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# Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)

1
Chapter 7 Plasticity and Failure

Strain energy density (strain energy per unit volume) (SED)
| | ) ( 2
2
1
zx zx yz yz xy xy zz zz yy yy xx xx
U c o c o c o c o c o c o + + + + + =
| |
( ) | |

(DED) density energy distortion called stress, shear to due change Shape
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
stress c hydrostati by caused change volume to due SED
2
1
1 3 3 2 2 1
2
3
2
2
2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
6
1
2
1
) ( 2 ) (
2
1
o o o o o o
v
o o o o o o v o o o
c
+ +
+
+ =
+ + + + =
E
I K
E
U
Tresca criterion
Tresca observed that material flow seems to be along the direction of maximum shear stress.
Tresca stress: ( )
3 1
2
1
o o o =
Tresca

Tresca criterion: Y =
3 1
o o
Failure criterion (Ductile materials):
o
o o
Y
s
3 1

Von Mises criterion:
plastic yielding occurs when the distortion energy density equal or exceeds that of the same
material under uniaxial tension.
Von Mises stress: | |
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
o o o o o o o + + =
vm

Von Mises criterion
2 2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2 ) ( ) ( ) ( Y = + + o o o o o o
Von Mises Failure criterion (Ductile materials):
o
o o o o o o
2
2
1 3
2
3 2
2
2 1
2
) ( ) ( ) (
Y
= + +
Brittle materials
There is no yield for brittle material in general.
- The maximum normal stress theory
o
o
o
f
s
1

f
o is the failure normal stress
- The maximum normal strain theory
o
c
c
f
s
1

f
c is the failure normal strain.
Since from Hookes law: | | ) (
1
3 2 1 1
o o v o c + =
E

o
o
o o v o
f
s + ) (
3 2 1

Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
2

Chapter 8 Finite Element Method
1D elements: Spring element, Bar element, Beam element and their combination
Spring element Bar element Beam element

dof=2:
)
`

=
)
`

j
i
j
i
f
f
u
u
k k
k k

dof =2:
)
`

=
)
`

j
i
j
i
f
f
u
u
L
EA
1 1
1 1

dof =4

2D element: CST (T3), LST (T6), Q4, Q8 element

Displacement Shape function Strain

T3,
3-node
constant strain triangle
(CST)
Linear:
y b x b b v
y b x b b u
6 5 4
3 2 1
+ + =
+ + =

(6 d.o.f.)
) (
2
1
y x
A
N
i i i i
| o + + =
(i=1,2,3)
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
1
2
1
y x
y x
y x
A =

Constant strain
2
b
x
u
xx
=
c
c
= c
6
b
y
v
yy
=
c
c
= c
5 3
2
b b
x
v
y
u
xy
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+
c
c
= c

T6
element
linear strain triangle
(LST)
2
12 11
2
10
9 8 7
2
6 5
2
4
3 2 1
y b xy b x b
y b x b b v
y b xy b x b
y b x b b u
+ +
+ + + =
+ +
+ + + =

(12 d.o.f.)
| |
q
q q
q
q
q
q q

) 1 ( 4
) 1 ( 4
4
1 ) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
) 1 2 (
) 1 2 (
6
5
4
3
2
1
=
=
=

=
=
=
N
N
N
N
N
N

Fully-linear
y b x b b
xx 5 4 2
2 + + = c

y b x b b
yy 12 11 9
2 + + = c

( )
( ) ( )y b b x b b
b b
xy
11 6 10 3
5 3
2 2 2
2
+ + +
+ + = c

Element (Q4)
Bilinear
xy b y b
x b b v
xy b y b
x b b u
8 7
6 5
4 3
2 1
+
+ + =
+
+ + =

(8 d.o.f.)
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
1
q = N ,
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
2
q + = N ,
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
3
q + + = N ,
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4
q + = N

Half-linear
x b b y b b
y
u
x
v
x b b
y
v
y b b
x
u
xy
yy
xx
4 3 8 6
8 7
4 2
2
+ + + =
c
c
+
c
c
=
+ =
c
c
=
+ =
c
c
=
c
c
c

Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
3

Element (Q8)
2
16
2
15
2
14 13
2
12
11 10 9
2
8
2
7
2
6 5
2
4
3 2 1
xy b y x b
y b xy b x b
y b x b b v
xy b y x b
y b xy b x b
y b x b b u
+ +
+ +
+ + + =
+
+ + +
+ + + =

