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VELAMMAL INSITITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

VELAMMAL GARDENS, PANCHETTI, CHENNAI-601204


CS 2204 - ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
(FOR III SEM - CSE STUDENTS)
QUESTION AN!
PREPARED Y
M"#$ %$MEGALA AP&ECE
QUESTION AN!
SU%ECT CODE ' CS 2204 SEM & YEAR ' III& II
SU%ECT NAME ' A()*+, A(- D.,./)* C+001(.2)/.+( DEPT$ ' CSE
UNIT I
FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION
PART-A
1. Define amplitude modulation.
2. Define modulation coefficient and percent modulation.
3. What does AM-DSBFC stand for?
. Define An!le modulation.
". Dra# the FM and $M #a%eforms.
&. Define direct FM and indirect FM.
'. Define direct $M and indirect $M.
(. Define modulation inde) for FM and $M.
*. State Carson+s !eneral rule for determinin! the ,and#idth for an an!le modulated #a%e.
1-. What is communication?
11. What are the t.pes of Communication s.stem?
12. What are the t.pes of modulation?
13. Define depth of modulation/or0modulation inde).
1. What are the de!rees of modulation?
1". 1f a 1-2W amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated Sinusoidall. ,. "-34 #hat is the total 5F
po#er deli%ered?
1&. Define demodulation.
1'. Define Amplitude modulation?
1(. As related to AM #hat is o%er modulation4 under modulation and 1--3 modulation?
1*. When does a carrier is said to ,e o%er4 under modulated in Amplitude modulation?
2-. Dra# the $hasor dia!ram of AM-SC si!nal.
21. Dra# the 6raphical and fre7uenc. spectrum and $hasor 5epresentation of AM #ith carrier.
22. What is the po#er sa%in! in DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC AM
23. What is sin!le tone and multi tone modulation?
2. What is the need for modulation?
2".Compare AM #ith DSB-SC and SSB-SC.
2&. 8o# FM #a%e can ,e con%erted to $M #a%e?
2'.8o# $M #a%e can ,e con%erted to FM #a%e?
2(.Define phase de%iation.
2*.What are the t.pes of Fre7uenc. Modulation?
3-.What are the ad%anta!es of An!le Modulation?
31.What is transmission ,and#idth of FM?
32.1n a FM #a%e the fre7uenc. de%iation is 2" 289. What is the Modulation inde) #hen the modulatin!
si!nal fre7uenc. is 1--89 :1- 289?
33. A carrier is fre7uenc. modulated #ith a sinusoidal si!nal of 2 289 resultin! in a ma)imum fre7uenc.
de%iation of " 289. Find /i0 Modulation inde) /ii0 Band#idth of the modulated si!nal.
3. A 2 289 audio si!nal modulates a "-M89 carrier causin! a fre7uenc. de%iation of ."289.Determine
the ,and#idth of FM si!nal.
3".Determine the ,and#idth of a #ide,and FM; !i%en that carrier Si!nal of 1--M89 fre7uenc.
modulates a si!nal of " 289 #ith the "- 289 as fre7uenc. de%iation.
PART-
1. <)plain the po#er distri,ution in AM.
2. <)plain a,out the %olta!e distri,ution in AM.
3. <)plain the ,and#idth re7uirements of an!le modulated #a%es.
. Deri%e an e)pression for the a%era!e po#er of an!le modulated #a%e.
". Distin!uish ,et#een FM and $M ,. !i%in! its mathematical anal.sis.
&. Deri%e the relationship ,et#een the %olta!e amplitudes of the side ,and fre7uencies and the
carrier and dra# the fre7uenc. spectrum for AM #a%e.
'. Discuss a,out the sets of side ,ands produced #hen a carrier is fre7uenc. modulated ,. a sin!le
fre7uenc. sinusoid.
(. 1n an AM modulator4 "-- 289 carrier of amplitude 2- = is modulated ,. 1- 289 modulatin!
si!nal #hich causes a chan!e in the output #a%e of >? '." =. Determine@
/10 Apper and lo#er side ,and fre7uencies
/20 Modulation 1nde)
/30 $eaB amplitude of upper and lo#er side fre7uenc.
