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1.

ULTRASONICS TESTING LEVEL I


2.
@ The reference holes in standard aluminum area-amplitude
ultrasonic test blocks contain:
\ a
| A. Flat-bottomed holes
| B. Concave-surface holes
| C. Convex-surface holes
| D. Conical-shaped holes
^ A. You are absolutely right.
^ B. No, holes are designed to have a plane surface.
^ C. No, holes are designed to have a plane surface.
^ D. No, holes are designed to have a plane surface.
3. @ The gradual loss of sonic energy as the ultrasonic vibrations
travel through the material is referred to as:
\ d
| A. Reflection
| B. Refraction
| C. Reproducibility
| D. Attenuation
^ A. No, the key words are "gradual loss".
^ B. No, the key words are "gradual loss".
^ C. No, reproducibility in this case is not a valid answer.
^ D. Excellent
4. @ A term used to describe numerous small indications on the
cathode ray tube screen resulting from test part structure,
numerous small discontinuities, or both is often referred to as:
\ c
| A. Multiple back reflections
| B. Multiple front reflections
| C. Hash
| D. Resonance
^ A. No, normally back reflections are large.
^ B. No, normally front reflections are large.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, there is no real connection between the question and
this choice.
5. @ When testing a plate, increasing the frequency of an
ultrasonic longitudinal wave will result in:
\ c
| A. An increase in its velocity
| B. A decrease in its velocity
| C. No change in its velocity
| D. A reversal in its velocity
^ A. No, velocity depends on material properties.
^ B. No, velocity depends on material properties.
^ C. You're right.
^ D. No, this choice is irrelevant.
6. @ Ultrasonic waves transmitted into and received from the test
material in the form of repetitive bursts of acoustic energy is
called:
\ a
| A. Pulse-echo testing
| B. Continuous wave testing
| C. Resonance testing
| D. None of the above
^ A. Super! You are absolutely right.
^ B. No, the key phrase is "repetitive bursts" of energy.
^ C. No, the key phrase is "repetitive bursts" of energy.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
7. @ Metal blocks which contain one or more drilled holes to
simulate discontinuities are called:
\ d
| A. Scrubbers
| B. Crystal collimators
| C. Single plane angulators
| D. Reference blocks
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Absolutely right.
8. @ If the major dimensions of a discontinuity in a 6-inch thick
aluminum plate lie parallel to the entry surface at a depth of 3
inches, it will be best detected by:
\ a
| A. A straight beam test
| B. An angle beam test
| C. A surface wave test
| D. A lamb wave test
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No, although this could be done, there is an easier method.
^ C. No, these waves will not penetrate 3 inches deep.
^ D. Sorry! You cannot excite lamb waves in such a thick
material.
9. @ The existence of a discontinuity will not produce its specific
indication on the CRT screen when using the:
\ d
| A. Straight beam testing method
| B. Surface wave testing method
| C. Angle beam testing method
| D. Immersion testing method
^ A. No, this will produce an indication.
^ B. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ D. You've got it.
10. @ The depth of a discontinuity cannot be determined when using:
\ b
| A. Straight beam testing method.
| B. Through transmission testing method.
| C. Angle beam testing method.
| D. Immersion testing method.
^ A. No, presence of indication gives depth information.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, presence of indication gives depth information.
^ D. No, presence of indication gives depth information.
11. @ When inspecting coarse-grained material, which of the
following frequencies will generate a sound wave that will be most
easily scattered by the grain structure?
\ d
| A. 1.0 MHz
| B. 2.25 MHz
| C. 5 MHz
| D. 10 MHz
^ A. No, scattering is dependent on frequency. Lower frequency
causes relatively low scattering.
^ B. No, scattering is dependent on frequency. Lower frequency
causes relatively low scattering.
^ C. No, scattering is dependent on frequency. Lower frequency
causes relatively low scattering.
^ D. Super! you are absolutely right.
12. @ Which of the following search units would contain the thickest
crystal?
\ a
| A. A 1 megahertz search unit.
| B. A 5 megahertz search unit.
| C. A 15 megahertz search unit.
| D. A 25 megahertz search unit.
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. No, the higher the frequency, the thinner the crystal.
^ C. No, the higher the frequency, the thinner the crystal.
^ D. No, the higher the frequency, the thinner the crystal.
13. @ When performing a surface wave test, indications may result
from:
\ d
| A. Surface discontinuities
| B. Oil on the surface
| C. Dirt on the surface
| D. All three of the above
^ A. True, but the surface waves are also sensitive to any
contamination or cracking on the surface.
^ B. True, but the surface waves are also sensitive to any
contamination or cracking the surface.
^ C. True, but the surface waves are also sensitive to any
contamination or cracking the surface.
^ D. You are correct.
14. @ Search units constructed with a plastic wedge or standoff
between the transducer element and the test piece are commonly used
for:
\ d
| A. Dual transducer straight beam contact testing.
| B. Angle beam contact testing.
| C. Surface wave contact testing.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. Although you are partially correct, there are also some
other valid answers.
^ B. Although you are partially correct, there are also some
other valid answers.
^ C. Although you are partially correct, there are also some
other valid answers.
^ D. You are correct.
15. @ A search unit containing three or more individual transducer
elements is often referred to as a:
\ c
| A. Dual transducer
| B. Sandwich transducer
| C. Mosaic transducer
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, a dual transducer has two transducers.
^ B. No, this choice is incorrect.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer.
16. @ Sound can be focused by means of special curved adapters
located in front of the transducer element. These adapters are
referred to as:
\ b
| A. Scrubbers
| B. Acoustic lenses
| C. Angle beam adapters
| D. Single plane adapters
^ A. Incorrect. Looking for focussing adapters or lenses.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Incorrect. Looking for focussing adapters or lenses.
^ D. Incorrect. Looking for focussing adapters or lenses.
17. @ A test method in which the parts to be inspected are placed in
a water bath or some other liquid couplant is called:
\ b
| A. Contact testing
| B. Immersion testing
| C. Surface wave testing
| D. Through transmission testing
^ A. Sorry! Contact testing does not require a water bath.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, it is difficult, if not impossible, to do surface wave
testing when material is submerged.
^ D. No, this could be done in contact or immersion mode.
18. @ A separate time base line imposed on the viewing screen of
some ultrasonic testing instruments that permits measurement of
distances is often referred to as:
\ c
| A. An initial pulse
| B. A time/distance line
| C. A marker
| D. Through transmission testing
^ A. No, initial pulse is incorrect.
^ B. Incorrect. Please try again.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. Incorrect. Please try again.
19. @ A term used to describe the ability of an ultrasonic testing
system to distinguish between the entry surface response and the
response of discontinuities near the entry surface is:
\ d
| A. Sensitivity
| B. Penetration
| C. Segregation
| D. Resolution
^ A. No, "how small a defect can be found" defines sensitivity.
^ B. No, "how deep in a material on sound waves propagate"
defines penetration.
^ C. Incorrect. Segregation means to "isolate or to set apart.
^ D. Excellent
20. @ The phenomenon whereby an ultrasonic wave changes direction
when the wave crosses a boundary between materials with different
velocities is called:
\ a
| A. Refraction
| B. Reflection
| C. Penetration
| D. Rarefaction
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, reflection occurs within the same medium.
^ C. No, "how deep in a material or sound waves propagate"
defines penetration.
^ D. No, rarefaction and compression describe the way in which
longitudinal wave propagates.
21. @ In a test where the transducer is not perpendicular to the
inspection surface, the angle of incidence is equal to:
\ b
| A. The angle of refraction.
| B. The angle of reflection.
| C. The shear wave angle.
| D. One-half the shear wave angle.
^ A. No, angle of refraction is determined from the Snell's law.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, there is no relationship with shear wave angle.
^ D. No, there is no relationship with shear wave angle.
22. @ The product of the acoustic velocity of sound in a material
and the density of the material is the factor that determines the
amount of reflection or transmission of ultrasonic energy when it
reaches an interface. This term is called:
\ a
| A. Acoustic impedance
| B. Velocity
| C. Wave length
| D. Penetration
^ A. Excellent
^ B. No, z=velocity * density
^ C. No, z=velocity * density
^ D. No, "how deep in a material on sound waves propagate"
defines penetration.
23. @ Ultrasonic waves that travel along the surface of a material and
whose particle motion is elliptical are called:
\ d
| A. Shear waves
| B. Transverse waves
| C. Longitudinal waves
| D. Rayleigh waves
^ A. No, particle motion is transverse to the propagation
direction.
^ B. No, particle motion is transverse to the propagation
direction.
^ C. No, particle motion is parallel to the propagation
direction.
^ D. Super! You are correct.
24. @ The interference field near the face of a transducer is often
referred to as the:
\ a
| A. Fresnel zone.
| B. Acoustic impedance.
| C. Exponential field.
| D. Phasing zone.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, acoustic impedance is a product of density and velocity.
^ C. Sorry! There is no such term in Ultrasonic Testing.
^ D. Sorry! There is no such term in Ultrasonic Testing.
25. @ When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and
second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave mode within the part
will be a:
\ b
| A. Longitudinal wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Lamb wave
^ A. No, longitudinal waves are not present.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, surface waves are not present.
^ D. No, lamb waves are not present.
26. @ The formula used to calculate the angle of refraction within a
material is called:
\ c
| A. Fresnel's law
| B. Fraunhofer's law
| C. Snell's law
| D. Lamb's law
^ A. Sorry! There is no such term in UT.
^ B. Sorry! There is no such term in UT.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! There is no such term in UT.
27. @ In a material with a given velocity, when frequency is increased,
the wavelength will:
\ c
| A. Not be effected
| B. Increase
| C. Decrease
| D. Double
^ A. No, velocity is a product of frequency and wavelength.
^ B. No, velocity is a product of frequency and wavelength.
^ C. You are correct
^ D. No, velocity is a product of frequency and wavelength.
28. @ Which circuits electronically amplify return signals from the
receiving transducer and often modify the signals into a form
suitable for display?
\ d
| A. Pulser circuits
| B. Marker circuits
| C. Timer circuits
| D. Receiver-amplifier circuits
^ A. No, pulser circuit excites the transducer to send ultrasonic
signals.
^ B. No, please try harder.
^ C. No, please try harder.
^ D. You are correct.
29. @ What is the most common type of data display used for ultrasonic
examination of welds?
\ a
| A. An A-scan display
| B. A B-scan display
| C. A C-scan display
| D. An x-y plot
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No, modern computer based systems can display B-scan.
^ C. No, however modern computer based systems can display
C-scan.
^ D. No, UT uses A, B, or C-scan.
30. @ Which is a plot of signal amplitude versus time?
\ a
| A. An A-scan display
| B. A B-scan display
| C. A C-scan display
| D. None of the above
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. No, B-scan displays position vs. distance (side view).
^ C. No, C-scan displays a plan view.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
@ Which circuits modify the return signal from the receiving
transducer into a form suitable for display on an oscilloscope or
other output device?
\ b
| A. Pulser
| B. Receiver-amplifier
| C. Clock
| D. Sweep
^ A. No, pulser circuit excites the transducer to send ultrasonic
signals.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
31. @ Which circuit generates a burst of energy which is applied to
the sending transducer?
\ a
| A. Pulser
| B. Receiver-amplifier
| C. Damping
| D. Clock
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, Receiver-amplifier modifies return signal for display.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. No, clock coordinates operation of the entire UT system.
32. @ Which circuit coordinates operation of the entire ultrasonic
instrument system?
\ c
| A. Damping
| B. Receiver-amplifier
| C. Clock
| D. Power supply
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. No, Receiver-amplifier modifies return signal for display.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Incorrect. Please try again.
33. @ A plan view display or recording of a part under examination
is called:
\ a
| A. A C-scan display.
| B. An A-scan display.
| C. An X-axis plot.
| D. A strip chart recording.
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. No, A-scan displays time vs. amplitude.
^ C. No such plot exists in Ultrasonic Testing.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
34. @ Ultrasonic data which is presented in a form representative of
the cross-section of the test specimen is called:
\ b
| A. An A-scan presentation.
| B. A B-scan presentation.
| C. A C-scan presentation.
| D. An X-Y plot.
^ A. No, A-scan displays time vs. amplitude.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, C-scan displays plan view.
^ D. No, such plot exists in Ultrasonic Testing.
35. @ What type of ultrasonic examination uses wheel-type search units
that eliminate the use of a tank?
\ d
| A. Through transmission testing.
| B. Contact testing.
| C. Resonance testing.
| D. Immersion testing.
^ A. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect. The key words are
"eliminate use of a tank.
^ B. Sorry! Youranswer is incorrect. The key words are
"eliminate use of a tank.
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect. The key words are
"eliminate use of a tank.
^ D. Outstanding!
36. @ In addition to other functions, a probe manipulator in a
mechanical immersion scanning unit permits:
\ c
| A. Use of the through transmission technique.
| B. Use of high scanning speeds.
| C. Detection of obliquely-oriented discontinuities.
| D. Utilization of less skilled operators.
^ A. No, a through transmission requires two manipulators.
^ B. No, this is not always the case.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, a probe manipulator has little to do with an operator's
skills.
@ A type of data presentation most likely to be used with a high
speed automatic scanning system is:
\ c
| A. An A-scan presentation.
| B. A velocity versus amplitude plot.
| C. A C-scan presentation.
| D. A plot of echo height versus depth.
^ A. No, it is difficult to interpret A-scan's at high speed.
^ B. There is no such plot in Ultrasonic Testing.
^ C. Excellent
^ D. No, this is incorrect.
37. @ The component in a conventional immersion system which spans
the width of the immersion tank is called:
\ b
| A. An articulator.
| B. A bridge.
| C. A manipulator.
| D. A search tube.
^ A. No, an articulator lets you angulate the search unit.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, a manipulator provides angulation facility.
^ D. No, a search tube allows for changing water path.
38. @ Which component in an ultrasonic immersion system is used to
adjust and maintain a known transducer angle?
\ b
| A. A carriage
| B. A manipulator
| C. A search tube
| D. An index system
^ A. No, a carriage allows movement in the x and y directions.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, a search tube is used for changing water path.
^ D. No, this answer is not correct.
39. @ An amplitude type gate is necessary for all:
\ c
| A. Shear wave examinations.
| B. Longitudinal wave examinations.
| C. Automatic examinations.
| D. Manual examinations.
^ A. No, most shear exams are manual.
^ B. No, gates are useful for high speed data acquisition and
recording.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, gates are useful for high speed data acquisition and
recording.
40. @ When a C-scan recording is used to produce a permanent record
of an ultrasonic test, the information displayed is typically the:
\ d
| A. Discontinuity depth and size.
| B. Discontinuity depth, orientation, and size.
| C. Discontinuity location and depth.
| D. Discontinuity location and size (plan view).
^ A. No, a C-scan does not provide depth information.
^ B. No, a C-scan does not provide depth information.
^ C. No, a C-scan does not provide depth information.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
41. @ Rough entry surface conditions can result in:
\ c
| A. A loss of echo amplitude from discontinuities.
| B. An increase in the width of the front surface echo.
| C. Both A and B.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Although you are close, consider what happens to the front
surface echo.
^ B. Although you are close, consider what happens to the signal
amplitude.
^ C. Super! You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer choice.
42. @ As the grain size increases in a material, its principal effect
in ultrasonic testing is on:
\ b
| A. The velocity of sound.
| B. The attenuation.
| C. The acoustic impedance.
| D. The angle of refraction.
^ A. No, velocity depends on modulus of elasticity and density.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, in theory, grain size has no affect on acoustic
impedance.
^ D. No, in theory, grain size has no affect on the angle of
refraction.
43. @ In straight beam pulse echo testing a discontinuity with a
rough reflecting surface perpendicular to the incident wave will
have what effect on the detected signal in comparison to a smooth
flat-bottom hole of the same size?
\ b
| A. Increase it.
| B. Decrease it.
| C. Have no effect on it.
| D. Decrease the width of the pulse of it.
^ A. No, surface roughness will scatter sound energy.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, surface roughness will scatter sound energy.
^ D. No, surface roughness will scatter sound energy.
44. @ Ultrasonic vibrations can be propagated only in the longitudinal
mode in which of the following media?
\ a
| A. Machine oil
| B. Aluminum
| C. Ice
| D. Beryllium
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. No, In metals, L-waves as well as other types of waves
will be generated.
^ C. No, solids support longitudinal as well as other types of
waves.
^ D. No, solids support longitudinal as well as other types of
waves.
45. @ If the velocity of a longitudinal mode wave in a given
homogeneous material is .625 cm/micro sec. at 1/2 inch below the
surface, what is the velocity at 2 inches below the surface?
\ c
| A. 1/4 the velocity at 1/2 inch.
| B. 1/2 the velocity at 1/2 inch.
| C. The same as the velocity at 1/2 inch.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Incorrect, velocity is a function of modulus and density.
^ B. Incorrect, velocity is a function of modulus and density.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer choice.
46. @ If a 5.0 MHz transducer is substituted for a 2.25 MHz transducer,
what would be the effect on the wavelength of a longitudinal mode
wave produced in the test specimen?
\ b
| A. The wavelength would be longer.
| B. The wavelength would remain constant.
| C. The wavelength would be shorter.
| D. The wavelength would vary directly with the acoustic
impedance.
^ A. No, not according to c=frequency x wavelength.
^ B. No, not according to c=frequency x wavelength.
^ C. Very good!
^ D. No, think about the formula c=frequency x wavelength.
47. @ What can cause irrelevant indications on the cathode ray tube?
\ d
| A. Contoured surfaces
| B. Edge effects
| C. Surface conditions
| D. All of the above
^ A. Although you are partially correct, there are also other
irregularities that produce an identical affect.
^ B. Although you are partially correct, there are also other
irregularities that produce an identical affect.
^ C. Although you are partially correct, there are also other
irregularities that produce an identical affect.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
48. @ The proper interpretation and evaluation of the presented defect
signals are essential to any nondestructive test. A common method
for the estimation of defect size is the use of a:
\ d
| A. Double transducer test
| B. Piezoelectric standard
| C. Mode conversion
| D. Reference standard
^ A. No, calibration and/or standards are required.
^ B. Sorry! This is an incorrect answer. longitudinal, shear
waves etc.
^ C. No, mode conversion describes incident wave converting
into longitudinal shear waves etc.
^ D. Outstanding!
49. @ Another name for Fresnel Zone is:
\ b
| A. Fraunhofer Zone
| B. Near Field
| C. Far Field
| D. Torrid Zone
^ A. No, a fraunhofer zone is the exact opposite.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, a far field is the opposite of a fresnel zone.
^ D. No, there is no such zone in Ultrasonic testing.
50. @ Attenuation is a:
\ b
| A. Test display characteristic.
| B. Test material parameter.
| C. Transducer characteristic.
| D. Form of testing.
^ A. No, attenuation depends on grain size, anisotropy, etc.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, attenuation depends on grain size, anisotropy, etc.
^ D. No, attenuation depends on grain size, anisotropy, etc.
51. @ For discontinuity geometries other than flat, the echo
amplitude is usually ____________ from that observed for a flat
defect, of similar orientation perpendicular to the sound beams.
\ c
| A. Identical
| B. Increased
| C. Decreased
| D. Elongated
^ A. No, reflector shape change will change the signal amplitude.
^ B. No, there is more dispersion from other than the flat
reflector.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, amplitude should increase or decrease. Elongated
amplitude has no meaning.
52. @ What must be done to evaluate discontinuities that are oriented
at an angle to the entry surface so that the sound beam will strike
the plane of the discontinuity at right angles?
\ c
| A. Change the frequency
| B. Grind the surface
| C. Angulate the search unit
| D. Increase the gain
^ A. No, consider the case where the sound beam is perpendicular
to the discontinuity.
^ B. No, surface grinding can only help if there is surface
roughness.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, this won't help in this case. Consider the case where
the sound beam is perpendicular to the discontinuity.
53. @ The pulser circuit in an ultrasonic instrument is used to:
\ b
| A. Control the horizontal and vertical sweep.
| B. Activate the transducer.
| C. Control transducer timing between transmit and sweep.
| D. Generate markers that appear on horizontal sweep.
^ A. No, how do you energize the search unit?
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, how do you energize the search unit?
^ D. No, how do you energize the search unit?
54. @ An A-scan CRT display which shows a signal both above and below
the sweep line is called a:
\ b
| A. Video display
| B. RF display
| C. Audio display
| D. Frequency modulated display
^ A. No, video display shows signals above the sweep line.
^ B. Excellent!
^ C. No, Audio-means "which can be heard.
^ D. Sorry!! You've answered incorrectly.