(16 d.o.f.)
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4
3
2
1
q q
q q
q q
q q
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
N
N
N
N
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
) 1 )( 1 (
2
1
2
8
2
7
2
6
2
5
q
q
q
q
=
+ =
+ =
=
N
N
N
N

2
16 15
13 12 10
8
2
7
6 5 3
16
2
15
14 13 11
2
8 7
5 4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
y b xy b
y b x b x b
xy b x b
y b x b b
xy b x b
y b y b y b
y b xy b
y b x b x b
xy
yy
xx
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + + =
+ +
+ + =
+
+ + + =
c
c
c

3D element: Tet (4-node and 10-node) and Brick (8-node and 20-node)
4-node tet 10-node tet 8 node brick 20 node brick

3D
elements

dof 12 30 24 60

Example 17 (Quiz 2012). In the following bar spring structure as shown, use finite element
method to (1) Derive global equilibrium equation; (2) Determine displacement at the free end
point O, u
1
, mid point u
2
and reaction force in the right hand side wall (point C). (3) Sketch
the displacement distribution in the x-coordinate. Assume that EA=1, L=1, k
s
=6.
Soln: Step 1: Elemental stiffness matrices
| |
(

=
(

=
(

=
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
L
EA
k k
k k
K ,
| |
(

=
(

=
6 6
6 6
2
s s
s s
k k
k k
K
,
| |
(

=
(

=
6 6
6 6
3
s s
s s
k k
k k
K

Step 2: Expanded elemental stiffness matrices
| | | | | |
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
6 6 0
6 6 0
0 0 0
,
6 6 0
6 6 0
0 0 0
,
0 0 0
0 1 1
0 1 1
3 2 1
K K K
Step 3 (sub-question (1)): Global FE equation; | |{ } { } F u K =
:

(
(
(

3
2
1
3
2
1
12 12 0
12 13 1
0 1 1
F
F
F
u
u
u

Step 4: Apply boundary conditions, 0
3
= u

(
(
(

3
2
1
2
1
0 12 12 0
12 13 1
0 1 1
F
F
F
u
u

)
`

=
)
`

=
)
`

P
P
F
F
u
u
4 13 1
1 1
2
1
2
1

q
x
y
x
y

q
mapping
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2
3
5
6
7
8
4
1m 1m
EA=1
k
s
x
P
4P
A B
C
O
k
s
x
Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
4
)
`

=
)
`

P
P
u
u
4 13 1
1 1
2
1

= +
=
P u u
P u u
4 13
2 1
2 1

=
=
4 /
4 / 3
2
1
P u
P u

Displacement vector:

0
4 /
4 / 3
3
2
1
P
P
u
u
u

Step 5 Plot displacement functions:
j i j j i i
n
k k k
u u u N u N u N x u + = + = =

=
) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
, in which L x / =
Element 1 (AB): local Cartesian coordinate
) 1 (
x is the same as global Cartesian, i.e.
x x =
) 1 (

| | | | Px P P x P x u L x u L x x u
B A AB
= + = + = 4 / 3 ) 4 / ( ) 4 / 3 ( 1 ) / ( ) / 1 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 (

Element 2 (BC): local Cartesian
) 2 (
x differs from global Cartesian, i.e. 1
) 2 (
= = x L x x
| | | | 2 / 4 / ) 0 ( 1 ) 4 / ( ) 1 ( 1 ) / ( ) / 1 ( ) (
) 2 ( ) 2 (
P Px x P x u L x u L x x u
C B BC
= + = + =
Step 6: Reaction force at the wall (use the dropped first equation)
{ } | | P P
P
F R
C
3
0
4 /
4 / 3
12 12 0
3
=

= =

(4) If remove the load at node B and consider a stopper
on the right hand-side as shown. Determine the
displacements and reaction from the stopper and C.

(
(
(

3
2
1
0 12 12 0
12 13 1
0 1 1
F
R
P u
A

)
`

=
)
`

2
1
13 1
1 1
R
P u
A

= +
=
2 1
1
13 R u
P u
A
A

=
+ =
P R
P u
A
A
12
2
1

Displacement vector: { } | | A A
A
12
0
12 12 0
3
=

+
= =
P
F R
C

+
=

0
3
2
1
A
A P
u
u
u

Example 18 (Quiz 2012): Two 3-node triangular elements are used to model a plane stress
problem. The stress distributions are shown below. Which are the possible correct plots and why?

