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Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 1

EVALUATION OF MATERIAL STRENGTH DATA FOR

USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH API 530

January 2011

M. Prager

1

, D.A. Osage

2

1

Materials Property Council, PO Box 1942, New York, NY 10156

2

The Equity Engineering Group, Inc., 20600 Chagrin Blvd., Shaker Heights, OH 44122

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

2 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

ISBN No. 1-58145-548-8

Library of Congress

Catalog Card Number: 85-647116

Copyright 2011 by

Welding Research Council, Inc.

All Rights Reserved

Printed in U. S. A

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 3

FOREWORD

This WRC Bulletin entitled Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 is

one of a series of Welding Research Council (WRC) Bulletins intended to capture in detail the

technical information that supports important and widely used international codes and standards such

as those of ASME and API. WRC and its Materials Properties Council (MPC) and Pressure Vessel

Research Council (PVRC) have for over 50 years played instrumental roles in advancing the

technology needed to assure reliability and safety of pressure vessels and structures.

The data for this project were gathered and analyzed by MPC under API contract. It was logical that

MPC was selected for this study of properties applicable to high-temperature tubular materials

produced by modern steel making practices for petroleum refinery heaters designed to API 530. More

than 50 years ago Dr. George V. Smith acting under the auspices of MPC and its forerunner, the

ASTM-ASME J oint Committee on the Effects of Temperature on the Properties of Materials, collected

and evaluated much of the data that was used by API to support the design curves that would appear

in API 530. The J oint Committee and MPC later pioneered in development of statistically rigorous

computerized techniques for analyzing and extrapolating elevated time-dependent mechanical

property data. The methods developed were applied to optimize Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP)

stress-rupture constants for each material as desired by API for use in API 530. Optimization of the

LMP constant enhances the accuracy of property extrapolation for the purpose of life assessment as

well as design.

The polynomial expressions provided for the LMP parameters and all other mechanical properties in

this Bulletin are intended to support computerized design and life assessment activities. For further

details about tools for life assessment the reader is referred to API/ASME FFS-1. Detailed

presentations of solutions to the examples in this Bulletin facilitate implementation of the methods

used.

The assistance of Mary Buchheim and Tom Dirham of the Equity Engineering Group in carefully

documenting and checking the document is gratefully acknowledged.

Martin Prager

Executive Director

Welding Research Council

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

4 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Yield Strength ................................................................................................................................. 7

3 Ultimate Tensile Strength.............................................................................................................. 7

4 time-independent Allowable Stress ............................................................................................. 8

5 Larson-Miller Parameter ................................................................................................................ 8

6 time-dependent Allowable Stress ................................................................................................ 9

7 Rupture Exponent .......................................................................................................................... 9

8 Applicable ASTM Specifications ................................................................................................ 10

9 Material Physical Properties ....................................................................................................... 10

10 Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................... 10

11 Example Problems ....................................................................................................................... 11

11.1 Problem 1 Calculate the minimum yield and the tensile strength at 400F, for

2.25Cr-1Mo. ..................................................................................................................................... 11

11.2 Problem 2 Determine the elastic design stress for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at 500F. ................. 13

11.3 Problem 3 Develop a plot of stress versus Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP) for

2.25Cr-1Mo. ..................................................................................................................................... 14

11.4 Problem 4 Calculate the service life for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 975F and 10 ksi stress using

the minimum and average Larson-Miller Parameters. ................................................................ 15

11.5 Problem 5 Determine the service life for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 515C and 100 MPa using the

minimum and average Larson-Miller Parameters. ...................................................................... 16

11.6 Problem 6 Determine the Rupture Exponent,

n

, for 2.25 Cr-1Mo as a function of

temperature. .................................................................................................................................... 17

11.7 Problem 7 Develop a plot of stress verse service life for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at

temperatures of 1000F and 1025F based on the minimum Larson-Miller constant. ............ 19

11.8 Problem 8 Determine the allowable design stress for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at 875F for a

design life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties. ..................................................... 21

11.9 Problem 9 Determine the allowable design stress for 304L SS at 1050F for a design

life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties. ................................................................. 25

11.10 Problem 10 Determine the allowable design stress for 347H SS at 1250F for a

design life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties. ..................................................... 27

11.11 Problem 11 Develop a plot of service life as a function of stress and temperature for

2.25Cr-1Mo based on the minimum Larson-Miller Parameter. .................................................. 29

11.12 Problem 12 Develop a plot of rupture strength versus temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo

at a service life of 100,000 hours using both the average and minimum Larson-Miller

parameters. ..................................................................................................................................... 31

12 Tables ............................................................................................................................................ 33

13 Technical Basis ............................................................................................................................ 53

13.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 53

13.2 Low Carbon Steel ................................................................................................................ 54

13.3 Medium Carbon Steel .......................................................................................................... 58

13.4 C-0.5Mo ................................................................................................................................. 62

13.5 1.25Cr-0.5Mo ........................................................................................................................ 66

13.6 2.25Cr-1Mo ........................................................................................................................... 70

13.7 3Cr-1Mo ................................................................................................................................ 74

13.8 5Cr-0.5Mo ............................................................................................................................. 78

13.9 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si ......................................................................................................................... 82

13.10 7Cr-0.5Mo ............................................................................................................................. 86