55. @ A B-scan display shows the relative:
\ b
| A. Distance a discontinuity is from the transducer and its
through- dimension thickness.
| B. Distance a discontinuity is from the transducer and its
length in the direction of transducer travel.
| C. Cross-sectional area of a discontinuity above a
predetermined amplitude.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, but you are close.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! You have answered incorrectly.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
56. @ Surface (Rayleigh) waves traveling on the top face of a block:
\ b
| A. Are not reflected from a sharp edge corner.
| B. Are reflected from a sharp edge corner.
| C. Travel through the sharp edge corner and are reflected
from the lower edge.
| D. Are absorbed by a sharp corner.
^ A. Sorry! Any surface discontinuity will reflect Rayleigh
waves.
^ B. You are right.
^ C. No, any surface discontinuity will reflect signals.
^ D. No, any surface discontinuity will reflect signals.
57. @ Surface (Rayleigh) waves traveling on the top face of a block
are attenuated by the presence of:
\ d
| A. A curved surface
| B. A heavy couplant
| C. Machining marks and rough surfaces.
| D. Both B and C
^ A. No, Rayleigh waves are not attenuated by a curved surface.
^ B. Yes, but there are factors too.
^ C. You are close! Try again.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
58. @ The velocity of sound in a material is dependent upon the:
\ c
| A. Frequency of the wave
| B. Wavelength
| C. Material properties
| D. Vibration cycle
^ A. No, in most materials velocity is independent of frequency.
^ B. Wavelength=Velocity/frequency.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
59. @ To vary or change the wavelength of sound being used to test a
part, you would change the:
\ a
| A. Sound wave frequency.
| B. Diameter of the transducer.
| C. Electrical pulse voltage.
| D. Pulse repetition rate.
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. No, changing diameters of transducers will only change
beam spread.
^ C. No, electrical pulse voltage will only change penetration.
^ D. No, pulse repetition rate means how often you pulse the
transducer, it has nothing to do with wavelength.
60. @ Ultrasonic vibrations are commonly used to:
\ d
| A. Examine materials for discontinuities.
| B. Examine materials for thickness.
| C. Examine materials for mechanical properties.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but Ultrasonics can do much more.
^ B. True, but Ultrasonics can do much more.
^ C. True, but Ultrasonics can do much more.
^ D. Super!
61. @ Which of the following has the longest Fresnel zone?
\ d
| A. 1/2-inch diameter 1.0 MHz.
| B. 1/2-inch diameter 2.25 MHz.
| C. 1-1/8-inch diameter 1.0 MHz.
| D. 1-1/2-inch diameter 2.0 MHz.
^ A. No, N=(diameter square/(4*wave length))
^ B. No, N=(diameter square/(4*wave length))
^ C. No, N=(diameter square/(4*wave length))
^ D. You are correct.
62. @ When contact testing, if the ultrasonic instrument is set with
an excessively high pulse repetition rate, which of the following
may occur?
\ D
| A. The screen trace will become too light to see.
| B. The time-base line will become distorted.
| C. The initial pulse will disappear.
| D. Ghost or "phantom" indications will appear on screen during
scanning.
^ A. No, trace is light if pulse repetition rate is too slow.
^ B. No, high gain distorts time base line.
^ C. No. Try harder.
^ D. Exactly!
63. @ The advantages of immersion testing include which of the
following?
\ d
| A. Inspection speed increased.
| B. Ability to control and direct sound beams.
| C. Adaptability for automated scanning.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but there are other advantages too.
^ B. True, but there are other advantages too.
^ C. True, but there are other advantages too.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
64. @ Longitudinal wave velocity in water is approximately
one-fourth the velocity in aluminum or steel. Therefore the
minimum water path should be:
\ c
| A. Four times the test piece thickness.
| B. One-half the test piece thickness.
| C. One-fourth the test piece thickness plus 1/4 inch.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry, you answer is incorrect.
^ C. Super!
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
65. @ In immersion testing a wetting agent is added to the water to:
\ b
| A. Adjust the viscosity.
| B. Help eliminate the formation of air bubbles.
| C. Prevent cloudiness.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, the wetting agent is added to improve the impedance
match.
^ B. Super!
^ C. No, the wetting agent is added to improve the impedance
match.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
66. @ The indication on the cathode ray tube(CRT) which represents
the far boundary of the material being tested is called:
\ d
| A. Hash
| B. The initial pause
| C. The "main bang"
| D. The back surface reflection
^ A. Hash is due to electronic noise and scattering from grains.
^ B. In ultrasonic terminology there is no such thing. The
closest will be initial pulse.
^ C. "Main Bang" is the initial pulse or voltage pulse which
excites the transducer.
^ D. You are absolutely correct!
67. @ In immersion testing, the position of the search unit is often
varied to transmit sound into the test part at various angles to
the front surface. Such a procedure is referred to as:
\ a
| A. Angulation.
| B. Dispersion.
| C. Reflection testing.
| D. Refraction.
^ A. You are correct!
^ B. Dispersion, simply put, could be called beam broadening.
The other three choices, in this case, are more relevant.
^ C. No, Reflection occurs when a sound beam is reflected.
^ D. Although you are close, this is not the correct answer.
68. @ The cable that connects the ultrasonic instrument to the search
unit is specially designed so that one conductor is centered inside
another. The technical name for such a cable is:
\ c
| A. BX cable
| B. Conduit
| C. Coaxial cable
| D. Ultrasonic conductor cable-grade 20
^ A. Are you guessing? This answer is not applicable at all.
Reread the choices and try again.
^ B. Sorry, Conduits are hollow from the inside.
^ C. Yes, the coaxial cable is the right answer.
^ D. There exists no such cable. Are you guessing?
69. @ The process of comparing an instrument or device with a
standard is called:
\ b
| A. Angulation
| B. Calibration
| C. Attenuation
| D. Correlation
^ A. No, Angulation is a testing procedure in which sound is
transmitted at various angles.
^ B. Yes, the process is called calibration.
^ C. No, attenuation shows up as a decrease in signal amplitude.
^ D. Good guess, but wrong answer.
70. @ Another name for a compressional wave is:
\ c
| A. Lamb wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Longitudinal wave
| D. Transverse wave
^ A. No, particle motion with respect to wave direction defines
the type of wave.
^ B. No, in compression wave particle motion and direction of
wave propagation are parallel.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, in compression wave particle motion and direction of
wave propagation are parallel.
71. @ A second name for Rayleigh waves is:
\ d
| A. Shear waves
| B. Longitudinal waves
| C. Transverse waves
| D. Surface waves
^ A. No, in Rayleigh waves particle motion is elliptical.
^ B. No, in Rayleigh waves particle motion is elliptical.
^ C. No, in Rayleigh waves particle motion is elliptical.
^ D. You're absolutely correct.
72. @ A material used between the face of a search unit and the test
surface to permit or improve the transmission of ultrasonic
vibrations from the search unit to the material being tested is
called:
\ b
| A. A wetting agent
| B. A couplant
| C. An acoustic transmitter
| D. A lubricant
^ A. No, wetting agent is used to reduce surface tension so that
fluid spreads over the surface.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. No, lubricant is used for reducing friction.
73. @ The piezoelectric material in a search unit which vibrates to
produce ultrasonic waves is called:
\ c
| A. A backing material
| B. A lucite wedge
| C. A transducer element or crystal
| D. A couplant
^ A. No, backing material is behind the piezoelectric material.
^ B. No, wedge is in front of piezoelectric material.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! Couplant is used to improve or permit transmission
of ultrasound.
74. @ Ultrasonic testing of material where the search unit is in
direct contact with the material being tested may be:
\ d
| A. Straight beam testing
| B. Surface wave testing
| C. Angle beam testing
| D. All of the above
^ A. You are partially correct, but surface wave and angle beam
testing could also be done.
^ B. You are partially correct, but straight beam and angle beam
testing could also be done.
^ C. You are partially correct, but straight beam and surface
beam testing could also be done.
^ D. You are correct.
75. @ An advantage of using lithium sulfate in search units it that:
\ b
| A. It is one of the most efficient generators of ultrasonic
energy.
| B. It is one of the most efficient receivers of ultrasonic
energy.
| C. It is insoluble.
| D. It can withstand temperatures as high as 700 degrees
celsius.
^ A. Barium titanate is the most efficient generator.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Most piezoelectric crystals are insoluble. (i.e. do not
dissolve in water or couplant.)
^ D. None of the crystals can withstand such high temperature.
76. @ Which of the following search units would contain the thinnest
quartz crystal?
\ d
| A. A 1-MHz search unit
| B. A 5-MHz search unit
| C. A 15-MHz search unit
| D. A 25-MHz search unit
^ A. Crystal thickness is inversely proportional to frequency.
^ B. Crystal thickness is inversely proportional to frequency.
^ C. Crystal thickness is inversely proportional to frequency.
^ D. You are correct.
77. @ A 25-megahertz search unit would most likely be used during:
\ b
| A. Straight beam contact testing.
| B. Immersion testing.
| C. Angle beam contact testing.
| D. Surface wave contact testing.
^ A. In contact testing frequencies, up to 10 MHz are normally
used.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. In angle beam contact testing frequencies up to 10 MHz are
normally used.
^ D. In surface wave testing, frequencies up to 10 MHz are
normally used.
78. @ The amount of beam divergence from a crystal is primarily
dependent on the:
\ c
| A. Type of test
| B. Tightness of crystal backing in the search unit
| C. Frequency and crystal size
| D. Pulse length
^ A. No, relation between beam angle of divergence is determined
from wavelength divided by crystal diameter.
^ B. No, relation between beam angle of divergence is determined
from wavelength divided by crystal diameter.
^ C. Outstanding!
^ D. No, relation between beam angle of divergence is determined
from wavelength divided by crystal diameter.
79. @ When an ultrasonic beam passes through the interface between two
dissimilar materials at an angle, a new angle of sound travel takes
place in the second material due to:
\ d
| A. Attenuation
| B. Rarefaction
| C. Compression
| D. Refraction
^ A. No, attenuation depends on frequency of testing.
^ B. No, rarefaction and compression describe the way in which
longitudinal waves propagate.
^ C. No, rarefaction and compression describe the way in which
longitudinal waves propagate.
^ D. You've got it.
80. @ The velocity of surface waves is approximately ________ the
velocity of shear waves in the same material.
\ d
| A. Two times
| B. Four times
| C. One-half
| D. Nine-tenths
^ A. No, surface waves travel slower than shear waves.
^ B. No, surface waves travel slower than shear waves.
^ C. No, but you are close.
^ D. Outstanding!
81. @ Under most circumstances, which of the following frequencies
would result in the best resolving power?
\ d
| A. 1 megahertz
| B. 5 megahertz
| C. 10 megahertz
| D. 25 megahertz
^ A. No, resolution is directly proportional to frequency.
^ B. No, resolution is directly proportional to frequency.
^ C. No, resolution is directly proportional to frequency.
^ D. You're right.
82. @ Which of the following materials of the same alloy is most likely
to produce the greatest amount of sound attenuation over a given
distance?
\ b
| A. A hand forging
| B. A coarse grained casting
| C. An extrusion
| D. The attenuation is equal in all materials
^ A. No, the closer the grain particles, the smaller the
attenuation.
^ B. Absolutely right.
^ C. No, the closer the grain particles, the smaller the
attenuation.
^ D. No, this is incorrect. It depends on the material and how
it was fabricated.
83. @ In contact testing, the entry surface indication is sometimes
referred to as:
\ c
| A. The initial pulse
| B. The "main bang" or transmitter pulse
| C. Both A and B
| D. None of the above
^ A. Even though this is one answer, there is also another name
for it.
^ B. Even though this is one answer, there is also another name
for it.
^ C. Outstanding!
^ D. No. All choices listed are at least partially correct.
84. @ A screen pattern containing a large number of low-level
indications (often referred to as "hash") could be caused by:
\ c
| A. A crack
| B. A large inclusion
| C. Coarse grained material
| D. A gas pocket
^ A. No, a crack should give a single, relatively large,
indication.
^ B. No, a large inclusion should give a single, relatively
large, indication.
^ C. That is correct.
^ D. No, a gas pocket should give a single, relatively large,
indication.
85. @ A test method employing two separate search units on opposite
surfaces of the material being tested is called:
\ c
| A. Contact testing
| B. Surface wave testing
| C. Through-transmission testing
| D. Lamb wave testing
^ A. No, in contact testing, a search unit is in contact with
the material.
^ B. No, in surface wave testing, if two search units are used,
they will both be on the same side.
^ C. Absolutely right.
^ D. No, in Lamb wave testing, if two search units are used,
they will both be on the same side.
86. @ The number of complete waves which pass a given point in a
given period of time (usually one second) is referred to as the:
\ c
| A. Amplitude of a wave motion
| B. Pulse length of a wave motion
| C. Frequency of a wave motion
| D. Wavelength of a wave motion
^ A. No, for measuring amplitude, you do not count the number
of waves.
^ B. No, for measuring pulse length, you do not count the
number, but the duration.
^ C. Outstanding!
^ D. No, although you are close, the units being asked are per
second. Wavelength has units of distance.
87. @ The boundary between two different materials which are in contact
with each other is called:
\ c
| A. A rarefactor
| B. A refractor
| C. An interface
| D. A marker
^ A. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
88. @ When the motion of the particles of a medium is parallel to the
direction of propagation, the wave being transmitted is called a:
\ a
| A. Longitudinal wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Lamb wave
^ A. Excellent
^ B. No, particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of
propagation.
^ C. No, for surface waves, particle motion is elliptical.
^ D. No, for lamb waves, particle motion is quite complex.
89. @ When the motion of the particles of a medium is transverse to
the direction of propagation, the wave being transmitted is called
a:
\ b
| A. Longitudinal wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Lamb wave
^ A. No, for longitudinal waves, particle motion is parallel to
the direction of propagation.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, for surface waves, particle motion is elliptical.
^ D. No, for lamb waves, particle motion is quite complex.
90. @ "25 million cycles per second" can also be stated as:
\ c
| A. 25 kilohertz
| B. 2500 kilohertz
| C. 25 megahertz
| D. 25 microhertz
^ A. "Kilo" means thousand. i.e. 25 KHz = 25000 cycles per
second.
^ B. "Kilo" means thousand. i.e. 2500 KHz = 2500000 cycles per
sec. 2.5 MHz where M = Mega = Million.
^ C. Absolutely right.
^ D. "micro" means 1 exp -6. (.000001) This selection is
irrelevant.
91. @ Moving a search unit over a test surface either manually or
automatically is referred to as:
\ a
| A. Scanning
| B. Attenuating
| C. Angulating
| D. Resonating
^ A. Super
^ B. No, choice b is wrong. Try again.
^ C. No, choice c is wrong. Try again.
^ D. No, choice d is wrong. Try again.
92. @ A term used in ultrasonics to express the rate at which sound
waves pass through various substances is:
\ b
| A. Frequency
| B. Velocity
| C. Wave length
| D. Pulse length
^ A. No, frequency is number of oscillations per second.
^ B. Outstanding!
^ C. No, units of wavelength are same as that of distance. The
question is asking for the rate.
^ D. No, units of pulse length are second.
93. @ When a vertical indication has reached the maximum signal height
which can be displayed or viewed on the CRT of an ultrasonic
instrument, the indication is said to have reached its:
\ c
| A. Distance-amplitude height
| B. Absorption level
| C. Vertical level
| D. Limit to resolution
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. No, in UT what does absorption level mean? Think harder
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, resolution is related to pulse duration and beam width.
94. @ An ultrasonic testing technique in which the transducer element
is not parallel to the test surface is called:
\ a
| A. Angle beam testing
| B. Immersion testing
| C. Contact testing
| D. Through-transmission testing
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, in immersion testing part, transducer is submerged in
a liquid. Element may or may not be at an angle.
^ C. No, contact testing includes straight and angle beam
testing.
^ D. No, in through-transmission, transducers are on opposite
sides of the material.
95. @ Most commercial ultrasonic testing is accomplished using
frequencies between:
\ b
| A. 1 and 25 kilohertz
| B. 0.2 and 25 megahertz
| C. 1 and 1,000 kilohertz
| D. 15 and 100 megahertz
^ A. No, this is not even in the ultrasonic range. You can only
hear up to 20 KHz frequency range.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, you are closer towards the low frequency end.
^ D. No, this is mostly used for NDT research.
96. @ In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal base line represents
the:
\ c
| A. Amount of reflected ultrasonic sound energy
| B. Distance traveled by the search unit
| C. Elapsed time or distance
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, this is not on horizontal baseline but on the vertical.
^ B. No, in A-scan either you see amount of reflected energy or
elapsed time or elapsed distance.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer for this question.
97. @ Which of the following test frequencies would generally provide
the best penetration in a 12-inch thick specimen of coarse- grained
steel?
\ a
| A. 1.0 MHz
| B. 2.25 MHz
| C. 5.0 MHz
| D. 10 MHz
^ A. Outstanding!
^ B. No, lower the frequency, the higher the penetration.
^ C. No, lower the frequency, the higher the penetration.
^ D. No, the lower the frequency, the higher the penetration.
98. @ In a basic ultrasonic test pattern (A-scan) for contact testing,
the initial pulse (assume no sweep delay is used):
\ a
| A. Is the high indication on the extreme left side of the
screen that represents the entry surface of the inspected
part.
| B. Is the first pulse that occurs near the right side of the
screen and represents the opposite boundary of the inspected
part.
| C. Is an indication that appears and disappears during
screening.
| D. Is always the second pulse from the left on the viewing
screen.
^ A. Excellent!
^ B. No, this is back surface reflection.
^ C. No, defect signals appear and disappear. Initial pulse is
always there.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
99. @ An ultrasonic test using a straight beam contact search unit
is being conducted through the thickness of a flat part such as a
plate. This test should detect:
\ a
| A. Laminar-type flaws with major dimensions parallel to the
rolled surface.
| B. Transverse-type flaws with major dimensions at right angles
to the rolled surface.
| C. Radial flaws with major dimensions along length, but
radially oriented to the rolled surface.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Super!
^ B. No, the golden rule of ultrasonics, "Always impinge the
flaw so that maximum energy is reflected back, i.e.
perpendicular to flow.
^ C. No, the golden rule of ultrasonics, "Always impinge the
flaw so that maximum energy is reflected back,i.e.
perpendicular to flow.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
100. @ In ultrasonic testing, a liquid coupling medium between the
crystal surface and the part surface is necessary because:
\ b
| A. Lubricant is required to minimize wear on the crystal
surface.
| B. An air interface between the crystal surface and the part
surface would almost completely reflect the ultrasonic
vibrations.
| C. The crystal will not vibrate if placed directly in contact
with the surface of the part being inspected.
| D. The liquid is necessary to complete the electrical circuit
in the search unit.
^ A. No, it is important to maximize coupling.
^ B. Excellent!
^ C. Not correct. Only energy will not be transmitted into the
part.
^ D. Incorrect. Only energy will not be transmitted into the
part.
101. @ Entry surface resolution is a characteristic of an ultrasonic
testing system which defines its ability to:
\ d
| A. Detect discontinuities oriented in a direction parallel to
the ultrasonic beam.
| B. Detect discontinuities located in the center of a forging
containing a fine metallurgic structure.
| C. Detect minute surface scratches.
| D. Detect discontinuities located just beneath the entry
surface in the part being tested.
^ A. No, entry surface resolution is related to "main bang" and
its duration.
^ B. No, entry surface resolution is related to "main bang" and
its duration.
^ C. No, entry surface resolution is related to "main bang" and
its duration.
^ D. Super!
102. @ During ultrasonic testing by the immersion method, it is
frequently necessary to angulate the search unit when a
discontinuity is located in order to:
\ b
| A. Avoid a large number of back reflections that could
interfere with a normal test pattern.
| B. Obtain a maximum response if the discontinuity is not
originally oriented perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam.
| C. Obtain the maximum number of entry surface reflections.
| D. Obtain a discontinuity indication of the same height as
the indication from the flat-bottomed hole in a reference
block.
^ A. No, this could be done by adjusting time base, sweep
control etc.
^ B. Super! You are absolutely correct.
^ C. Sorry! Think again.
^ D. No, in UT, you always try to get maximum amplitude signal.
103.
@ All other factors being equal, which of the following modes of
vibration has the greatest velocity?
\ d
| A. Shear wave
| B. Transverse wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Longitudinal wave
^ A. No, compressional waves travel the fastest.
^ B. No, compressional waves travel the fastest.
^ C. No, compressional waves travel the fastest.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
104. @ On the area-amplitude ultrasonic standard test blocks, the
flat- bottomed holes in the blocks are:
\ b
| A. All of the same diameter
| B. Different in diameter, increasing by 1/64-inch increments
from the No. "1" block to the No. "8" block.
| C. Largest in the No. "1" block and smallest in the No. "8"
block.
| D. Drilled to different depths from the front surface of the
test block.
