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A Handbook of

Tamil Verbal Conjugation






Chief Editor
E. Annamalai
(Visiting Professor, Yale University, U.S.A.)



A Handbook of
Tamil Verbal Conjugation




Chief Editor
E. Annamalai
(Visiting Professor, Yale University, U.S.A.)










2009


dp
DUNWOODY
P R E S S

A Handbook of Tamil Verbal Conjugation


Copyright2009byMcNeilTechnologies,Inc.
Allrightsreserved.

Nopartofthisworkmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic
or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and
retrievalsystem,withoutpriorwrittenpermissionfromthecopyrightowner.

Allinquiriesshouldbedirectedto:
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ISBN:9781931546638
LibraryofCongressControlNumber:2009929663
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Project Team



Chief Editor
Prof. E. Annamalai
(Visiting Professor, Yale University, U.S.A.)


Editor
S. Ramakrishnan
(Editor, Cre-A:, publishers, Chennai)


Deputy Editor
T.K. Regunathan


Assistant Editor
D. Asaithambi


Assistants
J. Menaka
P. Karthikeyan


Formatting
S. Ambika


Table of Contents



Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................................................. i
Tamil Verb Pattern ................................................................................................................................................... xi
Reading List .............................................................................................................................................................. xix
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................................ xxi
A Sample Table with English Equivalents of Verb Forms ....................................................................... xxiii
Tamil verbs
......................................................................................................................... 2-1477
Appendices
I. Classification of Verbs into Weak and Strong Verbs ....................................................................... 1481
II. List of Irregular Verbs ................................................................................................................................ 1493
III. Verbs and Tense Suffixes .......................................................................................................................... 1497


i
Acknowledgements




McNeil Technologies Inc. for initiating the project Thomas Creamer, for sustained support during the project.

Prof. A. Dhamotharan, formerly Professor, South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany, for his
comments, suggestions, and advice throughout the project.

