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ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS


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'#ope#%ies o( Acids
'#ope#%ies o( B)se
Acid*s +e)c%ion ,i%h -e%)l
+e)c%ion o( Acid )nd B)se
S%#en.%h o( Acid o# B)se Solu%ions
S)l%s
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'#ope#%ies o( Acids/
(i) Are generally sour in taste. (For example, the sour taste of lemon juice is due
to citric acid)
(ii) Strong or concentrated acids or their fumes often produce a stinging feeling
on mucous membranes
(iii)Change the color of pH indicators as follos! turn blue litmus and methyl
orange red, turn phenolphthalein colorless
(i")#eact ith metals to produce a metal salt and hydrogen
(") #eact ith metal carbonates to produce ater, C$% and a salt
("i)#eact ith metal hydroxides and metal oxides to produce ater and a salt
("ii) Conduct electricity, depending on the degree of dissociation in a&ueous
solution
("iii) 'roduce sol"onium ions, such as oxonium (H($)) ions in ater
'#ope#%ies o( B)se/
(**)Slimy or soapy feel on fingers, due to saponification of the lipids in human
s+in
(***) Concentrated or strong bases are caustic (corrosi"e) on organic matter
and react "iolently ith acidic substances
(*,) A&ueous solutions or molten bases dissociate in ions and conduct
electricity.
(,) #eactions ith indicators! bases turn red litmus paper blue and
phenolphthalein pin+
Acid*s +e)c%ion ,i%h -e%)l/
-etal displaces hydrogen from the acids. .his is seen as hydrogen gas. .he metal
combines ith the remaining part of the acid and forms a compound called a salt.
.hus,
the reaction of a metal ith an acid can be summarised as /
Acid ) -etal Salt ) Hydrogen gas
0xample!
%1a$H ) 2n 3 1a2n$ ) H
Sodium 0inco)%e
+e)c%ion o( -e%)l C)#1on)%es wi%h Acid!
1aC$2 ) %HCl 3 %1aCl ) H$ ) C$
+e)c%ion o( -e%)l 3yd#o.en c)#1on)%es wi%h Acid/
1aHC$2 ) HCl 3 1aCl ) H$ ) C$
*n these reactions the metal forms salt and ater and carbon dioxide is released.
+e)c%ion o( Acid )nd B)se! 4oth neuitralise each other and salt and ater is
formed!
4ase ) Acid 3 Salt ) 5ater
1a$H ) HCl 3 1aCl ) H$
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+e)c%ion o( -e%)l 4xides wi%h Acids/ -etal forms salt and hydrogen and oxygen
form ater6
-etal $xide ) Acid 3 Salt ) 5ater
E((ec% o( Dissolu%ion in w)%e# on Acid )nd B)se! 5hen Acid is dissol"ed in
ater it ma+es Hydrogen ions. 5hen base is dissol"ed in ater it produces
Hydroxide ions.
Acid Solution in ater conducts electricity.
ST+EN5T3 4F ACID 4+ BASE S4L6TI4NS
A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution, called pH scale has
been de"eloped. .he p in pH stands for 7poten89 in :erman, meaning poer.
p3 Sensi%i7i%y o( 'l)n%s & Anim)ls/
Human body or+s in a narro range of pH ; to ;.<. Acidity can be lethal for plants
and animals. -ost of the orgnaism can sur"i"e in a narro range of pH.
p3 o( Di.es%i7e Sys%em/
Stomach secretes HCl to +ill bacteria in the food. .he inner lining of stomach protects
"ital cells from this acidic pH.
p3 )nd %oo%h dec)y/
=oer pH because of sour food and seet food can cause tooth decay. .he pH of
mouth should alays be more than >.>.
p3 )s sel( de(ense mech)nism in pl)n%s & )nim)ls/
Certain animals li+e bee and plants li+e nettle secrete highly acidic substance for self
defence.

SALTS
Salts are formed after neutrali8ation reaction beteen acids and bases.
Common S)l%
Common salt is formed by the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide solution and is called sodium chloride.
Common salt ? A ra material for chemicals
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pH ; 1eutral Solution
pH @ ; Acidic Solution
pH 6 ; 4asic Solution
#ange of pH is from A to BC
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Sodium hyd#oxide
5hen electricity is passed through an a&ueous solution of sodium chloride (called
brine), it decomposes to form sodium hydroxide. .he process is called the chlorD
al+ali process because of the products formed/ chlor for chlorine and al+ali for
sodium hydroxide.
%1aCl ) %H$ %1a$H ) Cl ) H
Chlorine gas is gi"en off at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. Sodium
hydroxide solution is formed near the cathode. .he three products produced in this
process are all useful. .
Ble)chin. powde#
Chlorine is produced during the electrolysis of a&ueous sodium chloride (brine). .his
chlorine gas is used for the manufacture of bleaching poder. 4leaching poder is
produced by the action of chlorine on dry sla+ed lime ECa($H)%F. 4leaching poder is
represented as Ca$Cl%, though the actual composition is &uite complex.
Ca($H) ) Cl Ca$Cl ) H$
Gse of 4leaching 'oder!
(i) for bleaching cotton and linen in the textile industry, for bleaching ood pulp in
paper factories and for bleaching ashed clothes in laundryH
(ii) as an oxidising agent in many chemical industriesH and
(iii)for disinfecting drin+ing ater to ma+e it free of germs.
B)8in. sod)
.he chemical name of the compound is sodium hydrogencarbonate (1aHC$(). *t is
produced using sodium chloride as one of the ra materials.
1aCl ) H$ ) C$% ) 1H2 3 1H9Cl ) 1aHC$2
Sodium 3yd#o.enc)#1on)%e
Gses of sodium hydrogencarbonate (1aHC$()
(i) For ma+ing ba+ing poder, hich is a mixture of ba+ing soda (sodium
hydrogencarbonate) and a mild edible acid such as tartaric acid. 5hen ba+ing
poder is heated or mixed in ater, the folloing reaction ta+es place /
1aHC$2 ) Hydrogen *on 3 C$ ) H$ ) Sodium salt of acid
Carbon dioxide produced during the reaction causes bread or ca+e to rise ma+ing
them soft and spongy.
(ii) Sodium hydrogencarbonate is also an ingredient in antacids. 4eing al+aline, it
neutralises excess acid in the stomach and pro"ides relief.
(iii)*t is also used in sodaDacid fire extinguishers.
,)shin. sod)
#ecrystalli8ation of sodium carbonate gi"es ashing soda. *t is also a basic salt.
1aC$2 )BAH$ 3 1aC$2.BAH$
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6ses o( w)shin. sod)
(i) Sodium carbonate (ashing soda) is used in glass, soap and paper
industries.
(ii) *t is used in the manufacture of sodium compounds such as borax.
(iii) Sodium carbonate can be used as a cleaning agent for domestic purposes.
(i") *t is used for remo"ing permanent hardness of ater.

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