^ A. No, they have different diameters.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, this is incorrect.
^ D. No, they have different diameters.
105. @ In immersion testing, verification that the search unit is
normal to a flat entry surface is indicated by:
\ a
| A. Maximum reflection from the entry surface
| B. Elimination of water multiples
| C. Proper wavelength
| D. Maximum amplitude of the initial pulse
^ A. Excellent!! You are correct.
^ B. No, by eliminating water multiples you cannot be assured
that the search unit is normal.
^ C. No, this does not assure normality.
^ D. No, this does not assure normality.
106. @ Sound waves of a frequency beyond the hearing range of the
human ear are referred to as ultrasonic waves or vibrations, and
the term embraces all vibrational waves of frequency greater than
approximately:
\ a
| A. 20,000 hertz
| B. 2 megahertz
| C. 2 kilohertz
| D. 200 kilohertz
^ A. Super! You are right.
^ B. No, ultrasonic range starts at lower frequency.
^ C. No, this is within the hearing range.
^ D. No, ultrasonic range starts at lower frequency.
107. @ The velocity of sound waves is primarily dependent on:
\ c
| A. The pulse length
| B. The frequency
| C. The material in which the sound is being transmitted and
the mode of vibration
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, velocity has nothing to do with the pulse length.
^ B. No, velocity is independent of frequency and depends on
modulus and density.
^ C. Outstanding!
^ D. No, think again.
108. @ A disadvantage of using natural quartz crystals in a search
unit is that:
\ b
| A. It will dissolve in water.
| B. It is the least effective generator of ultrasonic energy
of all commonly used materials.
| C. It is mechanically and electrically unstable.
| D. It easily loses it operating characteristics as it ages.
^ A. No, this is not a problem. How do you make the best
transducers.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, generation and reception are the main concerns.
^ D. No, generation and reception are the main concerns.
109. @ An advantage of using a ceramic transducer in search units is
that:
\ a
| A. It is one of the most efficient generators of ultrasonic
energy.
| B. It is one of the most efficient receivers of ultrasonic
energy.
| C. It has a very low mechanical impedance.
| D. It can withstand temperatures as high as 700 degrees
celsius.
^ A. Absolutely correct.
^ B. No, quartz is a better receiver than many ceramic
transducers.
^ C. No, generation and reception are most important factors.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
110. @ The primary purpose of reference blocks is to:
\ c
| A. Aid the operator in obtaining maximum back reflections.
| B. Obtain the greatest sensitivity possible from an instrument.
| C. Obtain a common reproducible signal.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, reference blocks are used to establish some sort of
reference comparison.
^ B. No, reference blocks are used to establish some sort of
reference comparison.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, reference blocks are used to establish some sort of
reference comparison.
111. @ When testing by the surface wave method, patches of oil or dirt
on the surface may:
\ d
| A. Block the progress of all sound.
| B. Attenuate the sound.
| C. Have no effect on the test.
| D. Cause both an attenuation of sound and indications on the
screen.
^ A. Yes, but shouldn't there be an indication on screen because
of patches of oil or dirt.
^ B. Close, but there is more to it.
^ C. No, in surface wave testing the surface must be clean.
^ D. Super! You are absolutely correct.
112. @ In immersion testing, the most commonly used couplant is:
\ a
| A. Water
| B. Oil
| C. Glycerine
| D. Alcohol
^ A. Excellent
^ B. No, the choice of couplant is based on many factors
including affect on material, wetting properties, etc.
^ C. No, the choice of couplant is based on many factors
including affect on material, wetting properties, etc.
^ D. No, the choice of couplant is based on many factors
including affect on material, wetting properties, etc.
113. @ Which of the following frequencies will produce the shortest
wavelength pulse?
\ b
| A. 1.0 megahertz
| B. 25 megahertz
| C. 10 megahertz
| D. 5 megahertz
^ A. No, since c=frequency x wavelength, the larger the
frequency, the smaller the wavelength.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, since c=freq x wavelength, the higher the frequency,
the smaller the wavelength.
^ D. No, since c=freq x wavelength, the higher the frequency,
the smaller the wavelength.
114. @ The angle of incidence is:
\ c
| A. Greater than the angle of reflection
| B. Less than the angle of reflection
| C. Equal to the angle of reflection
| D. Not related to the angle of reflection
^ A. No, this is not possible according to Snell's law.
^ B. No, this is not possible according to Snell's law.
^ C. You're right.
^ D. No, the angle of reflection and the angle of incidence are
very much related.
115. @ On many ultrasonic testing instruments, an operator conducting
an immersion test can remove that portion of the screen
presentation that represents water distance by adjusting a:
\ c
| A. Pulse length control.
| B. Reject control.
| C. Sweep delay control.
| D. Sweep length control.
^ A. No, pulse length control will change pulse length, it
cannot remove anything from the screen.
^ B. No, the reject control is set up on the basis of signal
amplitude.
^ C. Absolutely correct.
^ D. No, but you are close. Sweep length will change number of
water multiples.
116. @ "100,000 cycles per second" can be written:
\ b
| A. 10 kilohertz
| B. 100 kilohertz
| C. 100 MHz
| D. 0.1 kilohertz.
^ A. "Kilo" means one thousand.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, One Megahertz means one million cycles/second.
^ D. No, the prefix kilo means one thousand.
117. @ A search unit with a frequency greater than 10 MHz will most
likely be used during:
\ d
| A. A straight beam contact test of aluminum ingot
| B. An angle beam contact test of a steel pipe
| C. A surface wave contact test of a metallic plate
| D. An immersion test
^ A. No, immersion tests are normally of higher frequency than
contact testing.
^ B. No, immersion tests are normally of higher frequency than
angle beam testing.
^ C. No, immersion tests are normally of higher frequency than
surface wave testing.
^ D. You've got it.
118.
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119.
ULTRASONICS TESTING LEVEL II
120.
@ Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for detecting discontinuities oriented along the
fusion zone in a welded plate
is:
\d
|A. An angle-beam contact method using surface waves.
|B. A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave.
|C. An immersion test using surface waves.
|D. An angle-beam method using shear waves.
^A. Sorry! The surface waves do not propagate through the
thickness of a thick plate.
^B. No, a straight zero degree test is not the best approach.
^C. Incorrect, surface waves do not propagate in immersion mode.
^D. You got it!
121. @ An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses
representing the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function
of time or depth of metal is said to contain:
\b
|A. A continuous wave display.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. Sorry, you are wrong.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, a B-scan presents a cross-sectional view.
^D. Sorry! The C-scan presents a plan view.
122. @ At a water-to-steel interface the angle of incidence in water
is 7 degrees. The principal mode of vibration that exists in the
steel is:
\c
|A. Longitudinal
|B. Shear
|C. Both A and B
|D. Surface
^A. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
Law.
^B. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
Law.
^C. You got it!
^D. Incorrect, apply Snell's law.
123. @ In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that exists is:
\a
|A. Longitudinal
|B. Shear
|C. Both A and B
|D. Surface
^A. You are correct.
^B. No, this mode does not exist in liquids.
^C. No, only one of the above exists in liquids.
^D. Sorry! Surface waves do not travel through the liquids.
124. @ In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by
an instrument in a given period of time is known as the:
\ d
|A. Pulse length of the instrument.
|B. Pulse recovery time.
|C. Frequency.
|D. Pulse repetition rate.
^A. No. Look at the units.
^B. No. Look at the units.
^C. Sorry! Frequency is related to the transducer.
^D. You are correct.
125. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component
that coordinates the action and timing of other components is
called a:
\d
|A. Display unit or CRT.
|B. Receiver.
|C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit.
|D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer.
^A. Sorry! Information is displayed on CRT.
^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies a signal.
^C. Sorry! Try again.
^D. Excellent!
126. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces the voltage that activates the search unit is called:
\c
|A. An amplifier
|B. A receiver
|C. Pulser
|D. A synchronizer
^A. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
^B. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
^C. You are absolutely correct.
^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
components.
127. @ In a basic-pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the voltage
producing component which activates the search unit is called:
\a
|A. Sweep circuit
|B. Receiver
|C. Pulser
|D. Synchronizer
^A. Excellent
^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
^C. Sorry! Pulser produces voltage that activates the search
unit.
^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
components.
128. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component
that produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure
distance is called a:
\b
|A. Sweep circuit
|B. Marker circuit
|C. Receiver circuit
|D. Synchronizer
^A. Sorry! Try again.
^B. You've got it.
^C. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
^D. Sorry! The synchronizer coordinates action and timing.
129. @ Most basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instruments use:
\b
|A. Automatic read-out equipment.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time dispplay.
^D. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
130. @ The cathode ray tube screen will display a plan view of the part
outline and defects when using:
\d
|A. Automatic read-out equipment.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. Incorrect. Try harder.
^B. Sorry! A-scan shows signal amplitude and time display.
^C. No, a B-scan shows a cross sectional view.
^D. You are right.
131. @ The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of
longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called:
\b
|A. The normal angles of incidence.
|B. The critical angles.
|C. The angles of maximum reflection.
|D. None of the above.
^A. No. The key word is "90 degrees refraction."
^B. You are correct.
^C. No. The key words are "90 degrees refraction."
^D. No. There is a correct answer.
132. @ Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to
the direction of propagation are called:
\a
|A. Longitudinal waves
|B. Shear waves
|C. Lamb waves
|D. Rayleigh waves
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! In this case, the particle displacement is
perpendicular.
^C. No, in this case, particle displacement is complex.
^D. No, in this case, particle displacement is elliptical.
133. @ Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly damped
out when testing by the immersion method?
\d
|A. Longitudinal waves
|B. Shear waves
|C. Transverse waves
|D. Surface waves
^A. No. Longitudinal waves travel through water.
^B. No. Shear waves travel through metal even though it is
immersed.
^C. No. Transverse waves travel through metal even though it is
immersed.
^D. You are correct.
134. @ The motion of particles in a shear wave is:
\b
|A. Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic
beam.
|B. Transverse to the direction of beam propagation.
|C. Limited to the material surface and elliptical in motion.
|D. Polarized in a plane at 45 degrees to the direction of beam
propagation.
^A. No, this defines the longitudinal waves.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, this defines the surface waves.
^D. Sorry! Please try again.
135. @ In contact testing, shear waves can be induced in the test
material by:
\d
|A. Placing a X-cut crystal directly on the surface of the
materials and coupling through a film of oil.
|B. Using two transducers on opposite sides of the test specimen.
|C. Placing a spherical acoustic lens on the face of the
transducer
|D. Using a transducer mounted on a plastic wedge so that sound
enters the part at an angle.
^A. No, this will generate longitudinal waves.
^B. No. This is through transmission testing.
^C. No, this will simply focus sound beam.
^D. You are correct.
136. @ As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of
beam divergence of a given diameter crystal:
\a
|A. Decreases.
|B. Remains unchanged.
|C. Increases.
|D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength.
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
^C. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
^D. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
137. @ Which of the following is not an advantage of contact
ultrasonic search units(probes) adapted with lucite shoes?
\c
|A. Eliminates most of the crystal wear.
|B. Permits adaptation to curved surfaces.
|C. Decreases sensitivity.
|D. Allows ultrasound to enter a part's surface at oblique angles.
^A. No, this is an advantage.
^B. No, this is an advantage.
^C. You are correct.
^D. No, this is an advantage.
138. @ In which medium listed below would the velocity of sound be
lowest?
\a
|A. Air
|B. Water
|C. Aluminum
|D. Stainless steel
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density. Liquids
generally have higher velocity than gases.
^C. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
^D. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
139. @ A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into
steel at an angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case the
refracted angle of the transverse wave is:
\a
|A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|B. Equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|C. Greater than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|D. Not present at all.
^A. You are right on target.
^B. No, apply Snell's law.
^C. No, think about Snell's law.
^D. No, you are incorrect.
140. @ The velocity of longitudinal waves will be highest in:
\c
|A. Water
|B. Air
|C. Aluminum
|D. Stainless steel
^A. Incorrect, generally have a higher velocity than the liquids.
^B. Incorrect, air has the lowest velocity.
^C. You got it.
^D. You are close but not quite right.
141. @ In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in which of the
following modes of vibration?
\ a
| A. Longitudinal
| B. Shear
| C. Surface waves.
| D. Sound velocity is identical in all modes, in a given
material.
^ A. You are right on target.
^ B. No, shear waves travel half as fast as longitudinal waves.
^ C. No, surface waves are slower than shear waves.
^ D. Sorry! Velocities are significantly different for
different wave modes.
142. @ The acoustic impedance is:
\ b
| A. Used to calculate the angle of reflection
| B. The product of the density of the material and the
velocity of sound in the material.
| C. Found by Snell's law
| D. Used to determine resonance values
^ A. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
^ B. You are right on target.
^ C. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
^ D. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
143. @ Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave directed
normal to the surface by observing:
\ b
| A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection.
| B. The multiple reflection pattern.
| C. All front surface reflections
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, front surface signal will have a considerable dead
zone.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. Sorry! Try again.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
144. @ A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are
shown by geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy by
lines and/or arrows is called a:
\ c
| A. Schematic diagram
| B. Blueprint
| C. Block diagram
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, schematic diagrams show electrical circuits.
^ B. Sorry! But you are real close. Try again.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
145. @ A hole produced during the solidification of metal due to
escaping gases is called:
\ d
| A. A burst
| B. A cold shut
| C. A flaking
| D. A blow hole
^ A. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ B. Sorry! A cold shut is caused by splashing, singing,
interrupted pouring etc.
^ C. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ D. You are right.

@ A discontinuity that occurs during the casting of molten metal
which may be caused by the splashing, surging, interrupted pouring,
or the meeting of two streams of metal coming from different
directions is called:
\ b
| A. A burst
| B. A cold shut.
| C. Flaking
| D. A blow hole
^ A. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ B. Great
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is wrong.
^ D. No, blow holes are produced by escaping gases.
146. @ The ratio between the wave speed in one material and the wave
speed in a second material is called:
\ d
| A. The acoustic impedance of the interface
| B. Young's modulus
| C. Poisson's ratio
| D. The index of refraction.
^ A. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry! Young's modulus is a ratio of stress and strain.
^ C. No, Poisson's ratio is a ratio of strains.
^ D. You got it.
147. @ The expansion and contraction of a magnetic material under the
influence of a changing magnetic field is referred to as:
\ c
| A. Piezoelectricity
| B. Refraction.
| C. Magnetostriction
| D. Rarefaction
^ A. Piezoelectricity is due to pressure or stress.
^ B. No, refraction is associated with transmission of sound
waves through a layered media.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinalwave
propagates through a material.
148. @ The ratio of stress to strain in a material within the elastic
limit is called:
\ c
| A. Young's modulus
| B. The Modulus of elasticity
| C. Both A and B
| D. The index of refraction
^ A. Yes, but another choice is also correct.
^ B. Yes, but another choice is also correct.
^ C. You are right on target.
^ D. Sorry! Index of refraction is ratio of wave speeds in two
adjacent materials.
149. @ A point, line, or surface of a vibrating body marked by absolute
or relative freedom from vibratory motion is referred to as:
\ a
| A. A node
| B. An antinode
| C. Rarefaction
| D. Compression
^ A. You are absolutely right.
^ B. Sorry! Amplitude of vibratory motion is largest in
antinodes.
^ C. Sorry! A longitudinal wave propagates by means of
"compression and rarefaction of material particles.
^ D. Sorry! A longitudinal wave propagates by means of
"compression and rarefaction of material particles.
150. @ A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to the Z and Y axes and
perpendicular to the X axis is called:
\ b
| A. A Y-cut crystal
| B. A X-cut crystal
| C. A Z-cut crystal
| D. A ZY-cut crystal
^ A. No, this type of cut generates L-waves.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
151. @ The equation describing wavelength in terms of velocity and
frequency is:
\ c
| A. Wavelength = Velocity x Frequency
| B. Wavelength = Z (Frequency x Velocity
| C. Wavelength = Velocity / Frequency
| D. Wavelength=Frequency + Velocity
^ A. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
^ B. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
^ C. Yes, you got it.
^ D. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
152. @ Which of the following can occur when an ultrasonic beam
reaches the interface of two dissimilar materials?
\ d
| A. Reflection
| B. Refraction
| C. Mode conversion
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ B. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ C. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ D. You got it
153. @ Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most
efficient sound transmitter is:
\ c
| A. Lithium sulfate
| B. Quartz
| C. Barium titanate
| D. Silver oxide
^ A. No, this is the best receiver.
^ B. Sorry! Try again.
^ C. You got it.
^ D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelect!Unexpected End of Formula
154. @ Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most
efficient sound receiver is:
\ a
| A. Lithium sulfate
| B. Quartz
| C. Barium titanate
| D. Silver oxide.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, this is the best transmitter.
^ D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelectric material.
155. @ The most commonly used method of producing shear waves in a
test part when inspecting by the immersion method is:
\ d
| A. By transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in a
direction perpendicular to its front surface.
| B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies.
| C. By using a Y-cut quartz crystal.
| D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle.
^ A. No, the transducer is positioned at an angle.
^ B. Sorry, you are wrong.
^ C. Sorry! This is one way, but not the most common way.
^ D. You are correct.
156. @ Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of the crystal
and the wavelength of the beam transmitted through a medium, and it:
\ a
| A. increases if the frequency or crystal diameter is
decreased.
| B. decreases if the frequency or crystal diameter is
decreased.
| C. increases if the frequency is increased and crystal
diameter decreased.
| D. decreases if the frequency is increased and crystal
diameter is decreased.
^ A. You got it.
^ B. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
^ C. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
^ D. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
157.
@ The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is:
\ b
| A. directly proportional to velocity and frequency.
| B. directly proportional to velocity and inversely
proportional to frequency.
| C. inversely proportional to velocity and directly
proportional to frequency.
| D. equal to the product of the velocity and frequency.
^ A. Incorrect since velocity=frequency x wavelength.
^ B. You got it.
^ C. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength again.
^ D. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength.
158. @ The fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is
primarily a function of:
\ c
| A. the length of the applied voltage pulse.
| B. the amplifying characteristics of the pulse amplifier in
the instrument.
| C. the thickness of the crystal.
| D. none of the above.
^ A. No, it is related to a transducer dimension.
^ B. No, it is related to a transducer dimension.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
159. @ Acoustic velocities are primarily described by:
\ c
| A. density
| B. elasticity
| C. both A and B
| D. acoustic impedance
^ A. Yes, but there is another factor.
^ B. Yes, but there is another factor.
^ C. Outstanding
^ D. Sorry! Acoustic impedance determines transmission and
reflection of sound.
160. @ Inspection of castings is often impractical because of:
\ b
| A. extremely small grain structure.
| B. coarse grain structure.
| C. uniform flow lines.
| D. uniform velocity of sound.
^ A. Incorrect, it is easy to inspect small grain structure
materials
^ B. You are absolutely right.
^ C. Sorry! Attenuation determines inspectability.
^ D. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
161. @ Lamb waves may be used to inspect:
\ d
| A. forgings
| B. bar stock
| C. ingots
| D. thin sheet
^ A. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ B. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ C. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ D. You are correct.
162. @ The resolving power of a search unit is directly proportional
to its:
\ b
| A. diameter
| B. band width
| C. pulse repetition
| D. none of the above
^ A. Sorry! Diameter does not directly influence resolution.
^ B. Great
^ C. No, resolution is dependent on pulse duration and
frequencies.
^ D. Sorry! There is a correct answer.
163. @ In the basic pulse-echo instrument, the synchronizer, clock or
timer circuit will determine the instrument's:
\ c
| A. pulse length
| B. gain
| C. pulse repetition rate
| D. sweep length
^ A. No, transducer and excitation pulse determine pulse
length.
^ B. No, excitation pulse voltage determines gain.
^ C. You got it.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
164. @ The primary requirement of a paintbrush transducer is that:
\ b
| A. all crystals be mounted equidistant from each other.
| B. the intensity of the beam pattern not vary greatly over
the entire length of the transducer.
| C. the fundamental frequency of the crystals not vary more
than .01%.
| D. the overall length not exceed 3 inches.
^ A. No, paintbrush transducer has only one crystal.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, paintbrush transducer has only one crystal.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
165. @ Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and
scattering are four different mechanisms which lead to:
\ a
| A. attenuation
| B. refraction
| C. beam spreading
| D. saturation.
^ A. You got it.
^ B. No, sound propagation at an angle through different media
causes refraction.
^ C. Sorry! Beam spread is a function of wavelength and
transducer diameter.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
166. @ Since the velocity of sound in aluminum is approximately 245,000
in/sec, how long does it take for sound to travel through 1 inch of
aluminum?
