration involved. Time to attain solution temperature will vary with the thickness of casting sections, and
should be sufficiently long to heat all sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
The solution treatment temperature shown in Table 1 have been shown to be adequate in dissolving all
carbides and intermetallic precipitates. The lower hold temperatures mentioned in Table 1 do not appear to
impart any improvement in processing capability or properties of these grades.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where these alloys has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical Processing, Marine, Municipal Water Supply, Naval, Paint, Petroleum Refining, Power
Plant, Pulp and Paper, Soap Manufacturing, Textile, Transportation.
Castings Compressor cylinders, digester valves, feed screws, impellers, liners, pump casings, runway light
fixtures (aircraft carriers, airports), safety valves, seal rings (centrifugal pumps), valve parts.
Corrosives Concentrated brine, fatty acids, potable water, pulp liquors at 220F (104C), sea water, steam,
sulfuric acid [15-30% at 140-160F (60-71C)], sulfuric acid [35-40% at 185F (85C) plus 5% organics],
titanium dioxide plus sulfuric acid solution, titanium sulfate.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
Physical properties CD4MCu
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
29.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.28
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.11
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.75
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2700
Magnetic permeability Ferromagnetic
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 8.8 70 - 212
o
F 6.3
At 1000
o
F 13.4 70 - 600
o
F 6.6
70 - 1000
o
F 6.9
70 - 1200
o
F 7.0
Additional properties at room temperature, CD4MCu
Representative values
Water quenched
From 1900
o
F
__________________
Tensile strength, ksi 108.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 81.5
Elongation, in 2in., % 25
Reduction of Area, % 45
Brinell hardness (HBW) 253
Charpy V-notch see figs.1a and 1b
at Elevated temperatures see fig.2
to an experienced high alloy foundry and to corrosion data surveys published by the NACE to determine
whether DSS and SDSS alloys are suitable for the particular corrosive involved, and the designer should
provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on operating conditions before reaching a
definite decision to use this alloy.
The methods in ASTM A923 may be used to determine the presence of detrimental intermetallic precipitates
in various duplex stainless steels.
The mechanical properties are taken from ASTM. The physical property data presented in tabular and
graphical form are representative for the alloy CD4MCu. These data are neither average nor minimum values,
and should not be used for either specification or design purposes. Specification and/or design information may
be obtained from appropriate technical associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily. Somewhat lighter sections are feasible
depending on casting design and pattern equipment. This alloy permits designs involving intricate shapes.
Drastic changes in section should be avoided, however, and uniform thickness should be maintained as far as
possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of 1/8 inch or more on surfaces
to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy is 1/4 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the molding method and by the quality of pattern
equipment provided. In general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per
foot.
Welding DSS and SDSS castings can be welded with shielded metal-arc and inert-gas arc methods. Matched
or overmatched filler metals may be used. Preheating is not required. Matched fillers have a composition
which is similar to the base metal and will require post weld heat treatment in accordance with Table 1.
Overmatched fillers have approximately 2% more nickel than the base metal to balance the ferrite content due
to the high cooling rates of the weld metal. Overmatched rods are particularly suitable for conditions where
postweld heat treatment may not be possible such as very large castings of field welds. Having said this it is
not uncommon for foundries to carry out a post weld heat treatment on welds made with overmatching fillers.
This requirements for post weld heat treatment is often made by customers and specifications.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on DSS and SDSS castings. It is
important in all cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal in order to avoid work-hardening
the surface.
Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly
mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Because chips are tough and
stringy, chip curler tools are recommended.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Castings
Handbook, 6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloys
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designations are listed only for the convenience of those
who want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition
ranges are not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for
proper identification of casting
Cast (ASTM) Wrought (UNS)
A890 - CD4MCu, CD4MCuN,
A995 - CD4MCuN
S32550
A890 - CD3MCuN
A890, A995 - CE8MN,
A890, A995 - CD3MN, S39205
A890, A995 - CE3MN S32750
A890, A995 - CD3MWCuN S32760
Table 1: Heat treatment Requirements
Grade Heat Treatment
CD4MCu, CD4MCuN,
CD3MCuN
Heat to 1900F (1040C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting
uniformly to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CE8MN
Heat to 2050F (1120C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting
uniformly to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CD6MN
Heat to 1950F (1070C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting
uniformly to temperature, quench in water or rapid cool by other means.