13.11 9Cr-1Mo ................................................................................................................................ 90

13.12 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V ...................................................................................................................... 94

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 5

13.13 Type 304L Stainless Steel .................................................................................................. 98

13.14 Type 304 & 304H Stainless Steel ..................................................................................... 102

13.15 Type 316L Stainless Steel ................................................................................................ 106

13.16 Type 316 & 316H Stainless Steel ..................................................................................... 110

13.17 Type 317L Stainless Steel ................................................................................................ 114

13.18 Type 321 Stainless Steel ................................................................................................... 119

13.19 Type 321H Stainless Steel ................................................................................................ 123

13.20 Type 347 Stainless Steel ................................................................................................... 127

13.21 Type 347H Stainless Steel ................................................................................................ 131

13.22 Alloy 800 ............................................................................................................................. 135

13.23 Alloy 800H .......................................................................................................................... 139

13.24 Alloy 800HT ........................................................................................................................ 143

13.25 HK-40 .................................................................................................................................. 147

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

6 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

ABSTRACT

Mechanical property data for alloys currently produced and used for petroleum refinery heater

applications have been gathered and analyzed using systematic computerized statistical data fitting

methods. Properties reported for each material are elevated temperature yield and tensile strength,

minimum and average stress-rupture strength and stress-rupture exponent at temperature. Data

gathered were representative of materials produced by modern production methods. The results of

the analyses were presented using polynomial equations for stress and temperature dependence of

the properties. Stress-rupture test results were used to develop Larson-Miller parameter relations

based on optimized constants for each alloy. Parameter plots for each alloy compare the properties

shown in API 530 with those obtained from the current analyses. Materials included are low and

medium carbon steels, carbon- 0.5mo steel, 1 Cr-1/2 Mo steel, 2 Cr-1 Mo, 3Cr-1 Mo steel and 5,

7 and 9 Cr-Mo steels , 9 Cr-1Mo-V steel, 304, 316, 317, 321 and 347 stainless steels (ordinary and H

grades where applicable), alloys 800, 800H and 800HT and HK-40. Examples are provided

demonstrating application of the polynomial equations to common problems such as determining

design life at temperature and design allowable stress.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 7

1 INTRODUCTION

The materials data presented in this publication were obtained from materials produced more recently

than those used in preparing prior editions of API RP530 for the design of fired heater tubes. The

data for this project were gathered by the Materials Properties Council (MPC) under API contract from

test results for materials produced and tested at facilities not in the United States (US). The data

collections for prior editions of API RP 530 were limited to US sources. The new data for each alloy

were evaluated using modern computerized statistical regression methods and the results compared

graphically to the previously published properties. The coefficients for the polynomials resulting from

the regression analysis of the newer materials are presented in tabular form in this document to

facilitate computer implementation for design and life assessment.

The material data required for a design calculation in accordance with RP530/ISO 13704 are yield

strength, ultimate tensile strength, stress-rupture exponent, and minimum and average stress rupture

properties as described using Larson-Miller Parameter equations. This information is used to obtain

the time-independent or elastic allowable stress and the time-dependent or rupture allowable stresses

used in determining the required wall thickness of a fired heater tube or bend for a specified service

life and temperature.

The sections that follow immediately below describe each of the properties presented for each of the

materials. A series of examples in subsequent sections illustrate application of the analytical

equations used to represent the properties. The final sections of this report provide in tabular and

graphical form the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and the minimum and average stress

rupture properties. Comparisons of the properties determined under this project with those in the

prior edition of API RP530/ISO 13704 are shown.

2 YIELD STRENGTH

Equation (1) is used to represent the yield strength as a function of temperature. The coefficients for

use in this equation for each of the materials in API RP530/ISO 13704 are provided in Table 1.

( )

( )

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10 ,

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt o

ys ys

ksi F

+ + + + +

= (1)

The yield strength at temperatures above room temperature may be calculated using this equation by

multiplying the yield strength value at room temperature by a temperature dependent ratio term. If

rt

ys

chosen for this equation is the specified minimum room temperature value of yield strength, then

the resulting value at a higher temperature can be taken as an estimate of the minimum value at that

temperature. If the average room temperature value of yield strength for a data set is used in

Equation(1), then the resulting value at the higher temperature can be taken as the best estimate of

the average value at that temperature. The ratios are deemed to be applicable over the range of

commonly provided and heat treatments and compositions for the respective materials.

3 ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH

Equation (2) is in the same form as Equation (1) and is used to represent the ultimate tensile strength

as a function of temperature. The coefficients also are provided in Table 1.

( )

( )

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10 ,

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt o

uts uts

ksi F

+ + + + +

= (2)

The ultimate tensile strength at temperatures above room temperature may be calculated using this

equation by multiplying the ultimate tensile strength value at room temperature by a temperature

dependent ratio term presented in the parenthesis. If the specified minimum room temperature value

of ultimate tensile strength is used in Equation (2), then the resulting value at temperature is an

estimate of the minimum value at a higher temperature. If the average room temperature value of

ultimate tensile strength of a data set is used in Equation (2), then at a higher temperature one

obtains an estimate of the corresponding average value.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

8 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

4 TIME-INDEPENDENT ALLOWABLE STRESS

As shown in Table 2 and Equation (3), the time-independent or elastic allowable stress for each alloy

is proportional to the yield strength over a specific range of temperatures.

e ed ys

S F = (3)

5 LARSON-MILLER PARAMETER

The Larson Miller Parameter (LMP) provides a relationship between stress, time to failure (taken here

to mean test, service or design life,

d

L ,) and temperature. The basic expression for the Larson-Miller

Parameter is given by Equation (4) and Equation (7).