/0 Ma)imum and minimum amplitudes of en%elope.
*.
UNIT II
DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
PART-A
1. Brin! out the differences ,et#een AS2 : FS2.
2. What are the ad%anta!es of B$S2.
3. What are the methods of !eneratin! FS2.
. What is constellation dia!ram and phasor dia!ram?
". What is CAM ho# it differs from C$S2?
&. 6i%e the ,and#idth of AS24FS2 B$S2 : C$S2.
'. What is ,it rate and ,aud?
(. Define information capacit..
*. What are the three most predominant modulation schemes used in di!ital radio s.stems?
1-. <)plain the relationship ,et#een ,its per second and ,aud for FS2 s.stem.
11. Define di!ital amplitude modulationD AS2.
12. What is the minimum ,and#idth 4,it rate 4marB and space fre7uencies of an FS2 s.stem.
13. What is the si!nificance of C channel and 1 channel in C$S2 modulator?
1. What is the minimum ,and#idth re7uired for C$S2?
1". What is the ,it rate and ,aud for (-$S2 and 1&-$S2 s.stem?
1&. What is the difference ,et#een $S2 and CAM?
1'. Define ,and#idth efficienc..
1(. Define carrier reco%er..
1*. What is the purpose of clocB reco%er. circuit? When is it used?
2-. What is the fre7uenc. de%iation and modulation inde) of FS2?
21. What are the ad%anta!es of B$S2?
22. Dra# the constellation dia!ram and phasor dia!ram of C$S2?
23. Write do#n the ,and#idth and ,it rate for FS2?
2. Eist out the %arious methods of reco%er the carrier si!nal from modulated si!nal?
2". What is CAM.
PART-
1.<)plain in detail a,out Binar. $hase Shift 2e.in! modulation and Demodulation.
2.<)plain in detail a,out C$S2 transmitter and recei%er
3.<)plain in detail a,out 1n phase and Cuadrature Modulation s.stems.
.With necessar. dia!rams e)plain the operation of Cuadrature Amplitude Modulation s.stems.
".Deri%e the e)pression for the B$S2 techni7ue.
&.What is Bno#n as Binar. phase shift Be.in!? Discuss in detail the B$S2 transmitter and 5ecei%er and
also o,tain the minimum dou,le sided F.7uist ,and#idth.
'./i0 1llustrate the concept of ( CAM transmitter #ith the truth ta,le. /( MarBs0
/ii0 What is the need for carrier 5eco%er.? <)plain the Costas loop method of carrier reco%er..
(.What is Bno#n as Cuadrature phase shift Be.in!? Discuss in detail the C$S2 transmitter and 5ecei%er
and also o,tain the minimum dou,le sided F.7uist ,and#idth.
*. Discuss in detail the FS2 transmitter and 5ecei%er and also o,tain the ,and#idth and ,aud rate.
1-. <)plain in detail a,out Differential Binar. $hase Shift 2e.in! modulation and Demodulation.
UNIT III
DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
PART-A
1. Define Dirac com, or ideal samplin! function. What is its Fourier Gransform.
2. 6i%e the interpolation formula for the reconstruction of the ori!inal si!nal !/t0 from the se7uence of
sample %alues !/nD2W0H.
3. State samplin! theorem.
. Define 7uadrature samplin!.
". What is aliasin!?
&. 6i%e the e)pression for aliasin! error and the ,ound for aliasin! error.
'. What is meant ,. $CM?
(. Define 7uanti9in! process.
*. What are the t#o fold effects of 7uanti9in! process.
1-. What is meant ,. idle channel noise?
11. What is meant ,. prediction error?
12. Define delta modulation.
13. Define adapti%e delta modulation.
1. Fame the t.pes of uniform 7uanti9er?
1". Define mid tread 7uanti9er.
1&. Define mid-riser 7uanti9er?
1'. Define 7uanti9ation error?
1(. What .ou mean ,. non-uniform 7uanti9ation?
