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Synopsis

I. ANTENNAS
1. An Antenna is generally a metallic object. Often a wire or collection of wires. Used
for coupling the transmitter and the receiver to the space link.
2. Antennas are capable of converting high frequency current into electromagnetic
waves and vice-versa. These waves are radiated or received as the case may be
by the antennas.
3. Antennas are classified as transmitting antennas and receiving antennas. They
have the same properties when transmitting and receiving.
4. Transmitting antennas must be have the capability to radiate high power levels and
are made of thick-gauge tubing.
5. !eceiving antennas operate on a low power often in microwatts and are made
from small diameter conductors.
6. Antennas used for transmitting and receiving come into one of two categories
resonant antennas and non-resonant antennas.
7. !esonant antennas" The even multiples of wave lengths # λ $ of antennas are
called resonant antennas. These can be developed from a transmission line
section on which standing waves e%ist.
8. &on-resonant Antennas" 'tanding waves does not e%ist in non-resonant antennas.
These can be developed from a matched transmission line carrying an incident
traveling wave.
9. (rinciples of !adiation" An electric current in a wire is always surrounded by a
magnetic field. )hen the current is alternating the free electric charges #electrons$
in the wire are accelerated that gives rise to an alternating electromagnetic field
which travels away form the wire in the form of *.+ wave. The total field originating
from an alternating current in wire consists of"
i) The electric field component lags the current by ,-
-
and decreases the
amplitude as the cube of the distance.
ii) An electromagnetic #i.e. combined electric and magnetic field$ is in .
phase with the current and decreases the amplitude as the square of the
distance.
iii) An electromagnetic field which leads the current by ,-
-
and the
amplitude decreases directly with the increase of the distance.
The fields mentioned in #i$ and #ii$ points are called induction fields. These
fields will not convey any information over long distances. These fields lie very
close to antennas.
10. +a%well/s equations are also useful to e%plain in actual radiation mechanism of
electro-magnetic waves.
11. )hen !0 energy is applied at one end of the wire the same may not find at the
other end. The difference is escaped in other words we say it is radiated.
12. 1n a open circuited transmission line a standing wave pattern is formed due to
forward and reverse traveling wave combination.
13. The radiation in open line system is poor because of mismatch the lines and load.
The second reason is cancellation at the wire ends due to phase reversal of the
signal.
14. The radiation efficiency can be improved by enlarging the ends of the open circuit.
)hen the two wires are bent so as to be in the same line as shown in fig.
0ig #a$ 0ig #b$
15. )hen the total length of the two wires is equal to half wave length. The antenna is
called half wave dipole.
16. The radiation may be half wave dipole because the better coupling with
surrounded space.
17. *lementary doublet or short dipole is the simplest wire antenna. 1t is infinitely thin
and has length
10
λ
= T
which is very short compared to wavelength.
18. The radiation pattern of a elementary doublet appears to be figure of eight pattern
with it/s a%is at right angles in the plane of the doublet and appear as circle in
plane perpendicular to double"
0ig #b$ 0ig#c$
The elementary doublet of the 2ert3ian dipole is also a hypothetical radiating
element consisting of a length of wire equal to
10
λ
19. The resonant antenna corresponds to a resonant transmission line. The radiation
pattern of a wire radiator in free space depends mainly on its length.
20. The dipole antenna is a resonant antenna.
21. 0or a half wave dipole the radiation pattern is similar to that of a double i.e. figure
of eight.
22. )hen the antenna length is equal to a whole wavelength the radiation at right
angles to the antenna is 4ero but ma%imum radiation still occurs in a different
direction. 1t happens to be 56
-
to the antenna. The pattern has acquired lobes. 0or
this the numbers of lobes are four.
23. )hen the antenna length is equal to
2