CD3MN Heat to 2050F (1120C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting
uniformly to temperature and water quench, or the casting may be furnace
cooled to 1850F (1010C) minimum, hold for 15 min minimum and then
water quench. A rapid cool by other means may be employed in lieu of water
quench.
CE3MN Heat to 2050F (1120C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting to
temperature, furnace cool to 1910F (1045C) minimum, quench in water or
rapid cool by other means.
CD3MWCuN Heat to 2010F (1100C) minimum, hold for sufficient time to heat casting
uniformly to temperature, quench in water or cool rapidly by other means.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Fe
min. 26 8
max. 0.30 1.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 30 11 bal

Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
25.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.277
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.14
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.85
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2650
Magnetic permeability > 1.5

Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
____________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 8.5 70 - 1000
o
F 9.6
At 600
o
F 10.5 70 - 1200
o
F 9.9
At 1000
o
F 12.4 70 - 1400
o
F 10.2
At 1200
o
F 13.5 70 - 1600
o
F 10.5

Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative values Minimum tensile
As Water quench from requirements
Cast 2000
o
F to 2050
o
F ASTM A743
____________________ _____________
Tensile strength, ksi 95.0 97.0 80.0
Yield strength, 0.2%
offset, ksi 65.0 45.0 63.0 40.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 15 18 10
Brinell hardness (HBW) 190 190 -
Charpy, Keyhole, ft. lbs 20 7
Ratio of Yield and Tesile Strength at
Elevated Temperature to Room Temperature Strength
Ferrite # 6-8 Ferrite # 40-52
Tensile Yield Tensile Yield
Temperature Strength Strength Strength Strength
o
C
o
F Ratio Ratio Ratio Ratio

21 70 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
50 122 0.965 0.937 0.965 0.952
100 212 0.908 0.835 0.908 0.875
150 302 0.859 0.750 0.878 0.802
200 392 0.824 0.688 0.863 0.745
250 482 0.800 0.650 0.860 0.720
300 572 0.781 0.627 0.858 0.711
350 662 0.766 0.604 0.853 0.707
400 752 0.752 0.583 0.840 0.703
450 842 0.731 0.561 0.813 0.695
500 932 0.702 0.538 0.745 0.670
550 1022 0.655 0.511 0.635 0.597
600 1112 0.580 0.485 0.500 0.487
Corrosion Resistant Type CE30 (UNS J93423)
Description
Type CE30 is an iron-chromium-nickel
alloy high in chromium but containing
sufficient nickel to provide better strength
and ductility than can be obtained with
the high chromium CC50 type. The alloy
is particularly resistant to sulfurous acid
and sulfites in the paper industry, dilute
sulfuric acid with sulfurous acid, and
sulfuric with nitric acid.
(Please note that the composition of the
heat resistant alloy, type HE, having a
carbon content range of 0.20 percent to
0.50 percent and a manganese content of
2.00 percent max., overlaps that of
corrosion resistant alloy, type CE30).
In the as-cast condition, the alloy has a
two-phase, austenite plus ferrite structure
containing carbides. The high chromium
content and the duplex structure permit a
fairly high carbon content without serious
loss of corrosion resistance when the
alloy is exposed to temperatures in the
carbide precipitation range, 800 to
1600F (427 to 871C). For this reason,
the alloy is useful where castings cannot
be heat treated effectively, or where they
must be welded without subsequent heat
treatment.
