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GUIDE TO PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY

Part 1: Introduction to Pavement


Technology


Guide to Pavement Technology
Part 1: Introduction to Pavement Technology



Guide to Pavement Technology Part 1: Introduction to Pavement Technology

Summary
Knowledge of pavement technology is of critical importance for all transport agencies in Australia
and New Zealand. Austroads and others (e.g. state road authorities, local government and
industry) have amassed a great deal of knowledge on pavement technologies, techniques and
considerations. The purpose of the Austroads Guide to Pavement Technology is to assemble this
knowledge into a single authoritative electronic publication that is a readily available, accessible,
comprehensive and free resource for practitioners in Australia and New Zealand.
The target audience for the Guide to Pavement Technology includes all those involved with the
management of roads, including industry, and students seeking to learn more about the
fundamental concepts, principles, issues and procedures associated with pavement technology.
Part 1 Introduction to Pavement Technology provides general information regarding the
purpose and function of pavements, pavement types and their components, pavement materials,
the types of pavements commonly in use today and an introduction to the fundamentals of
pavement behaviour. A brief description of the other nine parts of the guide is also presented. The
development of road pavements in Australasia is briefly discussed in a commentary.
This part is not intended to be referenced as a source document but rather it provides the
background to the guide as a whole.
Keywords
Pavement technology, road management, history of roads, pavement type, pavement design,
pavement behaviour, pavement materials, guideline
First Published 2005
Second edition November 2009

Austroads Ltd. 2009

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may
be reproduced by any process without the prior written permission of Austroads.

ISBN 978-1-921551-88-8

Austroads Project No. TP1048
Austroads Publication No. AGPT01/09

Author
Kieran Sharp, ARRB Group


Published by Austroads Limited
Level 9, Robell House
287 Elizabeth Street
Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9264 7088
Fax: +61 2 9264 1657
Email: austroads@austroads.com.au
www.austroads.com.au



This guide is produced by Austroads as a general guide. Its application is discretionary. Road
authorities may vary their practice according to local circumstances and policies.

Austroads believes this publication to be correct at the time of printing and does not accept
responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of information herein. Readers should
rely on their own skill and judgement to apply information to particular issues.


Guide to Pavement Technology
Part 1: Introduction to Pavement Technology


























Sydney 2009


Austroads profile
Austroads purpose is to contribute to improved Australian and New Zealand transport outcomes
by:
providing expert advice to SCOT and ATC on road and road transport issues
facilitating collaboration between road agencies
promoting harmonisation, consistency and uniformity in road and related operations
undertaking strategic research on behalf of road agencies and communicating outcomes
promoting improved and consistent practice by road agencies.

Austroads membership
Austroads membership comprises the six state and two territory road transport and traffic
authorities, the Commonwealth Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development
and Local Government in Australia, the Australian Local Government Association, and New
Zealand Transport Agency. Austroads is governed by a council consisting of the chief executive
officer (or an alternative senior executive officer) of each of its 11 member organisations:
Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales
Roads Corporation Victoria
Department of Transport and Main Roads Queensland
Main Roads Western Australia
Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure South Australia
Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources Tasmania
Department of Planning and Infrastructure Northern Territory
Department of Territory and Municipal Services Australian Capital Territory
Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government
Australian Local Government Association
New Zealand Transport Agency.

The success of Austroads is derived from the collaboration of member organisations and others in
the road industry. It aims to be the Australasian leader in providing high quality information, advice
and fostering research in the road sector.

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CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Relationship to other Austroads Guides ......................................................................... 3
2 PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF PAVEMENTS ............................................................ 4
3 PAVEMENT TYPES AND COMPONENTS ................................................................... 6
3.1 Pavement Types............................................................................................................. 6
3.2 Pavement Components .................................................................................................. 6
4 PAVEMENT MATERIALS............................................................................................ 10
4.1 Unbound Granular Materials......................................................................................... 10
4.2 Modified Granular Materials.......................................................................................... 10
4.3 Bound Materials............................................................................................................ 10
5 PAVEMENT TYPES IN USE TODAY .......................................................................... 15
5.1 Unbound Granular Pavements ..................................................................................... 15
5.2 Asphalt Pavements....................................................................................................... 15
5.3 Rigid Pavements........................................................................................................... 16
5.4 Pavement Strengthening Treatments........................................................................... 18
5.5 Unsealed Roads ........................................................................................................... 19
6 PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR UNDER LOAD.................................................................. 20
6.1 Structural Analysis........................................................................................................ 21
7 PAVEMENT LIFE CYCLE COSTING .......................................................................... 23
8 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH PART OF GUIDE TO PAVEMENT
TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 25
8.1 Part 2: Pavement Structural Design ............................................................................. 25
8.2 Part 3: Pavement Surfacings........................................................................................ 26
8.3 Part 4: Pavement Materials .......................................................................................... 26
8.3.1 Unbound Granular Materials........................................................................... 26
8.3.2 Modified Granular Materials............................................................................ 27
8.3.3 Bound Materials.............................................................................................. 27
8.4 Part 5: Pavement Evaluation and Treatment Design.................................................... 30
8.5 Part 6: Unsealed Pavements........................................................................................ 31
8.6 Part 7: Pavement Maintenance .................................................................................... 31
8.7 Part 8: Pavement Construction..................................................................................... 32
8.8 Part 9: Pavement Work Practices................................................................................. 32
8.9 Part 10: Subsurface Drainage ...................................................................................... 32
REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................... 40

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TABLES
Table 4.1: Pavement material categories and characteristics ......................................... 12

FIGURES
Figure 1.1: Structure of Guide to Pavement Technology with focus on Part 1 ................... 2
Figure 2.1: Pavement structure and its role in the road formation...................................... 5
Figure 3.1: Components of flexible and rigid road pavement structures............................. 7
Figure 5.1: Typical longitudinal section of plain concrete pavement (PCP) steel fibre
reinforced concrete is sometimes used for PCP............................................. 16
Figure 5.2: Typical longitudinal section of jointed reinforced concrete pavement
(JRCP) ............................................................................................................ 17
Figure 5.3: Typical longitudinal section of continuously reinforced concrete
pavement ........................................................................................................ 17
Figure 5.4: Typical cross-section of dowelled plain concrete pavement (PCP-D)
steel fibre reinforced concrete is sometimes used for PCP-D ........................ 17
Figure 6.1: Dispersion of surface load through a granular pavement structure ................ 20
Figure 6.2: Responses of different bound pavement types to load................................... 21


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1 INTRODUCTION
Knowledge of pavement technology is of critical importance for all transport agencies in Australia
and New Zealand. Austroads and others (e.g. state road authorities, local government and
industry) have amassed a great deal of knowledge on pavement technologies, techniques and
considerations. The purpose of the Austroads Guide to Pavement Technology is to assemble this
knowledge into a single authoritative electronic publication that is readily available, accessible,
comprehensive and free resource for practitioners in Australia and New Zealand.
The target audience for the guide includes all those involved with the management of roads,
including industry, and students seeking to learn more about the fundamental concepts, principles,
issues and procedures associated with pavement technology.
Figure 1.1 shows the structure of the guide. Part 1: Introduction to Pavement Technology provides
general information regarding the purpose and function of pavements, pavement types and their
components, pavement materials, the types of pavements commonly in use today and an
introduction to the fundamentals of pavement behaviour. A brief description of the other nine parts
of the guide is also presented. This part is not intended to be referenced as a source document
but rather it provides the background to the guide as a whole.
Each part is accompanied by Commentaries which aim to amplify the principles and processes by
use of examples. For example, a summary of the historical development of road pavements in
Australasia is presented in Commentary 1.
There is no Local Roads part in the guide because issues related to them span most guides
(asset management, road design, safety, traffic management, etc.) as well as pavement
technology. Segmental pavements are not addressed in the guide as their main use is in heavy
duty industrial and local government applications rather than highway applications and their
adoption in local government applications is generally confined to traffic control treatments or as a
surfacing over an existing pavement. Relevant aspects relating to geotextile and geogrids are
addressed in Part 4G of this guide (see Figure 1.1), whilst non-pavement related aspects are
addressed in Part 7 (Geotechnical Investigation and Design) of the Guide to Road Design.
As part of a developing series of live documents, it is recognised that there will be periodic
revisions to this document and other parts within the guide. The Austroads website should be
referenced (http://www.austroads.com.au) to ensure the reader is accessing the latest version of
this document.
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AUSTROADS GUIDES GUIDE TO PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
PART 1: INTRODUCTION TO PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
PART 2: PAVEMENT STRUCTURAL DESIGN
ASSET MANAGEMENT
BRIDGE TECHNOLOGY
PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
PART 3: PAVEMENT SURFACINGS
PART 4: PAVEMENT MATERIALS
PROJECT DELIVERY
PART 4A: GRANULAR BASE AND SUBBASE
MATERIALS
PART 4B: ASPHALT
PART 4C: MATERIALS FOR CONCRETE ROAD
PAVEMENTS
PART 4D: STABILISED MATERIALS
PART 4E: RECYCLED MATERIALS
PART 4F: BITUMINOUS BINDERS
PART 4G: GEOTEXTILES AND GEOGRIDS
PART 4H: TEST METHODS
PART 4I: EARTHWORKS MATERIALS
PART 4J: AGGREGATE AND SOURCE ROCK
PART 4K: SEALS
PROJECT EVALUATION
ROAD DESIGN
ROAD SAFETY
ROAD TRANSPORT PLANNING
Figure 1.1: Structure of Guide to Pavement Technology with focus on Part 1
PART 4L: STABILISING BINDERS
PART 5: PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND TREATMENT
DESIGN
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
PART 1 INTRODUCTION TO PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
SECTION 2: PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF PAVEMENTS
SECTION 3: PAVEMENT TYPES AND COMPONENTS
SECTION 4: PAVEMENT MATERIALS
COMMENTARY 1: DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD PAVEMENTS IN AUSTRALASIA
PART 1 COMMENTARIES
PART 6: UNSEALED PAVEMENTS
PART 7: PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE
PART 8: PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION ASSURANCE
PART 9: PAVEMENT WORK PRACTICES
PART 10: SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
SECTION 5: PAVEMENT TYPES IN USE TODAY
SECTION 6: PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR UNDER LOAD
SECTION 7: PAVEMENT LIFE CYCLE COSTING
SECTION 8: BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH PART OF GUIDE TO PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
REFERENCES
ROAD TUNNELS
TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
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1.1 Relationship to other Austroads Guides
Users of the Guide to Pavement Technology will need to ensure relevant parts of other guides,
such as the Asset Management, Bridge Technology and Project Delivery, are referred to where
appropriate. For example, whilst the Guide to Pavement Technology provides for decisions made
at a detailed level about issues specific to road pavements at the project level, the Guide to Asset
Management aims to give practitioners guidance for decision making with respect to good practice
asset management at a network level.
A Glossary of commonly used terminology associated with pavement technology, and all the other
guides, is available on the Austroads website (http://www.austroads.com.au).
If a guide is properly designed, then there should not be a need for maintenance of similar guides
and codes within jurisdictions. Each development plan should be supported by a review of user
needs for national guidelines and should identify the extent to which there is current duplication of
effort, why this occurs, and what needs to be done to avoid it. On the other hand, it is recognised
that procedures vary between Australia and New Zealand and also within jurisdictions. For this
reason, the Austroads Guide to Pavement Technology does not prescribe particular processes.
Instead it seeks to provide guidance on good practice, and to promote consistent approaches to
the achievement of this good practice.