Dr. T. J ayaraman, formerly of the Department of English, Government Arts College, Mannargudi and N.
Ramani, formerly Headmaster, Government Higher Secondary School for Girls, Manamadurai, for
academic inputs.
iii
Tamil Verb Pattern
About Tamil and its Morphology
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken primarily in southern India and northern Sri Lanka. Over seventy million people spread
across the world claim it as their mother tongue. A language not only taught in schools in these two countries, as well as in
Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius, but also voluntarily learnt within the school systems of many more countries, Tamil has an
unbroken history of literary production for more than two millennia. It is a diglossic language, whose high variety or formal
style differs conspicuously from its low variety or informal style. The difference is substantially exhibited in phonology and,
consequently, in morphology with regard to morphological forms rather than the morphological system. The diglossic division
extends to the lexicon in that the formal style has additional or alternative words, which are historical retentions or motivated
by the ideology of language purism. This is also reflected in the verbs and in the inflected verb forms that are less frequently
used in modern Tamil.
Tamil is a morphologically rich language, syntagmatically as well as paradigmatically. Verbs have a long string of morphemes
that express a range of meanings including time of the event or the state (tense), speaker perception (mood), and calibrations
of the event (aspect), as well as negation, interrogation, and emphasis. There is some flexibility in the status of the morphemes
as to their boundedness or fusion with the adjacent morphemes and in their sequential order. This flexibility allows the insertion
of a morpheme, say an interrogative marker, at different places in the string and the scrambling of morphemes for pragmatic
effects. The morphological richness of Tamil increases the number of possible verb forms phenomenally. It is in the realm of
hundreds for each verb. The structural flexibility adds alternate verb forms and in addition, there are distinctive verb forms
that are attributable to the diglossic difference and historical variability. The verb chart in this volume necessarily presents only
a selection of verb forms used in the language. The maximum number of forms given for a verb is 252.
Exclusion of verb forms
The primary selection is the formal style of Tamil, which is used in text books, fictional narrative, and non-fictional expositive
prose in essays, media stories, and government documents, as well as in public lectures. The verb forms in the chart represent
the style and spelling of modern Tamil used formally. The chart does not include forms exclusively found in a pedantic style
[\u he did (it), \ they (neuter) will not do (it), \ you (please) do (it), \ those (netuer)
which will do, etc.], used in colloquial speech [Ba_ (its) done, CUP he is, sh he played, even if
found used in creative literature, x it flows], nor used in the style reflecting a dialect speech [} \ you do (it),
} \Q you are doing (it)]. Among the forms whose variation is merely phonological, only the form that is frequently
used is given: EmPQ vs EmPQ he sits, E vs E he will roll, v vs. v
he will eat. Variations in the verb form are listed only if the variants are frequently used in modern Tamil. The variant forms
are given on two sides of a slash (\Q/\Q he is doing (it), \ux/\ux when done,
etc.). Variant forms that are infrequent are not listed. For example, the verbal noun form \Qx doing is listed, but not
\Qx; the verbal noun, participial noun and finite verb form Kix running, that which ran, it ran is listed, but not
Kix. Absence of a variant form may, however, indicate its non-occurrence; while the neuter plural \Q is
possible, the putative *\Q is not. The variants may also be found in different boxes following the classificatory scheme
of the verb forms (\Q and \ which does; \Q and \ doer; \Qx and \x doing).
The variants with a slash are not given in longer verb forms which typically have an auxiliary verb. The reason is that it saves
space and the variation is predictable from their corresponding simple verb forms: \xPQ/\xPQ
he is doing (it) himself.
iv
There could be three interrogative forms for each verb form (other than the imperative and optative) and they are not included
because they are formed by simple addition at the end of the verb form [\u did he do (it)?, \u did he do
(it), I wonder, \u he did (it), didnt he?]. By extension, the forms with the interrogative marker in a non-final
position in the string are not included either [\umh has he done (it)?, etc.]. This is the case when the emphatic
forms (&E, &H, &u) and the conjunctive suffix (&E) are added to the verb forms. The emphatic &E can be added to
any verb form other than the optative, finite verb and relative participle. This suffix adds a special meaning with some forms:
\ do (as in an instruction), \x even though done, \u even if done, \ux as soon as done.
These forms are not listed. &B, which means that the proposition is hearsay or has been reported by another person, can be
added to finite verbs at the end of the sentence. Finite verbs with this form are not given in the chart.
Tamil verb morphology makes extensive use of auxiliary verbs, which are inflected in all ways that main verbs are. Each verb
can be said to have a set with auxiliary verbs added to it. For reasons of their universality and the need to keep the
number of verb forms within manageable limits, verb forms other than finite verbs are not given with auxiliary verbs.
The set with auxiliary verbs constituting imperative forms (\xk, \xP, kzv), infinitive forms
(\xh, \xP, \vUP) and the infinitive base in the negative and modal forms (\xh,
\xP, \vUP, \xh sh, \xP sh, \vUP
sh), verbal participle forms (\xmk, \xPsk, \vx) and participial noun forms
(\xmh, \xPsh, \v) are not given.
A verb form can be defined by the string of a verb followed by grammatical markers, which occurs between word boundaries
(space in writing). Word boundary rules in Tamil, however, are not universally followed. Therefore, word boundary cannot be
used as the defining criterion to identify verb forms. One may find in the verb chart structurally similar verb forms with or
without spaces: \ux when done and \u S after doing, \ mh he will not do and \
sh need not do; the same is true of semantically similar verb forms: \ may do and \ i can
do. Writers may have different word boundaries in the same forms as in \vUQ and \x CUQ he has
done (it). The verb form is defined for this chart as a string beginning with a verb and followed by grammatical markers
which are not referentially meaningful. Forms like \u he did, didnt he (whether there is a word boundary or
not before A, which is a negative verb meaning didnt he), \ why dont you do (it), \ why
should I do (it), where &H why is added to the imperative form and an archaic infinitive form of the verb, are not listed, as
they may be treated as phrasal forms without a boundary between their components. Though verb forms of an infinitive
followed by an auxiliary verb like \Q he is going to do (it), \u he was about to do (it) may
be taken to meet the criterion for a verb form without a boundary in between, they are not included as they could be taken to
be periphrastic constructions.
The possibility of inserting a floating morpheme such as &H, &u at some morphemic junctures of the verb form and the
possibility of expanding morphemes, for example, by combining two modal forms and auxiliary verb forms, with attendant
semantic shifts, multiply manifold the number of verb forms that can be generated. \ did not do (it) is given, but
not \ C did not do (it) at all nor \zu C did not indeed do (it). \U Thx should not
do (it) is given, but not \ Thx should not do (it) at all nor \zu Thx should not indeed do (it).
These are examples of insertion of a floating morpheme. \ may do and \ i can do are given, but not
\ i may be possible to do. \xmh he certainly did (it) and \vUQ he has done (it)
are given, but not \xmiUQ he has definitely done (it); \xPsh he did (it) (for) himself and
\xmh he certainly did (it) are given, but not \xPskmh he definitely did (it) (for) himself.
These are examples of expansion of one morpheme with the addition of another from the set of modal or auxiliary forms. The
chart does not have forms that have floating morphemes or that have more than one morpheme of the same category.
Verb forms with an auxiliary verb whose sense is more than purely grammatical and is therefore more than an auxiliary are
not included even in the finite verb forms, as they go beyond a strictly grammatical system of verbs. \mh he
certainly said (it) is given, but not the same form with another k which means he sent out the word; GvUPsh
he wrote (for) himself is given, but not GvU Pkzu he wrote for (the benefit of) someone. Similar auxiliary verbs
like try, A cry, u get lost, etc., with finite verb forms are not given. Verb forms with a grammatical
&
v
auxiliary verb that is an alternant are not included. Pmkmhx it is certainly spoiled is given, but not Pmk
in the same meaning with an extra nuance of indicating the process of change of state.
Thus, the list of verb forms in the chart is not exhaustive of all possible forms, but a basic list from which all other verb forms
in Tamil can be recognized and produced by extension or application of the given pattern.
Non-existent Verb Forms
The verb forms in the chart were generated by native speakers of Tamil and randomly checked for their occurrence with a
database of 7.5 million words from various texts representing fiction, non-fiction, government publications, writings for children,
e-journals, etc. Some forms were not attested in the database, but this is not an indication of their absence in the language.
Such gaps are accidental, giving information on frequency of use and not on the structural possibility of the form. The verb
forms that fall into these accidental gaps in the database are still included in the chart. Some forms are not possible structurally
and, as could be expected, they cannot be attested in the database. These verb forms are excluded from the chart; empty
boxes in the chart indicate such structural gaps. There are, however, some empty boxes which do not indicate structural gaps
because the reason for the absence is not semantic. These gaps are indicators of change taking place in the language. The
empty boxes in the verb forms of participial nouns in future tense are an example of this. For example, /S
are not attested in the database and native speaker intuition attests to their oddity. The reason for the non-existence of such
forms is probably phonological.
Semantically motivated non-existent verb forms include the following. Verbs expressing a mental or physical state, and not an
action, are not used in the imperative and optative. Some examples are u know, understand, i like, ] be
hungry, be in pain, _k be hot, S be cold, C be sweet. Such verbs in Tamil do not have a subject in the
nominative, with which finite verbs agree, or have only the neuter subject. Hence the finite verb forms of these verbs have
only the neuter gender forms and not the human gender forms: AUS P] u/P][P uxmh
the secret/s is/are known to him, P SQx hand is cold. The forms with human endings such as *SQ she
is cold, *u she understood, *]zu she was hungry are non-existent. Verb forms with human endings such as
(|P) uQ he appears (to be good), (PsqUS) uQ he is visible (to the eye), iUQ she
catches, _kQ she fires, fries exist, but in a different sense, as glossed. These verbs, which could be polysemous or
homonymous, are not listed twice in the verb chart because, although they have different meanings, they conjugate in the
same way. This means that verb forms like these given in the chart are well formed for some senses of a given verb but not
for other senses. The fuller set of verb forms is given for such polysemous or homonymous verbs. A given form like iUQ
is well formed for the sense catch but ill formed for the sense like. The verb chart is about the grammatical forms of verbs,
and so their semantic specifications are not made explicit.
Some of the verbs which do not take a human subject are used figuratively with human subjects. In | Czu,
C P\UQ she was (found to be) sweet until yesterday, today she is (found to be) bitter, C and P\ are used
figuratively. The figurative use of verbs is open-ended and chances of such use coming up in the language are unpredictable.
The verb chart is liberal in admitting verb forms with a figurative sense.
The neuter subject verbs, as would be expected, do not have finite verbs with human number and gender agreement markers.
They could, however, have finite verb forms in first person singular, when their neuter subject is used anthropomorphically.
Intransitive verbs like A get loosened take only neuter subjects, but finite verb forms in first person singular like ia_
A/A mh GQx, which literarlly means the knot says, wont I get loose/wont get loose, is
glossed to express the subjunctive sense as the knot wouldnt get loose.
Some neuter subjects have a human subject when they occur with the auxiliary verb P, which adds volition to the verb.
Then they have verb forms agreeing with all persons, genders, and numbers. For example, uxPsh he came to
know, learnt, xPsh he came to understand, realized are well formed. The auxiliary verb C be added to
the verbal participle is stative and it conveys the sense of end of an action staying on. Being stative, there is no verb form with
this auxiliary verb that is imperative or optative in meaning, as in the finite verb \vUQ he has done (it): *y[Q
be in the state of after-sleep, *Qv be torn are ill formed. Exceptions are verbs of body posture, which have the
vi
imperative form with the auxiliary C, where it is possible to take the sense of C literally: EmPv be seated,
kzv be lying down, \v be leaning, zv be awake. Similar forms in the imperative are possible if C
after the verbal participle has its literal sense be: P read and stay (read).
The chart of verb forms does not mark all non-existent verb forms, as the explanation of their absence requires semantic
facts. Anyone seeking such an explanation should go to a comprehensive grammar of modern Tamil. This reference tool of
forms of verbs takes into account only generic semantic facts.
There are lexicalized compound verbs with an auxiliary verb added to a noun or to a verb form such as Psni wink,
Ak spin which are not counted as verbs for the purpose of this chart. The auxiliary verbs like Ai hit and, k let
go have corresponding independent verbs and their verb forms will extend to the auxiliary verbs also. There are, however,
verbs that occur only with an auxiliary verb. Consequently, these verbs in their simple form do not have imperative and
optative forms. The imperative and optative forms of non-existent bare verb