1*. Dra# the 7uanti9ation error for the mid tread and mid-rise t.pe of 7uanti9er.
2-. What is the disad%anta!e of uniform 7uanti9ation o%er the non-uniform7uanti9ation?
21. What do .ou mean ,. compandin!? Define compander.
22. Dra# the ,locB dia!ram of compander.Mention the .pesof compandin!
23. What is $AM?
2. Define AD$CM.
2".Eist the ad%anta!es and disad%anta!es of di!ital transmission.
2&.What are the four most common methods of pulse modulation.
2'.What is the purpose of sample and hold circuit.
2(.What is F.7uist Samplin! rate.
2*.Define and state the causes of fold o%er distortion.
3-.Define compandin!.
31.Compare delta modulation $CM and standard $CM.
32.Define slope o%erload and !ranular noise.
33.Define adapti%e delta modulation and differential $CM.
3.Define e.e pattern.
PART-A
1.Dri%e the e)pression for the samplin! process in time domain.
2. What are all the t.pes of samplin! techni7ue and e)plain a,out an. t#o.
3. <)plain the !eneration of $$M and $WM #ith neat circuit dia!ram.
4$ <)plain the 7uanti9ation process #ith $CM ,locB dia!ram.
".Compare DM #ith ADM and e)plain linear prediction filter.
&.Deri%e the si!nal to 7uanti9ation noise rate for $CM s.stems.
'.<)plain $CM transmitter and recei%er.
(.What are the disad%antes of Delta modulation.<)plain DM Gransmitter and recei%er
*.<)plain D$CM Gransmitter and recei%er
1-.I,tain the si!nal to noise ration in $CM .
11.Discuss a,out the inters.m,ol interference and e.e patterns.
1. /i0 <)plain in detail the Delta modulation transmitter and 5ecei%er. /1- MarBs0
/ii0 Discuss the dra# ,acBs of delta modulation and e)plain the si!nificance of adapti%e delta
modulator.
2. Descri,e the sample and hold circuit.
3. i0<)plain in detail a,out di!ital compandin!.
ii0<)plain a,out e.e pattern.
UNIT IV
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
PART-A
PART-A
1. Define the follo#in! terms4 data4 information and data communication net#orB?
2. What #as the first data communication s.stem that used ,inar. coded electrical si!nals?
3. What are the data communication standard4 Wh. are the. needed?
. Briefl. descri,e the difference ,et#een serial and parallel data transmission?
". What are the t#o ,asic Binds of data communication circuit confi!urations?
&. Define data communication code?
'. 6i%e some of the names for data communication codes?
(. Briefl. descri,e the follo#in! data communication codes@Baudot4ASC114 and <BCD1C.
*. Descri,e ,asic concept of Bar code?
1-. Descri,e #hat is meant ,. error control?
11. Descri,e for#ard error correction.
12. Descri,e c.clic redundanc. checBin!.
13. Compare and contrast as.nchronous and s.nchronous serial data formats.
1. Define start and stop ,its?
1". Define and !i%e some e)amples of data terminal e7uipment.
1&. Define and !i%e e)amples of data communication e7uipment.
1'. Eist and descri,e the ,asic components that maBe up a data communications circuit?
1(. Eist the features pro%ided ,. a serial interface.
1*. Descri,e the purpose of serial interface.
2-. Descri,e the ph.sical4 electrical4 and functional characteristics of the 5S-232 interface.
21. What is the difference ,et#een as.nchronous and s.nchronous modems.
22. Define modem s.nchronous and list its functions?
23. Eist and descri,e the ei!ht primar. standards or!ani9ation for data communications?
PART-
1. Eist and descri,e the ,asic function of the fi%e components of a data communication circuit?
2. <)plain the difference ,et#een error detection and error correction.
3. Descri,e the difference ,et#een redundanc. and redundanc. checBin!.
. <)plain =5C. With suita,le e)ample.
". Descri,e data communication modems and e)plain #here the. are used in data communications
circuits.
&. <)plain the error control mechanisms #hich are used for data communication?
