Strategic Human ResourceS

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Strategic Human ResourceS

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Antecedents and outcomes for Work-Family Conflict
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- Nurs Sci Q-2011-Roy-312-20
- Chapter 03_US 7e.ppt

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Students, we are going to deal with aspects of principle

component. We are dealing with the issues with the help of

examples.

A (hypothetical) study was conducted by a bank to determine if

special marketing programs should be developed for several key

segments. One of the studys research questions concerned

attitudes toward banking, The respondents were asked their

opinion on a 0-to-9, agree-disagree scale, on the following

questions:

1. Small banks charge less than large banks.

2. Large banks are more likely to make mistakes than small banks.

3. Tellers do not need to be extremely courteous and friendly; its

enough for them simply to be civil.

4. I want to be known personally at my bank and to be treated

with special

courtesy.

5. If a financial institution treated me in an impersonal or uncaring

way, I would never patronize that organization again.

courtesy.

1. Small banks charge less than large banks.

2. Large banks are more likely to make mistakes than small banks.

3. Tellers do not need to be extremely courteous and friendly; its

enough for them simply to be civil.

4. I want to be known personally at my bank and to be treated

with special

courtesy.

5. If a financial institution treated me in an impersonal or uncaring

way, I would never patronize that organization again.

Rotation

This is a second stage and is optional.

Factor analysis can generate several solutions. Each one being

termed a rotation.Each time there is a rotation the factor loadings

change as does the interpretation of factors.

There are many rotation programs e.g Varimax(orthogonal

rotation).

Outputs Most imp Items are

Factor loadings; correlations bet factors and variable and is used to

determine the factor. The percentage of variance explained criteria

help determine no. of factors to include.

Also included is some practical application exercises from the

internet.

The following exercises are to done over the two practical sessions.

You should be familiar with some of the early procedures. For

the EFA procedures, please refer to the notes earlier in this handout.

Saving a copy of the data file

Before you go any further, you should save a copy of the file

driving01.sav into your file space. You can find driving01.sav

by:

1. Open SPSS in the usual way, select Open existing file and More

files

2. In the Open file window, go to Psycho\ courses\ psy2005 \

spss\ , select the driving01.sav file and click on ok

3. Once the file is open, click on Save as and put it in my

documents in PC files on Singer

Whenever you need the file again, you now have a copy from

which to work.

Exploring the data set

1. Cross-Tabulation

Before you start any kind of analysis of a new data set, you should

explore the data so that you know what the variables are and what

each number actually means. If you move the cursor to the grey

cell at the top of a column, a label will appear, telling you what the

variable is.

The variables in the file are as follows: gender, age, area respondent

lives, length of time respondent has held a driving licence (in years

and months), annual mileage, preferred speed on a variety of

different roads at day and at night (motorways, dual carriageways,

A-roads, country lanes, residential roads and busy high street) and

finally, a series of scores relating to items on a personality trait

inventory.

You can use the descriptives and frequencies commands to do

investigate the data, but they cannot tell you everything. If we

wanted to find out how many women there are in the dataset

who live in rural areas, we must use a Crosstabs (Cross-Tabulation)

command:

4. Click on Analyze in the top menu, then select Descriptive

Statistics, and click on Crosstabs.

5. Select the two variables that you want to compare (in this case

gender and area), put one in the Row box, and one in the

Column box.

6. Click on Statistics, and check the Chi-Square box. Click on

Continue.

7. Click on ok.

The output tells us how many men and women in the data set

come from each type of area, and the chi-square option tells us

whether there are significantly different numbers in each cell.

However, it is not clear where these differences lie, so:

8. Click on Analyze in the top menu, then select Descriptive

Statistics, and click on Crosstabs (so long as you havent done

anything else since the first Crosstabs analysis above, the gender

and area variables should still be in the correct boxes, if not

move them into the row and column boxes and Click on

Statistics, and check the Chi-Square box. Click on Continue).

LESSON 34:

PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS

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9. Click on Cells and check the Expected counts box (also, try

selecting the Row, Column and Total percentage boxes).

Click on Continue.

10. Click on OK.

Comparing the expected count with the observed count will tell

you whether or not there is a higher observed frequency than

expected in that particular cell. This will then tell you where the

significant differences lie.