forms are not given in the chart. is the base


in she sold, but it does not occur in the imperative or optative; the imperative form occurs with the auxiliary verb
k, k sell; \ is the base of the verb in A \zu he died, but its imperative form is with the auxiliary
verb , \zx die. Some complex verb forms are not used in the imperative even with an auxiliary verb: ,
which is the base in she welcomed and P which is the base of the verb in P Pzu he guarded are
not used in the imperative with or without an auxiliary verb. Some verbs are not used in the imperative form and they have only
a few of the possible verb forms: as in u she was scared does not have the imperative or optative form, the
present and future finite verb forms, nor the infinitive form, as the non-existence of * be scared, *UQ he is
scared and * he will be scared, and *UP sh need not be scared shows. Absence of forms like
these is probably a result of historical developments in the language. Boxes for the verb forms above are empty in the chart,
though the reason for their non-existence is not semantic.
Selection of Verbs
Cre-A: Dictionary of Contemporary Tamil (2008) has 4,042 verbs including compound verbs and idiomatic verb phrases.
This is not the total number of verbs in modern Tamil because only auxiliary verbs are included in this dictionary with regard
to productive compound verbs of the form noun plus auxiliary. Ah, &k, &kzx, are given in the dictionary (and in this
verb chart) in place of Ph, Pk get angry Pkzx make one angry, etc. A productive compound
verb formation is adding sq/\ do to nouns (and to foreign verbs that are mixed into speech) as in Pn
sq/\ marry, AS sq/\ beautify. These auxiliary verbs in compound verbs are also independent main
verbs and only the main verbs are included in the chart. All the verb forms for a main verb are possible when they are auxiliary
verbs.
The verb chart contains a total of 369 verbs arrived at through a process of selection. The following methods were used to
select verbs that a learner of Tamil is most likely to encounter.
a. Recall: Five informants were asked to recall 250 verbs without any external aid. These were persons of different levels of
exposure to Tamil: a high school graduate, a college graduate, one with a Master's degree in English, a doctoral student in
Tamil, and a trained linguist with a post-graduate research degree. The five lists were collated and a list of verbs common
to the lists of at least three persons was made.
b. Childrens vocabulary: A list of verbs was compiled from one hundred stories specifically written for children.
c. Basic vocabulary: A list was prepared from David W. McAlpins A Core Vocabulary for Tamil (http://dsal.uchicago.edu/
dictionaries/mcalpin/) compiled in the context of teaching Tamil as a second language.