( ) [ ] ( ) ( )

10

( ) 460 log , ,

o

d

LMP T C L hours ksi F = + + (4)

Equations (5) and (6) are alternate forms of the same equation. In Equation (5) the test time, service

or designlife is shown as a function of applied stress and temperature. In Equation (6), the

temperature is a function of the applied stress and service life.

( )

( )

( )

460

10 , ,

LMP

C

T

o

d

L hours ksi F

+

= (5)

[ ] ( )

( )

10

( )

460 , ,

log

o

d

LMP

T hours ksi F

C L

=

+

(6)

The C coefficient in Equations (4), (5), and (6) is the Larson-Miller Constant. The Larson-Miller

constant has been optimized for each material in this study by statistical regression of the repective

test results using log time as the dependent variable and log stress and the reciprocal of the absolute

temperature as the independent variables. In MPCs software a value of C is obtained for each lot

of material in the data set and then minimum and averages are computed. In Table 3 the somewhat

larger values shown the minimum constant entries are appropriate to represent the variance expected

at a 95% confidence interval.

In this document, the Larson-Miller Parameter for each material is presented as a polynomial in log

10

of stress in the form given by Equation (7). The coefficients of Equation (7) for each material are

provided in Table 3. The Larson-Miller constant, C , applicable to the average and minimum

properties for each material is also shown in Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (7)

The equations for the Larson-Miller Parameter should not be used for temperatures outside the

limiting metal temperature ranges shown for each material in Table 3.

Note that this treatment of the Larson-Miller Parameter is different from that in API RP530/ISO 13704

6th Edition. In that document, non-optimized Larson-Miller Constants are used for broad material

groups, 20 C = for ferrous materials and 15 C = for high alloy and nonferrous (high-nickel)

materials. Here alloy specific, optimized Larson-Miller Parameter constants are provided so that the

equations represent minimum and average behavior more precisely. Also, extrapolation of behavior

with temperature is sensitive to the constant used and the optimized constant should be used .

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 9

6 TIME-DEPENDENT ALLOWABLE STRESS

The time-dependent allowable stress, , may be determined from the Larson-Miller Parameter given

by Equation (7). The solution is given by Equation (8).

10

X

= (8)

The exponent X in Equation (8) is computed exactly as follows based on the values of the

coefficients in Equation (7) as shown below for the cases where first, second and third order

polynomials were obtained for the stress dependence of the LMP..

a) Case 1 First order.

1

A is not equal to zero and

2

A and

3

A are equal to zero:

0

1

A LMP

X

A

= (9)

b) Case 2 second order (quadradic) polynomial.

2

A is not equal to zero,

3

A is equal to zero, and

1

A can be any value including zero:

( )

2

1 1 2 0

2

4

2

A A A A LMP

X

A

+

= (10)

c) Case 3 third order polynomial

3

A is not equal to zero, and

1

A and

2

A can be any values

including zero:

2

3

3

A Q

X S

A S

= (11)

where,

2

2 1

3 3

1

3

9

A A

Q

A A

=

(12)

3

0 2 2 1

2

3 3 3

2 9 27

54

A LMP A A A

A A A

R

+

= (13)

( )

1

3 2 3

R

S R R Q

R

= +

(14)

7 RUPTURE EXPONENT

The rupture exponent can be obtained from the first derivative of log time with respect to stress at any

temperature. For the design calculation procedure in API RP530/ISO 13704 the rupture exponents

were determined between the 60,000-hour and 100,000-hour times for the minimum rupture

strengths determined from the Larson-Miller parameter curves. The following equation was used to

calculate for the rupture exponent, n , at various temperatures.

[ ] [ ]

10

100,000 60,000

log 100,000 log 60,000

log log

n

S S

=

(15)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

10 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

the values of the rupture exponents so obtained were fitted with up to a a fifth order polynomial as

shown in Equation (16). The resulting coefficients are presented in Table 4. It should be noted that

the r

2

value for each fit was always very close to 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

n C C T C T C T C T C T = + + + + + (16)

8 APPLICABLE ASTM SPECIFICATIONS

The applicable ASTM specifications for the generic material types that data are provided for are

shown in Table 5.

9 MATERIAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Physical properties for materials that may be required in heat transfer and stress calculations (i.e.,

modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity) may

be obtained from WRC 503 for the materials covered in this document.

10 NOMENCLATURE

0 5

A A coefficients used to determine the minimum and average Larson-Miller parameter as a

function of stress, as applicable.

C Larson-Miller Constant, average or minimum value as applicable.

avg

C Larson-Miller Constant, average properties.

min

C Larson-Miller Constant, minimum properties.

0 5

C C coefficients used to determine the yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and rupture

exponent as a function of temperature, as applicable.

ed

F elastic allowable stress design factor.

d

L service or design life in hours.

LMP Larson-Miller Parameter.

n rupture exponent.

T Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

60,000

S stress to cause rupture in 60,000 hours.

100,000

S stress to cause rupture in 100,000 hours.