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2 PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF PAVEMENTS
The contribution of a road pavement to the overall road formation is shown in Figure 2.1. The
pavement must serve two basic functions it must perform as an engineering structure and at the
same time meet functional requirements.
In terms of structural performance, the pavement must be of sufficient thickness, and be composed
of materials of sufficient quality, to be able to withstand the various loads that are applied to it by
heavy vehicles.
In terms of functional performance, the pavement must have a good riding quality to ensure
comfortable travel for the road user and, in the case of surfaced pavements, a surface having
adequate drainage, skid resistance, reflectivity and line markings to ensure safe travel. The
surface must also be capable of resisting both vertical and horizontal surface stresses in order to
maintain its integrity. If the surface is lost, or cracked, then ride comfort is affected and water can
enter the underlying base layers. It must also be capable of withstanding environmental loads,
including oxidation of bituminous binders.
Inherent in these demands is the need to ensure that construction and maintenance practices are
adequate for the demand to be placed upon the pavement.
Australia has about 800,000 km of roads, of which about two-thirds are unsealed (Austroads 2000)
whilst New Zealand has about 92,700 km of roads of which about 40% are unsealed (Transit New
Zealand, Road Controlling Authorities and Roading New Zealand 2005). Unsealed roads have
different characteristics to sealed roads and, in recognition of this they are addressed in a separate
part of the Guide to Pavement Technology.

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Figure 2.1: Pavement structure and its role in the road formation

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3 PAVEMENT TYPES AND COMPONENTS
3.1 Pavement Types
Pavements are classified as either flexible (containing unbound granular and/or stabilised materials
and/or asphalt) or rigid (concrete pavement with joints and/or steel reinforcement).
The term flexible pavement is applied to all pavement structures other than those described as
rigid pavements, including unbound pavements with thin bituminous surfacings and bound
(stabilised and asphalt) pavements. They are designed and generally constructed as continua,
without formal joints. The most common sealed flexible pavement used in Australasia is the
unbound granular pavement with a thin bituminous seal. Their design is empirically based. The
design of pavements incorporating a bound layer, or full depth asphalt pavement, is mechanistic
using elastic layer modelling. This relies on the stiffness (modulus) properties of continuous layers,
in a macro sense appropriate to potentially cracked media, rather than material properties
measured in the laboratory.
A rigid pavement consists of a relatively high strength concrete base (usually 30 MPa or more) and
one of a range of subbase materials (lean mix concrete, cement stabilised crushed rock, unbound
granular material, etc.). The various concrete base formats are: jointed unreinforced (plain
concrete), jointed reinforced, continuously reinforced, and steel fibre reinforced. With the
exception, perhaps, of roller compacted concrete, rigid pavements have formal jointing systems
that are sealed against moisture. In the case of continuously reinforced concrete pavements, there
are longitudinal joints, but no regular transverse joints for shrinkage and thermal strains. The
thickness design method for rigid pavements takes into account the presence of joints and edges.
Flexible pavements can be constructed in stages (staged construction) and, in many cases, repair
of underground services is simpler than for rigid pavements. There are advantages and
disadvantages associated with each pavement type. These need to be considered along with
construction constraints, material availability and costs, and the need to optimise the costs of the
overall pavement system.
3.2 Pavement Components
The generic components of flexible and rigid road pavement structures are shown in Figure 3.1. A
brief description of each component follows.
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Source: Austroads (2004a).
Figure 3.1: Components of flexible and rigid road pavement structures

3.2.1 Wearing Surface
The primary function of the surface course is to withstand the prevailing loading and environmental
(moisture, dust, etc.) effects and hence provide a safe and functional riding surface with reduced
spray and noise while at the same time protecting the underlying pavement courses from moisture
ingress. The three types of surface courses most commonly used on roads in Australasia are
sprayed (or chip) seals, asphalt and concrete. Interlocking concrete pavers have only very limited
application in high speed traffic situations and their use is limited to urban applications.
The sprayed bituminous seal (or chip seal
1
) was developed in New Zealand in the 1930s (Hanson
1935). It provides an economical solution to the surfacing problem. It consists of a thin film of
bitumen sprayed on top of a compacted base and incorporates a layer of single-sized stone. In the
majority of cases they are used as a surface over an unbound granular base. They are a low cost
alternative to other forms of sealed pavements such as asphalt.

1
The term spray seal or sprayed seal is commonly used in Australia, whilst the term chip seal is widely used in
New Zealand and South Africa.
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Whilst spray seal surfacings mainly contribute to the functional performance of a pavements (i.e.
provide a safe, all-weather driving surface), asphalt and concrete also have roles to play in terms
of the structural performance of the pavement. Thin (30-50 mm) asphalt surfacings play a role in
delivering functional performance whilst thicker, including full depth asphalt, also deliver structural
capacity.
3.2.2 Base
The base is the main load carrying course within the pavement. An unbound basecourse is
composed of materials which are granular or mechanically stabilised or treated with binders to
improve properties other than strength (e.g. plasticity). An unbound basecourse therefore behaves
under load as if its component parts were not bound together although significant mechanical
interlock can occur. In the majority of cases an unbound granular basecourse is provided under a
sprayed seal surfacing.
The quality of the base can be improved using stabilisation; the most common stabiliser used with
unbound granular materials is cement. In rural applications a sprayed seal surfacing is generally
applied over the stabilised base.
In terms of rigid pavements, the thickness of the concrete base will vary according to the type of
shoulder and joint/reinforcement details adopted. The selection of the overall pavement
configuration is a matter for decision by the designer based on its suitability for a particular project
and economic considerations.
3.2.3 Subbase
The subbase in a flexible pavement is also a load carrying course; its lower quality is related to
economics and the lower stress levels than those near the pavement surface. The main role of the
subbase is to provide adequate support to the base and reduce the stress/strains applied to the
subgrade. It may also be used to reduce the pumping of subgrade fines through joints or cracks
onto the surface of a pavement following the action of traffic or ground water pressure.
The quality of the base can be also improved using stabilisation, including mechanical stabilisation
or the use of cement, lime or a bituminous binder. The practice is more common when the parent
material is a marginal or non-standard material, often won locally.
In terms of rigid pavements, the provision of a bound or lean mix concrete subbase is
recommended to:
resist erosion of the subbase and limit pumping at the joints and slab edges
provide uniform support under the pavement
reduce the magnitude of the deflection at joints and enhance load transfer across joints,
especially if no other load transfer devices, such as dowels, are provided
assist in the control of shrinkage and swelling of high-volume-change subgrade soils.
3.2.4 Subgrade
The subgrade is the trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the pavement is
constructed. The subgrade may be the prepared in situ material but, particularly for heavy duty
pavements, it may also include selected materials which are placed above the in situ material.
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Many factors must be considered in determining the subgrade support conditions, including the
consequences of premature distress, sequence of earthworks construction, target compaction
moisture content and field density achieved, moisture changes during the life of the pavement,
subsurface drainage and depth of the water table and the presence of weaker layers below the
design subgrade level.
Subgrades are inherently variable in nature, reflecting the changes in topography, soil type and
drainage conditions that generally occur along an existing or prepared road alignment. The
selection of the appropriate design value for the subgrade requires a consideration of the degree of
variability within a project section and the quantity and quality of data on subgrade properties
available to the designer.
Improved subgrades refer to subgrades that have had their properties improved in order that they
can provide sufficient support to the upper layers and withstand the stresses applied to them under
load. Other practical considerations include the need to provide adequate access to construction
traffic (i.e. a working platform). Improvement can be achieved through stabilisation of the parent
material or the introduction of an imported material placed over the parent material.
A working platform can be considered either a subbase layer or an improved subgrade layer. For
a low formation height road containing few layers, the working platform may comprise a lower
subbase layer but, for a high formation, it would generally be described as an improved subgrade
with embankment material to be placed over it.
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4 PAVEMENT MATERIALS
Pavement materials can be classified into essentially five categories according to their fundamental
behaviour under the effects of applied loadings (see Table 4.1):
unbound granular materials
modified granular materials
bound materials
stabilised materials
asphalt
concrete.
The characterisation of these materials, other than concrete, is conducted using one of two
currently available design procedures: an empirical method and a mechanistic-empirical, or
structural, method. The former, which is limited to the design of pavements incorporating unbound
granular materials only, requires the materials to be characterised in terms of their strength. The
latter, which is applicable to the design of flexible pavements incorporating modified or bound
materials (other than concrete), or unbound materials having a thick asphalt surfacing, utilises a
computerised analytical technique, CIRCLY (Mincad Systems 2004). This method models the
pavement as a series of elastic layers and requires the materials to be characterised in terms of
their elastic properties modulus and Poisson ratio.
4.1 Unbound Granular Materials
Unbound granular materials consist of gravels or crushed rocks which have a grading that makes
them mechanically stable, workable and compactable. Their performance is largely governed by
their shear strength, stiffness and resistance to material breakdown under construction and traffic
loading. The most common modes of distress are rutting and shoving due to insufficient resistance
to deformation through shear and densification, and disintegration through breakdown.
4.2 Modified Granular Materials
Modified granular materials are granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising binder
have been added to improve stiffness or to correct other deficiencies, such as high plasticity,
without causing a significant increase in tensile capacity (i.e. producing a bound material).
Examples include chemically modified materials and cement, lime, lime/fly ash or slag modified
materials. For example, unbound materials modified with cement will typically result in a material
having a UCS value of less than 1 MPa. Modified materials are considered to behave as granular
materials though in practice this can be difficult to achieve unless the stabilised material is
reworked after most of the cementing action has occurred.
4.3 Bound Materials
A bound material is one in which the particles are strongly bound together by binders such as lime,
cement or bitumen. Under loading, they behave as a continuous system able to develop tensile
stresses without material separation.
The choice between bound and unbound materials is usually based on function, cost and
construction constraints. Whilst the volumetric cost of bound course will be higher, less material
will be required and the overall cost may be lower. Bound courses may often be the only
alternative if the water table is high, drainage is poor, a working platform is needed or pavement
thickness or construction time is limited due to other constraints, including level constraints (much
more common in urban areas than rural areas).
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4.3.1 Stabilised Materials
Stabilised materials involve mixing a chemical binding agent into the pavement material and then
compacting and curing the material to form a bound pavement layer. The stabilising binder may
consist of lime, Portland cement, blended cement, bitumen or other pozzolanic materials. The
binder should be added in sufficient quantity to produce a bound layer with significant tensile
strength.