Using the Crosstabs procedure, how many female respondents

live in rural area, and what percentage of the total sample do they

make up? (10, 4.6%). How many male respondents are between

the ages of 36 and 40? What percentage of the total sample do

they constitute? (35, 16.1%).

2. Creating a Scale

You might want to sum peoples scores on several items to create

a kind of index of their attitude, for example; we know that some

of the personality inventory items in the data set relate to the

Thrill-Sedate Driver Scale (Meadows, 1994). These items are

numbered 7 to 13 in the questionnaire (Appendix A) and var7 to

var13 in the data set. How do we create a single scale score?

First of all, some of the items may have been counterbalanced, so

we have to reverse the scoring on these variables before we add

them together to give a single scale score. Currently, a high score

may indicate strong positive tendency on some of the items,

whereas the opposite is true of other items. We need to ensure

that scores of 5 represent the same tendencies throughout the

scale (in this case, high Thrill driving style), so that the items

scores may be added together to create a meaningful overall score.

Missing values

Make sure before computing a new variable like this that you have

already defined missing values, otherwise these will be included in

the scale score. For example, you would not want the values 99

for no response included in your scales, so defining these as

missing will mean that that particular respondent will not be

included in the analysis.

11. Double-click on the grey cell at the top of the relevant column

of data

12. Click on Missing Values

13. Select Discrete Missing Values and type in 99 into one of the

boxes

14. Click on Continue and OK

Recoding Variable Scores

It is usually fairly clear which items need to be recoded. If strong

agreement with the item statement indicates positive tendency,

then that item is okay to include in the scale without recoding.

However, if disagreement with the statement indicates positive

tendency, that items scores must be recoded. Looking at the actual

questions in the questionnaire, it is clear that items var07, var08,

var09 and var10 should all be recoded (var11- var13 are okay, because

strong agreement implies a high Thrill driving style).

Follow these steps to recode each item and then compute a scale

composed of all item variables:

15. Go to Transform Recode Into different variables

and select the first item variable (var07) that requires recoding

16. Give a name for the new recoded variable, such as var07r and

label it as reversed var07

17. Set the new values by clicking old and new values and entering

the old and new values in the appropriate boxes (adding each

transformation as you go along). So you finish up with 1 >

5; 2 > 4; 3 > 3; 4 > 2; and 5 > 1

18. Click continue and then change and check that the

transformation has worked by getting a frequency table for

the old and new variables var07 and var07r. Have the values

reversed properly? If not, then you may need to do it again!

Follow the same procedure for the other items in the scale that

need to be reversed

Scale calculation

Once you have successfully reversed the counterbalanced item

variables, you can compute your scale.

19. Click on Transform Compute and typing a name for the

scale (e.g.: Thrill) in the Target variable box and type the

following in the numeric expression box:

var07r + var08r + var09r + var10r + var11 + var12 + var13

20. Click on ok

Now take a look at your new variable (it will have appeared in a

column on the far right of your data sheet get a descriptives

analysis on it. You should find that the maximum and minimum

values make sense in terms of the original values. The seven

Thrill-Sedate items are scored between 1 and 5, so there should

be no scores lower than 7 (ie: 1 x 7) and none higher than 35 (ie: 5

x 7). If there are scores outside these limits, perhaps you forgot to

exclude missing values.

3. Checking the scales Internal Reliability

Checking the internal reliability of a scale is vital. It assesses how

much each item score is correlated with the overall scale score (a

simplified version of the correlation matrix that I talked about in

the lecture).

To check scale reliability:

21. Click on Analyze Scale Reliability Analysis

22. Select the items that you want to include in the scale (in this

case, all the items between var07 and var13 that didnt require

recoding in the earlier step, plus all the recoded ones in

other words, those listed in the previous scale calculation

step), and move them into the Items box.

23. Click on Statistics

24. Select Scale if item deleted and Inter-item Correlations

25. Click on Continue ok

26.

In the output, you can first see the correlations between items in

the proposed scale. This is just like the correlation matrix referred

to in the lectures. Secondly, you will see a list of the items in the

scale with a certain amount of information about the items and

the overall scale. The statistic that SPSS uses to check reliability is

Cronbachs Alpha, which takes values between zero and 1. The

closer to 1 the value, the better, with acceptable reliability if Alpha

exceeds about 0.7.The column on the far right will tell us if there

are any items currently in the scale that dont correlate with the

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rest. If any of the values in that column exceed the value for

Alpha at the bottom of the table, then the scale would be better

without that item it should be removed from the scale and the

Reliability Analysis run again. For this example, you should get a

value for Alpha of 0.7793, with none of the seven items requiring

removal from the scale.

