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SU%ECT NAME ' A()*+, A(- D.,./)* C+001(.2)/.+( DEPT$ ' CSE
1. Define amplitude modulation.
2. Define modulation coefficient and percent modulation.
3. What does AM-DSBFC stand for?
. Define An!le modulation.
". Dra# the FM and $M #a%eforms.
&. Define direct FM and indirect FM.
'. Define direct $M and indirect $M.
(. Define modulation inde) for FM and $M.
*. State Carson+s !eneral rule for determinin! the ,and#idth for an an!le modulated #a%e.
1-. What is communication?
11. What are the t.pes of Communication s.stem?
12. What are the t.pes of modulation?
13. Define depth of modulation/or0modulation inde).
1. What are the de!rees of modulation?
1". 1f a 1-2W amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated Sinusoidall. ,. "-34 #hat is the total 5F
po#er deli%ered?
1&. Define demodulation.
1'. Define Amplitude modulation?
1(. As related to AM #hat is o%er modulation4 under modulation and 1--3 modulation?
1*. When does a carrier is said to ,e o%er4 under modulated in Amplitude modulation?
2-. Dra# the $hasor dia!ram of AM-SC si!nal.
21. Dra# the 6raphical and fre7uenc. spectrum and $hasor 5epresentation of AM #ith carrier.
22. What is the po#er sa%in! in DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC AM
23. What is sin!le tone and multi tone modulation?
2. What is the need for modulation?
2".Compare AM #ith DSB-SC and SSB-SC.
2&. 8o# FM #a%e can ,e con%erted to $M #a%e?
2'.8o# $M #a%e can ,e con%erted to FM #a%e?
2(.Define phase de%iation.
2*.What are the t.pes of Fre7uenc. Modulation?
3-.What are the ad%anta!es of An!le Modulation?
31.What is transmission ,and#idth of FM?
32.1n a FM #a%e the fre7uenc. de%iation is 2" 289. What is the Modulation inde) #hen the modulatin!
si!nal fre7uenc. is 1--89 :1- 289?
33. A carrier is fre7uenc. modulated #ith a sinusoidal si!nal of 2 289 resultin! in a ma)imum fre7uenc.
de%iation of " 289. Find /i0 Modulation inde) /ii0 Band#idth of the modulated si!nal.
3. A 2 289 audio si!nal modulates a "-M89 carrier causin! a fre7uenc. de%iation of ."289.Determine
the ,and#idth of FM si!nal.
3".Determine the ,and#idth of a #ide,and FM; !i%en that carrier Si!nal of 1--M89 fre7uenc.
modulates a si!nal of " 289 #ith the "- 289 as fre7uenc. de%iation.
1. <)plain the po#er distri,ution in AM.
2. <)plain a,out the %olta!e distri,ution in AM.
3. <)plain the ,and#idth re7uirements of an!le modulated #a%es.
. Deri%e an e)pression for the a%era!e po#er of an!le modulated #a%e.
". Distin!uish ,et#een FM and $M ,. !i%in! its mathematical anal.sis.
&. Deri%e the relationship ,et#een the %olta!e amplitudes of the side ,and fre7uencies and the
carrier and dra# the fre7uenc. spectrum for AM #a%e.
'. Discuss a,out the sets of side ,ands produced #hen a carrier is fre7uenc. modulated ,. a sin!le
fre7uenc. sinusoid.
(. 1n an AM modulator4 "-- 289 carrier of amplitude 2- = is modulated ,. 1- 289 modulatin!
si!nal #hich causes a chan!e in the output #a%e of >? '." =. Determine@
/10 Apper and lo#er side ,and fre7uencies
/20 Modulation 1nde)
/30 $eaB amplitude of upper and lo#er side fre7uenc.
/0 Ma)imum and minimum amplitudes of en%elope.
1. Brin! out the differences ,et#een AS2 : FS2.
2. What are the ad%anta!es of B$S2.
3. What are the methods of !eneratin! FS2.
. What is constellation dia!ram and phasor dia!ram?
". What is CAM ho# it differs from C$S2?
&. 6i%e the ,and#idth of AS24FS2 B$S2 : C$S2.
'. What is ,it rate and ,aud?
(. Define information capacit..
*. What are the three most predominant modulation schemes used in di!ital radio s.stems?
1-. <)plain the relationship ,et#een ,its per second and ,aud for FS2 s.stem.
11. Define di!ital amplitude modulationD AS2.
12. What is the minimum ,and#idth 4,it rate 4marB and space fre7uencies of an FS2 s.stem.
13. What is the si!nificance of C channel and 1 channel in C$S2 modulator?
1. What is the minimum ,and#idth re7uired for C$S2?
1". What is the ,it rate and ,aud for (-$S2 and 1&-$S2 s.stem?
1&. What is the difference ,et#een $S2 and CAM?
1'. Define ,and#idth efficienc..
1(. Define carrier reco%er..
1*. What is the purpose of clocB reco%er. circuit? When is it used?
2-. What is the fre7uenc. de%iation and modulation inde) of FS2?