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Table 4.1: Pavement material categories and characteristics
Pavement material category
Characteristics Unbound granular Modified granular Bound
Stabilised Asphalt Concrete
Material types crushed rock
gravel
soil aggregate
mechanically stabilised
materials
chemically modified
materials
cement, lime, lime/fly ash or
slag modified materials
lime stabilised materials
cement stabilised materials
bitumen stabilised materials
lime/fly ash stabilised materials
slag stabilised materials
slag/lime stabilised materials
dense graded asphalt
open graded asphalt
stone mastic asphalt
plain concrete
lean mix concrete
fibre reinforced concrete
Behaviour
characteristics
development of shear
strength through particle
interlock
no significant tensile
strength
development of shear
strength through particle
interlock
no significant tensile
strength
development of shear strength
through particle interlock and
chemical bonding
significant tensile strength
development of shear strength
through particle interlock and
cohesion
significant tensile strength
properties are temperature
sensitive
development of shear strength
through chemical bonding and
particle interlock
very significant tensile strength
Distress modes deformation through shear
and densification
disintegration through
breakdown
deformation through shear
and densification
disintegration through
breakdown
cracking developed through
shrinkage, fatigue and
over-stressing
erosion and pumping in the
presence of moisture
cracking developed through
fatigue, overloading
permanent deformation
cracking developed through
shrinkage, fatigue and erosion
of subbase
Input parameters for
design
modulus
Poissons ratio
degree of anisotropy
modulus
Poissons ratio
degree of anisotropy
modulus
Poissons ratio
modulus
Poissons ratio
90 or 28 day flexural strength
or 28 day compressive strength
Performance criteria current materials
specifications
current materials
specifications
fatigue relationships fatigue relationships fatigue and erosion
relationships

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Lime stabilised materials
Lime stabilisation refers to the use of hydrated or quicklime (calcium hydroxide) rather than
agricultural lime (calcium carbonate). Lime stabilisation is widely used to improve clay material
having plasticity index (PI) values greater than 10. The addition of lime results in an immediate
increase in strength, makes the soil more friable and reduces its moisture sensitivity.
Cement stabilised materials
In cement stabilisation, hydration of the cement occurs in association with cement-clay interaction:
the hydrated cement fills voids in the soil by both diffusion and volumetric growth of the resulting
compounds. Cement contents obviously vary depending on the soil type being stabilised and the
required application. In general, the strength increases as the cement content increases, with an
increase in unconfined compressive strength (UCS) between 0.5-1.0 MPa being achieved for each
1% of cement added. Elastic moduli can also vary greatly depending on the parent soil and
amount of binder. Moduli up to 10,000 MPa can be achieved in heavily bound pavements. Once
the cement has been added, the material should be compacted before the process of hydration is
complete.
Bitumen stabilised materials
A range of bituminous products (foamed bitumen, emulsions, etc.) can be used to stabilise a wide
range of pavement materials. They predominantly act as glue-like cohesion agents in granular
materials and as water-proofers. Bitumen stabilisation is generally used with granular materials
rather than clayey materials because mixing is easier and the required strength gains are not as
large.
Recycled materials
A related form of pavement stabilisation involves the use of recycled materials such as concrete
and by-products such as fly ash, bottom ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. Fly ash, for
example, is a by-product of the burning of coal. It usually consists of fine siliceous or aluminous
products and can react with other materials in the presence of water to form cementing
compounds. As it reacts particularly well with lime it has the economic potential to replace cement
in certain applications. Its use is generally limited by how far it needs to be transported to a site
and associated cost considerations.
Various blends such as slag/lime and bitumen/cement are now frequently used to rehabilitate
pavements, usually through an in situ stabilisation process.
4.3.2 Asphalt
Asphalt is a mixture of bituminous binder and several, typically, single-sized aggregate fractions. It
is spread and compacted while hot to form a pavement layer. While the binder is usually a
conventional bitumen, for special applications it may be modified by the addition of specific
polymers to the bitumen.
Open graded asphalt is used as a skid resistant surfacing and also to reduce tyre/road noise. The
drainage provided by this surface also reduces the spray hazard. These safety and environmental
factors are becoming increasingly important with the trend of social values and expectations.
The steady introduction of polymer modified binders is extending the use of asphalt as there is
considerable potential for improving fatigue and rutting properties. However, as their properties
often vary from those of conventional asphalt mixes, some of the traditional asphalt mix design
procedures may not always be applicable and a great deal of research has been conducted in
recent times aimed at characterising these mixes in the laboratory and demonstrating their superior
performance in the field.
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The strength/stiffness of asphalt is derived from friction between the aggregate particles, the
viscosity of the bituminous binder under operating conditions and the cohesion within the mass
resulting from the binder itself, and the adhesion between the binder and the aggregate. The most
common modes of distress for asphalt layers are: (1) rutting and shoving due to insufficient
resistance to permanent deformation, and (2) cracking, either due to fatigue under applied loading
or environmental factors (oxidation).
The recycling of asphalt (which has reached the end of its service life) by incorporating it with virgin
asphalt during the asphalt production process is a relatively recent but rapidly expanding
industry. The resulting product commonly contains 1020% recycled material. To compensate for
the hardening of the bitumen that has occurred throughout the service life of the asphalt, binders
which lower the viscosity of the hardened bitumen may be incorporated in the mix.
4.3.3 Concrete
Concrete refers to a homogeneous mixture of hydraulic cement, fine and coarse aggregate, water
and chemical admixtures. The cementitious portion of concrete may be Portland cement or
blended cement, which consists of Portland cement mixed with binders such as ground granulated
blast furnace slag and/or pulverised fly ash. Chemical admixtures may be used for set retardation
and air entrainment. Concrete can be used as a subbase in flexible pavements and a base or
subbase in rigid pavements.
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5 PAVEMENT TYPES IN USE TODAY
5.1 Unbound Granular Pavements
The design of unbound pavements with thin bituminous surfacings is empirically based, and
Australian practice (Austroads 2004a) has not changed much from the procedures used over 50
years ago (Hanson 1935; MacLean 1954). Structurally, the granular pavement material spreads
the load to the foundation through its interparticle friction and shear strength.
The provision of sound, low cost pavements is less technically demanding under permanently dry
conditions. However, while much of Australia has an arid climate, for many of its heavily-trafficked
roads the question of moisture in pavements is of primary importance in both Australia and New
Zealand. The problem is not one of drainage alone, though both surface and subsurface drainage
are essential elements of moisture control. Capillary forces, or soil suction, can maintain the
saturated condition in many fine grained soils irrespective of drainage. In this case evaporation is
the only natural drying agent, and it may not be sufficiently available in the road pavement to
balance moisture infiltration. Conservative design therefore will assume the saturated subgrade
condition in the wetter coastal areas of Australia and in most of New Zealand.
However, for many thousands of kilometres of sealed pavement in inland areas of Australia the
evapotranspiration balance is such that the subgrade is never fully saturated. In this situation
advantage can be taken of the unsaturated strength, and a thinner pavement built, provided due
care is taken with edge conditions and drainage. This is true even in regions composed of highly
reactive clays. In these areas moisture movement causes longitudinal edge cracking of
pavements, which can be confined to an edge effect by the use of wide impermeable shoulders
and prompt sealing of any cracks which do occur. Loss of shape (surface profile) can also be a
problem in these areas.
Specifications for unbound base material have been gradually developed since the advent of
mechanised construction techniques in the 1920s. Before that time little compactive effort was
used on macadam bases. However, the demand for smoother, dust free pavements to cater for
higher speed pneumatic-tyred vehicles, and mechanised construction, led to the development of
the maximum density grading where a range of stone sizes was used to pack together into a
dense, tight mass. The need was also recognised for adequate compaction of the pavement
before trafficking, to achieve a stable surface shape
2
.
5.2 Asphalt Pavements
As for all pavement materials, the use of asphalt must be appropriate to its engineering properties
to be effective in the long term. Asphalt has a relatively low tensile strength for a bound pavement
material about one-fifth that of concrete but it has a high strain capacity, about double that of
concrete. These and other engineering properties can be used in a mechanistic design process, to
produce more effective pavement designs than the empirically based designs of the recent past.
The bitumen binder in asphalt gives it its viscoelastic properties which are dependent on
temperature and duration of loading. The performance of an asphalt surfacing can therefore be
greatly influenced by the local climatic temperature regime, the day/night distribution of heavy
vehicles and traffic speed. For example, when the traffic loading is heavy at night in an area where
night temperatures can be quite low, this imposes a significant constraint on the structural design
against fatigue failure of the thin asphalt surfacing.

