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M.Sc.

Applied Geology
Note: The syllabus prescribed for the entrance test has been divided into fifteen units. Each
unit carries a weightage of four marks. Paper setters are required to set four multiple choice
type questions with only one correct or most appropriate answer separately for each unit,
giving uniform representation to the whole syllabus contained therein.

UNIT-1: PHYSICAL GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to the science of geology, its relation with other branches of sciences and history
of geology. Contribution of physics and chemistry in the development of ideas about earth.
Various geospheres. Physical properties and chemical composition of the earth and earths
crust. Geochronology and age of earth. Relative and absolute techniques for age
determination. Introduction to minerals and rocks and minerals Rocks as natural mineral
aggregates, types of rocks, Preliminary knowledge about the most common rock forming and
economic minerals. Geology as record of history of Earth; (a) Fossils b) Mineralogy and the
texture; (c) Structures; (d) Palaeogeography (e) Paleoclimate. Surface relief of the earth.
Exogenous and endogenous process. Weathering and agents of weathering, Products of
weathering. Geological work of river erosion, transportation, deposition and related features.
Types of drainage patterns. Erosional and depositional geological work by the groundwater.
Glaciers: Definition and types, geological work of glacial erosion, transport and deposition
related features. Aeolian processes: Wind erosion and deposition features. Oceans:
Topography of sea floor - Continental shelves, slope, abyssal plains, Ocean ridges, and ocean
deeps, submarine valleys, canyons, deep-sea trenches and guyots. Oceanic erosion: Wave
action and related features related features. Marine deposition: submarine bars, ridges and the
features of shoreline. Coral reefs: types fringing, barrier and atolls. Epeirogenesis and
orogenesis. Volcanoes: types, distribution and eruptional features and products.

UNIT-2: GEOMOERPHOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction & fundamental concepts. Catastrophism, uniformitarianism, cycle of erosion, and
base level of erosion. Mass wasting: Definition, factors favoring mass wasting- Lithology,
stratigraphy, structure, topography, climate, organisms. Slope flowage: creep, solifluction;
rapid flowage - earth flow, mudflow, debris flow, avalanche, landslides, and slumps. Karst
topography - Terra Rosa, lapis, sink holes, blind valleys, Caverns, Stalactites, stalagmites,
natural bridges and tunnels. Fault scarps, cuesta, hogback, horst, graben, structural domes,
inversion of topography. Structural landforms: humid, sub-humid, arid, semi-arid. Soils: Soil
profiles, Soil types of India.

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UNIT-3: STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Basic concepts of field geology: Maps; Topographic and geological maps. Dip and strike of
stratified rocks, horizontal, inclined beds. True dip and apparent dip. Plunge and pitch of linear
structures. Outcrop pattern of horizontal beds. Vertical beds and inclined beds, inliers and
outliers. True thickness and vertical thickness. Width of the outcrop, relation between true
thickness and the width of outcrop. Nature of the problem of overturned strata. Use of different
sedimentary features and paleontological methods for determination of the overturned strata.
Mechanical principles Introduction about force, couple, stress & strain. Stress; definition of
force and stress. Normal and shear stress. Basic concept of stress ellipse. Strain definition
and computation of changes in line length. Basic concept of strain ellipse. Folds: Definition of
folds, inflation, Classification of folds. Types of folds. Unconformities: Definition, types of
unconformities. Criteria for recognition of unconformities. Concordant and discordant plutons.
Joints - Definition, attitude of joints, joint sets and joint system. Geometrical classifications of
joints. Faults: Definition, attitude of fault planes and symbols. Components of fault.
Classification of faults. Criteria for recognition of faults. Lineation and foliation.

UNIT-4: GEOTECTONICS 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction; Features and divisions of Earth's crust; Physical characters of continental and
oceans, continental shelf, slope and abyssal plains, island arcs, rift valleys, mid-ocean ridges,
mountain chains. Important concepts about Earth dynamics: outline description of Contraction,
Expansion, Plate tectonics and Surge tectonic models. Plate tectonics - basic concepts and
definitions, types of plate margins, important characters of plate margins. Mechanism of plate
movement; Mantle plumes vis--vis island chains. Plate tectonics in relation to the distribution
seismic, volcanic and island arc belts. Plate tectonic models for the origin of mountain belts:
Pacific type and Andean type. Some fundamental problems with Plate tectonics - Antipodal
positions of continents and ocean basins, geographic restriction of island arcs, size of ocean
basins vs. possible size of mantle convection, variable depth of asthenosphere, absence of
subduction zones around Antarctic plate, absence of required boundary between North and
South American plates. Tectonics of the Indian subcontinent: Tectonic divisions (Extra-
peninsula; Indo-Gangetic Plain and Peninsular Shield), their tectonic characters and major
structural trends. Northward movement of the Indian Plate and the origin and evolution of the
Himalayas and its thrust belts. Tectonic models for the origin and evolution of the Indo-
Gangetic Plain. Seismicity of the Indian Sub-continent.