a) should be the answer. Note that these two 3-node triangular elements are the constant strain
triangular (CST) elements (need mention this, otherwise lose 3 marks), which have constant
strain and stress.
x
y
1
2
3
c
yy
4
x
y
1
2
3
c
yy
4
y
1
2
3
c
yy
4
(b) (a) (c)
x
3P/4
-P/4
u
x
3P/4
-P/4
u
1m 1m
EA=1
k
s
x
P
A B
C
O
k
s
A
Stopper
Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
5
Example 19 (Quiz 2013) A uniform beam
(EI = 1) is fully clamped at the left end (point
A, node 1), and supported at both the mid-
span (point B, node 2) and the right end
(point C, node 3) by rollers. A bending
moment (M = 14 Nm) is applied at the mid-
span as shown.
a. Express the global equilibrium equation using a finite element formulation.
b. Determine the slopes at the mid-span and at the right end.
c. Find all reaction forces and moments.
d. In order to make u
3
3
is needed?
Soln
Step 1: Element stiffness matrices
| | | |
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

= =
4 6 2 6
6 12 6 12
2 6 4 6
6 12 6 12
4 6 2 6
6 12 6 12
2 6 4 6
6 12 6 12
2 2
2 2
3
2 1
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
L
EI
K K
Step 2: Install the Global FE equilibrium equation
| |{ }

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
3
3
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
1
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
M
F
M
F
M
F
v
v
v
u K
u
u
u

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
14
0
0
0
0
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
3
2
1
1
3
2
F
F
M
F
u
u

)
`

=
)
`

0
14
4 2
2 8
3
2
u
u

Step 4: Solve for the unknowns:
)
`

=
)
`

1
2
3
2
u
u

Step 5: Reaction forces and moments

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
14
0
0
0
0
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
3
2
1
1
3
2
F
F
M
F
u
u
;

=
)
`

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
)
`

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
6
14
6
4
12
1
2
4 2
6 6
2 8
6 0
0 2
0 6
4 2
6 6
2 8
6 0
0 2
0 6
3
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
u
u
M
F
M
F
M
F

Step 6: Add boundary condition of u
3
=1 into the global FE equilibrium equation

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

0
14
0
0
0
0
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
3
2
1
1
3
2
F
F
M
F
u
u
A
B
L=1
EI=1
x
L=1
C EI=1
1 2
3
M
Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
6

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

3
3
2
1
1
2
14
1
0
0
0
0
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
M
F
F
M
F
u

14 2 8
2
= + u 5 . 1 8 / 12
2
= = u . From the last equation: 7 4 5 . 1 2 4 2
2 3
= + = + = u M

Example 20 (Quiz 2011): If one Gaussian point was used for the 2D Q8 element, determine
the displacements at this Gaussian point if the nodal displacements
are given as
(

=
)
`

0 1 0 1 1 0 1 2
1 2 1 0 1 1 0 1
v
u

Soln: The displacement functions as per Q8s shape functions N
i

and nodal displacements u
i
and v
i
can be expressed as:
i
i
i i
i
i
v N v u N u

= =
= =
4
1
4
1
,
25 . 2 ) 0 , 0 (
) 1 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 2 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 1 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 0 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0
) 1 ( ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0 ) 1 ( ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0
0 ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0 1 ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0
) 0 , 0 ( ) , (
2 2 2 2
8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
8
1
=
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + + =
+ + + + + + + = = =

=
u
u N u N u N u N u N u N u N u N u N u u
i
i
i
q

5 . 0 ) 0 , 0 (
) 0 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 1 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 0 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0 ) 1 ( ) 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 5 . 0
) 1 ( ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0 ) 0 ( ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0
1 ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0 2 ) 0 0 1 )( 0 1 )( 0 1 ( 25 . 0
) 0 , 0 ( ) , (
2 2 2 2
8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1
8
1
=
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + + =
+ + + + + + + = = =

=
v
v N v N v N v N v N v N v N v N v N v v
i
i
i
q

Example 21 (Quiz 2012): For the Q4 element as shown in the
Cartesian coordinate system, the nodal displacement of the
element that was generated from the FEA is
{ }
T
1 , 1 , 2 , 2 , 0 , 0 , 0 , 0 = u
.
Use shape function to calculate the displacement (u, v) at the
mid point E on side BE.
Soln: { } { }
T T
1 , 2 , 0 , 0 , 1 , 2 , 0 , 0 = = v u
i
i
i i
i
i
v N v u N u

= =
= =
4
1
4
1
,
4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
1
q = N , 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
2
q + = N , 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
3
q + + = N , 4 / ) 1 )( 1 (
4
q + = N
A
B
L=1
EI=1
x
L=1
C EI=1
1 2
3
M
2
M
3