\ b
| A. 1/8 second
| B. 4 microseconds
| C. 4 milliseconds
| D. 1/4 X 100000 seconds
^ A. No, divide distance by speed.
^ B. You are right on the mark.
^ C. No, check your math.
^ D. No, divide distance by speed.
167. @ When testing a part with a rough surface, it is generally
advisable to use:
\ a
| A. a lower frequency search unit and a more viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| B. a higher frequency search unit and a more viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| C. a higher frequency search unit and a less viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| D. a lower frequency search unit and a less viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, it will cause too much scattering.
^ C. No, the air bubbles may cause problems.
^ D. No, air bubbles may cause problems.
168. @ Reflection indications from a weld area being inspected by the
angle-beam technique may represent:
\ d
| A. Porosity
| B. Cracks
| C. Weld bead
| D. All three of the above
^ A. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ B. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ C. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal line formed by the
uniform and repeated movement of an electron beam across the
fluorescent screen of a cathode ray tube is called:
\ b
| A. A square wave pattern.
| B. A sweep line.
| C. A marker pattern.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. Excellent! You are exactly right.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
@ Which of the following frequencies would probably result in
the greatest amount of attenuation losses?
\ d
| A. 1.0 megahertz.
| B. 2.25 megahertz.
| C. 5 megahertz.
| D. 10 megahertz.
^ A. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ B. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ C. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ D. Super
@ In general, which waves will travel around gradual curves with
little or no reflection from the curve?
\ b
| A. Transverse waves.
| B. Surface waves.
| C. Shear waves.
| D. Longitudinal waves.
^ A. No, transverse waves are reflected from curved surface.
^ B. Excellent
^ C. No, shear waves are reflected from curved surface.
^ D. No, longitudinal waves are reflected from curved surfaces.
169. @ To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after
scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally
necessary to use a:
\ a
| A. Search unit with a smaller crystal.
| B. Scrubber.
| C. Grid map.
| D. Crystal collimator.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
@ As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases,
the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials:
\ a
| A. Decreases.
| B. Increases.
| C. Is not changed.
| D. May increase or decrease.
^ A. Super
^ B. No. Apply the formula for reflection and transmission
factors.
^ C. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
transmission.
^ D. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
transmission.
@ Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin
materials because of:
\ c
| A. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound.
| B. Incompatible wavelengths.
| C. Poor near-surface resolution.
| D. None of the above will actually limit such a test.
^ A. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
^ B. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
@ When using two separate search units (one a transmitter, the
other a receiver), the most efficient combination would be:
\ b
| A. A quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver.
| B. A barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfate
receiver.
| C. A lithium sulfate transmitter and a barium titanate
receiver.
| D. A barium titanate transmitter and a quartz receiver.
^ A. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Lithium sulfate is a good receiver.
^ D. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.
170. @ In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to which the
search cable and the search unit are attached is called a:
\ d
| A. Crystal collimator.
| B. Scrubber.
| C. Jet-stream unit.
| D. Search tube or scanning tube.
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend to be
oriented:
\ b
| A. Randomly.
| B. In the direction of grain flow.
| C. At right angles to the entry surface.
| D. At right angles to the grain flow.
^ A. No, the key words are "wrought products."
^ B. Super
^ C. No. The key words are "wrought products."
^ D. No. The key words are "wrought products."
@ In immersion testing irrelevant or false indications caused by
contoured surfaces are likely to result in a:
\ a
| A. Broad-based indication.
| B. Peaked indication.
| C. "Hashy" signal.
| D. Narrow-based indication.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! Curved surface tends to increase pulse duration.
^ C. No, "hashy" signal is caused by electronic or material
noise.
^ D. No, curved surface tends to increase pulse duration.
@ In contact testing, defects near the entry surface cannot
always be detected because of:
\ c
| A. The far-field effect.
| B. Attenuation.
| C. The dead zone.
| D. Refraction.
^ A. No, the far-field effect does not come into play near the
entry surface in contact testing.
^ B. Sorry! Attenuation near the entry surface should not be a
major factor.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry, this answer is incorrect.
@ In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected is
smaller than the diameter of the transducer, what can be used
to confine the sound beam to the proper range of angles?
\ b
| A. A scrubber.
| B. A collimator.
| C. An angle plane angulator.
| D. A jet-stream unit.
^ A. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
@ The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined
by:
\ c
| A. The frequency of the searchunit.
| B. Viscous drag problems.
| C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument.
| D. The persistency of the CRT screen.
^ A. No, there is not relation between frequency and scanning
speed.
^ B. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
@ Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately
1/25 of the original power at a depth of:
\ c
171. | A. One inch.
| B. Four inches.
| C. One wavelength.
| D. Four wavelengths.
^ A. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much into the
material.
^ B. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much into the
material.
^ C. Excellent!! You are correct.
^ D. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
@ To prevent the appearance of the second front surface
indication before the first back reflection when inspecting
aluminum by the immersion method (water is used as a couplant),
it is necessary to have a minimum of at least one inch of
water for every:
\ b
| A. Two inches of aluminum.
| B. Four inches of aluminum.
| C. Six inches of aluminum.
| D. Eight inches of aluminum.
^ A. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
^ D. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
@ Increasing the length of the pulse used to activate the search
unit will:
\ a
| A. Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the
resolving power ofthe instrument.
| B. Increase the resolving power of the instrument.
| C. Have no effect on the test.
| D. Decrease the penetration of the sound wave.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, the pulse length is increased, therefore resolving
power is decreased.
^ C. No, the pulse length is increased, therefore resolving
power is decreased.
^ D. No, the penetration is increased.
@ Of the following sound wave modes, which one has multiple or
varying wave velocities?
\ d
| A. Longitudinal waves
| B. Shear waves
| C. Transverse waves
| D. Lamb waves
^ A. No, longitudinal waves have one velocity in any given
material.
^ B. No, shear waves have one velocity in any given material.
^ C. No, transverse waves have one velocity in any given
material.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Which of the following would be considered application(s) of
ultrasonic techniques?
\ d
| A. Determination of a material's elastic modulus
| B. Study of a material's metallurgical structure
| C. Measurement of a material's thickness
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ B. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ C. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ D. Very good. You are absolutely correct.
@ The only significant sound wave mode that will travel through
a liquid is:
\ b
| A. Shear
| B. Longitudinal
| C. Surface
| D. Rayleigh
^ A. No, liquids do not support shear waves.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, Liquids do not support surface waves.
^ D. No, liquids do not support Rayleigh waves.
@ The acoustic impedance of a material is used to:
\ c
| A. Determine the angle of refraction at an interface.
| B. Determine the attenuation within the material.
| C. Find the amounts of sound energy reflected and refracted
through an interface.
| D. Determine the beam spread within the material.
^ A. No, velocity ratio is used for determining angle of
refraction.
^ B. Sorry! Frequency, wavelength, grain size, etc. are used
to calculate attenuation.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, wavelength and transducer diameter are needed to
calculate beam spread.
@ Acoustic energy propagates in different modes. Which of the
following represents a mode?
\ d
| A. Longitudinal wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. All of the above
^ A. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ B. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ C. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ When angle beam contact testing a test piece, increasing the
incident angle until the second critical angle is reached results in:
\ c
| A. Total reflection of a surface wave.
| B. 45 degree refraction of the shear wave
| C. Production of a surface wave
| D. None of the above
^ A. No. What does total reflection mean
^ B. No. Try to apply Snell's law.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No. Try to apply Snell's law.
@ The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears
disjointed at the water surface illustrates the phenomenon of:
\ c
| A. Reflection
| B. Magnification
| C. Refraction
| D. Diffraction
^ A. No, reflection should not make it appear disjointed.
^ B. No, magnification means to enlarge - It means different
from disjointed.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! you've answered incorrectly.
@ The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are related. The
thinner the crystal:
\ b
| A. The lower the frequency
| B. The higher the frequency
| C. There is no appreciable effect
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, there is an inverse relationship.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, there is an inverse relationship.
^ D. No, there is an inverse relationship.
@ The random distribution of crystallographic direction in alloys
with large crystalline structure is a factor in determining:
\ d
| A. Acoustic noise levels
| B. Selection of test frequency
| C. Scattering of sound
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ B. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ C. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ D. You are correct.
@ The length of the zone adjacent to a transducer in which
fluctuations in sound pressure occur is mostly affected by:
\ d
| A. The frequency of the transducer
| B. The diameter of the transducer
| C. Scattering of sound
| D. Both A and B
^ A. True, but there is another factor too.
^ B. True, but there is another factor too.
^ C. No, scattering of sound is irrelevant here.
^ D. You are correct.
@ The differences in signals received from identical reflectors
at different material distances from a transducer may be caused by:
\ d
| A. Material attenuation.
| B. Beam divergence.
| C. Near field effects.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ B. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ C. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ D. Excellent! You are right.
@ It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than the transducer to
produce indications of fluctuating amplitude as the search unit is
moved laterally if testing is being performed in the:
\ b
| A. Fraunhofer zone.
| B. Near field.
| C. Snell field.
| D. Shadow zone.
^ A. No, signal should remain constant.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! No such thing in UT.
^ D. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
@ In immersion testing, the near field effects of a transducer
may be eliminated by:
\ c
| A. Increasing transducer frequency.
| B. Use of larger diameter transducer.
| C. Using an appropriate water path.
| D. Use of a focused transducer.
^ A. No, nearfield distance is increased.
^ B. No, nearfield distance is increased.
^ C. You've got it
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ Which of the following may result in a long narrow rod if the
beam divergence results in a reflection from a side of the test
piece before the sound wave reaches the back surface?
\ c
| A. Multiple indications before the first back reflection.
| B. Indications from multiple surface reflection.
| C. Conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear mode.
| D. Loss of front surface indications.
^ A. Not true if the rod is smooth, i.e. no scratches, cracks,
etc.
^ B. No. This is not possible.
^ C. Absolutely
^ D. No, this is not possible.
@ Where does beam divergence occur?
\ b
| A. Near field.
| B. Far field.
| C. At the crystal.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, not in the nearfield.
^ B. That's correct.
^ C. No, it is not at the crystal but away from it.
^ D. No, beam diverges after the Fresnel zone.
@ As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of
beam divergence of a given diameter crystal:
\ a
| A. Decreases
| B. Remains unchanged
| C. Increases
| D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength
^ A. Super! You are correct.
^ B. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
^ C. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
^ D. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
@ As the radius of curvature of a curved lens is increased, the
focal length of the lens will:
\ a
| A. Increase
| B. Decrease
| C. Remain the same
| D. Be indeterminate unless the frequency is known
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, flat surface has infinite radius of curvature.
^ C. No, it will definitely increase or decrease.
^ D. No, it will definitely increase or decrease.
@ When examining materials for planar flaws oriented parallel to
the part surface, what testing method is most often used?
\ c
| A. Angle beam
| B. Through-transmission
| C. Straight beam
| D. Dual crystal
^ A. No, angle beam testing is most useful when flaw is
oriented perpendicular to the part surface.
^ B. No, through-transmission is most useful in highly
attenuative materials.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, dual crystal transducer are used when flaw is located
close to the surface.
@ Rayleigh waves are influenced most by defects located:
\ c
| A. One wavelength below the surface
| B. Six wavelengths below the surface
| C. Close to or on the surface
| D. Three wavelengths below the surface
^ A. Sorry! Surface waves penetrate as much as one wavelength
below the surface.
^ B. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
^ C. Outstanding
^ D. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
@ The ultrasonic test method in which finger damping is most
effective in locating a discontinuity is:
\ c
| A. Shear wave
| B. Longitudinal wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Compressional wave
^ A. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
^ B. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
^ C. Absolutely correct.
^ D. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
@ Lamb waves can be used to detect:
\ a
| A. Laminar-type defects near the surface of a thin material
| B. Lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment
| C. Internal voids in diffusion bonds
| D. Thickness changes in heavy plate material
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
^ C. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
^ D. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
172. @ The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that
for aluminum or steel is approximately:
\ a
| A. 1:4
| B. 1:2
| C. 1:8
| D. 1:3
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
@ Which of the following scanning methods could be classified as
an immersion type test?
\ d
| A. Tank in which the search unit and test piece are immersed
| B. Squirter bubbler method in which the sound is transmitted
in a column of flowing water
| C. Scanning with a wheel-type search unit with the transducer
inside a liquid filled tire
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ B. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ C. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ D. That is correct.
@ In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, the
water distance appears on the display as a fairly wide space
between the initial pulse and the front surface reflection
because of:
\ a
| A. Reduced velocity of sound in water as compared to test
specimen.
| B. Increased velocity of sound in water as compared to test
specimen.
| C. Temperature of the water.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. Super! You are correct.
^ B. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
^ C. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
^ D. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
@ What law can be used to calculate the angle of refraction
within a metal for both longitudinal and shear waves?
\ b
| A. Poisson's Ratio Law
| B. Snell's Law
| C. Fresnel's Field Law
| D. Charles' Law
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ At an interface between two different materials, an impedance
difference results in:
\ c
| A. Reflection of the entire incident energy at the interface
| B. Absorption of sound
| C. Division of sound energy into transmitted and reflected
modes
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, some of it goes into the second material and some is
reflected.
^ B. No, it is both transmitted and reflected.
^ C. You are correct
^ D. No, some of it goes into the second material while some of
it is reflected.
@ When using focused transducers, non-symmetry in a propagated
sound beam may be caused by:
\ d
| A. Backing material variations
| B. Lens centering or misalignment
| C. Porosity in lenses
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ B. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ C. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the following
types of examination?
\ d
| A. Straight or longitudinal examination
| B. Angle-beam or shear wave examination
| C. Surface wave or Rayleigh wave
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ B. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ C. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ D. You are correct.
@ During straight beam testing, test specimens with non-parallel
front and back surfaces can cause:
\ a
| A. Partial or total loss of back reflection
| B. No loss in back reflection
| C. A widened (broad) back reflection indication
| D. A focused (narrow) back reflection indication
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. Sorry, this is incorrect. Lack of parallelism will affect
signal amplitude.
^ C. This is possible but there is a more profound affect on
the amplitude.
^ D. No, there is a more profound affect on the amplitude.
@ In the immersion technique, the distance between the face of
the transducer and the test surface (water path) is usually adjusted
so that the time required to send the sound beam through the water.
\ b
| A. Is equal to the time required for the sound to travel
through the piece.
| B. Is greater than the time required for the sound to travel
through the testpiece.
| C. Is less than the time required for the sound to travel
through the test piece.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Yes, but this will cause a lot of confusion, since the
signals will be superimposed.
^ B. Absolutely right.
^ C. No, this answer is incorrect.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer.
@ In a B-scan display, the length of a screen indication from a
discontinuity is related to:
\ b
| A. A discontinuity's thickness as measured parallel to the
ultrasonic beam.
| B. The discontinuity's length in the direction of the
transducer travel.
| C. Both A and B
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, not the length of a screen indication.
^ B. You are right
^ C. Incorrect, inspect choice A again.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer.
@ Which circuit triggers the pulser and sweep circuits in an
A-scan display?
\ c
| A. Receiver-amplifier
| B. Power supply
| C. Clock
| D. Damping
^ A. No, the receiver-amplifier modifies return signal for
display.
^ B. No, this choice is incorrect.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, damping only adjusts excitation pulse width.
@ On an A-scan display, the "dead zone," refers to:
\ c
| A. The distance contained within the near field.
| B. The area outside the beam spread.
| C. The distance covered by the front surface pulse width and
recovery time.
| D. The area between the near field and the far field.
^ A. Sorry! Generally "dead zone" is much smaller than the
nearfield.
^ B. Sorry! "Dead zone" is due to the pulse duration.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of a
reflected beam?
\ d
| A. Echo pulse width
| B. Horizontal screen location
| C. Signal brightness
| D. Signal amplitude
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Sorry! This gives discontinuity location.
^ C. Sorry! Signal brightness is used in B-scan to represent
the intensity of reflected beam.
^ D. You are exactly right.
@ Of the following scan types, which one can be used to produce
a recording of flaw areas superimposed over a plan view of the test
piece?
\ c
| A. A-scan
| B. B-scan
| C. C-scan
| D. D-scan
^ A. No, an A-scan represents the amplitude-distance
relationship.
^ B. No, the B-scan represents the cross-sectional view.
^ C. You are correct
^ D. No, there is no such thing as a D-scan.
@ In immersion testing in a small tank, a manually operated
manipulator is used to:
\ d
| A. Set the proper water path
| B. Set the proper transducer angle
| C. Set the proper index function
| D. Both A and B
^ A. Yes, but it is used to do more than that.
^ B. Yes, but it is used to do more than that.
^ C. No, this choice is totally incorrect.
^ D. You are correct.
@ A 45 degrees shear angle beam transducer produces a wave in
the metal which is polarized:
\ d
| A. Perpendicular to the direction of propagation and parallel
to the entry surface.
| B. In the direction of propagation and at 45 degrees to the
normal to the entry surface.
| C. Perpendicular to the entry surface.
| D. Perpendicular to the direction of propagation and at 45
degree to the entry surface.
^ A. No, it is not parallel to the entry surface.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, polarization direction is related primarily to the
direction of the propagation.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In straight (normal) beam contact testing, a reduction in the
back surface reflection amplitude could indicate:
\ d
| A. Inadequate coupling.
| B. A flaw which is not normal to the beam.
| C. A near surface defect that cannot be resolved from the
main bang (initial pulse).
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but there could be several other reasons too.
^ B. Yes, but there could be several other reasons too.
^ C. Yes, but there could also be several other reasons.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ In an automatic scanning immersion unit, the bridge or
carriage serves to:
\ a
| A. Support the manipulator and scanner tube and to move it
about transversely and longitudinally.
| B. Control the angular and transverse positioning of the
scanner tube.
| C. Control the vertical and angular positioning of the
scanner tube.
| D. Raise and lower the transducer.
^ A. Absolutely correct.
^ B. No, bridge or carriage cannot be used to angulate.
^ C. No, bridge or carriage cannot be used to angulate.
^ D. No, bridge and carriage cannot be used to raise and lower
the transducers.
@ When adjusting the flaw locating rule for a shear wave weld
inspection, the zero point on the rule must coincide with the:
\ a
| A. Sound beam exit point of the wedge
| B. Point directly over the flaw
| C. Wheel search unit
| D. Circular scanner
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
@ A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a
tire- like container filled with couplant is commonly called;
\ c
| A. A rotating scanner
| B. An axial scanner
| C. A wheel search unit
| D. A circular scanner
^ A. No, but you are on the right track.
^ B. No, it rotates.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major
surface is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam?
\ b
| A. A broad indication
| B. A sharp indication
| C. The indication will not show due to improper orientation
| D. A broad indication with high amplitude
^ A. No, since the beam is perpendicular to the crack,
indication is not broadened.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, it will definitely show because of most favorable
orientation.
^ D. No, since the beam is perpendicular to the crack,
indication is not broadened.
@ Compensation for the variation in echo height related to variations
in discontinuity depth in the test material is known as:
\ c
| A. Transfer
| B. Attenuation
| C. Distance amplitude correction
| D. Interpretation
^ A. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ B. No, attenuation causes change in the amplitude as the
sound propagates.
^ C. Absolutely correct.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not
dependent on beam angle
\ c
| A. A flat bottomed hole
| B. A vee notch
| C. A side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface
and perpendicular to the sound path
| D. A disc shaped laminar reflector
^ A. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful only
for a zero degree angle.
^ B. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful for
angle beam testing.
^ C. You got it
^ D. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful only
for a zero degree angle.
@ During a straight beam ultrasonic test a discontinuity
indication is detected which is small in amplitude compared
to the loss in amplitude of back reflection. The orientation
of this discontinuity is probably:
\ d
| A. Parallel to the test surface.
| B. Parallel (plus or minus 5 degrees) from the test surface.
| C. Parallel to the sound beam.
| D. Such that complete loss of back reflection will result.
^ A. No, if it was parallel, it should have given a large
indication.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, if it were parallel to the sound beam, loss of
back surface reflection should be very small.
^ D. You are correct.
@ A discontinuity is located having an orientation such that its
long axis is parallel to the sound beam. The indication from such a
discontinuity will be:
\ b
| A. Large in proportion to the length of the discontinuity.
| B. Small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity.
| C. Representative of the length of the discontinuity.
| D. Such that complete loss of back reflection will result.
^ A. No, large indications would be obtained if it were
perpendicular
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, apply the golden rule of ultrasonics.
^ D. No, you are not on the right track.
@ Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat discs or other shapes
parallel to the surface by:
\ a
| A. Rolling
| B. Machining
| C. Casting
| D. Welding
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, machining can't make them flat or parallel to the
surface.
^ C. No, casting typically produces bubbles which are
spherical.
^ D. No, welding typically produces bubbles which are
spherical.
@ In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given
discontinuity diminish exponentially as the distance increases?
\ a
| A. Far field zone
| B. Near field zone
| C. Dead zone
| D. Fresnel zone
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, in near field amplitude changes rapidly.
^ C. No, you can not find the defect in this zone, so question
of amplitude change is irrelevant.
^ D. No, in the fresnel zone, amplitude changes rapidly.
@ A smooth flat discontinuity whose major plane is not
perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation may be indicated by:
\ d
| A. An echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back
surface reflection.
| B. A complete loss of the back surface reflection.
| C. An echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back
surface reflection.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ B. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ C. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Using a pulse-echo technique, if the major plane of a flat
discontinuity is oriented at some angle other than perpendicular
to the direction of sound propagation, the result may be:
\ b
| A. Loss of signal linearity
| B. Loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo
| C. Focusing of the sound beam
| D. Loss of interference phenomena
^ A. No, signal linearity is not related to angle.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, this answer is wrong. Curved discontinuity can cause
focussing, but not plane discontinuity.
^ D. No, this answer is wrong.
@ As transducer diameter decreases, the beam spread:
\ c
| A. Decreases
| B. Remains the same
| C. Increases
| D. Becomes conical in shape
^ A. No, beam spread is a function of wavelength / transducer
diameter.
^ B. No, beam spread is a function of wavelength / transducer
diameter.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ A set of standard reference blocks with the same geometrical
configuration and dimensions other than the size of the calibration
reflectors, e.g., flat bottom holes, is called a set of:
\ b
| A. Distance/amplitude standards.
| B. Area/amplitude standards.
| C. Variable frequency blocks.
| D. Beam spread measuring blocks.
^ A. No, in this type size of reflector remains constant.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Such a thing does not exist in UT.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ The angle at which 90 degree refraction of a longitudinal
sound wave is reached is called:
\ b
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The first critical angle.
| C. The angle of maximum reflection.
| D. The second critical angle.
^ A. No, angle of incidence can be any angle from 0 to 90
degrees.
^ B. You are right.
^ C. No. Think harder.
^ D. No, at second critical angle, shear waves reach 90 degree
angle of refraction.
@ Which of the following controls the voltage supplied to the
vertical deflection plates of the CRT in an A-scan UT setup?
\ c
| A. Sweep generator
| B. Pulser
| C. Amplifier circuit
| D. Clock timer
^ A. No, sweep generator controls horizontal deflection plates.
^ B. No, pulser excites the transducer.
^ C. You are right.
^ D. Sorry! Try again.
@ Attenuation is a difficult quantity to measure accurately,
particularly in solid materials, at the test frequencies normally
used. The overall result usually observed includes other loss
mechanisms which can include:
\ d
| A. Beam spread
| B. Couplant mismatch
| C. Test piece geometry
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ B. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ C. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ D. You are exactly right.
@ The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be
determined by obtaining ultrasonic responses from:
\ c
| A. A set of distance-amplitude reference blocks.
| B. Steel balls located at several different water path
distances.
| C. A set of area-amplitude reference blocks.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. No, distance should be kept constant.
^ B. No, distance should be kept constant.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, not all are true.
@ Large grains in a metallic test specimen usually result in:
\ d
| A. Decrease or loss of back surface reflection.
| B. Large "hash" or noise indications.
| C. Decrease in penetration.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. You are partially correct.
^ B. You are partially correct.
^ C. You are partially correct.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ The total energy losses occurring in all materials is called:
\ a
| A. Attenuation
| B. Scatter
| C. Beam spread
| D. Interface
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
^ C. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
^ D. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
@ Delay-tip(stand-off)type contact search units are primarily
used for:
\ c
| A. Defect detection.
| B. Sound wave characterization.
| C. Thickness measurement of flaw detection in thin materials.
| D. Attenuation measurements.
^ A. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
^ B. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
^ C. Excellent
^ D. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
173. @ Acoustical lenses are commonly used for contour correction.
When scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method,
which of the following lens types would be used?
\ b
| A. Focused cup
| B. Convex
| C. Concave
| D. Variable pitch
^ A. No, pipe curvature provides focussing in one plane.
^ B. Super! You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and
second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the
part will be:
\ b
| A. Longitudinal
| B. Shear
| C. Surface
| D. Lamb
^ A. No, longitudinal wave does not exist beyond first critical
angle.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, surface wave is generated after second critical angle.
^ D. No, lamb wave is generated after second critical angle.
174. @ The attenuation of energy within a material in the far field
of the ultrasonic beam may be expressed as the:
\ d
| A. Arithmetic mean
| B. Geometrical average
| C. Exponential average
| D. Exponential decay
^ A. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ B. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ C. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ D. You are correct.
@ For aluminum and steel the longitudinal velocity is approximately
_________ the shear velocity:
\ b
| A. Equal to
| B. Twice
| C. One-half of
| D. Four times
^ A. Incorrect, shear wave velocity is much smaller than
longitudinal wave velocity.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. Incorrect, shear wave travel slower than longitudinal
waves.
^ D. Incorrect. You are close.
@ Water travel distance for immersion inspections should be:
\ a
| A. Such that the second front reflection does not appear
between the first front and back reflections.
| B. Exactly 3 inches.
| C. Less than 3 inches.
| D. Always equal to the thickness of the material being
inspected.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.
^ C. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.
^ D. No, this can cause a confusing screen or presentation.
175. @ The electronic circuitry that allows selection and processing
of only those signals relating to discontinuities that occur in
specific zones of a part is called:
\ a
| A. An electronic gate.
| B. An electronic attenuator.
| C. A distance amplitude correction circuit.
| D. A fixed marker.
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No. Attenuator attenuates the signal and does not do
selection.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! DAC is applied throughout the thickness of
material.
@ When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the "hash" or
irregular signals that appear in the CRT display of the area
being inspected could be caused by:
\ c
| A. Fine grains in the structure.
| B. Dirt in the water couplant.
| C. Coarse grains in the structure.
| D. A thick but tapered back surface.
^ A. No, hash is directly proportional to grain size.
^ B. No, in contact testing, dirt in water couplant is not a
major problem.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No. This will reduce back surface reflection. Hash is
related to grain structure.
@ In inspecting a 4-inch diameter threaded steel cylinder for
radial cracks extending from the root of the threads, it would be
preferable to transmit:
\ b
| A. Shear waves at an angle to the threads.
| B. Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder and
perpendicular to the direction of the thread roots.
| C. Surface waves perpendicular to the thread roots.
| D. Shear waves around the circumference of the cylinder.
^ A. No, You will get too many reflections from threads.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Incorrect. How do you launch surface waves perpendicular
to the direction of thread roots
^ D. Incorrect. How do you launch shear waves around the
circumference of the cylinder
@ In an immersion inspection of raw material, the water travel
distance should be:
\ c
| A. Exactly 3 inches.
| B. Equal to 3 inches (plus or minus 1/2 inch).
| C. Equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on
the reference standards.
| D. Equal to the thickness of a material.
^ A. Incorrect. Water traveling distance depends on material
thickness and wave velocity.
^ B. Incorrect. Water traveling distance depends on material
thickness and wave velocity.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, this can cause a confusing screen presentation.
@ The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters a medium
of different velocity than the one from which it came and a line
drawn perpendicular to the interface between the two media is called:
\ b
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The angle of refraction.
| C. The angle of rarefaction.
| D. The angle of reflection.
^ A. No, Angle of incidence is in the host medium.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, there is no such angle.
^ D. No, angle of reflection is in the same host medium as the
angle of incidence.
@ The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a reference
standard is referred to as:
\ d
| A. Angulation
| B. Scanning
| C. Correcting for distance-amplitude variations
| D. Calibration
^ A. No, angulation is done in immersion testing to get peak
amplitude signal.
^ B. Sorry! Scanning involves moving transducer back and forth
over a sample, usually in immersion mode.
^ C. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ D. You're right.
@ An electron tube in which a beam of electrons from the cathode
is used to reproduce an image on a fluorescent screen at the end of
the tube is referred to as:
\ c
| A. An amplifier tube
| B. A pulser tube
| C. A cathode ray tube
| D. A sweep tube
^ A. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
^ B. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
@ A grouping of a number of crystals in one search unit, with
all contact surfaces in the sample plane, and vibrating in phase
with each other to act as a single transducer is called a:
\ b
| A. Focusing crystal
| B. Crystal mosaic
| C. Scrubber
| D. Single plane manipulator
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Excellent
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ The scattering of the ultrasonic energy of an ultrasonic beam
due to reflection from a highly polished surface is called:
\ b
| A. Angulation
| B. Dispersion
| C. Refraction
| D. Rarefaction
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, refraction occurs when two medias are involved.
^ D. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinal
wave propagates.
@ The angle of reflection is:
\ a
| A. Equal to the angle of incidence.
| B. Dependent on the couplant used.
| C. Dependent on the frequency used.
| D. Equal to the angle of refraction.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, apply Snell's law.
^ C. No, apply Snell's law.
^ D. No, apply Snell's law.
@ The angular position of the reflecting surface of a planar
discontinuity with respect to the entry surface is referred to as:
\ c
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The angle of refraction.
| C. The orientation of the discontinuity.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, angle of incidence is associated with the wave.
^ B. No, angle of incidence is associated with the wave.
^ C. You are right.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called:
\ d
| A. A continuous wave
| B. A peaked DC voltage
| C. An ultrasonic wave
| D. A pulse
^ A. No, continuous wave is not short.
^ B. No, look at the key word "alternating"
^ C. Incorrect. Ultrasonic wave is not electric energy.
^ D. Super! You are absolutely correct.
@ In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the transmitted
pulse is referred to as:
\ a
| A. The pulse length or pulse width
| B. The pulse amplitude
| C. The pulse shape
| D. None of the above
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No. Duration and amplitude are the two dimensions of an
ultrasonic signal.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changes
the direction of its propagation within the same medium is referred
to as:
\ d
| A. Divergence
| B. Impedance
| C. Angulation
| D. Reflection
^ A. No, divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter
^ B. No, impedance=velocity*density
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. You've got it.
@ The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passes
from one medium to another whose velocity differs from that of
the first medium is called:
\ a
| A. Refraction
| B. Rarefaction
| C. Angulation
| D. Reflection
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinal
wave propagates.
^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ D. No, reflection occurs within the same medium.
@ The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode ray
tube which becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called:
\ c
| A. An electron gun
| B. An electron amplifier
| C. A CRT screen
| D. An electron counter
^ A. No, the key word is "screen."
^ B. No, the key word is "screen."
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, the key word is "screen."
176.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
177.
ULTRASONICS TESTING LEVEL II
178.
@ Generally, the best ultrasonic testing method for detecting discontinuities oriented along the
fusion zone in a welded plate
is:
\d
|A. An angle-beam contact method using surface waves.
|B. A contact test using a straight longitudinal wave.
|C. An immersion test using surface waves.
|D. An angle-beam method using shear waves.
^A. Sorry! The surface waves do not propagate through the
thickness of a thick plate.
^B. No, a straight zero degree test is not the best approach.
^C. Incorrect, surface waves do not propagate in immersion mode.
^D. You got it!
179. @ An ultrasonic testing instrument that displays pulses
representing the magnitude of reflected ultrasound as a function
of time or depth of metal is said to contain:
\b
|A. A continuous wave display.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. Sorry, you are wrong.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, a B-scan presents a cross-sectional view.
^D. Sorry! The C-scan presents a plan view.
180. @ At a water-to-steel interface the angle of incidence in water
is 7 degrees. The principal mode of vibration that exists in the
steel is:
\c
|A. Longitudinal
|B. Shear
|C. Both A and B
|D. Surface
^A. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
Law.
^B. Yes, but there is another type of wave too. Apply Snell's
Law.
^C. You got it!
^D. Incorrect, apply Snell's law.
181. @ In a liquid medium, the only mode of vibration that exists is:
\a
|A. Longitudinal
|B. Shear
|C. Both A and B
|D. Surface
^A. You are correct.
^B. No, this mode does not exist in liquids.
^C. No, only one of the above exists in liquids.
^D. Sorry! Surface waves do not travel through the liquids.
182. @ In an ultrasonic instrument, the number of pulses produced by
an instrument in a given period of time is known as the:
\ d
|A. Pulse length of the instrument.
|B. Pulse recovery time.
|C. Frequency.
|D. Pulse repetition rate.
^A. No. Look at the units.
^B. No. Look at the units.
^C. Sorry! Frequency is related to the transducer.
^D. You are correct.
183. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component
that coordinates the action and timing of other components is
called a:
\d
|A. Display unit or CRT.
|B. Receiver.
|C. Marker circuit or range marker circuit.
|D. Synchronizer, clock, or timer.
^A. Sorry! Information is displayed on CRT.
^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies a signal.
^C. Sorry! Try again.
^D. Excellent!
184. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component that
produces the voltage that activates the search unit is called:
\c
|A. An amplifier
|B. A receiver
|C. Pulser
|D. A synchronizer
^A. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
^B. Sorry! An amplifier amplifies a signal.
^C. You are absolutely correct.
^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
components.
185. @ In a basic-pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the voltage
producing component which activates the search unit is called:
\a
|A. Sweep circuit
|B. Receiver
|C. Pulser
|D. Synchronizer
^A. Excellent
^B. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
^C. Sorry! Pulser produces voltage that activates the search
unit.
^D. Sorry! Synchronizer coordinates the action and timing of
components.
186. @ In a basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instrument, the component
that produces visible signals on the CRT which are used to measure
distance is called a:
\b
|A. Sweep circuit
|B. Marker circuit
|C. Receiver circuit
|D. Synchronizer
^A. Sorry! Try again.
^B. You've got it.
^C. Sorry! Receiver amplifies the signal.
^D. Sorry! The synchronizer coordinates action and timing.
187. @ Most basic pulse-echo ultrasonic instruments use:
\b
|A. Automatic read-out equipment.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time dispplay.
^D. No, most equipment have signal amplitude and time display.
188. @ The cathode ray tube screen will display a plan view of the part
outline and defects when using:
\d
|A. Automatic read-out equipment.
|B. An A-scan presentation.
|C. A B-scan presentation.
|D. A C-scan presentation.
^A. Incorrect. Try harder.
^B. Sorry! A-scan shows signal amplitude and time display.
^C. No, a B-scan shows a cross sectional view.
^D. You are right.
189. @ The incident angles at which 90 degrees refraction of
longitudinal and shear waves occurs are called:
\b
|A. The normal angles of incidence.
|B. The critical angles.
|C. The angles of maximum reflection.
|D. None of the above.
^A. No. The key word is "90 degrees refraction."
^B. You are correct.
^C. No. The key words are "90 degrees refraction."
^D. No. There is a correct answer.
190. @ Compression waves whose particle displacement is parallel to
the direction of propagation are called:
\a
|A. Longitudinal waves
|B. Shear waves
|C. Lamb waves
|D. Rayleigh waves
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! In this case, the particle displacement is
perpendicular.
^C. No, in this case, particle displacement is complex.
^D. No, in this case, particle displacement is elliptical.
191. @ Which of the following modes of vibration are quickly damped
out when testing by the immersion method?
\d
|A. Longitudinal waves
|B. Shear waves
|C. Transverse waves
|D. Surface waves
^A. No. Longitudinal waves travel through water.
^B. No. Shear waves travel through metal even though it is
immersed.
^C. No. Transverse waves travel through metal even though it is
immersed.
^D. You are correct.
192. @ The motion of particles in a shear wave is:
\b
|A. Parallel to the direction of propagation of the ultrasonic
beam.
|B. Transverse to the direction of beam propagation.
|C. Limited to the material surface and elliptical in motion.
|D. Polarized in a plane at 45 degrees to the direction of beam
propagation.
^A. No, this defines the longitudinal waves.
^B. You are correct.
^C. No, this defines the surface waves.
^D. Sorry! Please try again.
193. @ In contact testing, shear waves can be induced in the test
material by:
\d
|A. Placing a X-cut crystal directly on the surface of the
materials and coupling through a film of oil.
|B. Using two transducers on opposite sides of the test specimen.
|C. Placing a spherical acoustic lens on the face of the
transducer
|D. Using a transducer mounted on a plastic wedge so that sound
enters the part at an angle.
^A. No, this will generate longitudinal waves.
^B. No. This is through transmission testing.
^C. No, this will simply focus sound beam.
^D. You are correct.
194. @ As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of
beam divergence of a given diameter crystal:
\a
|A. Decreases.
|B. Remains unchanged.
|C. Increases.
|D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength.
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
^C. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
^D. Sorry! Beam divergence is a function of wave length divided
by transducer diameter.
195. @ Which of the following is not an advantage of contact
ultrasonic search units(probes) adapted with lucite shoes?
\c
|A. Eliminates most of the crystal wear.
|B. Permits adaptation to curved surfaces.
|C. Decreases sensitivity.
|D. Allows ultrasound to enter a part's surface at oblique angles.
^A. No, this is an advantage.
^B. No, this is an advantage.
^C. You are correct.
^D. No, this is an advantage.
196. @ In which medium listed below would the velocity of sound be
lowest?
\a
|A. Air
|B. Water
|C. Aluminum
|D. Stainless steel
^A. You are correct.
^B. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density. Liquids
generally have higher velocity than gases.
^C. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
^D. Sorry! Velocity is a function of modulus and density.
Solids, generally have higher velocity than liquids and gases.
197. @ A longitudinal ultrasonic wave is transmitted from water into
steel at an angle of 5 degrees from the normal. In such a case the
refracted angle of the transverse wave is:
\a
|A. Less than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|B. Equal to the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|C. Greater than the refracted angle of the longitudinal wave.
|D. Not present at all.
^A. You are right on target.
^B. No, apply Snell's law.
^C. No, think about Snell's law.
^D. No, you are incorrect.
198. @ The velocity of longitudinal waves will be highest in:
\c
|A. Water
|B. Air
|C. Aluminum
|D. Stainless steel
^A. Incorrect, generally have a higher velocity than the liquids.
^B. Incorrect, air has the lowest velocity.
^C. You got it.
^D. You are close but not quite right.
199. @ In steel, the velocity of sound is greatest in which of the
following modes of vibration?
\ a
| A. Longitudinal
| B. Shear
| C. Surface waves.
| D. Sound velocity is identical in all modes, in a given
material.
^ A. You are right on target.
^ B. No, shear waves travel half as fast as longitudinal waves.
^ C. No, surface waves are slower than shear waves.
^ D. Sorry! Velocities are significantly different for
different wave modes.
200. @ The acoustic impedance is:
\ b
| A. Used to calculate the angle of reflection
| B. The product of the density of the material and the
velocity of sound in the material.
| C. Found by Snell's law
| D. Used to determine resonance values
^ A. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
^ B. You are right on target.
^ C. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
^ D. Sorry! Acoustic impedance is used for calculating
transmission and reflection of ultrasound.
201. @ Thin sheet may be inspected with the ultrasonic wave directed
normal to the surface by observing:
\ b
| A. The amplitude of the front surface reflection.
| B. The multiple reflection pattern.
| C. All front surface reflections
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, front surface signal will have a considerable dead
zone.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. Sorry! Try again.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
202. @ A diagram in which the entire circuit stage or sections are
shown by geometric figures and the path of the signal or energy by
lines and/or arrows is called a:
\ c
| A. Schematic diagram
| B. Blueprint
| C. Block diagram
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, schematic diagrams show electrical circuits.
^ B. Sorry! But you are real close. Try again.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
203. @ A hole produced during the solidification of metal due to
escaping gases is called:
\ d
| A. A burst
| B. A cold shut
| C. A flaking
| D. A blow hole
^ A. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ B. Sorry! A cold shut is caused by splashing, singing,
interrupted pouring etc.
^ C. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ D. You are right.

@ A discontinuity that occurs during the casting of molten metal
which may be caused by the splashing, surging, interrupted pouring,
or the meeting of two streams of metal coming from different
directions is called:
\ b
| A. A burst
| B. A cold shut.
| C. Flaking
| D. A blow hole
^ A. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
^ B. Great
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is wrong.
^ D. No, blow holes are produced by escaping gases.
204. @ The ratio between the wave speed in one material and the wave
speed in a second material is called:
\ d
| A. The acoustic impedance of the interface
| B. Young's modulus
| C. Poisson's ratio
| D. The index of refraction.
^ A. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry! Young's modulus is a ratio of stress and strain.
^ C. No, Poisson's ratio is a ratio of strains.
^ D. You got it.