2
Initially any compaction was applied by the traffic but rollers were gradually introduced from about the mid-1800s. They
were commonly 1 metre long cast iron drums carrying rock-filled trays and drawn, initially, by teams of horses. They
typically applied about 10 tonne per metre width. Lay (1984) reports that it was estimated that the original voids of 50%
in macadam pavements were reduced to about 30% using this procedure.
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Flexural fatigue life improves rapidly as the asphalt layer thickness either increases from about
100 mm or decreases from about 50 mm. However, for thicknesses below 40 mm there is a higher
degree of uncertainty regarding the reliability of fatigue life predictions. With thick layers, the use
of a stiffer binder can improve both the fatigue life and the rutting properties. In a warm climate,
rutting of the asphalt usually governs design, particularly as the layer thickness increases. On the
other hand, the viscous properties of the asphalt provide a beneficial capacity to deform and creep
without cracking. These properties are extremely useful in the construction process, using higher
temperatures to provide workability and a smooth riding surface, with minimal traffic disruption.
The asphalt properties are also time dependent, through ageing of the bitumen and perhaps
through stripping of the binder in a wet environment. These factors tend to limit the justifiable
design life using ordinary bitumen binder. At this stage pavement design procedures usually do
not take account of the ageing of asphalt, or the strains induced by temperature gradients. The
maximum horizontal tensile strain is predicted at the bottom of an asphalt layer, but there is clear
evidence that in thick asphalt surfacings transverse load-induced cracking can also initiate at the
surface. This may be due to oxidation hardening of bitumen at the surface combined with a low
surface temperature.
5.3 Rigid Pavements
As discussed earlier, rigid (concrete) pavements made their debut in Australia prior to 1930 and
some of these pavements have remained serviceable for up to 50 years, although maintenance
has been considerable and riding quality poor for old pavements. These pavements did not have
structural subbase layers or subsurface drainage, and joint spaces were wide, unlike modern
concrete pavements which appeared in Australia in the late 1970s. The first of these was
continuously reinforced, the best early example being at Clybucca Flat, near Kempsey, NSW, on a
very soft subgrade (Leask et al. 1979).
The plain (unreinforced) undowelled pavement did not reappear until 1983. This form of concrete
pavement has become prevalent for new work on major highways in NSW because of its ease of
construction using slipform pavers, and consequent economy. Much of the recent works on the
Hume Highway in NSW consists of this type of pavement.
About 2% of the Australian network has concrete pavement and these applications tend to be
confined to heavy duty applications such as National Highways, particularly in New South Wales.
In these types of applications, they have a very important role to play in the overall performance of
the network. There is very little use of concrete pavements in New Zealand.
Figure 5.1 to Figure 5.4 show basic details of the four types of concrete pavement (Austroads
2004c). More detailed information about the use of these concrete pavements are presented in
relevant parts of the Guide to Pavement Technology.

induced &
sealed joints
3.5 to 4.3 m
Source: Austroads (2004c).
Figure 5.1: Typical longitudinal section of plain concrete pavement (PCP)
steel fibre reinforced concrete is sometimes used for PCP

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steel mesh sawn & sealed
joints
8 to 15 m dowels

Source: Austroads (2004c).
Figure 5.2: Typical longitudinal section of jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP)

1 -3 m steel bars
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Source: Austroads (2004c).
Figure 5.3: Typical longitudinal section of continuously reinforced concrete pavement

induced &
sealed joints

Source: Austroads (2004c).
Figure 5.4: Typical cross-section of dowelled plain concrete pavement (PCP-D) steel fibre reinforced concrete is
sometimes used for PCP-D

In concrete pavements, shrinkage cracking is largely controlled to limit crack openings and hence
maintain load transfer across cracks and/or moisture ingress. At longitudinal joints, tie bars hold
the joint together while allowing slab warping to occur with temperature changes. If used,
continuous reinforcement constrains the concrete shrinkage so that transverse cracks are closely
spaced and therefore fine, ensuring durability. For plain concrete pavement, transverse cracking is
induced by saw cutting to form joints, which are sealed but free to move with temperature changes.
With undowelled transverse joints, the degree of shrinkage must be controlled to provide for some
load transfer by grain interlock at the joints; a concrete subbase is required to compensate for the
discontinuity.
Concrete shrinkage and strength are both critical for pavement performance, but may be to a
degree contradictory attributes for production. It is not only the ultimate values of these properties
which are important, but also their relative rates of increase.
Concrete strength and base thickness are very sensitive design parameters, as a 10% decrease in
thickness or strength can result in a 90% reduction in pavement life (DMR, NSW 1986). Concrete
pavement technology is therefore relatively rigorous and requires strict quality control during
construction.
up to 5 m dowels
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5.4 Pavement Strengthening Treatments
5.4.1 Pavement Overlays
Thin bituminous overlays, such as slurry seals, sand asphalt or microsurfacing, are regarded as
non-structural overlays, while structural overlays involve the use of either granular material or
asphalt at least 40 mm thick. A non-structural overlay is used to address deficiencies in the
functional performance of a pavement (shape, ride quality, surface texture, etc.) whilst a structural
overlay is generally used to address distress and structural deficiencies, in which case any
functional deficiencies are also corrected.
Current Australasian thickness design procedures allow for the following four overlay types:
granular overlays on flexible pavements
asphalt overlays on flexible pavements
asphalt overlays on rigid pavements
concrete overlays on flexible or rigid pavements.
For flexible pavements, which do not include stabilised materials, the chart-based structural
overlay design procedures are based on determining the characteristic deflection and curvature of
the existing pavement and the appropriate deflection properties of the pavement after overlay.
Due to seasonal moisture variations, deflections may need to be adjusted to represent the
condition of the pavement in its weakest condition. For asphalt overlays on asphalt-surfaced
granular pavements, a further correction is usually required because pavement temperature
influences the stiffness of the asphalt layers and hence its response to load. In New Zealand, the
past traffic is used to calibrate models for determining the required granular overlay thickness.
The design and selection of pavement rehabilitation treatments is addressed in Part 5 of the Guide
to Pavement Technology.
5.4.2 In situ Stabilisation
Stabilisation is defined as the process of improving a material to achieve a long term increase in
its load bearing properties. Stabilisation by modification of a material is preferred when the quality
of the material, not its thickness, is deficient.
The main methods of stabilisation are as follows:
granular (mechanical) stabilisation
cementitious stabilisation
lime stabilisation
bitumen stabilisation
other chemical stabilising binders such as dry powdered polymers.
Deep lift in situ stabilisation involves the recycling of the existing pavement material through its
incorporation with binders such as bitumen/cement and slag/lime. The formation, once compacted,
forms a bound pavement layer of higher strength.
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5.5 Unsealed Roads
Approximately two-thirds of Australias roads, and 40% of New Zealands roads, are unsealed.
They play an important role in the Australasian road network in terms of providing access to rural
communities, the movement of primary products, haulage roads for the mining and timber
industries, recreational and tourist activities and movement within State forests and defence
training areas.
The design and selection of pavement rehabilitation treatments is addressed in Part 5 of the Guide
to Pavement Technology.
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6 PAVEMENT BEHAVIOUR UNDER LOAD
The basic function of a pavement is to support the applied traffic loading within acceptable limits of
riding quality and deterioration over its design life. To do this, the pavement structure must spread
the concentrated wheel loads to the foundation (subgrade material) such that, under peak and
accumulated (e.g. fatigue) traffic loads:
the pavement materials and subgrade do not deform excessively
the pavement courses do not crack excessively.
To achieve these objectives, the pavement structure must be protected from the effects of
environment. The first two requirements are addressed using the pavement layer thickness and
stiffness to disperse the concentrated surface load to stress levels acceptable for the various
materials. As mentioned earlier, the load-spreading effect of unbound granular materials is
essentially through inter-particle friction and shear strength, which depend on the presence of
horizontal confining stresses (Figure 6.1). On the other hand, bound layers tend to spread the load
through slab action, as significant horizontal tensile stresses can be sustained at the bottom of the
layer.
The ability of a material to withstand repeated cycles of vertical stress without excessive
deformation being induced is called the bearing capacity. As a result, the higher quality, or stiffer,
materials were traditionally used in the top layers of the pavement. A contemporary alternative
option, however, is the upside down pavement, which consists of a relatively thick and stiff
(stabilised) subbase and an unbound granular basecourse. These pavements can be used in
situations where shrinkage cracking of a stabilised basecourse layer and the resultant reflection
cracking through the surface is an issue.