the radiation at right angles to the
antenna and the lobe in that direction is minor lobe. The direction of ma%imum-
radiation of major lobes is closer to the direction of the dipole itself.
24. The rise in resonant antenna length brought the lobes closer and closer to the
direction of the dipole and the number of lobes equal to the dipole and the number
of lobes equal to number of half wave lengths on each side.
25. 1n non-resonant antenna 789 power is radiated and the remaining is dissipated in
the antenna. On-resonant antenna is unidirectional. 2ence the pattern is due to
forward wave only as shown in figure.
0ig. &on-resonant 0ig. !esonant
26. !hombic antenna is an e%ample of non-resonant antenna.
27. T: antenna is an e%ample of resonant antenna.
28. 1sotropic radiator" The isotropic radiator is the one which radiates electromagnetic
waves equally in all directions. The isotropic radiator is impossible to build. ;ut the
concept is useful because it provides theoretical standard to compare the
antennas. The radiation pattern is spherical.
29. <et an average power pt be radiated equally in all directions =isotropic ally>.This will
spread spherically as it travels away from the source so that at a distanced the
power in the wave which is the per unit area of the wave front #power density$will
be
) / (
4
2
2
m watts
d
Pt
P
d

=
2
4 d ∏ is the surface area of the sphere of radius ?d/ centered on the source.
30. The electric field strength from isotropic radiator at a distance ?d/ is given by
*@ ) / (
30
m v
d
pi
31. The radiation pattern of the point source antenna is similar to that of the sun.
32. All practical antennas are direction antennas.i.e.they radiate better in some
directions that they do in other direction" that is they have the properly of
directivity.
33. !adiation pattern" The graphical representation which shows the variation in actual
field strength of electromagnetic field at all points which are equal distance from
the antenna.
34. Antenna gain" 1t is the ratio of ma%imum power received from given antenna to the
ma%imum power received from reference antenna.
35. Airective gain" Airective gain is defined in a particular direction as the ratio of the
power density radiated in that direction by the antenna to the power density that
would be radiated by an isotrope antenna. 1t is e%pressed in d;.
36. Airectivity" The ma%imum directive gain is called directivity i.e the gain in the
direction of one of the major lobes of the radiation pattern.
37. Airectivity on an isotropic antenna is #- d;$
38. Airectivity of 2ert3ian dipole is B.5.
39. Airectivity of halt wave dipole is B.C6.
40. The directive power gain" 1t is defined as the ratio of the total power input required
to a reference antenna to the total power input received to the subject antenna to
produce the same electric field intensity the same distance along their lines of
ma%imum radiation. The gain is usually e%pressed in d;.
41. The directive gain of practical antenna is grater than unity. The directive gain
increased with length and non-resonant antenna have higher directive gain than
resonant antenna of equal length.
42. 0or directivity the radiated power is considered but for power gain the power fed to
the antenna is taken.
(ower gain@A
(
@
η
.A
)here
η
@antenna efficiency@B for lossless antenna
A@directivity #ma%imum directive gain$.
43. Airectivity and power gains are equal for many :20DU20 antennas.
44. The resistance of an antenna has two components
i) The radiation resistance #!
r
$.
ii) Actual losses in antenna#!
d
$
45. Radiation resistane !R
r
)" 1t is defined as the ratio of the power radiated by the
antenna to the square of the current at the feed point. 1t is not a dc resistance ;ut
rather than ac one and is the part of antenna input.
This is also defined as the !esistance which if it replaced the antenna
would dissipate the same power as the antenna radiates.
46. Antenna "osses#
(ower is dissipated in an antenna as a result of
i) Antenna and ground resistance.
ii) Aischarge.
iii) <osses in imperfect dielectrics very near to the antenna.
i$) *ddy currents induced in metallic objects. 1t is usual to represent all
these by a lumped resistance !
d
.The total loss resistance of the
antenna.
47. Antenna e%%iieny !
η
)# Antenna efficiency is given by
d r
r
R R
R
+
= η
@
power Totalinput
ted powerradia
48. i) 0rom the definition@!
r
@
2
i
p
r
)here (
r
@!adiated power 1@current
ii$ )hen the dipole is hold above ground with a length ?1/ not e%cess of
8
λ