X time-independent allowable stress parameter.

Q time-independent allowable stress parameter.

R time-independent allowable stress parameter.

S time-independent allowable stress parameter.

applied stress in ksi.

ys

yield stress in ksi.

uts

ultimate tensile strength in ksi.

rt

ys

minimum specified yield strength in ksi at room temperature.

rt

uts

minimum specified ultimate tensile strength in ksi at room temperature.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 11

11 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS

11.1 Problem 1 Calculate the minimum yield and the tensile strength at 400F, for 2.25Cr-

1Mo.

a) STEP 1 Obtain he minimum specified yield strength at room temperature from Table 1. Note

that this procedure is applicable to other room temperature strength values.

30

rt

ys

ksi = (17)

b) STEP 2 Determine the minimum yield strength at 400F using Equations (1) and(18).

Equation (18) is also shown in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

ys ys

+ + + + +

= (18)

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 1.

0

2.1540371E-02

-3.2503600E-04

2.2155200E-07

4.1358400E-10

-6.4839900E-13

1.5027000E-16

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(19)

Substituting these values into Equation (18) results in:

26.032

ys

ksi = (20)

or for a value in SI units:

26.032 6.894757 179.5

ys

MPa

ksi MPa

ksi

= =

(21)

c) STEP 3 Determine the minimum specified ultimate tensile strength at room temperature from

Table 1.

60

rt

muts

ksi = (22)

d) STEP 4 Determine the tensile strength at 400F using Equations (2) and (23). Equation (23) is

also shown in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

uts uts

+ + + + +

= (23)

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 1.

0

1.4704266E-02

-1.9874800E-04

-2.9115300E-07

2.0040500E-09

-2.2341400E-12

5.9263200E-16

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(24)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

12 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Substituting these values into Equation (23) results in:

55.451

uts

ksi = (25)

or for a value in SI units:

55.451 6.894757 382.3

uts

MPa

ksi MPa

ksi

= =

(26)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 13

11.2 Problem 2 Determine the elastic design stress for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at 500F.

a) STEP 1 Determine the minimum specified yield strength at room temperature from Table 1.

30

rt

ys

ksi = (27)

b) STEP 2 Determine the yield strength at 500F using Equation (28). This equation is also

shown in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

ys ys

+ + + + +

= (28)changed

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 1.

0

2.1540371E-02

-3.2503600E-04

2.2155200E-07

4.1358400E-10

-6.4839900E-13

1.5027000E-16

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(29)

Substituting these values into Equation (28) results in:

25.551

ys

ksi = (30)

c) STEP 3 Determine the elastic allowable stress factor from Table 2.

2

3

ed

F = (31)

d) STEP 4 Determine the elastic allowable design stress.

2

25.551 17.034

3

e ed ys

S F ksi ksi

= = =

(32)

or in SI units:

6.894757

17.034 117.4

e

MPa

S ksi MPa

ksi

= =

(33)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

14 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

11.3 Problem 3 Develop a plot of stress versus Larson-Miller Parameter (LMP) for 2.25Cr-

1Mo.

a) STEP 1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equations (7) and (34). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3, and can be

used for both average and minimum properties.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (34)

The coefficients,

0

A through

3

A for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

(35)

b) STEP 2 Develop a table of stress versus the Larson-Miller Parameter, see Table 11.3E. Then

plot the Larson-Miller parameter on the x-axis and the stress on the y-axis, see Figure 11.3E.

Table 11.3E Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress

Stress, (ksi) Larson Miller Parameter, LMP (x10

-3

)

1 43.946

5 38.082

10 35.556

15 34.079

20 33.031

25 32.218

30 31.553

35 30.992

40 30.505

Figure 11.3E Stress verse Larson-Miller Parameter

LMP (x10

-3

)

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

1

10

100

2.25Cr-1Mo

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 15

11.4 Problem 4 Calculate the service life for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 975F and 10 ksi stress using the

minimum and average Larson-Miller Parameters.

a) STEP 1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equations (7) and (36). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3, and can be

used for both average and minimum properties.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (36)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

1

2

3

1.9565607 01

4.3946400 04

-8.3900000 03

0.0

0.0

C E

A E

A E

A

A

= +

= +

= +

=

=

(37)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for average properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3. In this case, the parameter C is the only value that

differs between the minimum and average material properties. The Larson-Miller constant, C ,

for average properties is given by Equation (38).

1.8918100E+01 C = (38)

b) STEP 2 The service life,

d

L , can be determined with the information in STEP 1 and Equation

(39), which is shown below.

( )

( )

460

10

LMP

C

T

d

L

+

= (39)

For a temperature and stress of 975F and 10 ksi, the Larson-Miller Parameter and the

associated service life,

d

L , based on minimum properties are:

35556.4 LMP = (40)

16069.3

d

L hours = (41)

For a temperature and stress of 975F and 10 ksi, the service life,

d

L , based on average

properties is:

724234.3

d

L hours = (42)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

16 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

11.5 Problem 5 Determine the service life for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 515C and 100 MPa using the

minimum and average Larson-Miller Parameters.

a) STEP 1 Convert the temperature and stress to US Customary units.