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

3
3
2
1
1
2
14
1
0
0
0
0
4 6 2 6 0 0
6 12 6 12 0 0
2 6 8 0 2 6
6 12 0 24 6 12
0 0 2 6 4 6
0 0 6 12 6 12
M
F
F
M
F
u
A(0,0)
B(6,0)
C(4,6)
D(0,3)
x
y
A(0,0) B(4,0)
C(4,6)
D(0,3)
x
y
E(4,3)
Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
7
At the mid point E: 0 , 1 = = q
1 ) 1 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 2 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 0 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 0 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
= + + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + = =

=
u u u u u N u
i
i
i
q q q q

1 ) 1 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 2 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 0 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 0 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
= + + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + = =

=
v v v v v N v
i
i
i
q q q q

Displacement: (1.0, 1.0)

Example 22 (Quiz 2011) if four Gaussian points are used in a Q4
element, determine the coordinates of Gaussian point G1 in
Cartesian coordinate system of iso-parametric element Q4 as
shown. Compute Jacobian matrix [J] and its determinant |J|.
Soln
Step 1: Node numbering: Node (1,2,3,4) = Node (A,B,C,D)
Step 2: Coordinate in terms of Shape functions
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
1
q = N , ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
2
q + = N , ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
3
q + + = N , ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4
q + = N

Cartersian coordinate (x,y) in terms of natural coordinate (, q)
q
q q q q
q q q q
q q q q
2 2 ) , (
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
+ =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + = =

=
x
x x x x
x x x x x N x
D C B A
i
i
i

q q
q q q q
q q q q
q q q q
2 2 ) , (
4 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
) 1 )( 1 (
4
1
4 3 2 1
4
1
+ =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + =
+ + + + + + + = =

=
y
y y y y
y y y y y N y
D C B A
i
i
i

Thus G1 coordinate:
8452 . 0 ) 5774 . 0 ( 2 2 2 2 ) 5774 . 0 , 5774 . 0 ( = + = + = = = q x
8452 . 0 ) 5774 . 0 ( 2 2 2 2 ) 5774 . 0 , 5774 . 0 ( = + = + = = = q q y

Step 3: Jacobian matrix
| |
| | | |
| | | |
(

=
(
(
(
(

+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
(
(
(
(

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
=
2 0
0 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
q
q

q
q

q q

y x
y x
J

Jacobian determinant: | | 4 2 2 det = = = J J
A(0,0) B(4,0)
C(4,4)
D(0,4)
x
y
* *
* *
G3 G4
G1 G2
Week 13 - Review 2013 (Part 2)
8
Example 23 (Exam 2009) Given: P = 50 kN, k = 200 kN/m, L
= 3 m, E = 210 GPa, I = 210
-4
m
4
.
Find: Deflections, rotations and reaction forces.
Soln: This is a combined problem of beam and spring
elements
Step 1: The system has 4 nodes as well as 2 beam elements
and 1 spring element.
Step 2: Spring element has stiffness matrix is
)
`

=
)
`

j
i
j
i
f
f
u
u
k k
k k
which is related to nodes
#3 and #4 with displacement v
3
and v
4

Beam 1:

(
(
(
(

2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2 2
2 2
3
4 6 2 6
6 12 6 12
2 6 4 6
6 12 6 12
m
f
m
f
v
v
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
L
EI
Y
Y
u
u Beam 2:

(
(
(
(

3
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
2 2
2 2
3
4 6 2 6
6 12 6 12
2 6 4 6
6 12 6 12
m
f
m
f
v
v
L L L L
L L
L L L L
L L
L
EI
Y
Y
u
u
Step 3: The global FE equations can be assembled as (where ) /( '
3
EI k L k = )

Step 4: Apply the boundary conditions
P F M M v v v
Y
= = = = = = =
3 3 2 4 2 1 1
, 0 , 0 u

The reduced FE equation becomes:

(
(
(

+

0
0
4 6 2
6 ' 12 6
2 6 8
3
3
2
2 2
2 2
3
P v
L L L
L k L
L L L
L
EI
u
u

Step 5 Solve for the reduced FE equation:

+
=

m
L
k EI
PL
v
007475 . 0
01744 . 0
002492 . 0
9
7
3
) ' 7 12 (
2
3
3
2
u
u

Step 6: Reaction force and moment can be found from the eliminated equations:

kN
kN
m kN
kN
F
F
M
F
Y
Y
Y
488 . 3
2 . 116
78 . 69
78 . 69
4
2
1
1
Free-body diagram can be drawn as

Beam element 1
Beam element 2
spring element