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UNIT-5: STRATIGRAPHY 4X1=4 Marks
Stratigraphic classification and terminology, Principles of Stratigraphy. Geological timescale,
stratigraphic correlation, imperfection of geological record. Stratigraphic knowledge of the
following Precambrian geological System/Groups of India with special reference to their
classification, distribution, lithology and economic importance in their localities: Dharwar,
Aravalli, Cuddapa and Vindhyan. Stratigraphy of the following Phanerozoic geological
System/Groups with special reference to their lithology and fossil content: Paleozoic
succession of Kashmir. Triassic of Spiti, Jurassic of Kuchh, Cretaceous of Trichnapalli.
Siwaliks and Karewa of Kashmir.

UNIT-6: PALEONTOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Elementary ideas about origin of life, Evolution of the life through ages. Preliminary idea about
faunal succession. Classification of organisms. Fossils, their characters, conditions necessary
for fossilization; types of preservation and occurrence. Application of Paleontology. Linnaean
or Binomial code of nomenclature of organisms. Elementary concept of vertebrates
Paleontology with special reference to Siwaliks vertebrate fauna. Introduction to
micropaleontology and microfossils and their application. Introduction to micropaleontology
and microfossils and their application. Introduction to Paleobotany with special reference to
Gondwana plant fossils. Theories of evolution and palaeontological data on evolution. Detailed
morphology, classification, geological and geographical distribution of the following: 1)
Brachiopoda (2) Bivalvia (3) Gastropoda (4) Cephalopoda (5) Graptoloida (6) Anthozoa (7)
Echinoidea (8) Trilobita. Elementary ideas about Foraminifora, Ostracoda, Radiolarian and
Conodonts. Evolution of Man, Horse & Elephant. Causes of migration and dispersal. Extinction
of organisms with special reference different hypothesis for the extinction of dinosaurs.
Introduction to palynology and its applications. Application of paleontological data in
paleogeographic reconstructions. Paleontological evidence in favor of continental drift.

UNIT-7: CRYSTALLOGRAPHY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to crystallography, geometrical nature of order of crystals. Translation vectors,
planar and space lattices. Concept of point group and 32 classes. Morphology of crystals;
Definition of crystal. Face, edge and solid angle. Law of constancy of interfacial angles. Axial
system and axial ratios. Parameter systems of Weiss, Miller indices. Law of Rationality of
indices. 48 symmetry forms; typical crystals showing combination of forms. Study of normal
classes of crystal systems {vis--vis crystallographic axes, symmetry elements & general
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forms). Crystal growth and twining. Growth of crystals from solutions and from a melt under
controlled conditions, crystal growth in open fractures, solution cavities and vesicles. Twining

in crystals: Types and causes, different twin laws. Crystallinity, habit and forms of minerals.
Crystal chemistry of minerals: Concept of crystal structure of minerals; dimorphism,
polymorphism and pseudomorohism; isomorphism and solid solution.

UNIT-8: MINERALOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to mineralogy: definition of mineral, scope of determinative mineralogy, examples
of rock forming (silicate) minerals and ore forming (oxide/sulphide) minerals. Scalar and vector
properties of minerals, important rock-forming minerals: their classification; Physical and
optical characters and mode of occurrence of the characteristic members from following
groups: Quartz, Feldspar, Mica, Amphibole, Pyroxene, Olivine, Garnet, Chlorite and
Carbonate. Mineral optics: Elements of optics. Optics of isotopic medium - refractive index,
Snell's law of critical angle, anisotropic media. Polarization and interference of light. Polaroid,
polarizing microscope-construction and use. Use of accessory plates. Pleochroism and
Birefringence. Optical indicatrix: Uniaxial and Biaxial indicatrix. Behavior of light in uniaxial and
biaxial crystals. Optic sign. Optical properties of minerals. Interference colors. Michel Levy
chart and its use in determining thickness, path-difference, birefringence or order of
interference color.

UNIT-9: IGNEOUS & SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to Igneous Petrology, Difference between Petrology, petrography and
petrogenesis. Texture and structure of igneous rocks, Composition and constitution of magma:
Definition of magma, composition of magma, physico-chemical constitution of magma, primary
magma. Processes resulting in diversity in igneous rocks: Fractionation and differentiation,
Assimilation. Nomenclature and description of common igneous rocks: Granite, pegmatite,
syenite, diorite, gabbro, granodiorite, norite, anorthosite, peridotite, pyroxenite, dunite,
lamrophyry, nepheline synite, granite porphyry, diorite porphyry, dolerite, rhyolite, rhachyte,
dacite, andesite, basalt, phonolite. Classification of igneous rocks: Principles of classification,
CIPW classifications, and tabular classification. Introduction to sedimentary petrology,
Sedimentary rocks and processes involved in formation of sedimentary rocks. Texture and
structure of sedimentary rocks. Classification of sedimentary rocks: Folk's classifications of
carbonate rocks. Classification of sandstones, greywacke and arkose.

