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-1Proteins are formed by the different combinations of amino acids.

There are twenty type of amino acids (different from each other due to variable group R) ..........
The two amino acids bind together by peptide bond (amino group of one amino acid is joined to carboyl
group of other) and !"# is released (condensation reaction or dehydration). $any amino acids combine to
form polypeptide chain. These chains held together by hydrogen bond and form Protein.
But how type of amino acids are determined to form a specific type of protein?
When and where the amino acids bind together ?How they are arranged?
%ou should learn Transcription and translation process to &now all these
Transcription
'n this process chromosomal ()* ma&es R)* which may be released in cytoplasm to
perform functions such as protein synthesis.
*n en+yme called R)* polymerase un+ips the two strands of ()*.'t binds to the
specific region of ()* called promoter.
#ther proteins called transcription factors help polymerase to bind promoter.
The portion of promoter where the polymerase binds to start separating strands
(beginning of transcription) is called initiation site. The region of promoter from which
the complete strand of R)* is detached from it ,is called termination site.
-hen ()* strands unwind, one of the strands becomes template for R)* synthesis.
The ribonucleotides pair with the complementary bases of template strand. .or eample
if se/uence of template strand bases is *01T**110 then the se/uence of
ribonuleotides will be 210*22001.
The ribonucleotides join together by phosphodiester bond (the ribonucleotides join
together to form strand of R)* and template strand of ()* helps in R)* synthesis by
holding the ribonuleotides to join them ).
-hen the process of pairing is finished, R)* brea&s away from the template strand.
R)* polymerase elongates it in 34 to 54 direction until it reaches the termination site, after
that the ()* strands are joined again.
Translation
'n this process R)* forms Protein. The protein is formed on spherical organelles called
ribosomes.
Ribosomes has two subunits each composed of rR)* and protein smaller unit (56s) and
large subunit (36s). The large subunit has three functional sites, P (peptidyl site), *
(amino-acyl site) and third cataly+es formation of peptide bond.
* 1odon is a three-base se/uence in mR)* that causes the insertion of a particular
amino acid into a protein, or termination of translation.
*n anti-codon is is a three-base se/uence in a tR)* molecule base that pairs with a
complementary codon in mR)*.
tR)* with specific anticondon can carry a specific type of amino acid. 7ach amino acid
is matched with correct tR)* by en+ymes called amino-acyl tR)* synthatase. There is a
whole family of these en+ymes, one for each amino acid.
)#- %#2 !*87 2)(7R9T*)( T!7 9TR21T2R79 ')8#:87( )
TR*)9:*T'#) ;2T !#- T!7% -#R<
The translation completes in these steps= initiation,elongation and translocation.
Initiation: The small ribosomal subunit assembles on start codon *20 (portion on
mR)* where translation begins).
Elongation: it also has three steps
(a)odon recognition= tR)* with anticodon 2*1 (complementary to *20)
and carrying the amino acid, binds to the codon.The tR)* is in the P site of large
ribosomal subunit. The * site is available for the "nd tR)* with anticodon,
complementary to the net codon of m R)*.
(b)!eptide bond formation: The amino acid is carried by the "nd tR)* and peptide
bond is formed between it > new amino acid (of net tR)*).
(c)Translocation: The 1st tR)* leaves the P site and "nd tR)* moves to it, still bound
to mR)*. )ow the * site is again available for net tR)*.
This process of polypeptide chain elongation continues until a stop codon (the region of
base triplet of mR)* where the polypeptide chain is complete and released) is reached.
Termination: * release factor binds to the * site. 't carries no amino acid but facilitate
the release of the polypeptide, the ribosome and tR)* from the mR)*.