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University of Naples Federico II - Master in Design of Steel in Smart Cities





Energy Efficiency in Buildings


Uptown Munich






Professor Student
Prof. A. Palombo Antonia Pilpilidou


Academic Year 2013/2014
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CASE STUDY

GENERAL INFORMATION

Project
Uptown Munich

Type
Commercial Offices

Address
Riesstrae 17, Munich, Germany

Construction Date
2001-2004





Architect
Ingenhoven, Overdiek Architects

Structural Engineer
Burggaf, Weichinger und Partner









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HEATING DEGREE DAYS

The first step that must be taken to design a energy efficient building is to estimate the zone that it
is located in terms of energy demanded for heating and cooling. A value that helps this estimation is the
heating degree days that could be found on-line for all the cities in the world.

So, by visiting the site www.degreedays.net we were able to calculate the degree days in Munich,
Germany. For a base temperature of 18.0
o
C and for an average of the last five years the HDD were
equal to 3.530, a value that was expected as it is a mountain terrain and for North Europe the value
cannot be less than 2.000.



Celsius-based 5-year-average (2009 to 2013) heating
degree days for a base temperature of 18
o
C
Station Munich
Station ID EDDM
Month HDD Month HDD
January 590 July 48
February 543 August 55
March 425 September 138
April 245 October 296
May 161 November 403
June 86 December 540

Total 3530
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ZONE and LIMITS

According to codes there are climate zone categories that are defined by limits of the HDD. For
HDD=3.530 the building is located in a zone F, the worst possible situation and therefore the limits set
by the codes are the most severe.

The limits for the thermal transmittance U for a zone F are the following:
Vertical exterior wall 0.33 W/m
2
K
Roof 0.29 W/m
2
K
First floor 0.32 W/m
2
K
Windows 2.00 W/m
2
K
Only glass part of windows 1.30 W/m
2
K
Our case is an all glass faade building so there are not vertical exterior opaque walls, so there will
follow the layers selected for roof, first floor and the glass part of the windows.
The program used to calculate U of our building was GemaVap 4.3 and it is an Italian one, and there are
no data for Germany, so a location in Italy with similar characteristics as Munich was chosen. That one
was San Pancrazio in Bolzano (HDD=3.550).

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ROOF LAYERS

Province BOLZANO
Community San Pancrazio
Heating Degree Days 3550
Zone F
Monthly average irradiance
(the month with max sun)
260 W/m


General Data
Thickness 0.522 m
Surface Mass 148.70 kg/m
Resistance 3.4770 mK/W
Transmittance 0.2876 W/mK
Dynamic Parameters
Attenuation Factors 0.2879
Phase displacement 6h 58'

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Type of
Material
Material
Thickness
[m]
Surface
Mass
[kg/m]
Resistance
[mK/W]
Equivalent
thickness
of air [m]
External surface 0.0400
1 WTP Bitumen with sand 0.004 5.20 0.0154 40.000
2 WTP Bitumen 0.004 4.80 0.0235 80.000
3 INS
GEMATHERM X3 100mm polystyrene
plates expanded, extruded by the Norm EN
ISO13164
0.100 3.50 2.7027 20.000
4 CONC Lightweight concrete with STIROLITE S 400 0.040 16.00 0.2874 0.800
5 PLA Polyethylene (PE) 0.004 3.80 0.0114 400.000
6 PLA Polyethylene (PE) 0.004 3.80 0.0114 400.000
7 CONC General Concrete 0.050 90.00 0.0538 4.500
8 MET Steel 0.001 7.80 0.0000 2000.000
9 CAV Unventilated Room th.mm.300 0.300 0.30 0.1600 0.300
10 VAR Gypsum plates 0.015 13.50 0.0714 0.120
Internal Surface 0.1000

Maximum Transmittance 0.41 W/mK
Maximum Transmittance (2008) 0.31 W/mK
Maximum Transmittance (2010) 0.29 W/mK
Transmittance of Structure 0.2876 W/mK
Periodic Transmittance 0.0944 W/mK
Structure regulatory according to DLGS 311


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FIRST FLOOR LAYERS

Province BOLZANO
Community San Pancrazio
Heating Degree Days 3550
Zone F
Monthly average irradiance
(the month with max sun)
260 W/m


General Data
Thickness 0.245 m
Surface Mass 179.80 kg/m
Resistance 3.7990 mK/W
Transmittance 0.2632 W/mK
Dynamic Parameters
Attenuation Factors 0.7092
Phase displacement 5h 58'

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Type of
Material
Material
Thickness
[m]
Surface
Mass
[kg/m]
Resistance
[mK/W]
Equivalent
thickness
of air [m]

External Surface 0.0400
1
MET Steel 0.001 7.80 0.0000 2000.000
2
CONC General Concrete 0.050 90.00 0.0538 4.500
3
PLA Polyethylene (PE) 0.004 3.80 0.0114 400.000
4
INS
GEMATHERM X3 120mm - polystyrene
plates expanded, extruded by the Norm EN
ISO13164
0.120 4.20 3.1579 24.000
5
CONC Lightweight concrete with STIROLITE S 400 0.040 16.00 0.2874 0.800
6
CONC Lightweight concrete with STIROLITE S 400 0.010 4.00 0.0718 0.200
7
ROC Marble 0.020 54.00 0.0067 200.000

Internal Surface 0.1700


Maximum Transmittance 0.41 W/mK
Maximum Transmittance (2008) 0.36 W/mK
Maximum Transmittance (2010) 0.32 W/mK
Transmittance of Structure 0.2632 W/mK
Periodic Transmittance 0.1872 W/mK
Structure regulatory according to DLGS 311


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GLASS PART OF FACADE
To calculate the glass part a program by Pilkington has been used with the name Spectrum. Since the
building is all glass around it is wise to choose a glass with a color (blue) that reduces the light inside.