Long exposure in the range 800-900F
(427-482C) and 1500-1600F (816-
871C), however, will result in a
significant loss of toughness. This loss of
toughness increases with increasing
ferrite content. On the other hand,
resistance to stress-corrosion cracking by
chlorides and by polythionic acid
increases with increasing ferrite content.
Type CE30 cannot be hardened by heat
treatment, but the ductility and corrosion
resistance can be improved somewhat by
quenching the alloy from about 2000F
(1093C).
A modification of the CE30 alloy having
the composition balanced to obtain ferrite
contents within the range of 5 to 20 percent is being used in oil refinery applications at temperatures around
825F (440C). This "controlled ferrite" grade is designated CE30A. This modified grade is more resistant to
stress-corrosion cracking by polythionic acid and some chlorides.
Castings of the type CE30 alloy have good machining and welding properties. The alloy is magnetic, but not
strongly so. Thermal expansion is about 50 percent greater than that of carbon steel or the iron-chromium, CA,
CB, and CC types, and is comparable to the CF grades.
Heat Treatment
Type CE30 castings are used in the as-cast condition for many applications. For maximum corrosion resistance
and improved ductility, however, castings should be heated in the range 2000-2050F (1093-1121C), and then
quenched in water, oil or air to hold as great a portion of the carbides in solution as possible. Holding time at
temperature will vary with the thickness of casting sections involved, but should be sufficiently long to heat all
sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CE30 alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical Processing, Mining, Oil Refining, Pulp and Paper, Synthetic Fibre Manufacturing.
Castings Digester necks and fittings, fittings, circulating systems, fractionating towers, piping, pump bodies and
casings, valve bodies and parts.
Corrosives Acid mine water, caustic soda, hot nitric acid, hot oil products, organic acids, polythionic acid, sulfite
liquors.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data surveys
published by the NACE to determine whether type CE30 is suitable for the particular corrosive involved, and the
designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on operating conditions
before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CE30. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification or
design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CE30 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Good castability of this alloy permits designs
involving intricate shapes. Drastic changes in section should be avoided, however, and uniform thickness
should be maintained as far as possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of
1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy
is 5/16 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CE30 castings can be welded by metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods.
Metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible impairment of
corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Preheating is not required, but after welding castings should
be quenched from 2000 to 2050F (1093 to 1121C) to restore maximum corrosion resistance. Lime coated
electrodes of similar composition (AWS E312-15) are recommended for arc welding.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CE30 alloy. It is important
in all cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal in order to avoid work-hardening the surface
from rubbing or scraping. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results.
Work should be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Both high
speed steel and carbide tools may be used successfully. Chips curlers are recommended.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges are
not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A743 (CE30).
Wrought AISI 312.
Also, practices for estimating ferrite content in cast alloys are found in ASTM A799 and A800.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Fe
min. 17 8
max. 0.03 1.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 21 12 bal
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
25.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.277
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.14
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.85
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2650
Magnetic permeability 1.2 to 3.0
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 9.2 70 - 212
o
F 9.0
At 1000
o
F 12.1 70 - 1000
o
F 10.0
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative values Minimum
tensile
Water quench from requirements
Above 1950
o
F ASTM A743
_______________ ____________
CF3 CF3A CF3 CF3A
Tensile strength, ksi 77.0 87.0 70.0 77.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 36.0 42.0 30.0 35.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 60 50 35 35
Brinell hardness (HBW) 140 160 - -
Charpy V-notch, ft.lbs 110 100 - -
Corrosion Resistant Type CF3 (UNS J92500)
Description
Type CF3 is an iron-chromium-nickel alloy
of the same family as types CF8 and CF20,
but with the carbon content restricted to
0.03 percent maximum. Its corrosion
resistance is equal to or better than type
CF8 so it is used in similar applications, but
particularly in those where post-weld heat
treatment is inconvenient or impossible.
Damaged ship propellers made of this
ductile alloy, for example, can be
straightened and repair welded without
subsequent heat treatment with no
impairment of corrosion resistance.