'. Descri,e the difference ,et#een as.nchronous and s.nchronous data transmission?
(. /i0 Descri,e the most common error detection techni7ues. /12 MarBs0
/ii0 Discuss the function of a data modem.
*. <)plain the three methods of error correction.
1-. <)plain a,out as.nchronous modems. <)plain in detail a,out 5S-232 interface.
UNIT V
SPREAD SPECTRUM AND MULTIPLE ACCES TECHNIQUES
PART-A
1. Define spread spectrum.
2. What is the need for spread spectrum.
3. What are the t#o t.pes of spread spectrum modulation.?
. Define $F se7uence.
". Eist and define the properties of $F se7uence.
&. Define direct se7uence spread spectrum.
'. Define Fre7uenc. hoppin! spread spectrum.
(. Define Fast and Slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!.
*. What is a Jammer?
1-. Define $rocessin! !ain.
11. What is spread factor?
12. Define multiple access.
13. What is the difference ,et#een Multiple access and multiple)in!?
1. Define GDMA and FDMA.
1". Define CDMA and SDMA.
1&. Define Fre7uenc. hand off.
1'. Define multi path propa!ation.
1(. Define Doppler shift.
1*. What is meant ,. cell splittin!?
2-. Dra# the ,locB dia!ram of 5A2< recei%er.
21. What is source codin! of speech? Eist the t.pes of $redicti%e codin!.
22. Define phase de%iation.
23. Define fre7uenc. de%iation.
2. What is meant ,. !uard ,and?
2". Define pseudo-noise /$F0 se7uence.
2&. What does the term catastrophic c.clic code represent ?
2'. Define a random ,inar. se7uence.
2(. State the ,alance propert. of random ,inar. se7uence.
2*. Mention a,out the run propert..
3-. 6i%e the correlation propert. of random ,inar. se7uence.
31. Mention the si!nificance of spread spectrum modulation.
32. What is called processin! !ain ?
33. What is called Jammin! effect ?
3. What is Anti Jammin! ?
3". What are the three codes used for the anti Jammin! application ?
3&. What is called fre7uenc. hop spread spectrum ?
3'. What is slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!?
3(. What is fast fre7uenc. hoppin!?
3*. What are the t#o function of fast fre7uenc. hoppin!?
-. What are the features of code Di%ision multiple Accesses?
1. What is called multipath 1nterference?
2. What is the ad%anta!e of a spread spectrum techni7ue?
3. What is called fre7uenc. hop spread spectrum ?
. What is slo# fre7uenc. hoppin!?
". State 6old theorem.
&. What is hop rate and chip rate?
'. Dra# the $F ,locB dia!ram of /3410 se7uence.
(. What is pro,a,ilit. of error in F8: DS?
PART-
1.6enerate the $F se7uence for K"4 4 34 1L and pro%e the all properties of the same.
2. Eist out and pro%e the $roperties of the $F se7uence.
3. <)plain the concept of DSDB$S2.
. Eist out the uses of the F8. <)plain the F8 techni7ues #ith the fre7uenc. spectrum.
". Write shorts notes on 1. $ro,a,ilit. <rror. 2. Mammin! Mar!in 3./SDF0 of the DS S.stem.
&. <)plain the Fast fre7uenc. hoppin! #ith dia!rams.
'.<)plain the slo# fre7uenc. hoppin! #ith dia!rams.
(. 6enerate the $F se7uence for K41 L and K241Lpro%e the all properties of the same.
*.<)plain Ma)imum len!th codes and 6old codes.
1-.<)plain the spread spectrum characteristics of CMDA.
11./i0 What is a $seudo noise se7uence? What are the properties of $seudo noise se7uence? /( MarBs0
/ ii0 Descri,e the application of CDMA in #ireless communication s.stem. /( MarBs0
12./i0 With a ,locB dia!ram e)plain4 DS spread spectrum #ith coherent ,inar. $S2. /1- MarBs0
/ii0 <)plain the near- far pro,lem in spread spectrum modulation? /& MarBs0