( )

1.8 515 32 959

o o

T F F = + = (43)

1

100 14.504

6.894757

ksi

MPa ksi

MPa

= =

(44)

b) STEP 2 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equations (7) and (45). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (45)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

1.9565607E+01

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(46)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for average properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3. In this case, the parameter C is the only value that

differs between the minimum and average material properties. The Larson-Miller constant for

average properties, C , is given by Equation (38).

1.8918100E+01 C = (47)

c) STEP 3 The service life,

d

L , can be determined with the information in STEP 1 and Equation

(48), which is shown below.

( )

( )

460

10

LMP

C

T

d

L

+

= (48)

For a temperature and stress of 515C (959F) and 100 MPa (14.393 ksi), the Larson-Miller

Parameter and service life,

d

L , based on minimum properties is:

34202 LMP = (49)

34434

d

L hours = (50)

For a temperature and stress of 515C (959F) and 100 MPa (14.393 ksi), the service life,

d

L ,

based on average properties is:

152929

d

L hours = (51)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 17

11.6 Problem 6 Determine the Rupture Exponent,

n

, for 2.25 Cr-1Mo as a function of

temperature.

a) STEP 1 The equation for the Rupture Exponent, n as a function of temperature, T , is given

by Equations (16) and (52). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 4.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

n C C T C T C T C T C T = + + + + + (52)

b) STEP 2 The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 4.

0

1.6116223E+01

-2.2988479E-02

2.1835770E-05

-1.2833734E-08

4.2012778E-12

-5.8449546E-16

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(53)

c) STEP 3 Develop a table of the Rupture Exponent, n , verse temperature, T , using Equations

(52) and (53), see Table 11.6E. Then plot the temperature on the x-axis and the rupture

exponent on the y-axis, see Figure 11.6E.

Table 11.6E Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature

Temperature, T (

o

F )

Rupture Exponent, n

800 6.659

850 6.405

900 6.169

950 5.950

1000 5.747

1050 5.556

1100 5.378

1150 5.211

1200 5.054

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WRC Bulletin 541

18 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 11.6E Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature

Temperature (

o

F)

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

u

p

t

u

r

e

E

x

p

o

n

e

n

e

t

,

n

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

2.25Cr-1Mo

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WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 19

11.7 Problem 7 Develop a plot of stress verse service life for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at temperatures

of 1000F and 1025F based on the minimum Larson-Miller constant.

a) STEP 1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress, is given by

Equations (7) and (54). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (54)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

1.9565607E+01

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(55)

b) STEP 2 The service life,

d

L , can be determined with the information in STEP 1 and Equation

(56).

( )

( )

460

10

LMP

C

T

d

L

+

= (56)

Using Equations (54), (55), and (56), the Larson-Miller parameter and service life,

d

L , can be

computed as a function of stress. Data points for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 1000F and 1025F, based on

the minimum Larson-Miller parameter are shown in Table 11.7E. These data are subsequently

used to create the plot shown in Figure 11.7E.

Table 11.7E Sample of Tabulated Values Used to Plot Figure 9.7E

Stress, ( ksi ) LMP

Design Life,

d

L ( hours )

1000

o

F 1025

o

F

2 4.142E+04 6.3793E+08 2.1240E+08

4 3.890E+04 1.1882E+07 4.2305E+06

6 3.742E+04 1.1560E+06 4.2806E+05

8 3.637E+04 2.2131E+05 8.4260E+04

10 3.556E+04 6.1389E+04 2.3883E+04

12 3.489E+04 2.1531E+04 8.5258E+03

14 3.433E+04 8.8788E+03 3.5686E+03

16 3.384E+04 4.1219E+03 1.6782E+03

18 3.341E+04 2.0948E+03 8.6268E+02

20 3.303E+04 1.1434E+03 4.7569E+02

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

20 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 11.7E Rupture Stress as a Function of Temperature, Using the Minimum LMP

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 21

11.8 Problem 8 Determine the allowable design stress for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at 875F for a design

life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties.

a) STEP 1 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent or elastic properties.

1) STEP 1.1 Determine the minimum specified yield strength at room temperature from

Table 1.

30

rt

ys

ksi = (57)

2) STEP 1.2 Determine the yield strength at 875F using Equations(1) and (58). This

equation also appears in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

ys ys

+ + + + +

= (58)

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 1.

0

2.1540371E-02

-3.2503600E-04

2.2155200E-07

4.1358400E-10

-6.4839900E-13

1.5027000E-16

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(59)

Substituting these values in Equation (58) results in:

22.8005

ys

ksi = (60)

3) STEP 1.3 Determine the elastic design factor from Table 2.

2

3

ed

F =

4) STEP 1.4 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent properties using

Equation (3), the elastic design stress.

2

22.8005 15.2

3

e ed ys

S F ksi ksi

= = =

(61)

b) STEP 2 Determine the allowable stress based on time-dependent properties.

1) STEP 2.1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equation (7) and (62). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (62)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for 2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

22 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

0

1.9565607E+01

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(63)

2) STEP 2.2 The larson-Miller parameter may be computed using Equation (4).