Figure 6.1: Dispersion of surface load through a granular pavement structure
Because a flexible pavement deforms (bends and deflects) under load, horizontal tensile strains
are produced (Figure 6.2a). The vertical compressive strains in the pavement and subgrade
produce the deformations in unbound layers and asphalt which lead to rutting, whereas the
horizontal tensile strains can induce cracking in bound layers. Loading applied to relatively stiff
rigid pavements, on the other hand, results in a relatively uniform distribution of strain on the
subgrade (Figure 6.2b).
The two modes may be used in one application. For example, flexible subbases can be used
under concrete bases to provide a drainage layer, absorb subgrade volume changes and provide a
working platform though pumping of fines through the joints of a concrete base layer can be a
problem for heavily-trafficked roads.
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Figure 6.2: Responses of different bound pavement types to load
6.1 Structural Analysis
6.1.1 Flexible Pavements
The purpose of structural analysis is to quantify the critical strains and/or stresses which are
induced by the traffic loading in the trial pavement configuration.
In structural analysis, it is usual to represent pavements as a series of layers of different
thicknesses and elastic properties (e.g. modulus). The pavement layers may be considered to be
fully elastic or viscoelastic, uniform in lateral extent, or variable, and with full friction, or no friction,
between the layers. These variations have been used in an attempt to obtain theoretical estimates
which agree with observed reactions to traffic loading.
The traffic loadings which can be analysed vary from a single vertical load having a uniform tyre-
pavement contact stress to multiple loads with multi-directional components and non-uniform
stress distribution. The rate of loading will also vary with traffic speed.
Care must be taken to ensure that the sophistication of the analysis method is compatible with the
quality of the input data. If not, then so many assumptions must be made to fill the gaps that the
results of the analysis can be misleading, if not worthless.
The method of structural analysis presented in the Austroads (2004a) Pavement Design Guide is
consistent with the extent of knowledge of pavement materials and their performance which exists
within the Austroads member authorities and industry. Information required as input to the analysis
method can already be obtained with some reliability or is currently being developed. The results
obtained provide predictions of pavement performance which are in reasonable agreement with
Australasian experience of pavement performance.
The results of the structural analysis are used to estimate the allowable loading of the pavement
configuration. Most of the performance criteria which are assigned to pavement materials, and to
the subgrade, are in the form of relationships between the level of strain induced by the single
application of a standard single axle load and the number of such applications which will result in
the condition of the material, or the pavement, reaching a tolerable limit.
6.1.2 Rigid Pavements
The purpose of structural analysis is to quantify the critical stresses and joint displacements which
are induced by the traffic loading in the trial pavement configuration.
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The design thickness of the base is a function of the traffic loading, material properties, thermal
effects and the cumulative stiffness of the subbase and subgrade. Many concrete pavement
failures have been attributed to uneven support conditions that may occur over large underground
services, culverts or at the transition of the cut and fill zones. Hence, the concrete base layer
should be longitudinally and laterally uniformly supported by the subbase and subgrade layers.
Over the last ten years, experience has shown that heavy duty concrete pavements in Australia
are being subjected to numerous overloaded trucks with axle loads exceeding the legal limit.
Unusual forms of pavement distress are also being observed that appear to be mainly related to
environmental loading.
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7 PAVEMENT LIFE CYCLE COSTING
In assessing alternative pavement types, alternative maintenance and rehabilitation strategies or
combinations of these, it is important to consider the relative economic values of the different
options. This comparison is most correctly made using Life Cycle Costing (LCC) or Whole of Life
Costing (WOLC) techniques, which use discounting equations to calculate the values of one or
more truly comparable measures of all costs occurring over the life of each alternative.
It is appropriate to elaborate on some aspects of this statement.
The life of a road pavement for pavement design purposes is usually taken to be the time
from its initial construction to its first reconstruction, which can be considered to be the start
of a new life. During this life, the serviceability of the pavement is maintained by undertaking
maintenance activities in response to deterioration due to time, environment and traffic
loading. For the purposes of economic evaluation a set analysis period (e.g. 40 years) is
chosen regardless of the life of the road pavement, and all costs and benefits occurring over
this analysis period are considered. Ideally, the analysis period for any alternative will be an
integer multiple of the life for that alternative.
When the objective of an economic assessment is to compare only different pavement types
and/or maintenance strategies, the vehicle operating cost savings from travel time savings in
relation to parameters such as route, geometric design and traffic capacity are assumed to
be the same for all options. The comparison can therefore be made on the basis of the costs
of provision of each pavement option and the effects of vehicle operating costs due to travel
delays from lane closures required for future pavement maintenance and rehabilitation.
The present value of pavement life cycle costs occurring over the analysis period that must
be estimated to enable the evaluation of each alternative includes:
the initial cost of construction of the pavement
the costs of maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities carried out over
the analysis period and the time at which each activity occurs
the vehicle operating costs due to travel delays from lane closures required for future
pavement maintenance and rehabilitation
the salvage value (which may be negative or positive) at the end of the analysis period.
Discounting is the process of bringing monetary payments or receipts that occur at different
points in time to equivalent values at one point in time. It reflects the value in use of money,
that is, the fact that if money is available at an earlier time, it can be used to produce returns
that lead to an increased value at a later time. Because of this, a given amount of money
available now is equivalent to a greater amount at a future time and, conversely, a given
amount available at a future time is equivalent to a lesser amount available now. Value in
use has nothing to do with inflation it exists even if the inflation rate is zero.
The discount rate is the basic parameter used in discounting. It often is qualified as the real
or inflation-free discount rate, to indicate that it represents the true, value in use return on
money, excluding any apparent increase due to inflation. A discount rate is typically stated
as a percentage per annum (e.g. 4% p.a.) but is used in calculations as an absolute
proportion per annum (e.g. 0.04 p.a.).
Because the effects of inflation are excluded from the economic analysis, all future costs
should be estimated in present day dollars (i.e. as what the cost would be today).
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A truly comparable measure of the life cycle costs of a number of options is a measure that
fairly compares the economic worth of the different options. The two most commonly used
measures that meet this criterion, and the conditions under which they do so, are as follows:
The Present Value of Costs (PVC) is a truly comparable measure provided that all the
options are evaluated over the same analysis period, and that period is either a whole
number of lives for each option or is a very long period (e.g. 50 years or more,
depending on the discount rate).
The Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) is a truly comparable measure even if the analysis
period is different for different options, provided that the analysis period for each option
is an integer multiple (usually 1 is convenient) of the life of that option.
While LCC (or WOLC) is used extensively in Australia, engineers have struggled with the
determination of appropriate values for maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs. This
is especially so for pavement types which have not been widely used until recent times, so that
there is a lack of historical data.
It is possible, however, to develop maintenance strategies that are appropriate for each of a range
of pavement types, for the purposes of undertaking LCC comparisons. Where previous records
are not available to assist this development, guidance can be obtained from Chapter 10 of
Austroads (2004b) Pavement Rehabilitation Guide (and Part 5 of the Guide to Pavement
Technology), from evaluation systems published by a number of state road agencies and from
various publications of industry organisations such as the Australian Asphalt Pavement Association
and the Cement Concrete and Aggregates Australia.
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8 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH PART OF GUIDE TO
PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY
8.1 Part 2: Pavement Structural Design
This part addresses those considerations associated with:
the design of flexible pavements for conventional highway traffic
flexible pavements consisting of unbound granular materials
flexible pavements that contain one or more bound layers
the development of design charts for flexible pavements for specific conditions as required by
the user
the design of rigid pavements for conventional highway traffic.
Brief descriptions of a number of topics listed below are provided, whilst explanatory notes on
these topics are provided in the commentaries at the end of the document:
Pavement design systems (empirical and mechanistic)
Construction and maintenance considerations
Environment (moisture, temperature) considerations
Subgrade evaluation
Characterisation of pavement materials to be input into the design process
Determination of design traffic
Design of new flexible pavements, including low volume roads and bikeways
Design of new rigid pavements
Economic comparison of designs
Implementation of the design and the importance of obtaining feedback on performance.
Detailed descriptions of methods and procedures, including example design charts, are contained
in a series of appendices which are available as separate documents.
An integral part of the pavement design process is an assessment by the designer of how well the
outcome of the design the constructed pavement will perform. Because of the many factors
which must be evaluated to design pavements, there is no absolute certainty that the desired
performance will be achieved. Guidance is provided on how to design projects to a desired
reliability of outlasting the design traffic.
It is assumed that pavements are constructed to the usual quality standards specified by Austroads
member authorities.
The design and selection of pavement rehabilitation treatments is addressed in Part 5 of the guide.
The design of unsealed pavements is addressed in Part 6 of the guide. Issues such as structural
detailing or design detailing are not addressed in this guide.
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8.2 Part 3: Pavement Surfacings
The selection of the most appropriate pavement surfacing requires balancing the needs of road
asset managers, road users and the community at large. In addition to evaluating the
characteristics of a surfacing, the selection of the most appropriate surfacing requires a
consideration of a number of other issues including drainage, traffic levels, workplace and public
safety, opportunities for stage construction, whole of life costing and environmental issues such as
noise levels.
The purpose of this part of the guide is to identify the significant factors, their inter-relationship and
the rationale for assessing the suitability of various types of pavement surfacing. The final solution
needs to be the best compromise between risk assessment and whole of life cost considerations.
The Australasian sealed road network is characterised by substantial lengths of unbound granular
pavements with thin bituminous surfacings. Whilst this is an effective, low cost treatment, it has
limitations, especially in its ability to cope with high shear stresses generated by heavy vehicles,
especially on grades and around small-radius curves. On more heavily-trafficked pavements,
particularly in urban areas, asphalt and rigid (concrete) pavements are often used as they are most
resistant to the stresses applied by heavy vehicles. Unlike thin bituminous seals, they also act as a
structural layer in a pavement.
The structural design of surfacing layers is addressed in Part 2 (Pavement Structural Design) and
Part 5 (Pavement Evaluation and Treatment Design) of this guide.
Brief descriptions of a number of topics listed below are provided, whilst explanatory notes on
these topics are provided in the commentaries at the end of the document:
surfacing types
performance characteristics which may influence the choice of pavement surfacing type
investigation levels for determining the performance characteristics of pavement surfacings
measures for determining the required level of service of pavement surfacings
the selection of the most appropriate surfacing for new pavements
identifying and correcting deficiencies in existing road surfacings
the selection of surfacings for retreatments.
8.3 Part 4: Pavement Materials
8.3.1 Unbound Granular Materials
This part summarises practice in the selection and testing of granular materials and aggregates for
pavement construction. These include:
Naturally occurring granular materials (natural gravels/sand-clay/soft and fissile rock), which
do not require costly extraction or crushing processes. They are an important source of
material used in the pavement (base and subbase) and shoulder construction of flexible
pavements in Australia.
Crushed rock produced by the crushing and screening of hard source rock (igneous,
metamorphic or sedimentary rock), which would typically need to be excavated by the use of
explosives, and river gravels. They are used in the pavement (base and subbase) and
shoulder construction of flexible pavements.
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Aggregates produced by controllable manufacturing processes (i.e. blasting, crushing and
screening, or by screening alone) from natural sources (river gravels, weathered
conglomerates, talus deposits, sand deposits or massive rock deposits) or from slags derived
from metallurgical processes. They are designed and manufactured to have the required