Bare verb is used here to refer to the form of a verb with no inflection. This could be, in Tamil, the form of the singular imperative, such as come
or a phonological variant of it, which is not the imperative, such as and . Either of these forms could be called a stem in that they are the base to which
suffixes are added. These are inflected forms of verbs to which additional suffixes are also added, such as mk let (one) come from the infinitive
to come, xk come definitely from the verbal participle x having come. , , x could be called verb bases or stems at different points
in the progression of creating specific categories of verb forms.
vii
All three lists were compared and a final list was compiled. This list was reviewed by the project team and advisors to the
project. Some verbs were dropped and some, which were thought to be useful in the context of learning Tamil, were added
during this reviewing process.
The final number of verbs in Tamil is larger than the number of verbs in the verb charts of many other languages in the series.
The main reasons for this are the diglossic nature of Tamil with lexical doublets such as , \ go and the nature of
expressing transitivity in homophonous verbs (u and in the traditional Tamil grammar) through different
conjugations. In addition, Tamil is a verbal language. This manifests, among other things, in the fact that verbs perform non-
verbal grammatical functions, for instance, being noun modifiers while remaining verbs in their grammatical properties
(zuP,a\), and in the fact that verbs are the base from which nouns of action (verbal nouns) and nouns
of actors (participial nouns), which retain the grammatical properties of a verb as seen in their tense markers, verbal modifiers
and in their governing cases, are produced. As a good knowledge of verbs helps learners of Tamil, more verbs and more verb
forms become necessary.
Structure of Verb Forms
Verbs in Tamil are divided into two types: weak verbs and strong verbs. Strong verbs have &UU& added to their base, which is
transparent in the verb form infinitives kUP to lie down, UP to hide (sth.). Weak verbs, do not add &UU&: h to
sing, to disappear. This division also plays a role in the conjugation of verbs, though an explicit recognition of this
division in grammatical descriptions of Tamil begins only during the colonial period. The verb forms in Tamil are traditionally
divided into two broad categories: finite () and non-finite (Ga\). This division begins from the earliest grammatical
description of Tamil over 2,000 years ago. The verb forms of the latter category are dependant grammatical forms in the
sense that they are governed by another form, verbal or nominal. The imperative, optative, and finite verbs (the verb forms
marked for personnumbergender, i.e. the agreement marker) belong to the finite category and the rest (other than the verb-
based nouns) in the chart belong to the non-finite category.
There are basically three kinds of bases from which other verb forms are constructed: bare verb (a few verbs have a different
form as a stem to take suffixes), infinitive (bare verb +A), and verbal participle (bare verb + past tense suffix). The imperative,
optative, infinitive, finite verb and verbal participle are formed from the bare verb. Except in the non-polite positive imperative,
these forms take suffixes, which, in the case of positive finite verbs, are tense suffixes and agreement suffixes and, in the case
of positive verbal participles, are past tense suffixes. (The suggestive form with &H why has the imperative as its base to
which &H is added, as in \ why dont (you) do (it), \u why dont (you) not do (it). These forms
are not included in the chart, as mentioned earlier).
The modals (the forms that indicate speaker perspective such as desirable, obligatory, permissible, probable, able (to perform)
nature of action or state) are formed from the infinitive [\mk let (him) do (it), \ sk (one) must do it,
\U Thx one must not do (it)] as are the negatives [\ did not do (it), \u dont do (it),
\ without doing]. (It is possible to take the bare verb as the base rather than the infinitive in the last two negative
verb forms.) The infinitive is the base in the temporal verb form, \ as/while one does (sth.), and in the verb form of
instruction, } Cua \ you do this. These are not included in the chart, as mentioned earlier. The counter-factual
suggestive form, which is made from an archaic infinite form (verb +/verb +) as in \/Q
why should (you) do (it)/why should (you) tear (it), is not a productive process and this form is not included in the chart.
The verbs of subordinate clauses are formed from the verbal participle, as in \u if (one) does, \x even if (one)
does, \xk do it. As mentioned earlier, forms with &E are not included in the chart. Extended verb forms with
auxiliary verbs are also formed from the verbal participle.
There are two other bases to make verb forms. The noun derived from a verb is the base for the verb form in some
subordinate clauses (\ux as soon (s.o.) does, \uu because (sth.) was done) and in some periphrastic verb
forms (\xsk have the habit of doing, \uv never did), which are not included in the chart, except for the
causal form above. The temporal clauses have the relative participle as the base to which post-positions, most of which are
nouns, are added as their head (\ux when doing, \u S after doing, \ before doing).
A defining property of verbs is that they are the forms that indicate time. Not every sentence in Tamil indicates time; some
sentences with the noun as predicate do not bear time. Verbs in Tamil indicate time by tense suffixes, added to the bare verb.
There are three sets of tense suffixes for the past, present, and future tenses. Tense suffixes have two variant forms each for
the present and future tense and many variants for the past tense.
There are basically four past tense suffixes: &C&, &z&, &zz&, &z& (i he sang, Au he cried, izu
he read u he fell down, |hu she walked respectively). They have phonological variants conditioned by
the final consonant of the bare verb. &C& and &z& go with weak verbs; &zz& with strong verbs; &z& with weak verbs and
strong verbs. Beyond this, there is no way to predict which verb takes which past tense suffix. There are some cues based on
the phonology of verbs, such as the final vowel &E after the stop consonant in verbs that are not mono-syllabic with a short
vowel (the suffix of verbs of this phonological form is &C&, k: i he sang), or the final vowel is &A (the suffix
is &z&, |h: |hu she walked), etc., but they are neither sufficient (k: mh he dropped, not *i)
nor necessary (C: Cu he was, not *Czu). The phonological variant in weak verbs of &z& is &m& with verbs
ending in Pk (Pk: Pmh he got spoiled), && with verbs ending in & (: he got), &m& with verbs
ending in &s& (Es: Esh he ate), and && in verbs ending in & (v: v he ate). Variants in weak verbs
of &z& are &sm with verbs ending in & (E: Esh he rolled), and && with verbs ending in & (P:
P she killed). Variants in strong verbs of &zz& are &mm& with verbs ending in & (P: Pmh he asked)
and && with verbs ending in & (: he sold). The particular verbs inflected for these past tense markers can
be seen in the verb chart.
The present tense suffixes are &Q&/&Q& (\Q/\Q he does (it)) and &UQ&/&UQ&
(iUQ/iUQ he reads); the future tense suffixes are -- (\ he will (it)) (which becomes --
in weak verbs ending in a nasal consonant: v he will eat) and -- (i he will read). The present and
future tense suffixes do not differentiate present and future time in relative participles, participial nouns and verbal nouns.
\Q and \ which does, \Q and \ doer, \Qx and \x doing are variants of the
same verb form, which relate to stylistic preference and not semantic difference.
The finite verb agrees with the person (first, second and third person), gender (masculine, feminine, polite and neuter in third
person alone) and number (singular and plural for all the preceding except for the masculine, feminine and polite forms in the
third person, which merge into one plural form in the pronoun and in the finite verb AP \uP they did), as do
the two plural pronouns in first person finite verb (|/|[P \u we (incl./excl.) did). The plural in the second
person doubles as the polite singular. There are six singular forms and four plural forms in each finite verb. The finite verb in
the negative does not differentiate between singular and plural in the neuter in modern Tamil. The participial nouns derived
from verbs do not differentiate person.
The order of morphemes in the finite verb in the positive is bare verb + tense + agreement or bare verb + past tense + (one or
more) auxiliary verb + tense + agreement or infinitive + auxiliary verb + tense + agreement. The syntagmatic pattern adds
suffixes to the right in a fixed order in an isomorphic way for each added grammatical meaning. Bare verbs, except a handful
of them (e.g. : // come, \S: \ die), remain constant in all verb forms without any phonologically
unpredictable change. The morphological structure of the verb is linear and transparent. Some of the morphemes, like the
negative, modal, and auxiliary verb, have a higher-than-suffix status and so the floating morphemes, interrogative and emphatic,
can be inserted between them and their base or the morpheme following them.
There are a few verbs that do not have the full set of verb forms. Examples in finite verb form are Esk, C, A.
There are relative participles derived from verbs, but they have lost their verbal property. Some examples are uSu, si.