21. What are the ad%anta!es of B$S2?
22. Dra# the constellation dia!ram and phasor dia!ram of C$S2?
23. Write do#n the ,and#idth and ,it rate for FS2?
2. Eist out the %arious methods of reco%er the carrier si!nal from modulated si!nal?
2". What is CAM.
1.<)plain in detail a,out Binar. $hase Shift! modulation and Demodulation.
2.<)plain in detail a,out C$S2 transmitter and recei%er
3.<)plain in detail a,out 1n phase and Cuadrature Modulation s.stems.
.With necessar. dia!rams e)plain the operation of Cuadrature Amplitude Modulation s.stems.
".Deri%e the e)pression for the B$S2 techni7ue.
&.What is Bno#n as Binar. phase shift!? Discuss in detail the B$S2 transmitter and 5ecei%er and
also o,tain the minimum dou,le sided F.7uist ,and#idth.
'./i0 1llustrate the concept of ( CAM transmitter #ith the truth ta,le. /( MarBs0
/ii0 What is the need for carrier 5eco%er.? <)plain the Costas loop method of carrier reco%er..
(.What is Bno#n as Cuadrature phase shift!? Discuss in detail the C$S2 transmitter and 5ecei%er
and also o,tain the minimum dou,le sided F.7uist ,and#idth.
*. Discuss in detail the FS2 transmitter and 5ecei%er and also o,tain the ,and#idth and ,aud rate.
1-. <)plain in detail a,out Differential Binar. $hase Shift! modulation and Demodulation.
1. Define Dirac com, or ideal samplin! function. What is its Fourier Gransform.
2. 6i%e the interpolation formula for the reconstruction of the ori!inal si!nal !/t0 from the se7uence of
sample %alues !/nD2W0H.
3. State samplin! theorem.
. Define 7uadrature samplin!.
". What is aliasin!?
&. 6i%e the e)pression for aliasin! error and the ,ound for aliasin! error.
'. What is meant ,. $CM?
(. Define 7uanti9in! process.
*. What are the t#o fold effects of 7uanti9in! process.
1-. What is meant ,. idle channel noise?
11. What is meant ,. prediction error?
12. Define delta modulation.
13. Define adapti%e delta modulation.
1. Fame the t.pes of uniform 7uanti9er?
1". Define mid tread 7uanti9er.
1&. Define mid-riser 7uanti9er?
1'. Define 7uanti9ation error?
1(. What .ou mean ,. non-uniform 7uanti9ation?
1*. Dra# the 7uanti9ation error for the mid tread and mid-rise of 7uanti9er.
2-. What is the disad%anta!e of uniform 7uanti9ation o%er the non-uniform7uanti9ation?
21. What do .ou mean ,. compandin!? Define compander.
22. Dra# the ,locB dia!ram of compander.Mention the .pesof compandin!
23. What is $AM?
2. Define AD$CM.
2".Eist the ad%anta!es and disad%anta!es of di!ital transmission.
2&.What are the four most common methods of pulse modulation.
2'.What is the purpose of sample and hold circuit.
2(.What is F.7uist Samplin! rate.
2*.Define and state the causes of fold o%er distortion.
3-.Define compandin!.
31.Compare delta modulation $CM and standard $CM.
32.Define slope o%erload and !ranular noise.
33.Define adapti%e delta modulation and differential $CM.
3.Define e.e pattern.
1.Dri%e the e)pression for the samplin! process in time domain.
2. What are all the t.pes of samplin! techni7ue and e)plain a,out an. t#o.
3. <)plain the !eneration of $$M and $WM #ith neat circuit dia!ram.
4$ <)plain the 7uanti9ation process #ith $CM ,locB dia!ram.
".Compare DM #ith ADM and e)plain linear prediction filter.
&.Deri%e the si!nal to 7uanti9ation noise rate for $CM s.stems.
'.<)plain $CM transmitter and recei%er.
(.What are the disad%antes of Delta modulation.<)plain DM Gransmitter and recei%er
*.<)plain D$CM Gransmitter and recei%er
1-.I,tain the si!nal to noise ration in $CM .
11.Discuss a,out the inters.m,ol interference and e.e patterns.
1. /i0 <)plain in detail the Delta modulation transmitter and 5ecei%er. /1- MarBs0
/ii0 Discuss the dra# ,acBs of delta modulation and e)plain the si!nificance of adapti%e delta
2. Descri,e the sample and hold circuit.
3. i0<)plain in detail a,out di!ital compandin!.
ii0<)plain a,out e.e pattern.
1. Define the follo#in! terms4 data4 information and data communication net#orB?
2. What #as the first data communication s.stem that used ,inar. coded electrical si!nals?
3. What are the data communication standard4 Wh. are the. needed?
. Briefl. descri,e the difference ,et#een serial and parallel data transmission?
". What are the t#o ,asic Binds of data communication circuit confi!urations?
&. Define data communication code?
'. 6i%e some of the names for data communication codes?
(. Briefl. descri,e the follo#in! data communication codes@Baudot4ASC114 and <BCD1C.
*. Descri,e ,asic concept of Bar code?
1-. Descri,e #hat is meant ,. error control?