Factor analysis of Driving01.sav

1. Orthogonal (Varimax) Rotation (Uncorrelated

Factors)

An orthogonal (varimax) analysis will identify factors that are

entirely independent of each other. Using the data in Driving01.sav

we will run a factor analysis on the personality trait items (var01 to

var20).

Use the following procedure to carry out the analysis:

27. Analyze Data reduction Factor

28. Select all the items from var01 to var20 and move them into

the Variables box

29. Click on Extraction

30. Click on the button next to the Method box and select

Principal Axis Factoring from the drop-down list

31. Make sure there is a tick in the Scree Plot option

32. Click on Continue

33. Click on Rotation, select Varimax (make sure the circle is

checked)

34. Click on Options, select Sort by size and Suppress absolute

values less than 0.1 and then change the value to 0.3 (instead

of 0.1)

35. Click on Continue OK.

Output

First, you have the Communalities. These are all okay, as there are

none lower than about 0.2 (anything less than 0.1 should prompt

you to drop that particular variable, as it clearly does not have

enough in common with the factors in the solution to be useful.

If you drop a variable, you should run the analysis again, but

without the problem variable).

The next table displays the Eigenvalues for each potential factor.

You will have as many factors as there were variables to begin

with, but this does not result in any kind of data reduction not

very useful. The first four factors have eigenvalues greater than 1,

so SPSS will extract these factors by default (SPSS automatically

extracts all factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, unless you tell it

to do otherwise). In column 2 you have the amount of variance

explained by each factor, and in the next column, the cumulative

variance explained by each successive factor. In this example, the

cumulative variance explained by the first four factors is 52.4%.

You can ignore the remaining columns.

The Scree plot is displayed next. You can see that in this example,

although four factors have been extracted (using the SPSS default

criteria see later), the scree plot shows that a 3 factor solution

might be better the big difference in the slope of the line comes

after three factors have been extracted. You can see this more

clearly if you place a ruler along the slope in the scree plot. The

discontinuity between the first three factors and the remaining set

is clear they have a far steeper slope than the later factors. Perhaps

three factors may be better than four? See section [iii] p.9 for

further discussion of this issue.

Next comes the factor matrix, showing the loadings for each of

the variables on each of the four factors. Remember that this is for

unrotated factors, so move on to look at the rotated factor matrix

below it, which will be easier to interpret. Each factor has a number

of variables which have higher loadings, and the rest have lower

ones. Remember that we have asked SPSS to suppress or ignore

any values below 0.1, so these will be represented by blank spaces.

You should concentrate on those values greater than 0.3, as any

lower than this can also be ignored. To make things easier, you

could go back and ask SPSS to suppress values less than 0.3 that

will clean up the rotated factor matrix and make it easier to interpret.

Finally comes the factor rotation matrix, which can also be ignored

(it simply specifies the rotation that has been applied to the factors).

2. Correlated Factors Oblique (Oblimin) Rotation

You may have noticed that some of the questions in the

questionnaire seem to measure similar things (for example, the

law is mentioned in variable items that do not appear to load

heavily on the same factor). Two or more of the factors identified

in the last exercise may well correlate with one another, as personality

variables have a habit of doing. An orthogonal analysis may not

be the most logical procedure to carry out. Using the data in

Driving01.sav we will run an oblique factor analysis on the

personality trait items (var01 to var20), which will identify factors

that may be correlated to some degree.

Use the procedure described above, but when you click on the

Rotation button, instead of checking the Varimax option, check

the Direct Oblimin option instead. Compare the output from

this analysis with the output from the varimax analysis. The first

few sections will look the same, because both analyses use the

same process to extract the factors. The difference is once the initial

solution has been identified and SPSS rotates it, in order to clarify

the solution (by redistributing the variance across the factors).

Instead of a rotated factor matrix, you will have pattern and

structure matrices.