205. @ The expansion and contraction of a magnetic material under the
influence of a changing magnetic field is referred to as:
\ c
| A. Piezoelectricity
| B. Refraction.
| C. Magnetostriction
| D. Rarefaction
^ A. Piezoelectricity is due to pressure or stress.
^ B. No, refraction is associated with transmission of sound
waves through a layered media.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinalwave
propagates through a material.
206. @ The ratio of stress to strain in a material within the elastic
limit is called:
\ c
| A. Young's modulus
| B. The Modulus of elasticity
| C. Both A and B
| D. The index of refraction
^ A. Yes, but another choice is also correct.
^ B. Yes, but another choice is also correct.
^ C. You are right on target.
^ D. Sorry! Index of refraction is ratio of wave speeds in two
adjacent materials.
207. @ A point, line, or surface of a vibrating body marked by absolute
or relative freedom from vibratory motion is referred to as:
\ a
| A. A node
| B. An antinode
| C. Rarefaction
| D. Compression
^ A. You are absolutely right.
^ B. Sorry! Amplitude of vibratory motion is largest in
antinodes.
^ C. Sorry! A longitudinal wave propagates by means of
"compression and rarefaction of material particles.
^ D. Sorry! A longitudinal wave propagates by means of
"compression and rarefaction of material particles.
208. @ A quartz crystal cut so that its major faces are parallel to
the Z and Y axes and perpendicular to the X axis is called:
\ b
| A. A Y-cut crystal
| B. A X-cut crystal
| C. A Z-cut crystal
| D. A ZY-cut crystal
^ A. No, this type of cut generates L-waves.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
209. @ The equation describing wavelength in terms of velocity and
frequency is:
\ c
| A. Wavelength = Velocity x Frequency
| B. Wavelength = Z (Frequency x Velocity
| C. Wavelength = Velocity / Frequency
| D. Wavelength=Frequency + Velocity
^ A. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
^ B. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
^ C. Yes, you got it.
^ D. No. Check units to find the correct relationship.
210. @ Which of the following can occur when an ultrasonic beam
reaches the interface of two dissimilar materials?
\ d
| A. Reflection
| B. Refraction
| C. Mode conversion
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ B. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ C. Yes, but you are only partially correct.
^ D. You got it
211. @ Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most
efficient sound transmitter is:
\ c
| A. Lithium sulfate
| B. Quartz
| C. Barium titanate
| D. Silver oxide
^ A. No, this is the best receiver.
^ B. Sorry! Try again.
^ C. You got it.
^ D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelectric material.
212. @ Of the piezoelectric materials listed below, the most
efficient sound receiver is:
\ a
| A. Lithium sulfate
| B. Quartz
| C. Barium titanate
| D. Silver oxide.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, this is the best transmitter.
^ D. Incorrect, silver oxide is not a piezoelectric material.
213. @ The most commonly used method of producing shear waves in a
test part when inspecting by the immersion method is:
\ d
| A. By transmitting longitudinal waves into a part in a
direction perpendicular to its front surface.
| B. By using two crystals vibrating at different frequencies.
| C. By using a Y-cut quartz crystal.
| D. By angulating the search tube to the proper angle.
^ A. No, the transducer is positioned at an angle.
^ B. Sorry, you are wrong.
^ C. Sorry! This is one way, but not the most common way.
^ D. You are correct.
214. @ Beam divergence is a function of the dimensions of the crystal
and the wavelength of the beam transmitted through a medium, and it:
\ a
| A. increases if the frequency or crystal diameter is
decreased.
| B. decreases if the frequency or crystal diameter is
decreased.
| C. increases if the frequency is increased and crystal
diameter decreased.
| D. decreases if the frequency is increased and crystal
diameter is decreased.
^ A. You got it.
^ B. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
^ C. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
^ D. Sorry! Alpha is a function of velocity/(diameter*frequency).
215.
@ The wavelength of an ultrasonic wave is:
\ b
| A. directly proportional to velocity and frequency.
| B. directly proportional to velocity and inversely
proportional to frequency.
| C. inversely proportional to velocity and directly
proportional to frequency.
| D. equal to the product of the velocity and frequency.
^ A. Incorrect since velocity=frequency x wavelength.
^ B. You got it.
^ C. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength again.
^ D. No, apply the formula velocity=frequency x wavelength.
216. @ The fundamental frequency of a piezoelectric crystal is
primarily a function of:
\ c
| A. the length of the applied voltage pulse.
| B. the amplifying characteristics of the pulse amplifier in
the instrument.
| C. the thickness of the crystal.
| D. none of the above.
^ A. No, it is related to a transducer dimension.
^ B. No, it is related to a transducer dimension.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
217. @ Acoustic velocities are primarily described by:
\ c
| A. density
| B. elasticity
| C. both A and B
| D. acoustic impedance
^ A. Yes, but there is another factor.
^ B. Yes, but there is another factor.
^ C. Outstanding
^ D. Sorry! Acoustic impedance determines transmission and
reflection of sound.
218. @ Inspection of castings is often impractical because of:
\ b
| A. extremely small grain structure.
| B. coarse grain structure.
| C. uniform flow lines.
| D. uniform velocity of sound.
^ A. Incorrect, it is easy to inspect small grain structure
materials
^ B. You are absolutely right.
^ C. Sorry! Attenuation determines inspectability.
^ D. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
219. @ Lamb waves may be used to inspect:
\ d
| A. forgings
| B. bar stock
| C. ingots
| D. thin sheet
^ A. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ B. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ C. No, Lamb waves do not travel in thick material.
^ D. You are correct.
220. @ The resolving power of a search unit is directly proportional
to its:
\ b
| A. diameter
| B. band width
| C. pulse repetition
| D. none of the above
^ A. Sorry! Diameter does not directly influence resolution.
^ B. Great
^ C. No, resolution is dependent on pulse duration and
frequencies.
^ D. Sorry! There is a correct answer.
221. @ In the basic pulse-echo instrument, the synchronizer, clock or
timer circuit will determine the instrument's:
\ c
| A. pulse length
| B. gain
| C. pulse repetition rate
| D. sweep length
^ A. No, transducer and excitation pulse determine pulse
length.
^ B. No, excitation pulse voltage determines gain.
^ C. You got it.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
222. @ The primary requirement of a paintbrush transducer is that:
\ b
| A. all crystals be mounted equidistant from each other.
| B. the intensity of the beam pattern not vary greatly over
the entire length of the transducer.
| C. the fundamental frequency of the crystals not vary more
than .01%.
| D. the overall length not exceed 3 inches.
^ A. No, paintbrush transducer has only one crystal.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, paintbrush transducer has only one crystal.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
223. @ Heat conduction, viscous friction, elastic hysteresis, and
scattering are four different mechanisms which lead to:
\ a
| A. attenuation
| B. refraction
| C. beam spreading
| D. saturation.
^ A. You got it.
^ B. No, sound propagation at an angle through different media
causes refraction.
^ C. Sorry! Beam spread is a function of wavelength and
transducer diameter.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
224. @ Since the velocity of sound in aluminum is approximately 245,000
in/sec, how long does it take for sound to travel through 1 inch of
aluminum?
\ b
| A. 1/8 second
| B. 4 microseconds
| C. 4 milliseconds
| D. 1/4 X 100000 seconds
^ A. No, divide distance by speed.
^ B. You are right on the mark.
^ C. No, check your math.
^ D. No, divide distance by speed.
225. @ When testing a part with a rough surface, it is generally
advisable to use:
\ a
| A. a lower frequency search unit and a more viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| B. a higher frequency search unit and a more viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| C. a higher frequency search unit and a less viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
| D. a lower frequency search unit and a less viscous couplant
than is used on parts with a smooth surface.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, it will cause too much scattering.
^ C. No, the air bubbles may cause problems.
^ D. No, air bubbles may cause problems.
226. @ Reflection indications from a weld area being inspected by the
angle-beam technique may represent:
\ d
| A. Porosity
| B. Cracks
| C. Weld bead
| D. All three of the above
^ A. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ B. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ C. No, there are several other reflector types which can also
give indications.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In an A-scan presentation, the horizontal line formed by the
uniform and repeated movement of an electron beam across the
fluorescent screen of a cathode ray tube is called:
\ b
| A. A square wave pattern.
| B. A sweep line.
| C. A marker pattern.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. Excellent! You are exactly right.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ D. No, there is a correct answer.
@ Which of the following frequencies would probably result in
the greatest amount of attenuation losses?
\ d
| A. 1.0 megahertz.
| B. 2.25 megahertz.
| C. 5 megahertz.
| D. 10 megahertz.
^ A. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ B. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ C. No, attenuation losses are directly proportional to
frequency.
^ D. Super
@ In general, which waves will travel around gradual curves with
little or no reflection from the curve?
\ b
| A. Transverse waves.
| B. Surface waves.
| C. Shear waves.
| D. Longitudinal waves.
^ A. No, transverse waves are reflected from curved surface.
^ B. Excellent
^ C. No, shear waves are reflected from curved surface.
^ D. No, longitudinal waves are reflected from curved surfaces.
227. @ To evaluate and accurately locate discontinuities after
scanning a part with a paintbrush transducer, it is generally
necessary to use a:
\ a
| A. Search unit with a smaller crystal.
| B. Scrubber.
| C. Grid map.
| D. Crystal collimator.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
@ As the impedance ratio of two dissimilar materials increases,
the percentage of sound coupled through an interface of such materials:
\ a
| A. Decreases.
| B. Increases.
| C. Is not changed.
| D. May increase or decrease.
^ A. Super
^ B. No. Apply the formula for reflection and transmission
factors.
^ C. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
transmission.
^ D. No, higher the impedance mismatch, the more difficult the
transmission.
@ Low frequency sound waves are not generally used to test thin
materials because of:
\ c
| A. The rapid attenuation of low frequency sound.
| B. Incompatible wavelengths.
| C. Poor near-surface resolution.
| D. None of the above will actually limit such a test.
^ A. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
^ B. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Incorrect. What happens to the resolution
@ When using two separate search units (one a transmitter, the
other a receiver), the most efficient combination would be:
\ b
| A. A quartz transmitter and a barium titanate receiver.
| B. A barium titanate transmitter and a lithium sulfate
receiver.
| C. A lithium sulfate transmitter and a barium titanate
receiver.
| D. A barium titanate transmitter and a quartz receiver.
^ A. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Lithium sulfate is a good receiver.
^ D. No, quartz is not a very good transmitter or receiver.
228. @ In immersion testing, the accessory equipment to which the
search cable and the search unit are attached is called a:
\ d
| A. Crystal collimator.
| B. Scrubber.
| C. Jet-stream unit.
| D. Search tube or scanning tube.
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ C. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In general, discontinuities in wrought products tend to be
oriented:
\ b
| A. Randomly.
| B. In the direction of grain flow.
| C. At right angles to the entry surface.
| D. At right angles to the grain flow.
^ A. No, the key words are "wrought products."
^ B. Super
^ C. No. The key words are "wrought products."
^ D. No. The key words are "wrought products."
@ In immersion testing irrelevant or false indications caused by
contoured surfaces are likely to result in a:
\ a
| A. Broad-based indication.
| B. Peaked indication.
| C. "Hashy" signal.
| D. Narrow-based indication.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! Curved surface tends to increase pulse duration.
^ C. No, "hashy" signal is caused by electronic or material
noise.
^ D. No, curved surface tends to increase pulse duration.
@ In contact testing, defects near the entry surface cannot
always be detected because of:
\ c
| A. The far-field effect.
| B. Attenuation.
| C. The dead zone.
| D. Refraction.
^ A. No, the far-field effect does not come into play near the
entry surface in contact testing.
^ B. Sorry! Attenuation near the entry surface should not be a
major factor.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry, this answer is incorrect.
@ In cases where the diameter of tubing being inspected is
smaller than the diameter of the transducer, what can be used
to confine the sound beam to the proper range of angles?
\ b
| A. A scrubber.
| B. A collimator.
| C. An angle plane angulator.
| D. A jet-stream unit.
^ A. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
@ The maximum scanning speed possible is primarily determined
by:
\ c
| A. The frequency of the searchunit.
| B. Viscous drag problems.
| C. The pulse repetition rate of the test instrument.
| D. The persistency of the CRT screen.
^ A. No, there is not relation between frequency and scanning
speed.
^ B. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
@ Surface waves are reduced to an energy level of approximately
1/25 of the original power at a depth of:
\ c
229. | A. One inch.
| B. Four inches.
| C. One wavelength.
| D. Four wavelengths.
^ A. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much into the
material.
^ B. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much into the
material.
^ C. Excellent!! You are correct.
^ D. No, the surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
@ To prevent the appearance of the second front surface
indication before the first back reflection when inspecting
aluminum by the immersion method (water is used as a couplant),
it is necessary to have a minimum of at least one inch of
water for every:
\ b
| A. Two inches of aluminum.
| B. Four inches of aluminum.
| C. Six inches of aluminum.
| D. Eight inches of aluminum.
^ A. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
^ D. No, the water path should be at least four times smaller
than the test specimen.
@ Increasing the length of the pulse used to activate the search
unit will:
\ a
| A. Increase the strength of the ultrasound but decrease the
resolving power ofthe instrument.
| B. Increase the resolving power of the instrument.
| C. Have no effect on the test.
| D. Decrease the penetration of the sound wave.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, the pulse length is increased, therefore resolving
power is decreased.
^ C. No, the pulse length is increased, therefore resolving
power is decreased.
^ D. No, the penetration is increased.
@ Of the following sound wave modes, which one has multiple or
varying wave velocities?
\ d
| A. Longitudinal waves
| B. Shear waves
| C. Transverse waves
| D. Lamb waves
^ A. No, longitudinal waves have one velocity in any given
material.
^ B. No, shear waves have one velocity in any given material.
^ C. No, transverse waves have one velocity in any given
material.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Which of the following would be considered application(s) of
ultrasonic techniques?
\ d
| A. Determination of a material's elastic modulus
| B. Study of a material's metallurgical structure
| C. Measurement of a material's thickness
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ B. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ C. True, but you can do much more with ultrasonics.
^ D. Very good. You are absolutely correct.
@ The only significant sound wave mode that will travel through
a liquid is:
\ b
| A. Shear
| B. Longitudinal
| C. Surface
| D. Rayleigh
^ A. No, liquids do not support shear waves.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, Liquids do not support surface waves.
^ D. No, liquids do not support Rayleigh waves.
@ The acoustic impedance of a material is used to:
\ c
| A. Determine the angle of refraction at an interface.
| B. Determine the attenuation within the material.
| C. Find the amounts of sound energy reflected and refracted
through an interface.
| D. Determine the beam spread within the material.
^ A. No, velocity ratio is used for determining angle of
refraction.
^ B. Sorry! Frequency, wavelength, grain size, etc. are used
to calculate attenuation.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, wavelength and transducer diameter are needed to
calculate beam spread.
@ Acoustic energy propagates in different modes. Which of the
following represents a mode?
\ d
| A. Longitudinal wave
| B. Shear wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. All of the above
^ A. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ B. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ C. Sorry! There are several other modes as well.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ When angle beam contact testing a test piece, increasing the
incident angle until the second critical angle is reached results in:
\ c
| A. Total reflection of a surface wave.
| B. 45 degree refraction of the shear wave
| C. Production of a surface wave
| D. None of the above
^ A. No. What does total reflection mean
^ B. No. Try to apply Snell's law.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No. Try to apply Snell's law.
@ The simple experiment where a stick in a glass of water appears
disjointed at the water surface illustrates the phenomenon of:
\ c
| A. Reflection
| B. Magnification
| C. Refraction
| D. Diffraction
^ A. No, reflection should not make it appear disjointed.
^ B. No, magnification means to enlarge - It means different
from disjointed.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! you've answered incorrectly.
@ The crystal thickness and transducer frequency are related. The
thinner the crystal:
\ b
| A. The lower the frequency
| B. The higher the frequency
| C. There is no appreciable effect
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, there is an inverse relationship.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, there is an inverse relationship.
^ D. No, there is an inverse relationship.
@ The random distribution of crystallographic direction in alloys
with large crystalline structure is a factor in determining:
\ d
| A. Acoustic noise levels
| B. Selection of test frequency
| C. Scattering of sound
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ B. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ C. True, but there are other considerations as well.
^ D. You are correct.
@ The length of the zone adjacent to a transducer in which
fluctuations in sound pressure occur is mostly affected by:
\ d
| A. The frequency of the transducer
| B. The diameter of the transducer
| C. Scattering of sound
| D. Both A and B
^ A. True, but there is another factor too.
^ B. True, but there is another factor too.
^ C. No, scattering of sound is irrelevant here.
^ D. You are correct.
@ The differences in signals received from identical reflectors
at different material distances from a transducer may be caused by:
\ d
| A. Material attenuation.
| B. Beam divergence.
| C. Near field effects.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ B. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ C. True, but there are other reasons too.
^ D. Excellent! You are right.
@ It is possible for a discontinuity smaller than the transducer to
produce indications of fluctuating amplitude as the search unit is
moved laterally if testing is being performed in the:
\ b
| A. Fraunhofer zone.
| B. Near field.
| C. Snell field.
| D. Shadow zone.
^ A. No, signal should remain constant.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! No such thing in UT.
^ D. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
@ In immersion testing, the near field effects of a transducer
may be eliminated by:
\ c
| A. Increasing transducer frequency.
| B. Use of larger diameter transducer.
| C. Using an appropriate water path.
| D. Use of a focused transducer.
^ A. No, nearfield distance is increased.
^ B. No, nearfield distance is increased.
^ C. You've got it
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ Which of the following may result in a long narrow rod if the
beam divergence results in a reflection from a side of the test
piece before the sound wave reaches the back surface?
\ c
| A. Multiple indications before the first back reflection.
| B. Indications from multiple surface reflection.
| C. Conversion from the longitudinal mode to shear mode.
| D. Loss of front surface indications.
^ A. Not true if the rod is smooth, i.e. no scratches, cracks,
etc.
^ B. No. This is not possible.
^ C. Absolutely
^ D. No, this is not possible.
@ Where does beam divergence occur?
\ b
| A. Near field.
| B. Far field.
| C. At the crystal.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, not in the nearfield.
^ B. That's correct.
^ C. No, it is not at the crystal but away from it.
^ D. No, beam diverges after the Fresnel zone.
@ As frequency increases in ultrasonic testing, the angle of
beam divergence of a given diameter crystal:
\ a
| A. Decreases
| B. Remains unchanged
| C. Increases
| D. Varies uniformly through each wavelength
^ A. Super! You are correct.
^ B. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
^ C. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
^ D. No, angle of divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter.
@ As the radius of curvature of a curved lens is increased, the
focal length of the lens will:
\ a
| A. Increase
| B. Decrease
| C. Remain the same
| D. Be indeterminate unless the frequency is known
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, flat surface has infinite radius of curvature.
^ C. No, it will definitely increase or decrease.
^ D. No, it will definitely increase or decrease.
@ When examining materials for planar flaws oriented parallel to
the part surface, what testing method is most often used?
\ c
| A. Angle beam
| B. Through-transmission
| C. Straight beam
| D. Dual crystal
^ A. No, angle beam testing is most useful when flaw is
oriented perpendicular to the part surface.
^ B. No, through-transmission is most useful in highly
attenuative materials.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, dual crystal transducer are used when flaw is located
close to the surface.
@ Rayleigh waves are influenced most by defects located:
\ c
| A. One wavelength below the surface
| B. Six wavelengths below the surface
| C. Close to or on the surface
| D. Three wavelengths below the surface
^ A. Sorry! Surface waves penetrate as much as one wavelength
below the surface.
^ B. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
^ C. Outstanding
^ D. No, surface waves do not penetrate much below one
wavelength.
@ The ultrasonic test method in which finger damping is most
effective in locating a discontinuity is:
\ c
| A. Shear wave
| B. Longitudinal wave
| C. Surface wave
| D. Compressional wave
^ A. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
^ B. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
^ C. Absolutely correct.
^ D. No, all wave modes can be damped with finger. The key
words are "most effective."
@ Lamb waves can be used to detect:
\ a
| A. Laminar-type defects near the surface of a thin material
| B. Lack of fusion in the center of a thick weldment
| C. Internal voids in diffusion bonds
| D. Thickness changes in heavy plate material
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
^ C. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
^ D. No, lamb waves cannot be generated in thick materials.
230. @ The ratio of the velocity of sound in water compared to that
for aluminum or steel is approximately:
\ a
| A. 1:4
| B. 1:2
| C. 1:8
| D. 1:3
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
@ Which of the following scanning methods could be classified as
an immersion type test?
