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Azanov Andrei.
Im a Russian free mathematician .
Matrix theory of polynomials.
Introduction.
If we consider the polynomial coefficients as a vector of the multidimensional space then
the using of matrices has not only theoretical meaning. The degree functions are basical
vectors of these space. In this article we will consider an other matricial representation
of polynomial where the equidistant polynomial points will be the vector coordinates.
They will be linked via invariant and recurrent equation. These two matricial models of
polynomials are related and are useful instrument for real calculus. We will consider
general matricial objects the shift matrix(translation matrix) and assistant elements
the differencial matrices and the matrices of homotety. We will consider functional
relations between general and assistant elements. The 2nd matricial model allows to
approximate multidimensional polynomials.
The 1st matrix-vector method of real calculus of 1st dimension polynomial.
Let us start with common method. Any polynomial

()


Is a multiplying of matrix-line (

) on matrix-column (

) ,

.
Shortly:

() .
Lets consider the shift of all polynimial points on any arbitrary value . This
transformation of original polynom we can consider doubly. On the one hand we get a
new matrix-line

if we fixate , on the other hand the matrix is constant but we have


to consider

. Anyway we get the right formulas of calculus of shifted polynoms points.


In matricial formalization:

( )


The Pascal matrix is the shift matrix when and its lower triangular matrix where
all its nonzero members are numbers of Pascal triangle. This matrix can be involuted of
any number. The previous formula is:

( )


All matrices

, we call Pascal matrix.


General Pascal matrix propetries:
1) commutativity


2)

, where identity matrix


3)

exponents property
4) (


We used the assistant homotopy matrix

to detemine the Pascal matrix properties.


The homotety matrix can be determined using the scale factor acting on the
variable .
Then the relation:

here

then


Matrices

organize the abel group which shifts the 1


st
dimensional polynom.
The Pascal matrix is the exponent of the differential matrix

. Lets determine the


differential matrix :

()

()

()

()]

*
(

*
(

+ , note that the matrix is nilpotent,

(), here ()- zero matrix.


All these matrices are simple for all-dimension polynom and this fact make the matricial
methods the calculus basis. The Followind are tasks solved via thiese matrices:
1) Determining the coefficients of shifted polynom when the basis is fixed.
2) Multiplication and division of two polynoms.
3) Calculus of coefficients of series without using the Taylor serieses.
4) We get an Eulers formula.
5) We get the fundamental theorem of calculus.
6) We get the integral Kauchy formulas.
7) We found a new method of calculus of differential equations.
8) The complex polynoms are simply converted to () ( ) ( ) .
9) We get the useful formulas of numerical integration.
These tasks were determined a long time ago using other mathematical theories.
Matrices let us to repeat our advancement and to get new interesting results. Lets
consider the calculus of differential equations with constant coefficients and its the right
part is polynom.
The algorithm is very simple. For example:

()
() interpolated () (

) (

) then () , we can submit as a polynomial in power (), only with


other coefficients and instead original differential equation we have its matricial:
() (

) (

) (

) (

)
(

) (

)
(

) [

] (

) (

) (

)
[

] this matrix have an invertible matrix when

is not zero and we call it (you


know that you must have not much power and time to to find it)
The sought-for matrix of coefficients is:
(

) (


We get the determination of the differential equation as the polynom coefficients.
The 2nd matrix-vector method of real calculus of 1st dimension polynomial.
It is as easily as at the 1
st
variant and furthermore the 2
nd
method evolutionarily goes for
the 1
st
. Notice that the Pascal matrix have the characteristic polynomial: ( )

.
Use the Hamilton-Cayley theorem and replace

.
We get the invariant formulas for Pascal matrix:
(

() for Pascal matrix of 2*2 size (the 1


st
degree polynom)
(

() - -------//-------//----------3*3 (the 2
nd
degree polynom)
(

() -----//----------4*4 (the 3
rd
degree polynom)
and etc.
Lets shift the identity matrix to right
(


And etc. , but

() , instead use equations we had above and notice that they are for
everyone .
Then for all polynomial of this degree the next formulas will be:

()

( )

( )

()

( )

( )

( )

()

( )

( )

( )

( )
And etc.
There are formulas of polynomial superposition. They can be understood doubly. On the
one hand everyone polynom is superposition of other, on the other hand there are
formulas which connect points inside the polynom. There are invariant recurrent
formulas and they depend only on polynomial degree.
Points staying at the same distance from each other make the polynomial skeleton and
they determine the polynom fully. So: 2 points determine a line, 3 points parabola, 4
points the 3th dimensional equation and etc.
All this moments allow us to use the theory of linear operators. Make the shift matrix
when .
Using the theory of Lagrange-Sylvester of polynomial interpolation we deside that any
degree of this matrix is uniquelly.

( )
()

( )

()()

( )

()()

(
)


As you see this is matricial analog of Newton's formula.
Derivatives are determined by differential matrix in any skeleton point.

)
Call and the next is truth


()


Matrix has all properties of Pascal matrix.
Also there is homothety matrix which has its formula but its rule is applied. It is difficult
and this matrix cant help us to make formulas.
All main formulas of two matricial method are coincide. The 2
nd
method is better then
the 1st. The invariant recurrent formulas when there are linear are irreplaceable when
we research multidimensional polynoms.
The difficulty and the number of tasks became many. Now we will not consider it. I want
to do interesting notice. The Davids star was made by an tricky algorithm of the 2
nd
dimension polynomial calculation. You may think this hypothesis is a version of making of
this symbol. David could be a mathematician and he could use this algorithm and could
know that the algorithm's power ends on the 2nd dimensional polynomials of the 4th
degree.
Ive wrote 5 articles (in russian) and you can find proofs, examples some important
algorithms which allow you to use the matricial theory in practice.
June 2014.