These opaque verbs are not included in the chart.
Meaning of verb forms
To use the well-formed verb forms appropriately, one should know their meaning or the communicative intent of their use. The
imperative form is used to make a request or issue a command to the listener. The optative form is used to enjoin the speaker's
wish for something to happen, positive (like blessing) or negative (like cursing), to the listener or a third party. It comes close
viii
to the imperative (see P vs [P come, G[Qu P vs [P live well wherever you are) when
said to a listener, but the difference is that the optative is not directive.
The optative is not a typical use of the infinitive, used mostly to convey a negative wish (A u Ci let the
thunder fall on his head, \ SP let wealth increase); it is used like the imperative to give instruction, in which
case -E is added to the infinitive form (Eh come immediately). The typical use of the infinitive is to refer to
an action to be done (iUP come to study, iUP | time to study). It is also used for referring to the doing of an
action, like a verbal noun (iUP iUS like to read/reading), to the effect of an action (Ps ]UP Au she
cried to such extent that her eyes became red), to the simultaneous or immediately preceding action (| Aua \
AUSU P ux as I said that, she got angry). This last use is more common with -E added to the infinitive
(\ in the above example).
As mentioned earlier, the infinitive is structurally the base for the verbal forms of mood and negation. The modal form
sk expresses the desire or need to do an action. The desire ordinarily is that of the speaker (A iUP sk
I wish he reads/he needs to read; it commonly translates into English as should/must read). & expresses the probability/
possibility or permissibility of doing an action (iUP likely to read/permitted to read, likely to rain;
it commonly translates into English as may/can read, may rain.). (It is possible to segment this verb form into an archaic
verbal noun iUP +B and treat it as a periphrastic form.) &mk expresses permissibility or wishful thought specific to
the speaker as the agent (iUPmk permitted (by the speaker) to read, mk wish it to rain; it commonly
translates into English as let (him) read/let it rain). i expresses the capability or entitlement of the subject (iUP
i be able to read, \UPzxUS P i/P Kmh i is possible to go to heaven/to drive a car;
it commonly translates into English as can).
There are three tenses in the finite verb: two in the relative participle and tensed nouns (verbal nouns and participial nouns)
derived from verbs and one in the verbal participle. The verbal participle refers to an earlier action in a sequence of actions
and so is expressed in the past tense. But it also refers to a simultaneous or descriptive action. The relative participle and the
tensed noun differentiate past and non-past, as mentioned above. The non-past is expressed by the future tense suffix in
formal Tamil and by the present tense suffix in informal Tamil. The present tense form, however, is used in formal Tamil, but
less frequently. The finite verb expresses three tenses: past, the time prior to the time of the speech, present, the time of the
speech, and future, the time after the time of the speech. But tense is not coterminous with time. The present tense could be
used to describe a past event, as in historical present, or it could be used to describe a future event, as in definite future. Like
in any language, tense suffixes express more than time in Tamil. Past and present tenses, besides times, add specificity to
propositions. Future tense, on the other hand, can add timelessness, generalization, secondary knowledge and probability. A
statement in future tense like A Si he drinks is true of all times; a statement like Cu CUS this
fruit is sweet is generalized based on previous experience or second-hand information as opposed to the statement in the
present tense Cu CUQx this fruit is sweet, which describes a personal, real-time observation. This is also true
of the statement C[P Cx CP there are probably twenty people there as opposed to C[P Cx
CUQP there are twenty people there, I know.
Simple verbs in Tamil are unmarked in the sense that they are neutral as to accomplishment of the act, the effect of the act on
the subject, relevance of the act to the time of the speech or to another act, observed or extrapolated status of the act, etc.
These specifications are expressed by auxiliary verbs attached to the verbal participle form of simple verbs. There are three
auxiliary verbs given in the verb chart and they are grammaticalized in the sense that they are equated with grammatical
notions like completive aspect, reflexive mood, and stative aspect. k let go expresses the sense that the act was or will be
accomplished; that is, the event incorporating the act did or will take place. This may be called completive aspect: izu
she read (it) vs izxmh she has read (it).
P have expresses the sense that the act in some way affects the subject, the doer. This may be called affective mood,
the reflexive mood being only one part of it when the subject and the object are same: Aizu he hit (someone) vs
AizxUPsh he hit himself. Other examples of the affective mood include transitive verbs as in [Q she
bought (it) vs [QUPsh she bought (it) (for) her and intransitive verbs as in zv H he climbed on
to the tree vs zv HUPsh he climbed onto the tree (for his safety).
ix
x
C be is used to signify being in a specified state after the act is over. This may be called the aspect of resultive state:
izvUQ she has read (for the exam), QvUQx (it) is torn, vUQx it has rained. The
resultive state could refer to an act performed some time in the past, but the fact remains true at the present time. The first
verb form with C above could be used to mean he has read (this novel some time in the past); it could also refer to a past
act inferred from a state/condition in the present. The third verb form with C above, for example, could be used to mean
that the act of raining earlier is inferred from the state or condition of the wet ground now. The verb form with C in the
future tense may have counter factual meaning: izv he would have read, (but).
Two auxiliary verbs can combine, but the combination of P and C has a special grammatical meaning to indicate the
duration of an action or state: izxUPsiUQ she is reading. This is the fourth complex verb form with an
auxiliary verb included in the chart. The grammatical meanings of the auxiliary verbs remain constant in finite as well as
non-finite verb forms. The auxiliary verb P is an exception, which indicates a simultaneity of action (besides its affective
sense) with another verb in the verbal participle form: zuPzu GkzxUPsk EmPu he took the book (for)
himself as he sat down; izxUPsk \mh she was reading while eating.
When some other auxiliary verbs are added to the verbal participle they add specifics to the performance of the act including
whether it was done as a trial or to help someone, or to be useful in future or to indicate a change from one state to another,
or to specify whether the act was done in disgust, etc. They are not given in the verb chart because they are more semantic
in nature than grammatical and they are not added to all verbs across the board like the four aspectual and modal auxiliary
verbs above.
The verb formsrelative participle, conditional, causal, etc.that are the heads of subordinate clauses, such as relative, temporal,
conditional, and causal clauses, etc., do not, in their grammatical meanings in Tamil, differ significantly from their standard
meanings in other languages. A point must be noted, however, about the grammatical meaning of the relative participle and
conditional in Tamil. The head noun of the relative clause may have a case relationship (though the case suffix is absent) with
its verb (|hx u the boy who came walking, | n Pkzu the boy to whom I gave money,
etc.) or may have no case relationship (|hx u \zu noise of walking on foot). The conditional may have the temporal
sense of when (iu Pn marriage will take place when it dawns).
Endnote
The verb chart assumes a theory of grammar that is semantically motivated, as shown by the attention given to identifying
non-existent verb forms. Nevertheless, it must be made clear that the verb chart does not explain minutely the semantic
properties of forms, nor does it exhaust all possible verb forms in Tamil. It is meant to be a step towards getting there in both
respects.
This introduction is longer than usual for handbooks as it draws attention to non-occurring verb forms and their complexities,
keeping in mind researchers on Tamil verbs in addition to learners of Tamil. The analysis of verb forms given in the introduction
is biased towards a semantically motivated grammar and a view that the grammar of verbs in modern Tamil has significant
differences from the description of verbs in the traditional grammar of Tamil. It admits more verb forms than recognized in
traditional grammars. Not every Tamil grammarian or linguist will agree with these two views of grammar. Any difference in
viewpoints should encourage more empirical and theoretical studies of the grammar of verbs in Tamil, preferably using a
database of actual use of verb forms in modern Tamil.
Any question on the information given or not given on verb forms is welcome from Tamil learners using this chart. Also
welcome is any alternative analysis of verb forms, which meets the minimum empirical and descriptive adequacies.
E.Annamalai
xi
Reading List