characteristics for surface layer construction such as bituminous seal, asphalt and concrete.
Recycled construction and demolition wastes, and industrial by-products.
Issues addressed include:
the factors influencing the performance of granular materials (i.e. their ability to support the
prevailing load and environmental conditions) and those properties which are important in
determining the suitability of materials for their intended purposes within the pavement
structure
the procedures for the location and field evaluation of deposits of granular materials
potentially suitable for pavement construction, including those procedures suitable for
surface deposits to the technically more complex requirements for large, permanent quarry
sites
the preparation of, or development of, specifications for the selection/production of:
natural gravel, sand clay, or soft and fissile rock for use in pavement and shoulder
construction, or to evaluate potential sources of such materials
crushed rock for use in base and subbase construction
aggregates for use in bituminous seals, asphalt or concrete
recycled materials for pavement construction
the basic properties for quality assessment and the significance of variability and sampling
risks in terms of specifications and the assessment of quality.
8.3.2 Modified Granular Materials
Modified granular materials are granular materials to which small amounts of stabilising binder
have been added to correct deficiencies in properties (e.g. by reducing plasticity) without causing a
significant increase in tensile capacity (i.e. producing a bound material). Modified granular
materials are considered to behave as unbound granular materials, i.e. they do not develop tensile
strain under load.
8.3.3 Bound Materials
Stabilised materials
Stabilisation through the use of binders such as lime, Portland cement or bitumen can result in
large enhancements to the ability of the material to perform, including the addition of lime and
cement to clay soils which have a high potential to swell.
This section of the guide provides practical advice and direction for the stabilisation of road
pavements and subgrades to assist asset managers and practitioners in pavement design,
construction and maintenance operations to optimise the benefits stabilisation technology has to
offer when applied to:
the enhancement of construction and performance attributes of pavement materials and
subgrades
mix design to determine the appropriate binder and application rate
the structural rehabilitation of existing pavements by recycling in situ pavement material
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the incorporation of stabilised pavement layers into new pavements.
Guidance is limited to the application of stabilisation of road pavements and does not include other
geotechnical applications such as soil and rock slope stability, retaining structures or land
reclamation etc.
Cemented materials may be described as a combination of a cementitious binder, water and
granular material which are mixed together and compacted in the early stages of the hydration
process to form a pavement layer which is subsequently cured. The cementitious binder may
consist of Portland cement, blended cement, lime, or other pozzolanic materials such as fly ash or
ground granulated blast furnace slag. The binder should be added in sufficient quantity to produce
a bound layer with significant tensile strength.
Issues addressed include:
the factors affecting modulus of stabilised materials, including mix composition, density and
moisture, and aging and curing
the determination of design modulus, i.e. an estimate of the in situ flexural modulus after 28
days' curing in the road bed
the factors affecting the fatigue life of stabilised materials
means of determining the fatigue characteristics of stabilised materials.
Asphalt
Asphalt is widely used in the construction and surfacing of roads in Australia. The properties of
asphalt are complex and its performance requirements vary considerably with the application.
Engineers responsible for the design of works incorporating asphalt have a responsibility to acquire
an adequate understanding of the properties of asphalt and appropriate usage as well as an
understanding of the application of specifications and construction requirements.
The purpose of this part of the guide is to provide an overview of the principal types of asphalt,
selection of asphalt mix type, selection of component materials, asphalt mix design, performance
characterisation, and manufacture and placing. Specific details, supporting the topics discussed in
this document, are provided by other parts in this guide.
Brief descriptions of a number of topics listed below are provided, whilst explanatory notes on
these topics are provided in the commentaries at the end of the document:
asphalt mix types
selection of component materials
asphalt mix design
performance characterisation
asphalt manufacture
asphalt paving.
Concrete
Relevant issues related to the use of concrete as a base layer as well as a subbase layer are
addressed, including the determination of elastic parameters and performance characteristics.
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Part 4 includes:
Part 4A: Granular Base and Subbase Materials
This part contains advice on the selection, testing and specification of crushed rock and
naturally occurring granular materials for use in pavement base and subbase construction
Part 4B: Asphalt
This part describes the nature of asphalt as a material and its application in road pavements.
It overviews the principal types of asphalt, selection of asphalt mix type, selection of
component materials, asphalt mix design, performance characterisation, and manufacture
and placement.
Part 4C: Materials for Concrete Road Pavements
This part summarises Australian and New Zealand practice including base concrete and lean
mix concrete subbase, concrete curing compounds, steel reinforcement such as tie bars and
dowel bars, and joint sealants and fillers.
Part 4D: Stabilised Materials
This part discusses the types of stabilisation undertaken to improve pavement materials and
subgrades, the types of binders used in stabilisation, the materials suited to particular
binders, the laboratory determination of the type and quantity of binder required to achieve a
particular mix design.
Part 4E: Recycled Materials
This part deals with the specification, manufacture and application of recycled products from
the building industry, reclaimed asphalt pavement from maintenance and rehabilitation
activities, and reclaimed glass from the glass disposal industry. A process is presented by
which other sources of wastes may be assessed for suitability for use in pavements, e.g.
industrial slags from the ore extraction industry.
Part 4F: Bituminous Binders
This part advises on selection of a bituminous binder type for a particular application as well
as covering some of the properties and composition of bituminous materials. The principal
tests used for the assessment of bituminous materials are also covered.
Part 4G: Geotextiles and Geogrids
This part advises on selection of geotextiles and geogrids for use in construction and
maintenance of roads including embankments and subsoil drainage. It provides information
on the properties and functions of geotextiles, applications and testing.
Part 4H: Test Methods
This part provides a listing of Austroads test methods and details the technical bodies that
oversee the content of the test methods.
Part 4I: Earthworks Materials
This part outlines requirements for earthworks materials and the characteristics of material
types used in a range of applications. It also discusses desirable properties, test methods,
stabilisation of earthworks materials and provides direction on borrow pit selection and
design.
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Part 4J: Aggregate and Source Rock
This part provides guidance on classification and description of source rocks, properties of
source rock materials that need to be specified to ensure a durable end product, aggregate
properties requiring specification, and quality assurance testing.
Part 4K: Seals
This part guides selection and design of thin bituminous surfacings such as seals and
reseals, slurry surfacings, primes and primerseals and geotextile seals. The binders include
conventional bitumens, polymer modified binders and emulsions.
Part 4L: Stabilising Binders
This part describes binders most commonly used in manufacture of stabilised pavement
materials either by in situ construction practices or plant-mixed operations. The types of
binders described are lime, cement, cementitious pozzolans, bitumen, chemical and
synthetic polymers.
8.4 Part 5: Pavement Evaluation and Treatment Design
The purpose of this part is to give the practitioner an overview of the issues involved in the
management of individual pavements, specifically through the identification of distress observed on
the surface, the analysis of the distress and mechanisms causing it and the design of treatments
aimed at restoring the pavement to a good condition.
Brief descriptions of topics listed below are provided, whilst explanatory notes on these topics are
provided in the commentaries at the end of the document:
causes and modes of pavement distress
inspection and testing, but restricted to forensic, or project level, assessments
evaluation of pavement defects and test results
selection of maintenance treatments
thickness design of pavement structural treatments
economic consideration of design options
assessment and analysis of special vehicles and loads.
Detailed descriptions of methods and procedures, as well as distress types, are contained in a
series of appendices which are available as separate documents.
The subject area is often considered part of the broader area of asset management, but for the
purposes of the Austroads Guides, a distinction has been made between pavement management
at the network level and project level pavement management. This distinction is described in
greater detail in Section 2 of this document. The reader is referred to the Austroads Guide to
Asset Management for information on network level pavement management.
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8.5 Part 6: Unsealed Pavements
In terms of length of road, unsealed pavements comprise about two-thirds and 40% of Australias
and New Zealands road networks respectively. On the other hand, between 20-25% of the total
amount spent on the construction and maintenance of roads each year is spent on unsealed roads,
so small efficiency gains can result in significant benefits. The unsealed road network is
predominantly composed of formed and gravelled roads; other forms include formed and unformed
roads. They provide an important role in terms of servicing rural communities, the movement of
primary produce to markets and the servicing of access to tourist facilities.
Unsealed roads are susceptible to rapid deterioration as a result of loss of wearing course material
and damage from water. The severity and frequency of defects - such as corrugations, potholes,
rutting and loss of shape - combined with the levels of service commensurate with available
resources, sets the maintenance requirements for the unsealed road network.
Brief descriptions of topics listed below are provided, whilst explanatory notes on these topics are
provided in the commentaries at the end of the document:
maintenance practices
materials selection
pavement design
pavement construction considerations
performance management.
8.6 Part 7: Pavement Maintenance
This part is intended to give the practitioner an overview of current routine maintenance practices
for sealed pavements suitable for use by both supervisory and field staff.
It outlines the general aspects involved in pavement maintenance. The information outlined has
been adapted from the practices of Australian road authorities but owing to differences in geology,
topography, climatic conditions and traffic volumes, it may vary according to local conditions.
This publication should be read in conjunction with Part 5: Pavement Evaluation and Treatment
Design (Austroads 2008), which covers periodic maintenance and pavement rehabilitation. The
maintenance of unsealed pavements is addressed in Part 6: Unsealed Pavements (Austroads
2009f).
Roads are designed to varying standards and built from natural or processed materials to meet the
needs of the communities they serve. Like all other structures they are subject to deterioration
which commences as each part of a road is completed. If the facility is to give the standard of
service for which it was designed, maintenance must begin as soon as construction ends.
Ideally, maintenance would ensure that the road always functioned as efficiently as when it was
first constructed, but in planning maintenance, due regard must be paid to limitations of available
labour, plant and funds. For these reasons maintenance programs are adjusted to control the rate
of deterioration and to ensure that the road serviceability does not fall below some minimum level,
depending upon the resources and policy of the road authority concerned.
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The guide contains descriptions of the topics listed below:
maintenance of drainage elements
maintenance of flexible pavements
maintenance of rigid pavements
maintenance of shoulders
other maintenance activities.
8.7 Part 8: Pavement Construction
This part addresses those issues related to quality control and quality assurance in road
construction including the data that needs to be collected, how it is collected and how it is
analysed, including statistical analysis techniques. The part does not cover procurement
processes and competencies because these issues are addressed in the Guide to Project
Delivery.
8.8 Part 9: Pavement Work Practices
The intention of this part is to present a compendium of experience gained by road authorities and
industry in terms of optimum pavement work practices. Relevant material already available (viz.
Work Tips, etc.) is presented.
8.9 Part 10: Subsurface Drainage
This part describes types of pavement subsurface drainage systems and procedures to design
these systems, materials used for pavement subsurface drainage and construction, and
maintenance considerations for these systems.
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COMMENTARY 1 DEVELOPMENT OF ROAD PAVEMENTS IN
AUSTRALASIA
An excellent review of the history of the development of road pavements in Australasia is
contained in Lay (1984) and subsequent publications (e.g. Lay 1998). Some of his material is
taken from Coane et al. (1915). Another excellent source reference is the report submitted by
Australia to the Eighth PIARC Congress, the Hague, in June 1938
3
. In terms of New Zealand chip
sealing practice (see Footnote 1), readers are referred to Chapter 1 of Transit New Zealand, Road
Controlling Authorities and Roading NZ (2005).
The earliest Australian pavement types were based on the method adopted by the French
engineer, Trsaguet, in which large (200 mm) pieces of stone were placed on the natural
formation, very much in the way of a road paved with large paving stones. Smaller stones were
then hammered into the gaps and also placed on top of the large stones to provide a running
surface (see Figure C1 1).