Accordingly, type CF3 is widely used in
riverboat service.
As cast, the alloy has an austenite structure
containing about 5 to 20 percent ferrite in
the form of discontinuous pools, but with
virtually no chromium carbides. For this
reason, the CF-3 grade is suitable for use in
many corrodents without the necessity for
heat treatment. To be sure of maximum
corrosion resistance, however, a solution
heat treatment is desirable. If the heat
treated alloy is later exposed to
temperatures around 1200F (649C) for
relatively short times, as would occur in the
heat-affected zone of a weld, any chromium
carbides that are formed would precipitate
in the ferrite pools, thereby avoiding any
tendency toward intergranular corrosion in
service and eliminating the need for further
heat treatment. A "controlled ferrite" grade,
CF3A, has its chemical composition
balanced so as to obtain the minimum
ferrite content necessary to ensure meeting
the high mechanical properties specified for
this grade, which has been used extensively
in nuclear power plant construction. The
CF3A alloy is not considered suitable for
service temperatures above about 650F (343C). At sub-zero temperatures, impact strength of type CF3 is
essentially the same as shown for the CF8 grade.
In general, the effect of ferrite on the room-temperature yield and tensile strengths of the type CF3 is the same
as that shown for the type CF8. However, because of the lower carbon content of type CF3, the strength values
of this type will fall in the lower part, or just below, the "band" of values shown for type CF8. At equal levels of
ferrite content, additions of nitrogen result in a significant increase of yield and tensile strengths from room
temperature to about 1200F (649C). Appropriate ASTM specifications for the CF3 alloy with nitrogen are being
prepared.
Castings of the CF3 alloy types have good machining and welding characteristics. Thermal expansion is about
50 percent greater than carbon steel or iron-chromium alloy types CA, CB, and CC.
Below about 1600F (871C), heat conductivity is 30 to 50 percent less and, above about 1600F (871C), the
heat conductivities of these materials are nearly equal. Conversely, the electrical resistance of CF3 is five times
greater than that of carbon steel and of the iron-chromium alloys below about 1600F (871C), but, above this
temperature, the electrical resistance of these materials is nearly the same.
The alloy is weakly magnetic, with magnetism most pronounced in the CF3A grade. Magnetic permeability of
the as-cast alloy may change after heat treatment, depending on the thickness of section and casting
configuration.
Heat Treatment
For maximum corrosion resistance, castings of CF3 alloy should be heated in the range 1900 to 2050F (1038
to 1121C), and then quenched in water, oil or air to ensure complete solution of carbides and sigma phase.
Holding time at temperature will vary with the thickness of casting sections involved, but should be sufficiently
long to heat all sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CF3 alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Beverage, Brewery, Distillery, Food, Heavy Water Manufacturing, Marine, Nuclear Power,
Petroleum, Pipe Line, Soap and Detergent.
Castings Bowls, discharge cases, impellers, propellers, pump casings, retaining rings, suction manifolds, tubes,
valve bodies and parts.
Corrosives Brackish water, phosphate solutions, pressurized water at 570F., sea water, steam.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data surveys
published by the NACE to determine whether type CF3 is suitable for the particular corrosive involved, and the
designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on operating conditions
before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CF3. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification or
design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CF3 alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Good castability of this alloy permits designs
involving intricate shapes. Drastic changes in section should be avoided, however, and uniform thickness
should be maintained as far as possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of
1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy
is 5/16 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding Type CF3 castings can be welded by shielded metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas
methods. Shielded metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of
possible impairment of corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Preheating is not required. Post-weld
heat treatment usually is unnecessary for type CF3 castings, but, after welding, quenching from above 1900F
(1038C) may be desirable for surfaces that will be exposed to severe corrosive attack. Lime coated electrodes
of similar composition (AWS E308L-15) are recommended.
The welding procedures outlined for alloy CF8 are applicable to alloy CF3. Welding procedures utilizing SMAW,
GMAW, and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CF3 alloy. It is important
in all cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal in order to avoid work-hardening the surface.
Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results. Work should be firmly
mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel and
carbide tools may be used successfully. Because chips are tough and stringy, chip curler tools are
recommended.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work. Sulfo-chlorinated petroleum oil containing active sulfur
and about 8 to 10 percent fatty oil is recommended for high speed steel tools. Water-soluble cutting fluids are
primarily coolants and are most useful for high speed operation with carbide tools.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges are
not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A351 (CF3, CF3A); A451 (CPF3, CPF3A); A743, A744 (CF3).
Wrought AISI 304L.
Also, practices for estimating ferrite content in cast alloys are found in ASTM A799 and A800.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo Fe
min. 17 9 2.0
max. 0.03 1.50 1.50 0.04 0.04 21 13 3.0 bal
Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
28.0
Density, lb/in
3
0.28
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.12
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.82
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2600
Magnetic permeability 1.5 - 3.0
Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________
At 212
o
F 9.2 -325 - 70
o
F 8.1
At 1000
o
F 12.1 -260 - 70
o
F 8.2
-150 - 70
o
F 8.6
70 - 212
o
F 9.0
70 - 1000
o
F 10.0
70 - 1200
o
F 10.2
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative values Minimum
tensile
Water quench from requirements
above 1900
o
F ASTM A743
____________________ _____________
Tensile strength, ksi 80.0 90.0 70.0 80.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 38.0 45.0 30.0 30.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 55 45 30 30
Brinell hardness (HBW) 150 170 - -
Charpy V-notch, ft lbs 120 100 - -
Corrosion Resistant Type CF3M (UNS J92800)
Description
Type CF3M is an iron-chromium-nickel-
molybdenum alloy of the same family as
type CF8M, but with the carbon content
restricted to 0.03 percent maximum. This
extra-low carbon limit makes the alloy useful
in applications requiring field welding where
post-weld heat treatment is inconvenient or
impossible. Corrosion resistance of CF3M
and general fields of application for the alloy
are essentially the same as those of the
CF8M grade, and equal to or better than
that of the corresponding wrought grade.
As normally produced, the CF3M alloy has
an austenitic microstructure containing
discrete ferrite pools amounting to about 5
percent to 20 percent by volume. When
exposed to welding temperatures, these
ferrite pools provide a preferred location for
precipitation of any carbides that may form,
and thus reduce the sensitivity of the alloy
by intergranular corrosion caused by grain
boundary precipitates. Furthermore, the low
carbon content of the alloy limits the
formation of significant amounts of
chromium carbide in any event, so post-
weld heat treatment is not required.
The combination of molybdenum and low
carbon content tends to unbalance the
composition in the direction of high ferrite in
the alloy microstructure unless the amounts
of chromium and nickel are adjusted so as
to maintain the ferrite at a low level.
Because an increase in ferrite content is
accompanied by an increase in mechanical
strength, a "controlled ferrite" grade of
CF3M is made, under the designation of
CF3MA. In this grade, the chemical
composition is balanced to obtain a ferrite
content sufficiently high to meet minimum
yield strength specifications that are about 25 percent higher than for the normal CF3M type. Thermal instability
of the microstructure at these high ferrite levels makes the CF3MA alloy generally unsuitable for operation at
temperatures above 800F (427C).
Castings of the CF3M alloy types have good machining and welding characteristics. Thermal expansion is about
50 percent greater than carbon steel or iron-chromium alloy types CA, CB, and CC.
Below about 1600F (871C), heat conductivity is 30 to 50 percent less and, above about 1600F (871C), the
heat conductivities of these materials are nearly equal. Conversely, the electrical resistance of CF3M is five
times greater than that of carbon steel and of the iron-chromium alloys below about 1600F (871C), but, above
this temperature, the electrical resistance of these materials is nearly the same.
The alloy is weakly magnetic, with magnetism most pronounced in the CF3MA grade. Magnetic permeability
of the as-cast alloy may change after heat treatment, depending on the thickness of section and casting
configuration.