( ) [ ] ( )

10

( ) 460 log

d

LMP T C L = + + (64)

or,

( ) [ ] ( )

10

875 460 19.565607 log 100,000 32795 LMP = + + = (65)

Using Equations (8) and (9), Case 1 in paragraph 6, from the procedure outlined in

paragraph 6.0 we have

( )

0

1

4.39464 4 32795

1.32912

8.39 3

E A LMP

X

A E

= = =

(66)

( ) 1.32912

10 21.34

t

S ksi

= = = (67)

Equation (62) can be solved iteratively for the design stress, , which is the independent

variable in the Larson-Miller Parameter given by Equation (62), or by using a graphical

solution by constructing a plot of stress versus the Larson-Miller Parameter.

Data points for 2.25Cr-1Mo at 875F based on the minimum Larson-Miller parameter are

shown in Table 11.8E. These data are subsequently used to create the plot shown in

Figure 11.8E. The stress corresponding to the Larson-Miller parameter given by (65) is:

21.34

t

S ksi = (68)

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WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 23

Table 11.8E Sample of Tabulated Values Used to Plot Figure 11.8E

LMP Stress, ( ksi )

32853 21.00

32844 21.05

32836 21.10

32827 21.15

32818 21.20

32810 21.25

32801 21.30

32795 21.336

32793 21.35

32784 21.40

32776 21.45

32767 21.50

32759 21.55

32750 21.60

32742 21.65

32734 21.70

32725 21.75

32717 21.80

32708 21.85

32700 21.90

32692 21.95

32683 22.00

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

24 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 11.8E Graphical Solution to Problem 8

c) STEP 3 The allowable design stress is determined by taking the minimum value of the time

dependent and time independent stress values obtained from STEPS 1 and 2, respectively.

[ ] [ ] min , min 15.2 , 21.34 15.2

e t

S S S ksi ksi ksi = = = (69)

LMP

30000 32000 34000 36000 38000 40000 42000 44000

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

1

10

100

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 25

11.9 Problem 9 Determine the allowable design stress for 304L SS at 1050F for a design

life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties.

a) STEP 1 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent or elastic properties.

1) STEP 1.1 Determine the minimum specified yield strength at room temperature from

Table 1.

25

rt

ys

ksi = (70)

2) STEP 1.2 Determine the yield strength at 1050F using Equations(1) and (58). This

equation also appears in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

ys ys

+ + + + +

= (71)

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 304L SS are determined from Table 1.

0

4.5888791E-02

-6.9508400E-04

5.7950900E-07

-2.1178000E-10

6.5466400E-15

-1.2730800E-17

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(72)

Substituting these values in Equation (58) results in:

12.5732

ys

ksi = (73)

3) STEP 1.3 Determine the elastic design factor from Table 2.

0.9

ed

F =

4) STEP 1.4 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent properties using

Equation (3), the elastic design stress.

( ) 0.9 12.5732 11.32

e ed ys

S F ksi ksi = = = (74)

b) STEP 2 Determine the allowable stress based on time-dependent properties.

1) STEP 2.1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equation (7) and (62). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (75)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for 304L SS are determined from Table 3.

0

1.8287902E+01

4.6172960E+04

-8.4187000E+03

-1.4620000E+03

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(76)

2) STEP 2.2 The larson-Miller parameter may be computed using Equation (4).

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

26 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

( ) [ ] ( )

10

( ) 460 log

d

LMP T C L = + + (77)

or,

( ) [ ] ( )

10

1050 460 18.288 log 100,000 35165 LMP = + + = (78)

Using Equations (8) and (10), Case 2 in paragraph 6, from the procedure outlined in

paragraph 6.0 we have

2

-8.42E3 (-8.42E3) 4(-1.462E3)(46170 35165)

1.09791

2(-1.462E3)

X

+

= = (79)

( ) 1.09791

10 12.529

t

S ksi

= = = (80)

c) STEP 3 The allowable design stress is determined by taking the minimum value of the time

dependent and time independent stress values obtained from STEPS 1 and 2, respectively.

[ ] [ ] min , min 11.32 , 12.53 11.32

e t

S S S ksi ksi ksi = = = (81)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 27

11.10 Problem 10 Determine the allowable design stress for 347H SS at 1250F for a design

life of 100,000 hours based on minimum properties.

a) STEP 1 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent or elastic properties.

1) STEP 1.1 Determine the minimum specified yield strength at room temperature from

Table 1.

30

rt

ys

ksi = (82)

2) STEP 1.2 Determine the yield strength at 1250F using Equations(1) and (58). This

equation also appears in the notes section of Table 1.

2 3 4 5

0 1 2 3 4 5

10

C C T C T C T C T C T

rt

ys ys

+ + + + +

= (83)

The coefficients,

0

C through

5

C for 347H SS are determined from Table 1.

0

4.9734437E-02

-8.6863733E-04

2.5602354E-06

-4.5554196E-09

3.7224192E-12

-1.0967259E-15

1

2

3

4

5

C

C

C

C

C

C

=

=

=

=

=

=

(84)

Substituting these values in Equation (58) results in:

19.3

ys

ksi = (85)

3) STEP 1.3 Determine the elastic design factor from Table 2.

0.9

ed

F =

4) STEP 1.4 Determine the allowable stress based on time-independent properties using

Equation (3), the elastic design stress.

0.9 19.3 17.4

e ed ys

S F ksi ksi = = = (86)

b) STEP 2 Determine the allowable stress based on time-dependent properties.

1) STEP 2.1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equation (7) and (62). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (87)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for 347H SS are determined from Table 3.