Source: Lay (1998).
Figure C1 1: Early practice Trsaguet pavement

By the mid-1850s, the Telford method was being used. Whilst this was based on the early French
method, the use of large stones was avoided, but the use of prepared cubical stone of equal size
carefully placed on the existing ground was retained. Drainage was provided in the form of a
trench (Figure C1 2). Telfordss other major contribution to road making was to emphasise that the
layout of new roads must take account of the capabilities of the vehicles intended to use it.
The macadam pavement was introduced in 1822. The term is a corruption of the designer's name
McAdam and is contemporary jargon for any open graded, including single-sized, crushed rock
material. McAdam used only small, angular broken stone (less than 35 mm) spread on the natural
formation to a thickness of about 200 mm (Figure C1 3). The method relied heavily on interlock
between the stone pieces.

3
The report prepared by the Australian States Organising Committee for the Eighth PIARC Congress in 1938 had the
following five sections.
1. Introduction
2. Progress Made Between 1934 and 1938 in the Use of Cement for the Construction of Carriageways
3. Road Construction by the Heat Treatment of Surface Soils
4. Progress Made Between 1934 and 1938 in the Use of:
a. Tar for the Construction and Maintenance of Carriageways
b. Bitumen for the Construction and Maintenance of Carriageways
c. Emulsions for the Construction and Maintenance of Carriageways
5. Examination of Subsoils
a. Determination of the Properties of Subsoils Methods of Testing and Testing Apparatus
b. Influence of the Properties of Subsoils Upon the Construction of Roads (Foundations and Surfaces) and their
Maintenance
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Source: Lay (1998).
Figure C1 2: Telford pavement
The rocks were originally broken by hand and placed in piles prior to spreading on the road. The
process was eventually replaced by steam-powered crushing plant which had been introduced by
1865. Unlike the earlier methods, where the stone was usually placed in a water collecting trench,
McAdams broken stone was often placed at or above the natural surface level, resulting in greatly
improved natural drainage.

Source: Lay (1998).
Figure C1 3: McAdam pavement
The demand for smoother, dust free roads to cater for higher-speed pneumatic-tyred vehicles, and
mechanised construction, led to the use of smaller stone sizes and hence the development of a
maximum density grading where a range of stone sizes was used to pack together into a dense,
tight mass.

Source: Lay (1984).
Figure C1 4: Construction of Princes Highway in 1924
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As a result, densely graded fine crushed rock began to replace the larger open graded materials
because they were more workable, cheaper, and easier to compact. Also, macadam performed
poorly under moist conditions and heavy axle loads.
Figure C1 4 shows the construction of the Princes Highway near Kromelite, South Australia, in
1924 (the first road construction funded by the Federal Government under the Main Roads
Development Act).
C1.1 Surfacings
In terms of pavement surfacings, during the 1880s there was much debate as to the best surface
to adopt, particularly in urban areas. Although macadam was by this time being widely used in
rural areas, there were problems associated with its use in urban areas, particularly if inferior
quality source rock was used. The narrow cast iron wheels of horse-drawn carriages tended to
pulverise the material, creating dust and, after rainfall, a very muddy (and slippery and smelly)
surface. As a result, there was strong pressure to develop less permeable and more easily
cleaned surfaces.
Coal tar and natural asphalt had been used in Europe and the USA since the 1830s and, by the
1870s, a form of coated macadam, using gasworks or other coal tars, was being used in Australia
to produce a 40 mm thick wearing course. Tar was also used in Sydney and Melbourne in the
1880s and 1890s to fill the macadam interstices: this became known as penetration macadam.
Solid blocks of compressed Swiss natural asphalt, about 50 mm thick, were used in trials in
Sydney in 1880 but were considered too slippery when wet and too prone to wear. Powdered
bitumen was also trialled. Natural Trinidad bitumen was first used in Melbourne in 1894. However,
the use of bituminous binders did not become widespread until after the introduction of the
automobile and the pneumatic tyre and the increasing demand for smooth, dust-free surfacings.
Trials to assess the performance of asphalt as a pavement surface had commenced by 1920.
The major alternative pavement form involved the use of wooden cube setts, often red gum. Lay
(1984 and 1998) reports that the first pavement composed of wooden blocks was trialled in King St
Sydney (between George Street and Pitt Street) in 1880, closely followed by a trial in Melbourne
on the corner of Swanston and Collins Streets. The blocks were pre-dipped in boiling tar and the
joints were filled with tar. By 1894, about 20 km of road in Sydney was surfaced with wooden
blocks. Whilst they were more expensive than tar-macadam, they remained the most desirable
and dominant urban paving material until the Second World War. Applications can still be seen
today, for example between tram tracks in some parts of inner Melbourne.