Heat Treatment
For maximum corrosion resistance, castings of CF3M alloy should be heated in the range 1900 to 2050F (1038
to 1121C), and then quenched in water, oil or air to ensure complete solution of carbides and sigma phase.
Holding time at temperature will vary with the thickness of casting sections involved, but should be sufficiently
long to heat all sections to a uniform temperature throughout.
Applications
The following lists of consuming industries, cast parts, and corrosive materials are useful as examples of typical
applications where type CF3M alloy has been employed successfully; they are not comprehensive, nor are they
intended as guides to alloy selection for specific end uses.
Industries Chemical, Copper Mining, Food Processing, Paper Mill, Petroleum, Pipe Line, Power Plant (Fossil
Fuel, Hydro, Nuclear), Water Supply.
Castings Mixer parts, pump casings and impellers, tubes, valve bodies and parts.
Corrosives Acetic acid, calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, potable water, sea water, steam, sulfites.
NOTE: Corrosion rate data obtained in carefully controlled laboratory tests using chemically pure reagents are
helpful in screening alloys for further consideration, but the difference between such tests and commercial
operation should not be overlooked. Concentration, temperature, pressure, contamination, and velocity of
corrosives all influence the rate of attack, as do surface finish and casting design. Reference should be made
to the extensive alphabetical lists of corrodents published by many alloy foundries and to corrosion data surveys
published by the NACE to determine whether type CF3M is suitable for the particular corrosive involved, and
the designer should provide the foundry with as much pertinent information as possible on operating conditions
before reaching a definite decision to use this alloy.
The mechanical and physical property data presented in tabular and graphical form are representative for alloy
CF3M. These data are neither average nor minimum values, and should not be used for either specification or
design purposes. Specification and/or design information may be obtained from appropriate technical
associations such as ASTM, ASME, API, NACE, and SAE.
Design Considerations
Section thicknesses from 3/16 inch up can be cast satisfactorily in CF3M alloy. Somewhat lighter sections are
feasible depending on casting design and pattern equipment. Good castability of this alloy permits designs
involving intricate shapes. Drastic changes in section should be avoided, however, and uniform thickness
should be maintained as far as possible. This applies to the casting as cast; i.e., including finish allowance of
1/8 inch or more on surfaces to be machined. Normally used patternmakers' shrinkage allowance for this alloy
is 5/16 inch per foot.
Fabricating Considerations
Dimensional tolerances for rough castings are influenced by the quality of pattern equipment provided. In
general, overall dimensions and locations of cored holes can be held to 1/16 inch per foot.
Welding
Type CF3M castings can be welded by shielded metal-arc, inert-gas arc, and oxyacetylene gas methods.
Shielded metal-arc is most frequently used. Oxyacetylene welding is not advisable because of possible
impairment of corrosion resistance caused by carbon pick-up. Preheating is not required. Post-weld heat
treatment usually is unnecessary for type CF3M castings, but, after welding, quenching from above 1900F
(1038C) may be desirable for surfaces that will be exposed to severe corrosive attack. Lime coated electrodes
of similar composition (AWS E316L-15) are recommended.
The welding procedures outlined for alloy CF8M are applicable to alloy CF3M. Welding procedures utilizing
SMAW, GMAW, and GTAW techniques are described in this section.
Machining Most machining operations can be performed satisfactorily on castings of CF3M alloy. It is
important in all cases that the tool be kept continually entering into the metal in order to avoid work-hardening
the surface. Slow feeds, deep cuts, and powerful, rigid machines are necessary for best results. Work should
be firmly mounted and supported, and tool mountings should provide maximum stiffness. Both high speed steel
and carbide tools may be used successfully. Because chips are tough and stringy, chip curler tools are
recommended.
Good lubrication and cooling are essential. The low thermal conductivity of the alloy makes it most important
to have the cutting fluid flood both the tool and the work.