2 2
2
1
790
1
80 





= 





∏ =
λ λ
r
R
49. Antenna &and 'idt(# 1t refers to the frequency range over which operation is
satisfactory and is usually taken between the half power points.
50. &ea) 'idt(# 1t is a measure of the directive ness of an antenna. 1t is defined as
power points on the power density radiation pattern.
1t is also the angular separation between the two 9-d; down points
on the field strength radiation pattern of an antenna. ;eam width is quoted in
degrees and it is more frequently used with narrow beam antennas. 1t refers to the
main lobe.
51. *o"ari+ation# (olari3ation refers to the direction in space of the electric vector of
the electromagnetic wave radiated from an antenna and is parallel to the antenna
itself. 1t refers to the plane in which electric field vector of the antenna is launched
from the antenna.
52. An antenna is said to be hori3ontally polari3ed if the electric field lies in a plane
53. :ertical polari3ation occurs when the radiation is placed vertically above the earth
and electric field is launched in the vertical plane.
54. All :0<0 and +0 antennas made vertically polari3ed because of pro%imity on the
ground.
55. +an made noise has vertical polari3ation. 1t may effect the vertically polari3ed
signal. At higher frequencies hori3ontal is preferred because it does not pick-up
man made noise or interference.
56. 2elical antenna is circularly polari3ed
57. 2ori3ontal polari3ation is used for T.:
58. :ertical polari3ation is used in A+ radio broadcasting.
59. Eircular polari3ation is used in satellite communication
60. The e%ample for aperture antenna is a horn antenna.
61. &arrow beams find application in microwave links radar and satellite
communication.
62. 1n radio and T.: transmission broad beams are used.
63. Airectly @6