Annamalai, E. Dynamics of Verbal Extension in Tamil. Thiruvananthapuram: Dravidian Linguistics
Association, 1985.

Annamalai, E. and Sanford, Steever. Modern Tamil. In Steever, Sanford (ed.) The Dravidian Languages.
London: Routledge, 1998.

Asher, Ron. Tamil. London: Routledge, 1985.

Kothandaraman, Pon. The Verb in Modern Tamil. Chennai: Pulamai Press, 1977.

Nataraja Pillai, N. A Syntactic Study of Tamil Verbs. Mysore: CIIL, 1992.

Paramsivam, K. Effectivity and Causativity in Tamil. Thiruvananthapuram: Dravidian Linguistics
Association, 1979.

Sanford, Steever. The Tamil Auxiliary Verb System. London: Routledge, 2005.

Schiffman, Harold. A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

xii
Abbreviations



esp. especially
excl. exclusive
fem. feminine
hon. honorific
hum. human
incl. inclusive
mas. masculine
neu. neuter
pl. plural
sg. singular
s.o. someone
sth. something



xiii
A Sample Table with English Equivalents of Verb Forms
Note: The meanings given are rough equivalents. There is no one-to-one correspondence between Tamil and English. When the same
meaning is given for two forms, it does not mean that the Tamil forms can be used interchangeably.
1. Indicative
Past Present Future
I sg. izu iUQ/ i
I read iUQ I will/shall read
I read
I pl. izu iUQ/ i
incl. (|) we read iUQ we will/shall read
excl. (|[P) we read
II sg. izu iUQ/ i
you read iUQ you will read
you read
II pl. izwP iUQP/ iP
you read iUQP you will read
you read
III mas. sg. izu iUQ/ i
he read iUQ he will read
he reads
III fem. sg. izu iUQ/ i
she read iUQ she will read
she reads
III hon. sg. izu iUQ/ i
he/she read iUQ he/she will read
he/she reads
III hum. pl. izuP/ iUQP/ iP
izu iUQP they will read
they read they read
III neu. sg. izux iUQx/ iUS
it read iUQx it will read
it reads
III neu. pl. izu iUQ iUS
they read they read they will read
i
2
. (iUP, izx) read
Indicative Negative
Past/Present Future
I sg. iUP iUP mh
I did not read/ I do not read I will/shall not read
I pl. iUP iUP mh
we did not read/ we do not read we will/shall not read
II sg. iUP iUP mh
you did not read/ you do not read you will not read
II pl. iUP iUP mjP
you did not read/ you do not read you will not read
III mas. sg. iUP iUP mh
he did not read/ he does not read he will not read
III fem. sg. iUP iUP mh
she did not read/ she does not read she will not read
III hon. sg. iUP iUP mh
he/she did not read/ he/she does not read he/she will not read
III hum. pl. iUP iUP mhP
they did not read/ they do not read they will not read
III neu. sg. iUP iUPx
it did not read/ it does not read it will not read
III neu. pl. iUP iUPx
they did not read/ they do not read they will not read
2. Imperative
sg. i
read
pl. i[P
read
Negative sg. iUPu
dont read
Negative pl. iUPwP
dont read
3. Optative
(may you...)
4. Infinitive
iUP
to read
5. Verbal participle
izx
reading
Negative iUP
without reading
6. Relative participle
past izu
read
present iUQ/iUQ
reading
future iUS
reading
Negative iUPu
not reading/not read
7. Conditional
izu
if one reads
Negative iUPmh
if one does not read
8. Causal
past izuu
because of reading
non-past iu/iUQu
because of reading
Negative iUPuu
because of not reading
9. Temporal
izux/izux
when reading
iUSx/iUSx
when reading
iUQx/iUQx
iUQx/iUQx
when reading
iuS/iuS
before reading
izu S//
after reading
izuh/izuh
on reading
iUS //
before reading
Negative iUPux/iUPux
when not reading
xiv
11. Aspect
Past Present Future
I sg. izxmh izxkQ izxk
I have read I finish reading I will have finished reading
I pl. izxmh izxkQ izxk
we have read we finish reading we will have finished reading
II sg. izxmh izxkQ izxk
you have read you finish reading you will have finished reading
II pl. izxmjP izxkQP izxkP
you have read you finish reading you will have finished reading
III mas. sg. izxmh izxkQ izxk
he has read he finishes reading he will have finished reading
III fem. sg. izxmh izxkQ izxk
she has read she finishes reading she will have finished reading
III hon. sg. izxmh izxkQ izxk
he/she has read he/she finishes reading he/she will have finished reading
III hum. pl. izxmhP izxkQP izxkP
they have read they finish reading they will have finished reading
III neu. sg. izxmhx izxkQx izxk
it has read it finishes reading it will have finished reading
III neu. pl. izxmh izxkQ izxk
they have read they finish reading they will have finished reading
I sg. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
I read myself I read myself I will read myself
I pl. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
we read ourselves we read ourselves we will read ourselves
II sg. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
you read yourself you read yourself you will read yourself
II pl. izxUPsjP izxUPQP izxUPP
you read yourself you read yourself you will read yourself
III mas. sg. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
he read himself he reads himself he will read himself
III fem. sg. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
she read herself she reads herself she will read herself
III hon. sg. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
he/she reads himself/herself he/she reads himself/herself he/she will read himself/herself
III hum. pl. izxUPshP izxUPQP izxUPP
they read themselves they read themselves they will read themselves
III neu. sg. izxUPshx izxUPQx izxUP
it read itself it reads itself it will read itself
III neu. pl. izxUPsh izxUPQ izxUP
they read themselves they read themselves they will read themselves
10. Mood
iUP
may/might read
iUPmk
let one read
iUP sk
should read
iUPU Tk
may/might read
iUP i
can/could read
Negative iUP sh
need not read
iUPU Thx
shall not/should not read
iUP ix
cannot/could not read
may/might not read
xv
xvi
Aspect (contd.)
I sg. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
I was reading I am reading I will be reading
I pl. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
we were reading we are reading we will be reading
II sg. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
you were reading you are reading you will be reading
II pl. izxUPsiwP izxUPsiUQP izxUPsiP
you were reading you are reading you will be reading
III mas. sg. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
he was reading he is reading he will be reading
III fem. sg. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
she was reading she is reading she will be reading
III hon. sg. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsi
he/she was reading he/she is reading he/she will be reading
III hum. pl. izxUPsiuP izxUPsiUQP izxUPsiP
they were reading they are reading they will be reading
III neu. sg. izxUPsiux izxUPsiUQx izxUPsiUS
it was reading it is reading it will be reading
III neu. pl. izxUPsiu izxUPsiUQ izxUPsiUS
they were reading they are reading they will be reading
I sg. izvu izvUQ izv
I had read I have read I will have read/
I would have read
I pl. izvu izvUQ izv
we had read we have read we will have read/
we would have read
II sg. izvu izvUQ izv
you had read you have read you will have read/
you would have read
II pl. izvwP izvUQP izvP
you had read you have read you will have read/
you would have read
III mas. sg. izvu izvUQ izv
he had read he has read he will have read/
he would have read
III fem. sg. izvu izvUQ izv
she had read she has read she will have read/
she would have read
III hon. sg. izvu izvUQ izv
he/she had read he/she has read he/she will have read/
he/she would have read
III hum. pl. izvuP izvUQP izvP
they had read they have read they will have read/
they would have read
III neu. sg. izvux izvUQx izvUS
it had read it has read it will have read/
it would have read
III neu. pl. izvu izvUQ izvUS
they had read they have read they will have read/
they would have read
12. Participial Noun
Past Present Future Negative
III mas. sg. izu iUQ i iUPu
he who read he who reads he who will read he who does not read/
he who did not read
III fem. sg. izu iUQ i iUPu
she who read she who reads she who will read she who does not read/
she who did not read
III hon. sg. izu iUQ i iUPu
one who read one who reads one who will read one who did not read/
one who does not read
III hum. pl. izuP iUQP iP iUPuP
those who read those who read those who will read those who do not read/
those who did not read
III neu. sg. izux iUQx ix iUPux
that which read that which reads that which will read that which does not read/
that which did not read
III neu. pl. izu iUQ i iUPu
those which read those which read those which will read those which do not read/
those which did not read
13. Verbal Noun
izu
reading
past izux
reading (in the past)
present iUQx
reading
future ix
reading
Negative iUPux
not reading
xvii