\ d
| A. Tank in which the search unit and test piece are immersed
| B. Squirter bubbler method in which the sound is transmitted
in a column of flowing water
| C. Scanning with a wheel-type search unit with the transducer
inside a liquid filled tire
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ B. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ C. True, but there are other set ups as well.
^ D. That is correct.
@ In an immersion test of a piece of steel or aluminum, the
water distance appears on the display as a fairly wide space
between the initial pulse and the front surface reflection
because of:
\ a
| A. Reduced velocity of sound in water as compared to test
specimen.
| B. Increased velocity of sound in water as compared to test
specimen.
| C. Temperature of the water.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. Super! You are correct.
^ B. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
^ C. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
^ D. No, velocity of sound in water is lower than test specimen.
@ What law can be used to calculate the angle of refraction
within a metal for both longitudinal and shear waves?
\ b
| A. Poisson's Ratio Law
| B. Snell's Law
| C. Fresnel's Field Law
| D. Charles' Law
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ At an interface between two different materials, an impedance
difference results in:
\ c
| A. Reflection of the entire incident energy at the interface
| B. Absorption of sound
| C. Division of sound energy into transmitted and reflected
modes
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, some of it goes into the second material and some is
reflected.
^ B. No, it is both transmitted and reflected.
^ C. You are correct
^ D. No, some of it goes into the second material while some of
it is reflected.
@ When using focused transducers, non-symmetry in a propagated
sound beam may be caused by:
\ d
| A. Backing material variations
| B. Lens centering or misalignment
| C. Porosity in lenses
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ B. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ C. Yes, but there could also be other causes.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Ultrasonic wheel units may be used for which of the following
types of examination?
\ d
| A. Straight or longitudinal examination
| B. Angle-beam or shear wave examination
| C. Surface wave or Rayleigh wave
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ B. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ C. Yes, but other answer choices apply as well.
^ D. You are correct.
@ During straight beam testing, test specimens with non-parallel
front and back surfaces can cause:
\ a
| A. Partial or total loss of back reflection
| B. No loss in back reflection
| C. A widened (broad) back reflection indication
| D. A focused (narrow) back reflection indication
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. Sorry, this is incorrect. Lack of parallelism will affect
signal amplitude.
^ C. This is possible but there is a more profound affect on
the amplitude.
^ D. No, there is a more profound affect on the amplitude.
@ In the immersion technique, the distance between the face of
the transducer and the test surface (water path) is usually adjusted
so that the time required to send the sound beam through the water.
\ b
| A. Is equal to the time required for the sound to travel
through the piece.
| B. Is greater than the time required for the sound to travel
through the testpiece.
| C. Is less than the time required for the sound to travel
through the test piece.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. Yes, but this will cause a lot of confusion, since the
signals will be superimposed.
^ B. Absolutely right.
^ C. No, this answer is incorrect.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer.
@ In a B-scan display, the length of a screen indication from a
discontinuity is related to:
\ b
| A. A discontinuity's thickness as measured parallel to the
ultrasonic beam.
| B. The discontinuity's length in the direction of the
transducer travel.
| C. Both A and B
| D. None of the above
^ A. No, not the length of a screen indication.
^ B. You are right
^ C. Incorrect, inspect choice A again.
^ D. No, there is a valid answer.
@ Which circuit triggers the pulser and sweep circuits in an
A-scan display?
\ c
| A. Receiver-amplifier
| B. Power supply
| C. Clock
| D. Damping
^ A. No, the receiver-amplifier modifies return signal for
display.
^ B. No, this choice is incorrect.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, damping only adjusts excitation pulse width.
@ On an A-scan display, the "dead zone," refers to:
\ c
| A. The distance contained within the near field.
| B. The area outside the beam spread.
| C. The distance covered by the front surface pulse width and
recovery time.
| D. The area between the near field and the far field.
^ A. Sorry! Generally "dead zone" is much smaller than the
nearfield.
^ B. Sorry! "Dead zone" is due to the pulse duration.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ On an A-scan display, what represents the intensity of a
reflected beam?
\ d
| A. Echo pulse width
| B. Horizontal screen location
| C. Signal brightness
| D. Signal amplitude
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Sorry! This gives discontinuity location.
^ C. Sorry! Signal brightness is used in B-scan to represent
the intensity of reflected beam.
^ D. You are exactly right.
@ Of the following scan types, which one can be used to produce
a recording of flaw areas superimposed over a plan view of the test
piece?
\ c
| A. A-scan
| B. B-scan
| C. C-scan
| D. D-scan
^ A. No, an A-scan represents the amplitude-distance
relationship.
^ B. No, the B-scan represents the cross-sectional view.
^ C. You are correct
^ D. No, there is no such thing as a D-scan.
@ In immersion testing in a small tank, a manually operated
manipulator is used to:
\ d
| A. Set the proper water path
| B. Set the proper transducer angle
| C. Set the proper index function
| D. Both A and B
^ A. Yes, but it is used to do more than that.
^ B. Yes, but it is used to do more than that.
^ C. No, this choice is totally incorrect.
^ D. You are correct.
@ A 45 degrees shear angle beam transducer produces a wave in
the metal which is polarized:
\ d
| A. Perpendicular to the direction of propagation and parallel
to the entry surface.
| B. In the direction of propagation and at 45 degrees to the
normal to the entry surface.
| C. Perpendicular to the entry surface.
| D. Perpendicular to the direction of propagation and at 45
degree to the entry surface.
^ A. No, it is not parallel to the entry surface.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, polarization direction is related primarily to the
direction of the propagation.
^ D. You are correct.
@ In straight (normal) beam contact testing, a reduction in the
back surface reflection amplitude could indicate:
\ d
| A. Inadequate coupling.
| B. A flaw which is not normal to the beam.
| C. A near surface defect that cannot be resolved from the
main bang (initial pulse).
| D. All of the above
^ A. Yes, but there could be several other reasons too.
^ B. Yes, but there could be several other reasons too.
^ C. Yes, but there could also be several other reasons.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ In an automatic scanning immersion unit, the bridge or
carriage serves to:
\ a
| A. Support the manipulator and scanner tube and to move it
about transversely and longitudinally.
| B. Control the angular and transverse positioning of the
scanner tube.
| C. Control the vertical and angular positioning of the
scanner tube.
| D. Raise and lower the transducer.
^ A. Absolutely correct.
^ B. No, bridge or carriage cannot be used to angulate.
^ C. No, bridge or carriage cannot be used to angulate.
^ D. No, bridge and carriage cannot be used to raise and lower
the transducers.
@ When adjusting the flaw locating rule for a shear wave weld
inspection, the zero point on the rule must coincide with the:
\ a
| A. Sound beam exit point of the wedge
| B. Point directly over the flaw
| C. Wheel search unit
| D. Circular scanner
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is irrelevant.
@ A special scanning device with the transducer mounted in a
tire- like container filled with couplant is commonly called;
\ c
| A. A rotating scanner
| B. An axial scanner
| C. A wheel search unit
| D. A circular scanner
^ A. No, but you are on the right track.
^ B. No, it rotates.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ Which best describes a typical display of a crack whose major
surface is perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam?
\ b
| A. A broad indication
| B. A sharp indication
| C. The indication will not show due to improper orientation
| D. A broad indication with high amplitude
^ A. No, since the beam is perpendicular to the crack,
indication is not broadened.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, it will definitely show because of most favorable
orientation.
^ D. No, since the beam is perpendicular to the crack,
indication is not broadened.
@ Compensation for the variation in echo height related to variations
in discontinuity depth in the test material is known as:
\ c
| A. Transfer
| B. Attenuation
| C. Distance amplitude correction
| D. Interpretation
^ A. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ B. No, attenuation causes change in the amplitude as the
sound propagates.
^ C. Absolutely correct.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ Which of the following is a reference reflector that is not
dependent on beam angle
\ c
| A. A flat bottomed hole
| B. A vee notch
| C. A side drilled hole which is parallel to the plate surface
and perpendicular to the sound path
| D. A disc shaped laminar reflector
^ A. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful only
for a zero degree angle.
^ B. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful for
angle beam testing.
^ C. You got it
^ D. No, it certainly depends on beam angle. It is useful only
for a zero degree angle.
@ During a straight beam ultrasonic test a discontinuity
indication is detected which is small in amplitude compared
to the loss in amplitude of back reflection. The orientation
of this discontinuity is probably:
\ d
| A. Parallel to the test surface.
| B. Parallel (plus or minus 5 degrees) from the test surface.
| C. Parallel to the sound beam.
| D. Such that complete loss of back reflection will result.
^ A. No, if it was parallel, it should have given a large
indication.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. No, if it were parallel to the sound beam, loss of
back surface reflection should be very small.
^ D. You are correct.
@ A discontinuity is located having an orientation such that its
long axis is parallel to the sound beam. The indication from such a
discontinuity will be:
\ b
| A. Large in proportion to the length of the discontinuity.
| B. Small in proportion to the length of the discontinuity.
| C. Representative of the length of the discontinuity.
| D. Such that complete loss of back reflection will result.
^ A. No, large indications would be obtained if it were
perpendicular
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, apply the golden rule of ultrasonics.
^ D. No, you are not on the right track.
@ Gas discontinuities are reduced to flat discs or other shapes
parallel to the surface by:
\ a
| A. Rolling
| B. Machining
| C. Casting
| D. Welding
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, machining can't make them flat or parallel to the
surface.
^ C. No, casting typically produces bubbles which are
spherical.
^ D. No, welding typically produces bubbles which are
spherical.
@ In which zone does the amplitude of an indication from a given
discontinuity diminish exponentially as the distance increases?
\ a
| A. Far field zone
| B. Near field zone
| C. Dead zone
| D. Fresnel zone
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, in near field amplitude changes rapidly.
^ C. No, you can not find the defect in this zone, so question
of amplitude change is irrelevant.
^ D. No, in the fresnel zone, amplitude changes rapidly.
@ A smooth flat discontinuity whose major plane is not
perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation may be indicated by:
\ d
| A. An echo amplitude comparable in magnitude to the back
surface reflection.
| B. A complete loss of the back surface reflection.
| C. An echo amplitude larger in magnitude than the back
surface reflection.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ B. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ C. Yes, but there are other possibilities.
^ D. You are correct.
@ Using a pulse-echo technique, if the major plane of a flat
discontinuity is oriented at some angle other than perpendicular
to the direction of sound propagation, the result may be:
\ b
| A. Loss of signal linearity
| B. Loss or lack of a received discontinuity echo
| C. Focusing of the sound beam
| D. Loss of interference phenomena
^ A. No, signal linearity is not related to angle.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, this answer is wrong. Curved discontinuity can cause
focussing, but not plane discontinuity.
^ D. No, this answer is wrong.
@ As transducer diameter decreases, the beam spread:
\ c
| A. Decreases
| B. Remains the same
| C. Increases
| D. Becomes conical in shape
^ A. No, beam spread is a function of wavelength / transducer
diameter.
^ B. No, beam spread is a function of wavelength / transducer
diameter.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ A set of standard reference blocks with the same geometrical
configuration and dimensions other than the size of the calibration
reflectors, e.g., flat bottom holes, is called a set of:
\ b
| A. Distance/amplitude standards.
| B. Area/amplitude standards.
| C. Variable frequency blocks.
| D. Beam spread measuring blocks.
^ A. No, in this type size of reflector remains constant.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Such a thing does not exist in UT.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ The angle at which 90 degree refraction of a longitudinal
sound wave is reached is called:
\ b
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The first critical angle.
| C. The angle of maximum reflection.
| D. The second critical angle.
^ A. No, angle of incidence can be any angle from 0 to 90
degrees.
^ B. You are right.
^ C. No. Think harder.
^ D. No, at second critical angle, shear waves reach 90 degree
angle of refraction.
@ Which of the following controls the voltage supplied to the
vertical deflection plates of the CRT in an A-scan UT setup?
\ c
| A. Sweep generator
| B. Pulser
| C. Amplifier circuit
| D. Clock timer
^ A. No, sweep generator controls horizontal deflection plates.
^ B. No, pulser excites the transducer.
^ C. You are right.
^ D. Sorry! Try again.
@ Attenuation is a difficult quantity to measure accurately,
particularly in solid materials, at the test frequencies normally
used. The overall result usually observed includes other loss
mechanisms which can include:
\ d
| A. Beam spread
| B. Couplant mismatch
| C. Test piece geometry
| D. All of the above
^ A. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ B. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ C. True, but there are other mechanisms also.
^ D. You are exactly right.
@ The vertical linear range of a test instrument may be
determined by obtaining ultrasonic responses from:
\ c
| A. A set of distance-amplitude reference blocks.
| B. Steel balls located at several different water path
distances.
| C. A set of area-amplitude reference blocks.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. No, distance should be kept constant.
^ B. No, distance should be kept constant.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, not all are true.
@ Large grains in a metallic test specimen usually result in:
\ d
| A. Decrease or loss of back surface reflection.
| B. Large "hash" or noise indications.
| C. Decrease in penetration.
| D. All of the above.
^ A. You are partially correct.
^ B. You are partially correct.
^ C. You are partially correct.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ The total energy losses occurring in all materials is called:
\ a
| A. Attenuation
| B. Scatter
| C. Beam spread
| D. Interface
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
^ C. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
^ D. No, this is one of the reasons which causes energy loss.
@ Delay-tip(stand-off)type contact search units are primarily
used for:
\ c
| A. Defect detection.
| B. Sound wave characterization.
| C. Thickness measurement of flaw detection in thin materials.
| D. Attenuation measurements.
^ A. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
^ B. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
^ C. Excellent
^ D. Incorrect. Delay-tip normally used to avoid dead zone.
231. @ Acoustical lenses are commonly used for contour correction.
When scanning the inside of a pipe section by the immersion method,
which of the following lens types would be used?
\ b
| A. Focused cup
| B. Convex
| C. Concave
| D. Variable pitch
^ A. No, pipe curvature provides focussing in one plane.
^ B. Super! You are correct.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ When the incident angle is chosen to be between the first and
second critical angles, the ultrasonic wave generated within the
part will be:
\ b
| A. Longitudinal
| B. Shear
| C. Surface
| D. Lamb
^ A. No, longitudinal wave does not exist beyond first critical
angle.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, surface wave is generated after second critical angle.
^ D. No, lamb wave is generated after second critical angle.
232. @ The attenuation of energy within a material in the far field
of the ultrasonic beam may be expressed as the:
\ d
| A. Arithmetic mean
| B. Geometrical average
| C. Exponential average
| D. Exponential decay
^ A. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ B. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ C. Wrong. It decreases rapidly.
^ D. You are correct.
@ For aluminum and steel the longitudinal velocity is approximately
_________ the shear velocity:
\ b
| A. Equal to
| B. Twice
| C. One-half of
| D. Four times
^ A. Incorrect, shear wave velocity is much smaller than
longitudinal wave velocity.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. Incorrect, shear wave travel slower than longitudinal
waves.
^ D. Incorrect. You are close.
@ Water travel distance for immersion inspections should be:
\ a
| A. Such that the second front reflection does not appear
between the first front and back reflections.
| B. Exactly 3 inches.
| C. Less than 3 inches.
| D. Always equal to the thickness of the material being
inspected.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.
^ C. No. It depends on material thickness and velocity.
^ D. No, this can cause a confusing screen or presentation.
233. @ The electronic circuitry that allows selection and processing
of only those signals relating to discontinuities that occur in
specific zones of a part is called:
\ a
| A. An electronic gate.
| B. An electronic attenuator.
| C. A distance amplitude correction circuit.
| D. A fixed marker.
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No. Attenuator attenuates the signal and does not do
selection.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! DAC is applied throughout the thickness of
material.
@ When conducting a contact ultrasonic test, the "hash" or
irregular signals that appear in the CRT display of the area
being inspected could be caused by:
\ c
| A. Fine grains in the structure.
| B. Dirt in the water couplant.
| C. Coarse grains in the structure.
| D. A thick but tapered back surface.
^ A. No, hash is directly proportional to grain size.
^ B. No, in contact testing, dirt in water couplant is not a
major problem.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No. This will reduce back surface reflection. Hash is
related to grain structure.
@ In inspecting a 4-inch diameter threaded steel cylinder for
radial cracks extending from the root of the threads, it would be
preferable to transmit:
\ b
| A. Shear waves at an angle to the threads.
| B. Longitudinal waves from the end of the cylinder and
perpendicular to the direction of the thread roots.
| C. Surface waves perpendicular to the thread roots.
| D. Shear waves around the circumference of the cylinder.
^ A. No, You will get too many reflections from threads.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. Incorrect. How do you launch surface waves perpendicular
to the direction of thread roots
^ D. Incorrect. How do you launch shear waves around the
circumference of the cylinder
@ In an immersion inspection of raw material, the water travel
distance should be:
\ c
| A. Exactly 3 inches.
| B. Equal to 3 inches (plus or minus 1/2 inch).
| C. Equal to the water travel distance used in setting up on
the reference standards.
| D. Equal to the thickness of a material.
^ A. Incorrect. Water traveling distance depends on material
thickness and wave velocity.
^ B. Incorrect. Water traveling distance depends on material
thickness and wave velocity.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, this can cause a confusing screen presentation.
@ The angle formed by an ultrasonic wave as it enters a medium
of different velocity than the one from which it came and a line
drawn perpendicular to the interface between the two media is called:
\ b
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The angle of refraction.
| C. The angle of rarefaction.
| D. The angle of reflection.
^ A. No, Angle of incidence is in the host medium.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, there is no such angle.
^ D. No, angle of reflection is in the same host medium as the
angle of incidence.
@ The process of adjusting an instrument or device to a reference
standard is referred to as:
\ d
| A. Angulation
| B. Scanning
| C. Correcting for distance-amplitude variations
| D. Calibration
^ A. No, angulation is done in immersion testing to get peak
amplitude signal.
^ B. Sorry! Scanning involves moving transducer back and forth
over a sample, usually in immersion mode.
^ C. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
^ D. You're right.
@ An electron tube in which a beam of electrons from the cathode
is used to reproduce an image on a fluorescent screen at the end of
the tube is referred to as:
\ c
| A. An amplifier tube
| B. A pulser tube
| C. A cathode ray tube
| D. A sweep tube
^ A. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
^ B. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Incorrect. There is no such thing in UT.
@ A grouping of a number of crystals in one search unit, with
all contact surfaces in the sample plane, and vibrating in phase
with each other to act as a single transducer is called a:
\ b
| A. Focusing crystal
| B. Crystal mosaic
| C. Scrubber
| D. Single plane manipulator
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Excellent
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ The scattering of the ultrasonic energy of an ultrasonic beam
due to reflection from a highly polished surface is called:
\ b
| A. Angulation
| B. Dispersion
| C. Refraction
| D. Rarefaction
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. No, refraction occurs when two medias are involved.
^ D. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinal
wave propagates.
@ The angle of reflection is:
\ a
| A. Equal to the angle of incidence.
| B. Dependent on the couplant used.
| C. Dependent on the frequency used.
| D. Equal to the angle of refraction.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, apply Snell's law.
^ C. No, apply Snell's law.
^ D. No, apply Snell's law.
@ The angular position of the reflecting surface of a planar
discontinuity with respect to the entry surface is referred to as:
\ c
| A. The angle of incidence.
| B. The angle of refraction.
| C. The orientation of the discontinuity.
| D. None of the above.
^ A. No, angle of incidence is associated with the wave.
^ B. No, angle of incidence is associated with the wave.
^ C. You are right.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ A short burst of alternating electrical energy is called:
\ d
| A. A continuous wave
| B. A peaked DC voltage
| C. An ultrasonic wave
| D. A pulse
^ A. No, continuous wave is not short.
^ B. No, look at the key word "alternating"
^ C. Incorrect. Ultrasonic wave is not electric energy.
^ D. Super! You are absolutely correct.
@ In ultrasonic testing, the time duration of the transmitted
pulse is referred to as:
\ a
| A. The pulse length or pulse width
| B. The pulse amplitude
| C. The pulse shape
| D. None of the above
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No. Duration and amplitude are the two dimensions of an
ultrasonic signal.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry! Your choice is incorrect.
@ The phenomenon by which a wave strikes a boundary and changes
the direction of its propagation within the same medium is referred
to as:
\ d
| A. Divergence
| B. Impedance
| C. Angulation
| D. Reflection
^ A. No, divergence is a function of wavelength/transducer
diameter
^ B. No, impedance=velocity*density
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. You've got it.
@ The change in direction of an ultrasonic beam when it passes
from one medium to another whose velocity differs from that of
the first medium is called:
\ a
| A. Refraction
| B. Rarefaction
| C. Angulation
| D. Reflection
^ A. You've got it.
^ B. No, rarefaction is associated with the way longitudinal
wave propagates.