8;ean solid angle of antenna.
64. ;eam solid angle of an isotropic antenna is 6

steradians.
65. !adiation pattern of an ungrounded half wave dipole located at varying heights
above the ground are shown below.
0ig
66. a$)hen earth is assumed as perfect conductor the image antennas are identical in
length and carry equal magnitudes of current and are separated by twice the
height of the actual antenna above ground.
67. 1f an antenna is grounded the earth acts as a mirror and becomes part of the
radiating system .The grounded antenna acts as an antenna of double si3e.
68. ,aroni antenna# Frounded
4
λ
antenna is called basic +arconi antenna. 1t acts
as half wave dipole in space.
69. )hen the ground conductivity is poor earth mats are provided. At low and
medium frequencies if often impracticable to use an antenna of resonant
length.
70. Top "oadin-# 1t is a method of increasing radiation resistance whenever sufficient
height of antenna is not provided. Top loading increases the effective height of the
antenna.
71. The radiation pattern of a top loaded antenna is much the same as that of the
basic +arconi antenna. The top loading may take the form of a single hori3ontal
piece resulting in the inverted < and T antennas.
72. 0or ground wave propagation the height of the vertical radiator should not e%ceed
-.59
λ λ
8
5
or
73. The effective electrical length of an antenna is greater than its physical length.
The reasons are"B$ Top loading ii$ *nd effects.
74. The propagation velocity with in the antenna is same 7 to G percent less than in
free space. 'o that the wave length within the antenna is shorter by the same
amount when the antenna is having finite thickness.
75. An antenna is said to be current fed it is fed at a point of current ma%imum. A
centre fed half-wave dipole or +arconi antenna is current fed. A center fed full
wave antenna is said to be voltage fed.
76. <ow impedance feed means the current feed point impedances below C-- Ωand
voltages feed for impedances in e%cess of C-- Ω.1t is also referred to as high
impedance feed.
77. ;roadcast antennas are often centre fed in practice because the impedance at
centre is H7Ω and it is a useful impedance from the point of view of transmission
lines.
78. A coupling network or antenna coupler is a network composed of reactances and
transformers which may lumped or distributed. The coupling network provide
impedance matching. 1t is used to connect to transmitters or receivers.
79. The main functions of antenna couplers are"
i) To tune out the reactive component of the antenna impedance.
ii) To transform the resulting resistive component to a suitable value
and
iii) To help tune out unwanted frequencies particularly in a transmitting
antenna.
Antenna coupler may also be used to couple a grounded antenna to a
balanced transmission line or even to ensure that a transmitting antenna is
isolated for dc from a transmitter output tank circuit.
80. .a"% 'a$e dipo"e# 1t is a resonant antenna the total length of which is nominally
2
λ
at the carrier frequency. The radiations resistance of
2
λ
dipole is about H9
ohms. )hich is very convenient for matching with H5 ohms co-a%ial cables.
81. The two types of non-resonant antennas are"
i$ /on- 'ire antenna" A wire of several wave length in length. 'uspended at some
height above the earth. )hen an ac wave is transmitted down this line towards
the terminated end. About half the energy is radiated into space. 1t is low gain
and occupies a lot of space and so not used often. 1t is used as a broad band
antenna for low cost point to point communication.
ii$ !hombic antenna" 1t is an array of four long-wire antennas inter connected.
*ach of the four legs has the length and lies in the range 7 λ to B-λ .The input
impedance varies form about C5- to H-- Ω.The terminating resistance is often
in the vicinity of G-- Ω.The directivity varies from about 7- to ,-.The power gain
of this antenna ranges form about B5 to C-.The radiation pattern is unidirectional.
1t is used in 20 bands. 1t is highly directional and is ideal for point to point sky
wave propagation.
82. 0ipo"e arrays# An antenna array is radiating system consistions of individual
radiators or elements. These are placed close together so as to be with in each
other/s induction field. They therefore interact with ones.;ysuitably arranging an
array. 1t is possible to cause pattern cancellations and reinforcements of a nature
that will result in the array/s having strongly directional characteristics.
83. An antenna array is said to be linear. if the individual antennas of the array are
equally spaced along a straight line
84. *arasiti e"e)ents" 1t is not necessary for all the element of an array to be
connected to the output of the transmitter. An element so connected is called a
driven element. )here as a radiator not directly connected is called a parasitic
element. 'uch a parasitic radiator receives energy not directly connected is called
a parasitic element. 'uch a parasitic radiator receives energy through the induct in
field of a driven element. !ather than by a direct connection to the transmission
line.
85. A parasitic element longer than the driven one and close to it reduces signal
strength in it/s own direction and increase it in the opposite direction and is called
a reflector #similar to concave mirror$.
86. A parasitic element shorter than the driven one from which it receives energy tends
to increase radiation in its own directions and therefore behaves like the
convergent conve% lens is called a director
87. &road side array" several identical antennas are laid out in parallel to each other
each driven from same source in phase with one another. At a distance along the
line of the array a%is. 'ince elements are spaced by
2
λ
the radiation from adjacent
elements will arrive out of phase and complete cancellation will occur along this
a%is.
88. ;road side array is strongly directional at right angles to the plane of the array
while radiating very little in the plane. 1n typical array antenna may have length 7 λ
to B-λ and spacing
2
λ
to λ .The radiation pattern is bi-directional.
0ig.
89. End1%ire array# The antennas are spaced and phased so that radiations from the
back antenna just in time to be in phase with the radiation from it. A convenient
arrangement is to space the elements
4
λ
along the feeder.
90. *nd fire array is strongly directional in the plane parallel to the a%is.
0ig.
There is no radiation at right angles to the plane of the array because of
cancellation. The radiation pattern is single pencil beam aimed along the a%is of
the array from back to front.
91. ;oth broadside and end-fire arrays are called linear and both are resonanat.;oth
arrays have narrow band width useful for transmission of a single frequency. They
are not useful for reception.
&ino)ia" arrays# 1n uniform linear arrays as the array length increases the
secondary and minor lobes appear. 1n order to eliminate secondary lobes"
(i) spacing between the two consecutive sources should not e%ceed
2
λ
#ii$ The current amplitudes in radiatic sources are proportional to the coefficient
of the successive terms of the binomial series.
92. 2o"ded dipo"e# it is a single antenna but consists of two elements. The first one if
fed directly and the second one is couple conductivity at ends. The radiation
pattern is same as the
2
λ
dipole but input impedance is greater #infact 6 times of a
single dipole$.The folded dipole antenna is favored as the driving element of :20
dipole arrays because it can made self-supporting and provides a higher input
impedance resulting from the loading of the parsitic elements.
93. 3a-i14da antenna# A yagi-uda antenna is an array consisting of a driven element
#folded dipole$ a single parasitic reflector one or more #upto B9$ director elements.
The radiation pattern is unidirectional and is pencil beam lobe in forward direction
along the array a%is with several lobes in all directions.yag-uda antenna is used as
an 20 transmitting antenna and as a :20 television receiving antenna .;ecause of
folded dipole used it is broad band and low gain.
1t is also called super gain antenna because of it/s good gain and beam
width per unit area of array.
0ig
94. T4rnsti"e antenna# 1t consists of two
2
λ
dipoles placed at right angles to each
other and fed ,-
-
out of phase with each other. This result in the two dipole
patterns combining in the manner producting almost circular pattern in the plane of
he turn stile.
'everal of these turnstile antennas may be stacked along a vertical a%is and
phased so as to improve the radiation directivity along the ground.#i.e. in the
plane of polari3ation$.This type of antenna is used for T: broadcasting in
the :20 and U20 bands.
95. ,iro'a$e antennas# parabolic reflectors hotn antennas and lens antennas are
used at microwave frequencies. These must have the following characteristics
i) A no. of microwave applications are in the direction finding and
measuring field so the antennas must have the following characteristics
ii) The antenna should have large gain in order to increase the power
density in the wanted direction and also to provide large input power to
the receiver. 'o the noise effect is minimi3ed.
96. 2orn antenna is best e%cited from a wave guide.
97. E%%eti$e area o% aperat4re area o% a reei$in- antenna# A receiving antenna
can be positioned such that it collects ma%imum power from the wave then so
positioned. <et p
r
be the power delivered by the antenna to the load #receiver$
under matched conditions then the antenna can be considered as having an
effective area of aperature A
eff
)here (
r
@(
d
.A
eff
(
d
@
2
1 1
4 d
G P