Source: Lay (1984).
Figure C1 5: Corduroy and plank roads (vertical scale exaggerated)
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Timber was also used in rural applications. For example, the corduroy road comprised a close
packed sequence of logs, normally placed transverse to the direction of trafficking (Figure C1 5). It
was commonly used over sandy or swampy ground and first came into use when the Telford
pavement was found to be unsatisfactory in these types of applications. Lay (1984) reported that a
length of corduroy road was still in existence near Halbury, South Australia, as late as the early
1980s.
The plank road used a more elaborate technique in which a longitudinal bed of logs was covered
by transverse planks (Figure C1 5).
Stone setts had limited application because they were considered too expensive, slippery and
noisy. The use of concrete and clay paving blocks was regenerated in the late 1970s, particularly
in local road applications. This was related to the development of processes which allowed for the
manufacture of products of high strength to very accurate dimensional tolerances and in a range of
interlocking shapes as well as the traditional rectangular shape. The best known arterial road
application of interlocking concrete paving blocks is King William Road in Adelaide which was
constructed in the early 1980s.
New Zealand
From about 1880 coal tar from local gasworks was sprayed over roads and covered with locally-
sourced chips to make a dustproof and waterproof surfacing. Coal tar was the only binder used in
New Zealand until about 1910, when bitumen for roading use first became available. Bitumen was
imported until 1964, when the New Zealand Refinery opened at Marsden Point, near Whangarei,
and took over supply almost totally, with distribution to a total of nine ports around New Zealand.
During the early 1930s, testing and experimenting with aggregates and bitumen commenced in an
effort to develop more quantitative techniques less dependent on the skill of the on-site manager.
Hansons (1935) paper to the Conference of the New Zealand Society of Civil Engineers was the
first step towards quantifying the chip seal concept. The concept was that the rate of application of
the binder should be designed to be 2/3
rd
up the height of the stone chips, leaving a non-skid, non-
glare surface capable of withstanding the stresses applied by traffic. Hansons principles relating
to the theory of surface sealing were summarised by the National Roads Board in 1968. Although
the principles that Hanson promoted are still current, refinement to the values of voids has been
made as more information has been collected.
In terms of urban applications, surfacings in the early 1900s included stone block paving in high
stress areas, stone penetrated by, or mixed with, coal tar (tar macadam), and birch blocks bedded
on mass concrete surfaced with 10 mm of sand sheet asphalt to produce a quiet surface (for the
most important thoroughfares).
C1.1.1 Seal Coats
As already discussed, the need for a low cost surface treatment was highlighted during the 1920s
as the use of pneumatic-tyred vehicles became more widespread. The seal coat, or sprayed
bituminous seal, was developed in response to these needs and is the major Australasian
contribution to international road making practice. Lay (1984 and 1998) reports that the technique
developed as a form of penetration macadam to upgrade existing macadam roads subjected to
high speed motor vehicles. Lay also reports that trials of bitumen as an alternative to tar were
conducted in Glenelg as early as 1919. Early field experiments soon pointed to the need to top-
dress the surface with rolled-in screenings.
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Loder et al. (1938) reported that, by the mid-1930s, in order to meet the requirements of increasing
volumes and speeds of traffic, the practice of surfacing earth, gravel and waterbound pavements
with bituminous surfacings had greatly increased and that the treatment of main roads in this way
was proceeding as rapidly as funding allowed.
This in turn necessitated the development of mobile construction plants for these operations. The
establishment, commencing in the 1920s, of central road authorities (now state road authorities)
greatly enhanced this process which previously had been the responsibility of the municipalities
which lacked the resources of these centralised authorities. For example, in the spraying season
1936-37, the total length of road sprayed by the CRB was 850 miles (1,360 km) but the average
length per job was only 3 km.
Loder et al. reported that the aggregate used was generally crushed stone or gravel graded
between inch and 1/8 inch. The binder used was generally fluxed bitumen cut back with a
volatile oil (generally kerosene).
The construction of asphalt pavements commenced in about 1920 with the laying of a single-
coated asphalt mix on reconditioned and consolidated macadam foundations or, in a few cases,
Portland cement concrete foundations. This practice continued for about 10 years and was
confined to the larger cities. It consisted mainly of coarse graded asphalt with the surface coat
about 50 mm thick either laid in one course or sealed with a sand carpet mixture resulting in a total
thickness of about 50-60 mm.
Loder et al. reported that a study conducted at this time indicated that this type of pavement would
not be adequate to meet the needs of traffic and that a stronger pavement was required. This led
to the gradual introduction of the two-coat construction, consisting of a 37.5 mm thick sand carpet
wearing surface and a 37.5 mm thick layer of binder course.
By this time the process known as road mix sealing had been developed to produce a true-riding
pavement as well as a sealed surface. Using this process, the binder and aggregate, after being
applied to the road surface, is mixed by the passage of specially-designed machines, working on
the principles of the road planer, and spread in such a manner as to fill in slight depressions and
thus leave the material with an even surface.
Loder et al. also noted that coloured asphalt had been introduced by this time on footways through
the addition of 4% synthetic iron oxide.
The development of surfacing practice in New Zealand is described in Transit New Zealand, Road
Controlling Authorities and Roading New Zealand (2005). It is similar to the development in
Australia.
C1.1.2 Concrete
Lay (1984) reports that the first documented use of concrete pavements in Australia was in
Melbourne in 1870, where it was used as a base for stone setts. Cement was first produced in
Australia in 1882 and cement and lime mortars were also used for filling macadam interstices. An
example of this application is the use of cement grout poured into a macadam base. This type of
pavement was quite common in the 1920s and examples can still be seen in streets in the inner
suburbs of Melbourne and Sydney.
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It was reported in the report to the 1938 PIARC Congress that concrete pavements had been
constructed in Australia since 1916. Toyer et al. (1938) reported that cement-concrete was being
used at that time as both a basecourse under thin bituminous wearing courses and largely without
a wearing course. These early pavements were generally laid by municipal authorities to
specification that would be regarded as obsolete in the light of present day knowledge. Many
developed extensive cracking and had to be overlaid with asphalt though one pavement laid in
1918 by the North Sydney Municipal Council and carrying all classes of traffic to a shopping centre
was still in service 20 years later without requiring a surface coat.
General practice was to proportion by volume with an allowance for bulking of moist sand. The
standard mix adopted at the time was 1:2:3 (sand:cement:aggregate) for very heavily-trafficked
roads (this was not defined) near capital cities with a 1:2:3 mix adopted for other applications.
Toyer et al. (1938) reported that tests of 28 day old cylinders removed from the road showed
compressive strengths of about 28 MPa up to values as high as 42 MPa.
Slabs were normally reinforced with two half-inch (12.6 mm) diameter edge bars. Mesh
reinforcement was used when the subsoil was poor, on embankments over 2 feet (0.6 m) high or
on roads carrying extremely heavy traffic. General practice was to thicken the outside 30 inches
(760 mm) of the pavement. A typical pavement for heavy traffic (i.e. 800 tons per day per foot
width of traffic) was 9 inches (225 mm) in the centre and 12 inches (300 mm) at the edges. On
main roads the thicknesses were 6 inches (150 mm) and 9 inches (225 mm). The typical mix on
main roads was 1:2:4 (sand:cement:aggregate) unreinforced. However, it was reported that
cracking occurred when this mix was adopted and that it should only be used when the subgrade
conditions were suitable and traffic was relatively light.
Toyer et al. (1938) also reported that the major recent research effort had been geared towards
reducing costs through the adoption of methods that would ensure premixed concrete pavements
of adequate strength with the use of rich mixes used in standard practice at that time. This was
achieved through the use of a much higher proportion of aggregates to cement. These pavements
were described as roller consolidated concrete.
The first experimental work in Australia involving such a harsh mix that consolidation using
ordinary methods was impossible was by the Country Roads Board in 1929. In March 1930, a
short section of a State highway was widened using rolled concrete slabs 3 feet (1 m) wide using a
1:1:8 mix. In 1932, the CRB constructed another trial section on the Hume Highway at
Balmattum, the mixes being 1:2:8, 1:2:10 and 1:2:10. An early example of an application of the
latter mix was Beach Road, Melbourne.
In 1934 the Department of Main Roads NSW (DMR) constructed some sections using a 1:2:9
and 1:2:9 mixes and the Sydney City Council also trialled mixes of 1:2:7 up to 1:2:10. The
DMR found that the harshness of the mix that could be used depended to a large extent on the
rigidity of the side forms and the firmness of the road bed. A mix of 1:2:14 was successfully
used in one application.
The materials used for concrete pavements were generally considered suitable for this class or
road, although rapid hardening cement had been successfully trialled in NSW.
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In terms of construction, for mixes of 1:2:9, using crushed stone as the coarse aggregate, a
water-cement ratio of 0.9 was generally used whilst, for mixes of 1:2:9 using uncrushed rounded
gravel as the gravel a ratio of 0.75 was used. Compaction was conducted using a three-axle steel-
wheeled roller. Light rollers (6 ton) were used on most work in Victoria although 12 ton rollers were
also used. It was found that there was little difference between the two rollers because the
differences in operating speed compensated for the differences in weight. After rolling, tampers
were used to remove minor irregularities and excess mortar swept off to give the desired surface
finish.
Roller compacted concrete pavements are now not commonly used in Australia. In NSW it is used
as a subbase layer in composite pavements that require quick construction solutions. A recent
example of an application in Melbourne was the trial section constructed in Wells Road, Seaford, in
1988 (Jameson, Sharp & Rollings 1993).
C1.1.3 Stabilisation
According to Ingles and Metcalf (1972), the earliest applications of stabilisation in road construction
in Australia were in NSW and Queensland in 1930. In NSW calcium chloride was trialled to
alleviate dust and wear on unsealed roads and in Queensland stabilisation of heavy clay by
heating was trialled. In 1937 bituminous stabilisation was introduced, followed by the introduction
of cement in NSW and Victoria. Grouted and lean mix cemented gravels or macadams had been
used in the 1920s and by about 1950 most forms of stabilisation (predominantly cement, lime,
bitumen emulsion) had been used with varying success.
Ingles and Metcalf also reported the results of a 1967 survey which indicated that the use of
stabilisation had quadrupled over the previous ten years and road stabilisation formed over 75% of
all stabilisation undertaken, with 60% use for roads and car parks, 13% in floodways and 6% in
airfields.
Foamed bitumen was developed during the 1960s followed in the 1970s by supplementary binders
such as slag and fly ash. Later they were combined with cement or lime to produce the now
commercially available slow-setting binders.
In the area of chemical stabilisation, ligno sulphonates and ionic bonding compounds and other by-
products became available as stabilisers during the 1970s but they were principally marketed as
dust suppressants. During the 1990s polymer compounds for use as stabilisers on sealed and
unsealed roads were developed.
Other historical evidence of the development of road stabilisation in Australia is documented in
RTA NSW (2004).
In New Zealand, cement treatment of basecourses was first utilised in Wellington City in the late
1950s. The first recorded extensive use of in situ cement stabilisation was in Tauranga and
Rotorua in the early 1960s.
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REFERENCES
Austroads 2000, RoadFacts 2000: An Overview of the Australian and the New Zealand Road Systems, AP-
G18/00, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Austroads 2004a, Pavement Design: A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements, AP-G17/04,
Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Austroads 2004b, Pavement Rehabilitation Guide, AP-T15/02, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Austroads 2004c, 2003 Austroads Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements: Technical Criteria to
Chapter 9: Design of New Rigid Pavements, by G Vorobieff, APRG Document APRG 01/06(PD),
Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Cassimatis, P 1988, A concise introduction to engineering economics, Unwin Hyman, Boston USA.
Coane, JM, Coane, HE & Coane, JM 1915, Australasian roads, 2
nd
edn, George Robinson & Co., Melbourne,
Vic.
Department of Main Roads 1986, Concrete pavement contract control, circular M&R 86/2, Department of
Main Roads, Sydney, NSW.
Hanson, FM 1935, Bituminous surface treatment of rural highways, New Zealand Society of Civil Engineers
conference, New Zealand Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 21, pp. 88-179.
Ingles, OG & Metcalf, JB 1972, Soil stabilisation: principles and practice, Butterworth, London.
Jameson, GW, Sharp, KG & Rollings, RS 1993, An investigation of the use of roller compacted concrete in a
heavily-trafficked, high-speed application in Australia, International conference on concrete pavement
design and rehabilitation, 5
th
, Purdue University, Indiana, Purdue University, School of Civil
Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana.
Lay, MG 1984, History of Australian roads, report SR 29, Australian Road Research Board, Vermont South,
Vic.
Lay, MG 1998, Handbook of road technology, 3
rd
edn, vols. 1 & 2, Gordon and Breach Science, New York.
Leask, A, Penn, HG, Haber, EW & Scala, AJ 1979, Continuously reinforced concrete pavements across
Clybucca Flat, ARRB conference, 9
th
, 1978, Brisbane, Queensland, Australian Road Research Board,
Vermont South, Vic., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 203-24.
Loder, LF, Garnsey, AH, Hicks, RJ & Luker, SL 1938, Report by Australia on progress made since the
Congress at Munich with the use of bitumen for the construction and maintenance of carriageways,
PIARC congress, 8
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