369 Tamil Verbs

2
1. Indicative
Past Present Future
I sg. A\u A\Q/ A\
A\Q
I pl. A\u A\Q/ A\
incl. (|) A\Q
excl. (|[P)
II sg. A\u A\Q/ A\
A\Q
II pl. A\wP A\QP/ A\P
A\QP
III mas. sg. A\u A\Q/ A\
A\Q
III fem. sg. A\u A\Q/ A\
A\Q
III hon. sg. A\u A\Q/ A\
A\Q
III hum. pl. A\uP/ A\QP/ A\P
A\u A\QP
III neu. sg. A\ux A\Qx/ A\
A\Qx
III neu. pl. A\u A\Q A\
Indicative Negative
Past/Present Future
I sg. A\ A\ mh
I pl. A\ A\ mh
II sg. A\ A\ mh
II pl. A\ A\ mjP
III mas. sg. A\ A\ mh
III fem. sg. A\ A\ mh
III hon. sg. A\ A\ mh
III hum. pl. A\ A\ mhP
III neu. sg. A\ A\x
III neu. pl. A\ A\x
2. Imperative
sg. A\
pl. A\[P
Negative sg. A\u
Negative pl. A\wP
3. Optative
4. Infinitive
A\
5. Verbal participle
A\x
Negative A\
A\
1
. (A\, A\x) move (by oneself) Table 1
3
6. Relative participle
past A\u
present A\Q/A\Q
future A\
Negative A\u
7. Conditional
A\u
Negative A\mh
8. Causal
past A\uu
non-past A\u/A\Qu
Negative A\uu
9. Temporal
A\ux/A\ux
A\x/A\x
A\Qx/A\Qx
A\Qx/A\Qx
A\uS/A\uS
A\u S//
A\uh/A\uh
A\ //
Negative A\ux/A\ux
10. Mood
A\
A\mk
A\ sk
A\U Tk
A\ i
Negative A\ sh
A\U Thx
A\ ix
A\
1
. (A\, A\x) move (by oneself) Table 1
4
11. Aspect
Past Present Future
I sg. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
I pl. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
II sg. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
II pl. A\xmjP A\xkQP A\xkP
III mas. sg. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
III fem. sg. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
III hon. sg. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
III hum. pl. A\xmhP A\xkQP A\xkP
III neu. sg. A\xmhx A\xkQx A\xk
III neu. pl. A\xmh A\xkQ A\xk
I sg. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
I pl. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
II sg. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
II pl. A\xPsjP A\xPQP A\xPP
III mas. sg. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
III fem. sg. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
III hon. sg. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
III hum. pl. A\xPshP A\xPQP A\xPP
III neu. sg. A\xPshx A\xPQx A\xP
III neu. pl. A\xPsh A\xPQ A\xP
I sg. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
I pl. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
II sg. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
II pl. A\xPsiwP A\xPsiUQP A\xPsiP
III mas. sg. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
III fem. sg. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
III hon. sg. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsi
III hum. pl. A\xPsiuP A\xPsiUQP A\xPsiP
III neu. sg. A\xPsiux A\xPsiUQx A\xPsiUS
III neu. pl. A\xPsiu A\xPsiUQ A\xPsiUS
I sg. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
I pl. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
II sg. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
II pl. A\vwP A\vUQP A\vP
III mas. sg. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
III fem. sg. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
III hon. sg. A\vu A\vUQ A\v
III hum. pl. A\vuP A\vUQP A\vP
III neu. sg. A\vux A\vUQx A\vUS
III neu. pl. A\vu A\vUQ A\vUS
A\
1
. (A\, A\x) move (by oneself) Table 1
5
12. Participial Noun
Past Present Future Negative
III mas. sg. A\u A\Q A\ A\u
III fem. sg. A\u A\Q A\ A\u
III hon. sg. A\u A\Q A\ A\u
III hum. pl. A\uP A\QP A\P A\uP
III neu. sg. A\ux A\Qx A\x A\ux
III neu. pl. A\u A\Q A\ A\u
13. Verbal Noun
A\u
past A\ux
present A\Qx
future A\x
Negative A\ux
A\
1
. (A\, A\x) move (by oneself) Table 1
6
1. Indicative
Past Present Future
I sg. A\zu A\UQ/ A\
A\UQ
I pl. A\zu A\UQ/ A\
incl. (|) A\UQ
excl. (|[P)
II sg. A\zu A\UQ/ A\
A\UQ
II pl. A\zwP A\UQP/ A\P
A\UQP
III mas.sg A\zu A\UQ/ A\
A\UQ
III fem. sg. A\zu A\UQ/ A\
A\UQ
III hon. sg. A\zu A\UQ/ A\
A\UQ
III hum. pl. A\zuP/ A\UQP/ A\P
A\zu A\UQP
III neu. sg. A\zux A\UQx/ A\US
A\UQx
III neu. pl. A\zu A\UQ A\US
Indicative Negative
Past/Present Future
I sg. A\UP A\UP mh
I pl. A\UP A\UP mh
II sg. A\UP A\UP mh
II pl. A\UP A\UP mjP
III mas. sg. A\UP A\UP mh
III fem. sg. A\UP A\UP mh
III hon. sg. A\UP A\UP mh
III hum. pl. A\UP A\UP mhP
III neu. sg. A\UP A\UPx
III neu. pl. A\UP A\UPx
2. Imperative
sg. A\
pl. A\[P
Negative sg. A\UPu
Negative pl. A\UPwP
3. Optative
4. Infinitive
A\UP
5. Verbal participle
A\zx
Negative A\UP
A\
2
. (A\UP, A\zx) move Table 2
7
6. Relative participle
past A\zu
present A\UQ/A\UQ
future A\US
Negative A\UPu
7. Conditional
A\zu
Negative A\UPmh
8. Causal
past A\zuu
non-past A\u/A\UQu
Negative A\UPuu
9. Temporal
A\zux/A\zux
A\USx/A\USx
A\UQx/A\UQx
A\UQx/A\UQx
A\uS/A\uS
A\zu S//
A\zuh/A\zuh
A\US //
Negative A\UPux/A\UPux
10. Mood
A\UP
A\UPmk
A\UP sk
A\UPU Tk
A\UP i
Negative A\UP sh
A\UPU Thx
A\UP ix
A\
2
. (A\UP, A\zx) move Table 2
8
11. Aspect
Past Present Future
I sg. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
I pl. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
II sg. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
II pl. A\zxmjP A\zxkQP A\zxkP
III mas. sg. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
III fem. sg. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
III hon. sg. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
III hum. pl. A\zxmhP A\zxkQP A\zxkP
III neu. sg. A\zxmhx A\zxkQx A\zxk
III neu. pl. A\zxmh A\zxkQ A\zxk
I sg. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
I pl. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
II sg. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
II pl. A\zxUPsjP A\zxUPQP A\zxUPP
III mas. sg. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
III fem. sg. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
III hon. sg. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