)here(
t
@Average power d@AistanceF
t
@Fain of the antenna
2ence (
!
@
2
1 1
4
.
d
A G P
eff

where λ @wave length of the wave being radiated.
98. The effective area of half wave dipole is -.B9
2
λ
99. The effective area of the hert3ain dipole is -.BB,
2
λ
100. (arabolic reflector"
i$ Eapture area of parabolic reflectorA
-
@-.C5
4
2
D ∏
ii$ ;eam width of parabolic reflector@
D
λ 70
iii$ ;eam width between nulls@
D
λ 140
)here A@+outh diameter of reflector.
iv$ Fain of parabolic reflector @C
2






λ
D
B-B. Eassegrain feed is used with a parabolic reflector to allow the feed to be placed at a
convenient point.
B-7. 4oning is used with a dielectric antenna in order to reduce the bulk of lens.
B-9. A helical antenna is used for satellite tracking because of its circular polari3ation.
B-6. The discone antenna is useful as a U20 receiving antenna.
B-5. <og-periodic antenna is very useful as a multiband 20 receiving antenna. 1t is not an
unidirectional antenna.
B-C. 0olded dipole helical antenna Aiscone antenna logperiodic antenna and loop
antennas are the e%amples of wide band antennas.
B-H. /oop antenna# A loop antenna is a single turn coil carrying !0 currnet.The radiation
pattern of the loop antenna is the familiar doughnut pattern. &o radiation is received
that is normal to the applications. <oops are some items provides with ferrite cores.
B-G. The magnetic flu% density #;$ and a vector magnetic potential #A$ are related by
XA B ∇ =
B-,. *lectromagnetic theory"div Eut A@ ∇.# ∇IA$@-J
Eurl grad :@ ∇I# ∇ ∇$@-J ∇I∇IA@ ∇# ∇A$- ∇
7
A
BB-. (oisson/s equation" ∇
7
:@


ρ
BBB. 1n free space there is no charge i.e.#
ρ
@-$then the (oisson/s equation results in
laplace equation # ∇
7
:@-$
BB7. ∇.K@- is frequently known as continuity equation for steady currents.
BB9. +a%well/s *lectromagnetic theory equations"
∇I2@A
B
Lj ∇I*@-;
B
∇IA@
ρ
∇.;@-
BB6. 1n a uniform plane wave* and 2 are related by

=
µ
H
E
BB5. The pointing vector represents power flow per unit are.
5&6E7TI8E *R5&/E,S 9 S5/:TI5NS
B. Ealculate the radiation resistance of a
16
λ
wire dipole in free space.
a$ 5-Ω b$ H9Ω c$ 9.-, Ω d$ 7.,G Ω
So"# <ength of dipole @1@
16
λ
!adiation resistance @!
r
@G-
Ω = =