0

1.417E+01

3.9536020E+04

-1.2225330E+04

6.7502400E+03

-2.8722460E+03

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(88)

2) STEP 2.2 The Larson-Miller parameter may be computed using Equation (4).

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

28 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

( ) [ ] ( )

10

( ) 460 log

d

LMP T C L = + + (89)

or,

( ) [ ] ( )

10

1250 460 14.17 log 100,000 32781 LMP = + + =

(90)

Using Equations (8) and (11), Case 3 in paragraph 6, through (14) from the procedure

outlined in paragraph 6.0 we have

2

2 1

3 3

2

3 4

3 3

1

3

9

1 6.75 10 -1.223 10

3 -0.8051

9 -2.87 10 -2.872 10

A A

Q

A A

Q

=

= =

(91)

( )

3

0 2 2 1

2

3 3 3

3

3 3 4

3 3 2

4

3

2 9 27

54

6.75 10 6.75 10 -1.22 10

2 9

-2.87 10 (-2.87 10 )

3.95 10 - 32781

27

-2.872 10

0.010465

54

A LMP A A A

A A A

R

R

+

=

+

= =

(92)

( )

( )

( )

1

3 2 3

1

3 2

3

0.010465

0.010465 0.010465 ( 0.8051) -0.90162

0.010465

R

S R R Q

R

S

= +

= + =

(93)

2

3

3

3

3

6.750 10 0.8051

(-0.90162) -0.77472

3 (-2.872 10 ) -0.90162

A Q

X S

A S

X

=

= =

(94)

( ) -0.77472

10 5.953

t

S ksi

= = =

(95)

c) STEP 3 The allowable design stress is determined by taking the minimum value of the time

dependent and time independent stress values obtained from STEPS 1 and 2, respectively.

[ ] [ ] min , min 17.3 , 5.95 5.95

e t

S S S ksi ksi ksi = = =

(96)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 29

11.11 Problem 11 Develop a plot of service life as a function of stress and temperature for

2.25Cr-1Mo based on the minimum Larson-Miller Parameter.

a) STEP 1 The relation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equations (7) and (97). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (97)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

1.9565607E+01

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(98)

An equation that provides the service life as a function of stress and temperature can be

obtained by combining Equation (5) and Equation (97).

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

log log log

460

10

A A A A

C

T

d

L

+ + +

+

= (99)

b) STEP 2 Develop a table of the service life,

d

L , for 20,000, 40,000, 60,000, and 100,000 hours

versus stress using Equation (99), see Table 11.9E. A plot of the service lives versus stress is

shown in Figure 11.9E.

Table 11.11E ServiceTemperatures for indicated Service Lives

Stress, ( ksi )

Service life , hours

20,000 40,000 60,000 100,000

5 1136 1116 1104 1090

10 1030 1011 1001 987

15 968 950 940 927

20 924 907 897 885

25 890 873 863 851

30 862 846 836 824

35 839 822 813 802

40 818 802 793 782

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

30 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 11.1E Service Life as a Function of Stress and Temperature

Temperature (

o

F)

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

1

10

100

20,000 Hours

40,000 Hours

60,000 Hours

100,000 Hours

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 31

11.12 Problem 12 Develop a plot of rupture strength versus temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo at a

service life of 100,000 hours using both the average and minimum Larson-Miller

parameters.

a) STEP 1 The equation for the Larson-Miller Parameter as a function of stress is given by

Equations (7) and (100). This equation is also shown in the notes section of Table 3, and can be

used for both average and minimum properties.

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 2 3

log log log LMP A A A A = + + + (100)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for minimum properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3.

0

1.9565607E+01

4.3946400E+04

-8.3900000E+03

0.0

0.0

1

2

3

C

A

A

A

A

=

=

=

=

=

(101)

The Larson-Miller constant, C , for average properties, and the coefficients

0

A through

3

A for

2.25Cr-1Mo are determined from Table 3. However, C is the only value that is unique between

minimum and average parameters. The Larson-Miller constant for average properties, C , is

given by Equation (102).

1.8918100E+01 C = (102)

An equation that provides the temperature as a function of stress and design life can be obtained

by combining Equation (6) and Equation (100).

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

[ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

10

log log log

( , ) 460

log

d

d

A A A A

T L

C L

+ + +

=

+

(103)

For 100,000 hours, Equation (104) becomes:

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

[ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

10

log log log

( , ) 460

log 100,000

d

A A A A

T L

C

+ + +

=

+

(104)

b) STEP 2 Develop a table of temperature versus stress based on the minimum and average

properties using Equation (104), see Table 11.12E. The data in this table are plotted in Figure

11.12E. In Table 11.12E, the temperatures in the column labeled Minimum Properties are

determined using Equation (104) with the Larson-Miller constant for minimum properties in

Equation (104), and the temperatures in the column labeled Average Properties are determined

using the Larson-Miller constant for average properties, or from Eqaution (104):

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

[ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

10

log log log

( , ) 460

log 100,000

d minimum

properties

min

A A A A

T L

C

+ + +

=

+

(105)

[ ] [ ] ( ) [ ] ( )

[ ] ( )

2 3

0 1 10 2 10 3 10

10

log log log

( , ) 460

log 100,000

d average

properties

avg

A A A A

T L

C

+ + +

=

+

(106)

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

32 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 11.12E Rupture Stress vs. Temperature for a Service Life of 100,000 Hours