UNIT-10: METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY & GEOCHEMISTRY 4X1=4 Marks
Definition of metamorphism Controls of metamorphism, Types of metamorphism, anataxis,
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palingenesis, migmatization. Texture and structure of metamorphic rocks. Nomenclature and
description of metamorphic rocks: Phyllite, slate, schist, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, quartzite,

granulite, eclogite. Introduction to geochemistry: Basic knowledge about crystal chemistry.
Colloids in geological systems: kinds of colloids, ion exchanges, and geological evidence for
earlier colloids. Cosmic abundance of elements; Silicate structures. Gold Schmidt's
geochemical classification of elements. Distribution of the elements in igneous, metamorphic
and sedimentary rocks.

UNIT-11: ORE GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Ore minerals and gangue. Examples of common ore minerals. Concept of metallogenic
epochs and provinces. Classification of mineral deposits- genetic and associational
parameters. Oreforming fluids, means of transport and minerals deposits. Pegmatite and
pegmatite deposits. Deposits of mica with special reference to India. Oceanic mineral
resources (manganese nodules). Elementary idea of hydrothermal deposits with reference to:
a) Porphyry copper deposit b) Vein deposits of tin and tungsten. Ores formed by
metamorphic processes. Supergene enrichment deposits. Mode of occurrence of following
minerals deposits in India: Banded iron formation, Gold, Thorium deposits. Placer & residual
deposits.

UNIT-12: FUEL GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to fuel geology, Origin of petroleum - Organic versus inorganic theories;
transformation of organic matter into petroleum. Limiting conditions of petroleum occurrence.
Reservoir rocks - definition and types. Source rocks - definition and types. Reservoir traps and
classification. Migration and accumulation of petroleum. Coal - Introduction; Two principal
periods of coal formation; Constituents of coal: Rank and grade of coal; Varieties of coal.
Origin of coal.

UNIT-13: HYDROGEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to hydrogeology: origin, occurrence and distribution of Groundwater; springs and
seepages. Zone of aeration and saturation. Water table, perched water table, porosity and
Permeability, artisan water. Groundwater movement unconfined, confined and perched
aquifer and its types. Hydrological properties of rocks - porosity, permeability, specific yield,
specific retention, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storativity. Hydrological cycle and
its components. Hydrological classification of geological formations. Fundamentals of
groundwater exploration geological and geophysical methods. Water quality standards for
drinking purposes
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UNIT-14: GEOPHYSICS 4X1=4 Marks
Introduction to geophysics and domains of Geophysics; Spheroidal shape of earth, magnetic
field of the earth. Exploring Earth's interior with geophysical techniques. The utility of
geophysics. Earth's thermal history, Thermal gradient of the earth. Convection currents.
Gravitational Field: The concept of gravity; its variation with latitude, altitude, topography, and
subsurface density variations. Gravity Instruments: Pendulum, gravimeters, ship-borne
measurements. Units of gravity, gravity anomaly - definition, types (Free- air, Bouguer), local
and regional concepts. Use of gravity method for locating mineral resources and petroleum
reservoirs. Detection of cavities at engineering sites. Isostasy: Observation; Pratt and Airy
schemes of the isostatic compensation, elastic crust on viscous mantle. Seismology:
Earthquake and effects of an earthquake - seismic waves and damage to structures and
natural objects. Seismographs. Basic features of seismograms; Magnitude and intensity of an
earthquake. Types of earthquake - tectonic, volcanic and man made. Tectonic earthquake and
creation of new faults. Elastic rebound theory - statement and geodetic evidence. Earthquake
location: Focus, epicenter and hypocenter; Earthquake belts; Focal depth of earthquakes.
Earthquake focal mechanisms. Seismic wave reflection and refraction. Structure of the earth.
Earthquake prediction and seismic gap theory.

UNIT-15: REMOTE SENSING & SOCIATAL GEOLOGY 4X1=4 Marks
Remote sensing: Concept and foundation of RS (Electromagnetic spectrum). Overview of
Remote Sensing technology. Landsat, IRS, ASTER, MODIS. Interaction of Electromagnetic
waves with Earth surface features (water, soil, rocks, vegetation) - Introduction. Application of
remote sensing: geomorphological mapping, geological hazards assessment, hydrology and
land use planning. Introduction to GIS and its applications. Societal Geology: Fundamental
concept (environment, population needs and planning). Mineral resources vis--vis population
needs environmental impact of exploration and processing of mineral resources on air, soil
and surface and subsurface water. Water supply and water use - human, agriculture and
industrial. Societal implications of major hydroelectric, nuclear and industrial projects. Earth
processes and geological hazards - Introduction. River flooding: magnitude and frequency of
floods, urbanization and flooding, nature and extent of flood hazard. Landslides: Slope
stability, causes of landslides, anthropogenic activity and landslides, prevention and correction
of landslides. Earthquakes: Scale of intensity related damage, preventive majors. Volcanoes:
Effects of volcanic activity, prediction of volcanic activity, adjustment to and perception of
volcanic hazard. Coastal hazards: tropical cyclones, tsunamis, and coastal erosion.

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