= 





∏ 09 . 3
256
290
16
790
2
2
2
λ
λ
λ
X
l
7. Antenna has a radiation resistance of H7 Ωa loss resistance of G Ωand a power gain
of BC. )hat efficiency and directivity does it haveM
a$ H-Nand BH.HHN b$ G-N and BH.HH c$ ,-Nand HH.HH d$ ,-N and BH.HH
So"# !adiation resistance@!
r
@H7Ω <oss resistance@!
d
@GΩ
*fficiency @
% 90 9 . 0
80
72
8 72
72
= = =
+
=
+
=
d r
r
R R
R
η
(ower gain#A
p
$@*fficiency#
) ( ) D XDirectly η
= ∴ ) (D Directly 77 . 17
9 . 0
16
= =
η
p
A
9. Ealculate the beam width i$ between half-power points and ii$ ;etween nulls of a 7 m
paraboloid reflector used at C F2
3.
a$ 9
-
and C
-
b$ 9.5
-
and H
-
E$ B.H5
-
A&A 9.5
-
A$ H
-
A&A 9.5
-

So"# 0requency @0@C F2
3
+outh diameter @A@7m
m
X
X
t
c
Wavelength 05 . 0
10 6
10 3
9
8
= = = = ∴ λ
i) ;eam width between half power points@
0
75 . 1
2
05 . 0 70 70
= = =
X
D
λ
φ
ii) ;eam width between nulls @
0
0
5 . 3 75 . 1 2
140
= = = X
D
λ
φ
4. Ealculate the gain of 7 m parabolic reflector used at G F2
3

a$ Fain@A
p
@ ; 6
2






λ
D
0requency@0@G F2
3
J +outh diameter @A@7m
)ave length@
m
X
X
f
c
0375 . 0
10 8
10 3
9
8
= = = λ
67 . 17066
0375 . 0
2
6
2
= 





= = ∴
ρ
A Gain
5. 0ind the effective aperture of an antenna used at C F2
3
which has a directivity of BHC
a$ -.Hm
7
b$ -.95m
7
c$ -.-95m
7
d$ -.,5m
7
So"# 0requency @0@CF2
3
@CIB-
,
24J Airectly @F@BHC
)ave length @
; 05 . 0
10 6
10 3
9
8
m
X
X
f
c
= = = λ
)e know that
XG A
G
A
eff
eff



=
4 4
2 2
λ λ
*ffective aperture @A
eff
@.
∏ 4
) 05 . 0 (
2
IBHC@-.-95m
7
,:/TI*/E 7.5I7E ;:ESTI5NS
B. The band width of +2
3
of an antenna with a resonant frequency of 7- +2
3
and a O
of B- is
a$ -.5 b$ 7 c$ B-- d$ 7--
7. <ow frequency antennas are usually polari3ed.
a$ hori3ontally b$ circularly c$ conically d$ vertically
9. 2igh beam width implies
a$ higher bandwidth b$ higher directivity
c$ lower bandwidth d$ lesser directivity
6. A yagi antenna produces
a$ a figure of eight pattern b$ an omni directional pattern
c$ an end-fire pattern

d$ a broadside pattern

5. +agnetic flu% density ?;/ and vector magnetic potential ?A/ are related by
a$ ;@ ∇.A b$ ;@ ∇IA c$ A@ ∇I; d$ A@ ∇.;
C. The effect of ground on the radiation pattern is
a$ to increase its wavelength
b$ to produce more number of nulls
c$ to cause cancellation of radiation along the ground
d$ both #b$ D #c$
H. !adiation resistance of a
20
λ
wire dipole in free space will be nearly
a$ BΩ b$ 7Ω c$ 5Ω
d$ B-Ω
G. The effective aperture of an antenna which has directivity of BHC is
a$ 5
2
λ b$ H
2
λ c$ B-
2
λ d$ B6
2
λ
,. An antenna that radiates uniformly in all directions is called
a$ 2ert3ian dipole b$ 1sotropic antenna c$ 2alf-wave dipole d$ 2elical antenna
B-. An Antenna that is circularly polari3ed is
a$ 2elical b$ Pagi c$ (arabolic d$ <oop