^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ D. No, reflection occurs within the same medium.
@ The coated inside surface of the large end of a cathode ray
tube which becomes luminous when struck by an electron beam is called:
\ c
| A. An electron gun
| B. An electron amplifier
| C. A CRT screen
| D. An electron counter
^ A. No, the key word is "screen."
^ B. No, the key word is "screen."
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, the key word is "screen."
234.
235.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
236. ULTRASONICS TESTING LEVEL III
237.
@ Notches are frequently used as reference reflectors for:
\ a
| A. Distance-amplitude calibration for shear waves.
| B. Area-amplitude calibration.
| C. Thickness calibration of plate.
| D. Determining near-surface resolutions.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. No, flat bottom holes are used for area-amplitude
calibration.
^ C. No, step block is used for thickness calibration.
^ D. No, notches are used for defect detection.
@ Notches provide good reference discontinuities when UT
examination is conducted to primarily detect defects such as:
\ b
| A. Porosity in rolled plate.
| B. Inadequate penetration at the root of a weld.
| C. Weld porosity.
| D. Internal inclusions.
^ A. No, notches are used for surface breaking defects.
^ B. You are correct.
^ C. No, notches are used for surface breaking defects.
^ D. No, notches are used for surface breaking defects.
@The difference between a compression and shear wave is:
\ b
| A. Quantitative measure
| B. Particle direction
| C. Qualitative measure
| D. Amplitude
^ A. No, the difference is in the way the particles oscillate.
^ B. You are right.
^ C. No, the difference is in the way the particles oscillate.
^ D. No, the difference is in the way the particles oscillate.
@ The particle motion for Rayleigh waves is usually described as:
\ c
| A. Sinusoidal
| B. Circular
| C. Elliptical
| D. Shear
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. No, none of the waves have circular particle motion.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, shear describes wave mode. The question asks for
particle motion.
@ Based upon wave theory and ignoring attenuation losses, the
echo amplitude is:
\ d
| A. Directly proportional to the distance to the reflector.
| B. Inversely proportional to the distance to the reflector.
| C. Directly proportional to the square of the distance to the
reflector.
| D. Inversely proportional to the square of the distance to
the reflector.
^ A. No, signal amplitude decreases rapidly with the distance.
^ B. No, signal amplitude decreases rapidly with the distance.
^ C. No, signal amplitude decreases rapidly in the distance.
^ D. You are correct.
@ The rate generator in B-scan equipment will invariably be
directly connected to the:
\ b
| A. CRT intensity circuit
| B. Pulser circuit
| C. RF amplifier circuit
| D. Horizontal sweep circuit
^ A. Sorry, you are mistaken.
^ B. You got it
^ C. No, RF amplifier circuit is not correct.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ In A-scan equipment, the RF pulser output voltage is normally
in the range of:
\ c
| A. 1-10 volts.
| B. 10-100 volts.
| C. 100-1000 volts.
| D. 1000-3000 volts.
^ A. No, this voltage is too low for the given application.
^ B. No, but you are close.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry! These values are too high.
@ When contact testing, an increase in tightness of a shrink fit
to a hollow shaft will cause the ratio of the back reflection to
the metal-to-metal interface reflection to:
\ a
| A. Increase
| B. Decrease
| C. Remain unchanged
| D. Cannot be predicted as the response is material-dependent.
^ A. You are correct.
^ B. Sorry! Signal amplitude from the shrink fit decreases.
^ C. No, it does predictable change.
^ D. Sorry! It can be predicted.
@ During the inspection of a parallel-sided, machined forging
using the straight beam immersion technique, a diminished back
reflection in a localized area in the absence of a defect
indication would least likely represent:
\ d
| A. A coarse grain structure
| B. Small nonmetallic stringers
| C. A defect oriented at a severe angle to the entry surface
| D. A large inclusion
^ A. No, coarse grain structure should show as hash.
^ B. No, this should give a large defect indication.
^ C. No, you could still get back surface indication. It
depends on the size.
^ D. You are right.
@ As you increase the frequency of a given size transducer:
\ c
| A. The lateral resolution is impaired
| B. The beam divergence increases
| C. The length of the near field increases
| D. The sensitivity increases
^ A. Sorry! With increase in frequency lateral resolution
should improve.
^ B. No, beam divergence decreases. Beam divergence is a
function of Wavelength / Diameter.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. No, you have answered incorrectly.
@ In an ultrasonic test system where signal amplitudes are
displayed on a CRT, an advantage of a frequency-independent
attenuator over a continuously variable gain control is that:
\ b
| A. The pulse shape distortion is less.
| B. The signal amplitude measured using the attenuator is
independent of frequency.
| C. The dynamic range of the system is decreased.
| D. The effect of amplification threshold is avoided.
^ A. True, but amplitude is also greatly affected.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, you missed it.
^ D. You are mistaken.
@ An amplifier in which received echo pulses must exceed a
certain threshold voltage before they can be indicated might be
used to:
\ a
| A. Suppress amplifier noise, unimportant scatter echoes, or
small flaw echoes which are of no consequence.
| B. Provide a screen display with nearly ideal vertical
linearity characteristics.
| C. Compensate for the unavoidable effects of material
attenuation losses.
| D. Provide distance amplitude correction automatically.
^ A. You are absolutely correct.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. No, a variable gain is used for DAC correction.
@ The transmitted pulse at the output of the pulser usually has
a voltage of 100 to 1000 V, whereas the voltages of the echo at
the input of the amplifier are on the order of:
\ c
| A. 10 volts
| B. 50 volts
| C. .001 to 1 volts
| D. 1 to 5 volts
^ A. No, that's too high.
^ B. No, that's too high.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, but you are close.
@ The output voltage from a saturated amplifier is:
\ c
| A. 180 degrees out of phase from the input voltage.
| B. Lower than the input voltage.
| C. Nonlinear with respect to the input voltage.
| D. Below saturation .
^ A. No, the question does not concern phase.
^ B. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
^ C. Outstanding
^ D. No, the key word is "saturation.
@ The intended purpose of the adjustable calibrated attenuator
of an ultrasonic instrument is to:
\ b
| A. Control transducer damping.
| B. Increase the dynamic range of the instrument.
| C. Broaden the frequency range.
| D. Attenuate the voltage applied to the transducer.
^ A. No, increase operational range.
^ B. Excellent! You are correct.
^ C. No, the attenuator should not affect the frequency range.
^ D. No, not the voltage applied to the transducer, but to
increase operational range.
@ Which of the following might result in increased transmission
of ultrasound within a coarse-grained material?
\ b
| A. Perform the examination with a smaller diameter
transducer.
| B. Perform the examination after a grain refining heat
treatment.
| C. Change from a contact examination to an immersion
examination.
| D. Change from a longitudinal to a transverse wave.
^ A. No, but a lower frequency might work.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, that should have minimal effect, if any.
^ D. Sorry! Since for same frequency, wavelength is reduced,
therefor transmission will be poorer.
@ When material grain size is on the order of ________
wavelength or larger, excessive scattering of the ultrasonic beam
may affect test results.
\ c
| A. 1
| B. 1/2
| C. 1/10
| D. 1/100
^ A. No, this will cause very high attenuation.
^ B. No, but you are close.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, since the grain size is much smaller than the
wavelength, the result is low attenuation.
@ In a forging, flaws associated with nonmetallic inclusions can
most accurately be described as having which of the following
orientations?
\ c
| A. Parallel to the major axis.
| B. Parallel to the minor axis.
| C. Aligned with forging flow lines.
| D. At approximately 45 degrees to the forging direction.
^ A. No, flaws are in the direction of the forging.
^ B. No, flaws are in the direction of the forging.
^ C. Excellent
^ D. No, the flaws are in the direction of the forging.
@ In a long rod which is examined from one end with a
longitudinal beam, the most likely effect of longitudinally-
oriented discontinuities would be to:
\ c
| A. Significantly reduce the back surface reflection.
| B. Cause echoes between initial pulse and the first back
surface Reflection for which reflector placing can't be
precisely found.
| C. Remove or reduce the amplitude of echoes from refracted
beam paths.
| D. Cause excessive baseline noise.
^ A. No. Presence of longitudinally-oriented tight
discontinuities will not have any effect on back surface
reflection.
^ B. No, but you are close.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, there should not be an increase in baseline noise.
@ When maximum sensitivity is required from a transducer:
\ c
| A. A straight-beam unit should be used.
| B. Large diameter crystals are required.
| C. The piezoelectric element should be driven at its
fundamental resonant frequency.
| D. The band width of the transducer should be as large as
possible.
^ A. No, this choice has no direct relation to sensitivity.
^ B. No, this choice has no direct relation to sensitivity.
^ C. Absolutely right.
^ D. No, this will reduce sensitivity.
@ Which of the following 1 MHz search units should normally have
the best time or distance resolution?
\ d
| A. Quartz transducer with air backing
| B. Quartz transducer with phenolic backing
| C. Barium titanate transducer with phenolic backing
| D. Lithium sulfate transducer with epoxy backing
^ A. No, more damping is required and it is not the best
material.
^ B. No, Quartz is not the best material.
^ C. No, but you are close.
^ D. Outstanding!! You are correct.
@ The sensitivity of an ultrasonic test system:
\ a
| A. Depends on the search unit, pulser, and amplifier used.
| B. Decreases as the frequency is increased.
| C. Increases as the resolution increases.
| D. Is not related to mechanical damping or the transducer.
^ A. You are absolutely right.
^ B. No, it depends on several factors.
^ C. No, it depends on several factors.
^ D. No, it depends on several factors.
@ The ability of a test system to separate the front-surface echo
and the echo from a small discontinuity just below the surface:
\ a
| A. Depends primarily upon the shape of the initial pulse from
the transducer.
| B. Is not related to the surface roughness of the part under
inspection.
| C. Is primarily related to the thickness of the part under
inspection.
| D. Is usually improved by using a larger diameter search
unit.
^ A. Excellent!! You are right.
^ B. No, surface roughness does affect the result.
^ C. No, it is not primarily related to part thickness.
^ D. No, you are off.
@ Search unit sensitivity is most often determined by:
\ b
| A. Calculations based on frequency and thickness of
piezoelectric element.
| B. The amplitude of the response from an artificial
discontinuity.
| C. Comparing it to a similar search unit made by the same
manufacturer.
| D. Determining the ringing time of search unit.
^ A. No, sensitivity is related to amplitude.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Although this one way, it is not a good way.
^ D. No, sensitivity is related to amplitude.
@ Which frequency can best distinguish the difference between a
large planar defect and 4 stacked (multiple-layered) laminations
in rolled plate?
\ d
| A. 0.5 MHz
| B. 1 MHz
| C. 2.25 MHz
| D. 5 MHz
^ A. No, higher frequency resolves better.
^ B. No, higher frequency resolves better.
^ C. No, but you are close.
^ D. You are absolutely correct.
@ During immersion examination, when evaluating the response
from a contoured surface of a part, irrelevant indications due to
the contour are most likely to appear as:
\ c
| A. Sharp spiked signal indications
| B. Irregular signal indications
| C. Broad-based signal indications
| D. Hash
^ A. No, cracks and flat surfaces give sharp indications.
^ B. Sorry, your answer is wrong.
^ C. You are absolutely right.
^ D. Sorry! Hash is normally due to large grain scattering.
@ The pulse applied to the electrodes of the ultrasonic search
unit is:
\ a
| A. Electrical
| B. Mechanical
| C. Electro-mechanical
| D. Piezoelectrical
^ A. Outstanding
^ B. No. How do you excite the transducer
^ C. Sorry! Try again.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ In calibrating an ultrasonic test instrument utilizing the
responses from each of the area/amplitude type reference blocks,
the determination of the:
\ a
| A. Vertical range is obtained
| B. Pulse range is obtained
| C. Resolving range is obtained
| D. Horizontal range is obtained
^ A. You are right.
^ B. Sorry! Your answer is wrong.
^ C. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
^ D. Sorry, your answer is incorrect.
@ Test sensitivity corrections for metal distance and
discontinuity area responses are accomplished by using:
\ b
| A. An area/amplitude set of blocks.
| B. An area/amplitude and a distance/amplitude set of blocks.
| C. A distance/amplitude set of blocks.
| D. Steel balls of varying diameter.
^ A. No, you failed to consider metal distance corrections.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. No, you neglected area corrections.
^ D. Sorry! This answer is incorrect.
@ The time from the start of the ultrasonic pulse until the
reverberations completely decay limits the maximum usable:
\ c
| A. Pulse time-flaw rate
| B. Pulser/receiver rate
| C. Pulse repetition rate
| D. Modified pulse-time rate
^ A. No, there is no such thing.
^ B. No, there is no such thing.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. Sorry, this choice is incorrect.
@ Rough surfaces can cause undesirable effects which are
noticeable when parts are tested ultrasonically, including:
\ b
| A. Requiring less viscous couplant
| B. An increase in the width of front face echo and consequent
loss of resolving power.
| C. Acoustical mismatch.
| D. Larger inspection frequency
^ A. No, this will accentuate the problem.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! Your answer is wrong.
^ D. No, this will accentuate the problem.
@ Rough surfaces cause the echo amplitude from discontinuities
within the part to:
\ b
| A. Increase
| B. Decrease
| C. Not change
| D. Change frequency
^ A. No, energy is scattered.
^ B. You are absolutely right.
^ C. No, energy is scattered.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ When a sound beam travels from a liquid into a metal through a
contoured surface, the sound beam inside the metal will:
\ d
| A. Have larger beam diameter
| B. Have same beam diameter.
| C. Not be effected by the part geometry.
| D. Be convergent if the surface is concave, and divergent if
the surface is convex.
^ A. No, it depends on the curvature.
^ B. No, curved part will affect focussing characteristics.
^ C. No, curved part will affect focussing characteristics.
^ D. Excellent!! You are exactly right.
@ The resonant frequency of a 2 cm thick plate of Naval brass
(V=443000 cm/sec) is:
\ d
| A. .903 MHz
| B. .443 MHz
| C. .222 MHz
| D. .111 MHz
^ A. No, recalculate your figures. Frequency = velocity x
(thickness / 2)
^ B. No, recalculate your figures. Frequency = velocity x
(thickness / 2)
^ C. No, recalculate your figures. Frequency = velocity x
(thickness / 2)
^ D. You've got it.
@ Resonance testing equipment generally utilizes:
\ b
| A. Pulsed longitudinal waves
| B. Continuous longitudinal waves
| C. Pulsed shear waves
| D. Continuous shear waves
^ A. Sorry! Most ultrasonic equipment utilizes pulsed waves,
but not in resonance testing.
^ B. You are absolutely correct.
^ C. Sorry! Try again.
^ D. No. Not generally, but this can be done.
@ Preventing the decrease of sensitivity close to a wall which
is parallel to the beam direction, the probe used should be:
\ d
| A. As small as possible
| B. Of as low frequency
| C. Both A and B above
| D. Large and with a frequency as high as possible
^ A. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect. Use Beam divergence
relationship.
^ B. Incorrect. Use Beam divergence relationship.
^ C. Incorrect. Use beam divergence relationship.
^ D. Excellent! You are correct.
@ Some information on the shape of a flaw may be given by:
\ c
| A. The shape of the echo
| B. The amplitude of the echo
| C. Both A and B above
| D. Neither A nor B above
^ A. True, but there is more to it.
^ B. True, but there is more to it.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
@ Which of the following transducer materials makes the best
transmitter
\ c
| A. Quartz
| B. Lithium sulfate
| C. Barium titanate
| D. None of the above
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. No, lithium sulfate is the best receiver.
^ C. Absolutely right.
^ D. Incorrect.
@ Of the transducer materials listed below, the most efficient
receiver is:
\ b
| A. Quartz
| B. Lithium sulfate
| C. Barium titanate
| D. Lead meta-niobate
^ A. Sorry! This choice is incorrect.
^ B. Outstanding
^ C. No, this the best transmitter.
^ D. Sorry! You've answered incorrectly.
@ The concentration of energy in the far field of a transducer
beam:
\ b
| A. Is greatest at the outer edges of the beam.
| B. Is greatest at the center of the beam.
| C. Is the same at the outer edges as in the center of the
beam.
| D. Is directly proportional to beam width.
^ A. No, it is least at the edges.
^ B. You've got it.
^ C. Sorry! Please try again.
^ D. Sorry, you are wrong.
@ Typical applications of shear waves in ultrasonic testing is
the inspection of:
\ d
| A. Welds
| B. Plate
| C. Pipe and tubing
| D. All of the above
^ A. No, you can do much more than just inspect welds.
^ B. No, you can do much more than just inspect plates.
^ C. No, you can do much more than just inspect pipe and
tubing.
^ D. Absolutely correct.
@ In angle beam shear wave testing, skip distance will ______ as
the thickness of the test specimen is increased.
\ c
| A. Decrease
| B. Not change
| C. Increase
| D. Decrease by half with double thickness
^ A. No, skip distance is directly proportional to thickness.
^ B. No, skip distance is directly proportional to thickness.
^ C. You are correct.
^ D. Sorry, you missed it.
@ The thickness range of UT resonance thickness gages can be
increased by:
\ c
| A. Using large transducers
| B. Operating at the fundamental frequency
| C. Operating at a harmonic frequency
| D. Increasing the voltage.
^ A. No, the transducer size does not affect ranges.
^ B. No, that does not increase testing range.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Incorrect, this will only increase signal strength but not
the range.
@ The ability of transducers to detect echoes from small defects
is a definition for:
\ b
| A. Resolution
| B. Sensitivity
| C. Definition
| D. Gain
^ A. No, resolution is to resolve closely spaced defects.
^ B. Excellent
^ C. Sorry, you missed it.
^ D. Sorry! Your answer is incorrect.
@ The length of the near field for a 2.5 cm diameter, 5 MHz
transducer placed in oil (V=140000 cm/sec) is approximately:
\ c
| A. .028 cm
| B. 6.25 cm
| C. 55.8 cm
| D. 22.3 cm
^ A. No, apply N=(D**2)/(4* Wavelength)
^ B. No, apply N=(D**2)/(4* Wavelength)
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. No, apply N=(D**2)/(4* Wavelength)
@ From the equation for the length of the near field, it can be
determined that the near field can be minimized by:
\ d
| A. Decreasing water travel distance
| B. Increasing transducer diameter
| C. Decreasing the size of the reference targets.
| D. Decreasing test frequency.
^ A. No, apply N=(D**2)/(4* Wavelength
^ B. No, this will increase near field distance. Apply
N=(d**2)/(4 * wavelength)
^ C. No, apply N=(D**2)/(4* Wavelength)
^ D. Super! You've got it.
@ The acoustic impedance for brass (V=443000 cm/sec,p=8.42
gm/cc) is:
\ d
| A. 53000 (gm/(cm sq. sec)
| B. 940000 (gm/(cm sq. sec)
| C. 19000 (gm/(cm sq. sec)
| D. 3730060 (gm/(cm sq. sec)
^ A. No, acoustic impedance=velocity * density
^ B. No, acoustic impedance=velocity * density
^ C. No, acoustic impedance=velocity * density
^ D. You've got it.
@ The principal attributes that determine the differences in
ultrasonic velocities among materials are:
\ c
| A. Frequency and wavelength
| B. Thickness and travel time
| C. Elasticity and density
| D. Chemistry and permeability
^ A. No, ultrasonic velocity is dependent on material
properties.
^ B. No, ultrasonic velocity is dependent on material
properties.
^ C. You are absolutely correct.
^ D. No, ultrasonic velocity is dependent on material
properties.
@ What would be the wavelength of the waves in lead
(V=210000 cm/sec)if it is tested with a 25 MHz transducer?
\ d
| A. 119 cm
| B. 0.525 cm
| C. 0.0119 cm
| D. 0.0084 cm
^ A. Apply velocity = frequency x wavelength
^ B. Apply velocity = frequency x wavelength
^ C. Apply velocity = frequency x wavelength
^ D. You've got it.
@ What is the transducer half-angle beam spread of a l.25 cm
diameter, 2.25 MHz transducer in water (V=150000 cm/sec?
\ c
| A. 2.5 degrees
| B. 40.5 degrees
| C. 3.75 degrees
| D. 37.5 degrees
^ A. Sorry! Please try again.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. You've got it.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.
@ The term that is used to determine the relative transmittance
and reflectance of ultrasonic energy at an interface is called:
\ c
| A. Acoustic attenuation
| B. Interface refraction
| C. Acoustic impedance ratio
| D. Acoustic frequency
^ A. Incorrect. Attenuation is caused by grain scattering and
absorption.
^ B. Sorry! Please try again.
^ C. You are absolutely right.
^ D. Sorry! Please try again.