Look at the factors and the loadings in the pattern matrix

(concentrate on loadings greater than +/ - 0.3). Do they look the

same as the varimax solution? One thing that has changed is that,

although the factors look similar, the loadings will have changed a

bit, and not all load in the same way as before. For example, var02

(These days a person doesnt really know quite who he can count

on) no longer loads on factor 3, but only on factor 4. How does

this change the interpretation of factors 3 and 4?

Finally is the factor correlation matrix. In a varimax solution, you

can ignore the plus or minus signs in front of the factor loadings,

because the factors are entirely independent of one another (in

other words, uncorrelated). However, in oblique (oblimin)

analyses, we have to take these into account because the factors

correlate with one another to some extent, and therefore we need

to know if there is a positive or a negative relationship (correlation)

between the factors. The relationship between correlated factors

must inherently take into account the sign of the loadings. In this

example, the negative correlations are so small as to be unimportant

(correlations less than 0.1 are usually non-significant), and so this

is not an issue. However, you should be aware that this may not

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always be the case. It may seem confusing at first, but working out

the logic behind the relationships between factors makes sense

when you look at the variable items that represent the factors (the

relevant questionnaire statements).

3. Extracting a Specific Number of Factors

Up to now, you have been letting SPSS decide how many factors

to extract, and it has been using the default criterion (called the

Kaiser criterion) of extracting factors with eigenvalues greater

than 1. Look at the second table in your output: four factors have

eigenvalues greater than 1, so SPSS extracts and rotates four factors.

However, this criterion doesnt always guarantee the optimal

solution. We may have an idea of how many factors we should

extract the scree plot can give some heavy hints (as mentioned

earlier). The scree plot is not exact there is a degree of judgement

in drawing these lines and judging where the major change in

slope comes, but with larger samples it is usually pretty reliable.

I reckon that three factors would lead to a more accurate solution

than four, so try running the analysis again, but this time specify

that you want a 3 factor solution by specifying the Number of

factors to extract as 3 in the Extraction options window. The

solution fits quite well, with all variable items loading quite high

on only one factor, thus revealing a good simple structure.

Where to go from here? Further Exercises (not included

on original handout)

The following exercises dont introduce any new ideas or concepts,

but should enable you to practice some of the techniques that are

covered earlier in this series of exercises. They should also help

you to see how the techniques from the three sections of the

PSY2005 Multivariate Statistics module fit together with one

another.

1. Exploring the Thrill-Sedate Scale Scores

Some of you were asking what to do with the Thrill-Sedate Driver

scale once you had calculated it. You could try comparing men vs

women in terms of the scale score. We might expect that men

would record higher scores than women, and this is the case.

However, an independent t-test shows us that this difference is

not significant - why?

36. The first step in answering this question is to produce a

crosstabs table for gender vs age-group. Compare the

observed values (count) and expected values for each cell.

Youll see that there are more older men (ie: fewer younger

men) and more younger women (ie: fewer older women)

than would be expected in the sample.

37. Now run an ANOVA using the Thrill scale score as DV and

Age-group as IV. Previous research has found that younger

people record higher Thrill scores than older people. Does

this pattern appear in this sample?

38. If you run a two-way ANOVA with Thrill score as DV and

with Age and Gender as IVs, you may find an interaction

between them. What does the interaction mean?

Can you now see why, for this particular sample, there is no

significant difference between men and women in terms of Thrill

scores? The male sample is made up of older men, while the

female sample is made up of younger women, so the scores will

be similar. This obviously emphasises how important it is to

ensure that your sample is representative.

2. Further factor analysis

Once the EFA procedures carried out during the factor analysis of

the data have identified the variables that load on each factor

(exercise 3), you could construct scales for the other two factors

from the items in the questionnaire that load on each factor (looking

at the scree plot, we can see that there is quite a neat 3-factor

solution, with each variable loading on only one of the factors).

39. First try to interpret the factors, based on the questionnaire

items (variables) that the factors load on.

40. Use the scale-building and reliability procedures described

earlier in these exercises to produce internally-reliable scales

which we may then use to describe differences between people.

41. You could put all three personality trait scores into a

Regression analysis and see how well they predict preferred

speed on different types of road.

42. You could also factor analyse the preferred speed data, to see

if there are any patterns in the way that people respond to the

different items. How could you interpret the resulting factors?

Remember, this is Real World data, so the possibilities are endless

- you could come up with your own hypotheses, based on your

own ideas about how people drive.

Cris Burgess (2001)

Notes

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