BB. 1f the effective length of an antenna is increased its directive gain
a$ becomes infinite b$ remains same c$ decreases d$ increases
B7. (ointing vector (@*I2 is a measure of radiated
a$ power at a point b$ energy at a point
c$ power per unit area at a point d$ energy per unit area at a point
B9. The radiation pattern in the plane of half-wave dipole is
a$ Eircle b$ cardiod c$ minimum d$ ma%imum
B6. 1n the broadside array the ma%imum radiation occurs in the direction
a$ parallel to the array b$ perpendicular to the plane of the array
c$ both #a$ and #b$ d$ &one
B5. ?!adome/ is a
a$ dome shaped antenna b$ !adar housed in a drum
c$ a cap on radar d$ protective cover for the antenna
BC. The ma%imum radiation of end-fire array antenna will be in the directionQ the
array.
a$ (arallel to b$ perpendicular to c$ 65
-
to the a%is is d$ none
BH. 1n broadside array all the elements are fed with equal amplitude and withQ..phase
difference between them.
a$ ,-
-
b$ 65
-
c$ -
-
d$ BG-
-
BG. The radiation pattern in the plane of short dipole is QQ
a$ circle b$ *llipse c$ 0igure of eight d$ Eardiod
B,. (arabolic antenna is used at"
a$ +edium waves b$ short waves c$ :20 d$ +icro waves
7-. An isotropic radiator is one which"
a$ !adiates energy in well defined direction
b$ !adiated energy uniformly in all directions
c$ !adiates energy in a hollow sphere
d$ !adiates energy in the perpendicular direction to its plane.
7B. !adiation resistance of half wave dipole is "
a$ 5-) b$ H9 ) c$ 9--) d$ 9HH )
77. *lectrical length of an antenna is "
a$ *qual to its physical length
b$ smaller than its physical length
c$ Freater than its physical length
d$ +ay be greater or smaller than its physical length depending on the frequency
of radiation.
79. The effective area of an isotropic radiator is "
a$
4
l
b$
2
4
l
p
c$
4
2
l
d$
p
l
4
2
76. The polar radiation pattern of a loop arrival is "
a$ a circle b$ an ellipse c$ a cardiod d$ 0igure of eight#G$
75. The radiation resistance of folded dipole is "
a$ H9 ) b$ H7 ) c$ 9-- w d$ 7,7 )
7C .!hombic antenna is one of the most widely usedQ.frequency
receiving8transmitting antenna"
a$ <ow b$ +edium c$ 2igh d$ +icrowave
7H. The principal feature of a binanial array is that is has##
a$ Only two sides lobes b$ Only one side lobe
c$ &o side lobes d$ only four side lobes
7G. The purpose of parabolic reffector is to convert a spherical wave front into a"
a$ (arabolic wave front b$ (lane wave front
c$ vertical wave front d$ *lliptic wave front
7,. The beam width between nulls of B6- cm parabolic reflector used at CF2
3
is"