III hum. pl. A\zxUPshP A\zxUPQP A\zxUPP
III neu. sg. A\zxUPshx A\zxUPQx A\zxUP
III neu. pl. A\zxUPsh A\zxUPQ A\zxUP
I sg. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
I pl. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
II sg. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
II pl. A\zxUPsiwP A\zxUPsiUQP A\zxUPsiP
III mas. sg. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
III fem. sg. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
III hon. sg. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsi
III hum. pl. A\zxUPsiuP A\zxUPsiUQP A\zxUPsiP
III neu. sg. A\zxUPsiux A\zxUPsiUQx A\zxUPsiUS
III neu. pl. A\zxUPsiu A\zxUPsiUQ A\zxUPsiUS
I sg. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
I pl. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
II sg. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
II pl. A\zvwP A\zvUQP A\zvP
III mas. sg. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
III fem. sg. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
III hon. sg. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zv
III hum. pl. A\zvuP A\zvUQP A\zvP
III neu. sg. A\zvux A\zvUQx A\zvUS
III neu. pl. A\zvu A\zvUQ A\zvUS
A\
2
. (A\UP, A\zx) move Table 2
9
12. Participial Noun
Past Present Future Negative
III mas. sg. A\zu A\UQ A\ A\UPu
III fem. sg. A\zu A\UQ A\ A\UPu
III hon. sg. A\zu A\UQ A\ A\UPu
III hum. pl. A\zuP A\UQP A\P A\UPuP
III neu. sg. A\zux A\UQx A\x A\UPux
III neu. pl. A\zu A\UQ A\ A\UPu
13. Verbal Noun
A\zu
past A\zux
present A\UQx
future A\x
Negative A\UPux
A\
2
. (A\UP, A\zx) move Table 2
10
1. Indicative
Past Present Future
I sg. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
AhUSQ
I pl. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
incl. (|) AhUSQ
excl. (|[P)
II sg. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
AhUSQ
II pl. AhUQP AhUSQP/ AhUSP
AhUSQP
III mas. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
AhUSQ
III fem. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
AhUSQ
III hon. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ/ AhUS
AhUSQ
III hum. pl. AhUQP/ AhUSQP/ AhUSP
AhUQ AhUSQP
III neu. sg. AhUQx AhUSQx/ AhUS
AhUSQx
III neu. pl. AhUQ AhUSQ AhUS
Indicative Negative
Past/Present Future
I sg. AhUP AhUP mh
I pl. AhUP AhUP mh
II sg. AhUP AhUP mh
II pl. AhUP AhUP mjP
III mas. sg. AhUP AhUP mh
III fem. sg. AhUP AhUP mh
III hon. sg. AhUP AhUP mh
III hum. pl. AhUP AhUP mhP
III neu. sg. AhUP AhUPx
III neu. pl. AhUP AhUPx
2. Imperative
sg. AhUS
pl. AhUS[P
Negative sg. AhUPu
Negative pl. AhUPwP
3. Optative
4. Infinitive
AhUP
5. Verbal participle
AhUQ
Negative AhUP
AhUS . (AhUP, AhUQ) control Table 3
11
6. Relative participle
past AhUQ
present AhUSQ/AhUSQ
future AhUS
Negative AhUPu
7. Conditional
AhUQ
Negative AhUPmh
8. Causal
past AhUQu
non-past AhUSu/AhUSQu
Negative AhUPuu
9. Temporal
AhUQx/AhUQx
AhUSx/AhUSx
AhUSQx/AhUSQx
AhUSQx/AhUSQx
AhUSuS/AhUSuS
AhUQ S//
AhUQh/AhUQh
AhUS //
Negative AhUPux/AhUPux
10. Mood
AhUP
AhUPmk
AhUP sk
AhUPU Tk
AhUP i
Negative AhUP sh
AhUPU Thx
AhUP ix
AhUS . (AhUP, AhUQ) control Table 3
12
11. Aspect
Past Present Future
I sg. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
I pl. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
II sg. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
II pl. AhUQmjP AhUQkQP AhUQkP
III mas. sg. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
III fem. sg. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
III hon. sg. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
III hum. pl. AhUQmhP AhUQkQP AhUQkP
III neu. sg. AhUQmhx AhUQkQx AhUQk
III neu. pl. AhUQmh AhUQkQ AhUQk
I sg. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
I pl. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
II sg. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
II pl. AhUQUPsjP AhUQUPQP AhUQUPP
III mas. sg. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
III fem. sg. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
III hon. sg. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
III hum. pl. AhUQUPshP AhUQUPQP AhUQUPP
III neu. sg. AhUQUPshx AhUQUPQx AhUQUP
III neu. pl. AhUQUPsh AhUQUPQ AhUQUP
I sg. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
I pl. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
II sg. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
II pl. AhUQUPsiwP AhUQUPsiUQP AhUQUPsiP
III mas. sg. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
III fem. sg. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
III hon. sg. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsi
III hum. pl. AhUQUPsiuP AhUQUPsiUQP AhUQUPsiP
III neu. sg. AhUQUPsiux AhUQUPsiUQx AhUQUPsiUS
III neu. pl. AhUQUPsiu AhUQUPsiUQ AhUQUPsiUS
I sg. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
I pl. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
II sg. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
II pl. AhUQwP AhUQUQP AhUQP
III mas. sg. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
III fem. sg. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
III hon. sg. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQ
III hum. pl. AhUQuP AhUQUQP AhUQP
III neu. sg. AhUQux AhUQUQx AhUQUS
III neu. pl. AhUQu AhUQUQ AhUQUS
AhUS . (AhUP, AhUQ) control Table 3
13
12. Participial Noun
Past Present Future Negative
III mas. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ AhUS AhUPu
III fem. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ AhUS AhUPu
III hon. sg. AhUQ AhUSQ AhUS AhUPu
III hum. pl. AhUQP AhUSQP AhUSP AhUPuP
III neu. sg. AhUQx AhUSQx AhUSx AhUPux
III neu. pl. AhUQ AhUSQ AhUPu
13. Verbal Noun
AhUSu
past AhUQx
present AhUSQx
future AhUSx
Negative AhUPux
AhUS . (AhUP, AhUQ) control Table 3