Information on the procedures for specific machining operations is contained in SFSA Steel Casings Handbook,
6
th
Edition, Chapter 26.
Casting designations, specifications, and corresponding wrought alloy
The American Iron and Steel Institute wrought alloy designation is listed only for the convenience of those who
want to determine corresponding wrought and cast grades. Because the cast chemical composition ranges are
not the same as the wrought composition ranges, buyers should use cast alloy designations for proper
identification of castings.
Cast ASTM: A351 (CF3M, CF3MA); A451 (CPF3M); A743, A744 (CF3M).
Wrought AISI 316L.
Also, practices for estimating ferrite content in cast alloys are found in ASTM A799 and A800.
Chemical composition - %
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Fe
min. 18 8
max. 0.08 1.50 2.00 0.04 0.04 21 11 bal

Physical properties
Modulus of elasticity, psi x 10
6
See Fig. 1
Density, lb/in
3
0.28
Sp. Heat, Btu/lb.
o
F, at 70
o
F 0.12
Electrical resistivity, 6.m, at 70
o
F 0.762
Melting point, approximate
o
F 2600
Magnetic permeability 1.0 - 1.3

Thermal conductivity Mean coefficient of
Btu/(ft.h.
o
F) Linear thermal expansion
in./(in.
o
F)
______________________ ______________________

At 212
o
F 9.2 -325 - 70
o
F 8.1
At 1000
o
F 12.1 -260 - 70
o
F 8.2
-150 - 70
o
F 8.6
70 - 212
o
F 9.0
70 - 1000
o
F 10.0
70 - 1200
o
F 10.2
Mechanical properties at room temperature
Representative values Minimum tensile
Water quench from requirements
above 1900 to 2050
o
F ASTM
A743
__________________ ____________
CF8 CF8A CF8 CF8A

Tensile strength, ksi 77.0 95.0 70.0 77.0
Yield strength, 0.2% offset, ksi 37.0 45.0 35.0 35.0
Elongation, in 2in., % 55 50 30 35
Brinell hardness (HBW) 140 156 - -
Impact see fig 2
Ratio of Yield and Tesile Strength at
Elevated Temperature to Room Temperature Strength

Ferrite # 2-4 Ferrite # 18-23 Ferrite # 33-38
TensileYield TensileYield TensileYield
Temperature Strength Strength Strength
o
C
o
F Ratio Ratio Ratio Ratio Ratio Ratio

21 70 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
50 122 0.945 0.911 0.945 0.931 0.945 0.931
100 212 0.865 0.783 0.865 0.828 0.865 0.828
150 302 0.812 0.671 0.812 0.738 0.812 0.738
200 392 0.790 0.590 0.790 0.665 0.790 0.665
250 482 0.787 0.541 0.787 0.620 0.787 0.620
300 572 0.782 0.520 0.782 0.605 0.782 0.605
350 662 0.778 0.509 0.778 0.595 0.778 0.595
400 752 0.772 0.495 0.772 0.585 0.772 0.585
450 842 0.733 0.478 0.746 0.570 0.762 0.570
500 932 0.675 0.458 0.705 0.546 0.735 0.546
550 1022 0.588 0.430 0.640 0.512 0.687 0.512
600 1112 0.490 0.392 0.550 0.462 0.620 0.462
Creep - Rupture Properties
Estimated Estimated
Temperature Rupture stress, ksi Limiting creep stress, ksi

o
F 100h 1000h 0.01%/h 0.001%/h
1000 38.4 31.3 36.4 31.6
1200 19.4 14.6 9.6 -
Corrosion Resistant Type CF8 (UNS J92600)
Description
Type CF8 is an iron-chromium-nickel alloy
having good strength and ductility, and
excellent resistance to a wide variety of
corrodents. The alloy is especially useful in
resisting attack by strongly oxidizing media
such as boiling nitric acid. Castings of type
CF8 alloy have excellent sub-zero proper