a$ 7.5
-
b$ 5
-
c$ B-
-
d$ H.5
-
9-. One of the following consists of no resonant antennas"
a$ (encil beam b$ Omni directional c$ Eardiod d$ *lliptical
9B.An ungrounded antenna near the ground"
a$ Acts as single antenna of twice the height
b$ is sun likely to need an earth mat
c$ acts as an antenna array
d$ must be hori3ontally polari3ed
97. One of the following consists of no resonant antennas"
a$ The rhombic antenna b$ The folded dipole
c$ The end-fire array d$ The brand side array
99. One of the following is very useful as a multilane 20 receiving antenna.This is the "
a$ Eonical horn b$ folded dipole c$ log-periodic d$ square loop
96. 1n a broadside array ma%imum radiation occurs"
a$ at ,-
-
to the line of the array b$ at 65
-
to the line of the array
c$ at C-
-
to the d$ along the line of the array
95. )hich of the following antennas is best e%cited from a waveguideM
a$ ;iconical b$ 2orn c$ 2elical d$ Aisc one
9C. 1ndicate which of the following reasons for using a counterpoise with antennas is
false"
a$ 1mpossibility of a good ground connection
b$ (rotection of personnel working underneath
c$ (rovision of an earth for the antenna
d$ !ockiness of the ground itself
9H. One of the following is not a reason for the use of an antenna coupler"
a$ To make the antenna look resistive
b$ To provide the output amplifier with the correct load impedance
c$ To discriminate against harmonics
d$ To prevent reradiation of the local oscillator
9G. The directly of centre fed half wave dipole with reference to isotropic radiator is "
a$ 7.B5 b$ B.HC c$ B.C6 d$ B.5
9,. The unit for current element is"
a$ Ampere b$ +etre c$ Ampere-metre d$ Ampere8metre
6-. The gain of an isotropic antenna in d; is "
a$ - b$ B c$ B- d$ C
6B. One of the following is not an omni directional antenna"
a$ 2alf-wave dipole b$ <og-periodic c$ Aiscone d$ +arconi
67. The discone antenna is"
a$ a useful direction-finding antenna
b$ used as a radar receiving antenna
c$ circularly polari3ed like other circular antennas
d$ useful as a U20 receiving antenna
69. A helical antenna is used for satellite tracing because of its"
a$ Eircular polari3ation b$ maneuverability
c$ broad bandwidth d$ good front-to-back ratio
66. Antenna bean width is "
a$ Airectly proportional to length
b$ inversely proportional to length
c$ Airectly proportional to square root of length
d$ Airectly proportional to square of length
65. 4oning is used with a dielectric antenna in order to
a$ !educe the bulk of the lens
b$ 1ncrease the bandwidth of the lens
c$ (ermit pin-point focusing
d$ Eorrect the curvature of the wavefornt from a horn that is too short
6C. The induction and radian fields of an antenna are equal at a distance equal to"
a$ R b$
1
2p
c$ B d$
p
2
1
6H. Eass grain feed is used with a parabolic reflector to "
a$ increase the gain of the system
b$ increase the beam width of the system
c$ reduce the si3e of the amin reflector
d$ allow the feed to be placed at a convenient point
6G. The electric field paternity of a hert3ian dipole at a distance point varies as"
a$
r
1
b$
2
1
r
c$
3
1
r
d$
4
1
r
6,. Top loading is sometimes used with an antenna in order to increase its"
a$ effective height b$ bandwidth c$ beam width d$ input capacitance
5-. The standard reference antenna for the directive gain is the
a$ infinitesimal dipole b$ isotropic antenna
c$ elementary doublet d$ half-wave dipole
5B. The radiation pattern of a parabolic antenna is "
a$ omni directional b$ figure of eight c$ doughnut pattern d$ pencil beam
57. )hich one of the following terms does not apply to the yagi-uda arrayM
a$ Food bandwidth b$ parasitic elements
c$ 0olded dipole d$ 2igh gain
59. 1ndicate which one of the following reasons for the use of an earth mat with
antennas is false"
a$ impossibility of a good ground connection
b$ provision of an earth for the antenna
c$ protection of personnel working underneath
d$ improvement of the radiation pattern of the antenna.
56. 1ndicate the antenna that is not wideband
a$ Aiscone b$ 0olded dipole c$ 2elical d$ +arconi
55. 1n T: transmission :20 band is done in "
a$ :ertical polari3ation b$ circular polari3ation
c$ 2ori3ontal polari3ation d$ elliptical polari3ation
!<ey)
B$ b 7$ d 9$ d 6$ c 5$ b C$ d H$ b
G$ d ,$ b B-$ a BB$ d B7$ c B9$ c B6$ b
B5$ d BC$ a BH$ c BG$ c B,$ d 7-$ b 7B$ b
77$ c 79$ d 76$ c 75$ d 7C$ c 7H$ c 7G$ b
7,$ b 9-$ a 9B$ c 97$ a 99$ c 96$ a 95$ b
9C$ b 9H$ d 9G$ c 9,$ b 6- $ a 6B$ b 67$ d
69$ a 66$ b 65$ a 6C$ d 6H$ d 6G$ a 6,$ a
5-$ b 5B$ d 57$ d 59$ c 56$ d 55$ c