11. Descri,e for#ard error correction.
12. Descri,e c.clic redundanc. checBin!.
13. Compare and contrast as.nchronous and s.nchronous serial data formats.
1. Define start and stop ,its?
1". Define and !i%e some e)amples of data terminal e7uipment.
1&. Define and !i%e e)amples of data communication e7uipment.
1'. Eist and descri,e the ,asic components that maBe up a data communications circuit?
1(. Eist the features pro%ided ,. a serial interface.
1*. Descri,e the purpose of serial interface.
2-. Descri,e the ph.sical4 electrical4 and functional characteristics of the 5S-232 interface.
21. What is the difference ,et#een as.nchronous and s.nchronous modems.
22. Define modem s.nchronous and list its functions?
23. Eist and descri,e the ei!ht primar. standards or!ani9ation for data communications?
1. Eist and descri,e the ,asic function of the fi%e components of a data communication circuit?
2. <)plain the difference ,et#een error detection and error correction.
3. Descri,e the difference ,et#een redundanc. and redundanc. checBin!.
. <)plain =5C. With suita,le e)ample.
". Descri,e data communication modems and e)plain #here the. are used in data communications
&. <)plain the error control mechanisms #hich are used for data communication?
'. Descri,e the difference ,et#een as.nchronous and s.nchronous data transmission?
(. /i0 Descri,e the most common error detection techni7ues. /12 MarBs0
/ii0 Discuss the function of a data modem.
*. <)plain the three methods of error correction.
1-. <)plain a,out as.nchronous modems. <)plain in detail a,out 5S-232 interface.
1. Define spread spectrum.
2. What is the need for spread spectrum.
3. What are the t#o t.pes of spread spectrum modulation.?
. Define $F se7uence.
". Eist and define the properties of $F se7uence.
&. Define direct se7uence spread spectrum.
'. Define Fre7uenc. hoppin! spread spectrum.
(. Define Fast and Slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!.
*. What is a Jammer?
1-. Define $rocessin! !ain.
11. What is spread factor?
12. Define multiple access.
13. What is the difference ,et#een Multiple access and multiple)in!?
1. Define GDMA and FDMA.
1". Define CDMA and SDMA.
1&. Define Fre7uenc. hand off.
1'. Define multi path propa!ation.
1(. Define Doppler shift.
1*. What is meant ,. cell splittin!?
2-. Dra# the ,locB dia!ram of 5A2< recei%er.
21. What is source codin! of speech? Eist the t.pes of $redicti%e codin!.
22. Define phase de%iation.
23. Define fre7uenc. de%iation.
2. What is meant ,. !uard ,and?
2". Define pseudo-noise /$F0 se7uence.
2&. What does the term catastrophic c.clic code represent ?
2'. Define a random ,inar. se7uence.
2(. State the ,alance propert. of random ,inar. se7uence.
2*. Mention a,out the run propert..
3-. 6i%e the correlation propert. of random ,inar. se7uence.
31. Mention the si!nificance of spread spectrum modulation.
32. What is called processin! !ain ?
33. What is called Jammin! effect ?
3. What is Anti Jammin! ?
3". What are the three codes used for the anti Jammin! application ?
3&. What is called fre7uenc. hop spread spectrum ?
3'. What is slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!?
3(. What is fast fre7uenc. hoppin!?
3*. What are the t#o function of fast fre7uenc. hoppin!?
-. What are the features of code Di%ision multiple Accesses?
1. What is called multipath 1nterference?
2. What is the ad%anta!e of a spread spectrum techni7ue?
3. What is called fre7uenc. hop spread spectrum ?
. What is slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!?
". State 6old theorem.
&. What is hop rate and chip rate?
'. Dra# the $F ,locB dia!ram of /3410 se7uence.
(. What is pro,a,ilit. of error in F8: DS?
1.6enerate the $F se7uence for K"4 4 34 1L and pro%e the all properties of the same.
2. Eist out and pro%e the $roperties of the $F se7uence.
3. <)plain the concept of DSDB$S2.
. Eist out the uses of the F8. <)plain the F8 techni7ues #ith the fre7uenc. spectrum.
". Write shorts notes on 1. $ro,a,ilit. <rror. 2. Mammin! Mar!in 3./SDF0 of the DS S.stem.
&. <)plain the Fast fre7uenc. hoppin! #ith dia!rams.
'.<)plain the slo# fre7uenc. hoppin! #ith dia!rams.
(. 6enerate the $F se7uence for K41 L and K241Lpro%e the all properties of the same.
*.<)plain Ma)imum len!th codes and 6old codes.
1-.<)plain the spread spectrum characteristics of CMDA.
11./i0 What is a $seudo noise se7uence? What are the properties of $seudo noise se7uence? /( MarBs0
/ ii0 Descri,e the application of CDMA in #ireless communication s.stem. /( MarBs0
12./i0 With a ,locB dia!ram e)plain4 DS spread spectrum #ith coherent ,inar. $S2. /1- MarBs0
/ii0 <)plain the near- far pro,lem in spread spectrum modulation? /& MarBs0