Stress, ( ksi )

Temperature, T

( )

o

F

Minimum Properties Average Properties

5 1090 1132

10 987 1027

15 927 965

20 885 921

25 851 887

30 824 859

35 802 836

40 782 815

Figure 11.12E Rupture Stress vs. Temperature for a Service Life of 100,000 Hours

Temperature (

o

F)

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

S

t

r

e

s

s

(

k

s

i

)

1

10

100

Average LMP

Minimum LMP

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

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Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 33

12 TABLES

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

Low Carbon Steel

rt

26 47

0

C

1.4088389E-02 1.0807518E-01

1

C -1.9932341E-04 -2.3290664E-03

2

C -2.0694516E-08 1.2941407E-05

3

C -1.0013720E-10 -2.6166794E-08

4

C 0 2.2225699E-11

5

C 0 -7.0569264E-15

Medium Carbon Steel

rt

35 60

0

C

1.4088389E-02 1.0807518E-01

1

C

-1.9932341E-04 -2.3290664E-03

2

C

-2.0694516E-08 1.2941407E-05

3

C

-1.0013720E-10 -2.6166794E-08

4

C

0 2.2225699E-11

5

C

0 -7.0569264E-15

C-0.5Mo

rt

30 52

0

C

1.3089229E-02 1.1433749E-01

1

C

-1.9903245E-04 -2.4719083E-03

2

C

1.8433603E-07 1.3823832E-05

3

C

-1.7552202E-10 -2.7995759E-08

4

C

0 2.3927060E-11

5

C

0 -7.5170846E-15

1.25Cr-0.5Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

2.1540371E-02 1.4704266E-02

1

C

-3.2503600E-04 -1.9874800E-04

2

C

2.2155200E-07 -2.9115300E-07

3

C

4.1358400E-10 2.0040500E-09

4

C

-6.4839900E-13 -2.2341400E-12

5

C

1.5027000E-16 5.9263200E-16

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

34 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

2.25Cr-1Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

2.1540371E-02 1.4704266E-02

1

C

-3.2503600E-04 -1.9874800E-04

2

C

2.2155200E-07 -2.9115300E-07

3

C

4.1358400E-10 2.0040500E-09

4

C

-6.4839900E-13 -2.2341400E-12

5

C

1.5027000E-16 5.9263200E-16

3Cr-1Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

4.4186141E-02 4.3741544E-02

1

C

-7.1542041E-04 -7.3028160E-04

2

C

1.2664132E-06 1.6372698E-06

3

C

-9.3458131E-10 -1.9656642E-09

4

C

3.6214293E-13 1.2727055E-12

5

C

-1.6088326E-16 -4.6917217E-16

5Cr-0.5Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

1.2855425E-02 -1.5076613E-03

1

C

-1.9373113E-04 1.6602155E-04

2

C

1.2449247E-07 -2.4425324E-06

3

C

3.0404621E-10 5.7486446E-09

4

C

-3.5555955E-13 -4.9777060E-12

5

C

-5.7953915E-18 1.3635365E-15

5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

rt

30 60

0

C

1.2855425E-02 -1.5076613E-03

1

C

-1.9373113E-04 1.6602155E-04

2

C

1.2449247E-07 -2.4425324E-06

3

C

3.0404621E-10 5.7486446E-09

4

C

-3.5555955E-13 -4.9777060E-12

5

C

-5.7953915E-18 1.3635365E-15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 35

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

7Cr-0.5Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

1.3532100E-01 9.9054977E-03

1

C

-2.5870657E-03 -1.7559652E-04

2

C

1.0664886E-05 5.5881927E-07

3

C

-2.0092622E-08 -1.0648485E-09

4

C

1.7366385E-11 5.6685649E-13

5

C

-5.6740415E-15 -1.9197713E-16

9Cr-1Mo

rt

30 60

0

C

1.3571242E-02 2.1597188E-02

1

C

-1.7082315E-04 -3.1031668E-04

2

C

-4.3400952E-07 -6.1394577E-08

3

C

1.6036654E-09 1.3545273E-09

4

C

-1.5678560E-12 -1.6448546E-12

5

C

3.6386453E-16 4.1818392E-16

9Cr-1Mo-V

rt

60 85

0

C

3.3650472E-02 1.8096292E-02

1

C

-5.5446746E-04 -2.5065398E-04

2

C

1.0944031E-06 -1.9394875E-07

3

C

-5.7019722E-10 1.2610086E-09

4

C

-1.9770030E-13 -1.3855450E-12

5

C

0 3.4264520E-16

Type 304L SS

rt

25 70

0

C

4.5888791E-02 7.7361661E-02

1

C

-6.9508400E-04 -1.2718700E-03

2

C

5.7950900E-07 2.4999900E-06

3

C

-2.1178000E-10 -1.7023100E-09

4

C

6.5466400E-15 1.2739600E-13

5

C

-1.2730800E-17 7.2563700E-17

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

36 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

Type 304/304H SS

rt

30 75

0

C

9.8188514E-03 6.7196226E-02

1

C

-5.0551619E-05 -1.1080527E-03

2

C

-1.4866719E-06 2.2413756E-06

3

C

3.0912775E-09 -1.8350694E-09

4

C

-2.3688742E-12 5.9804933E-13

5

C

6.0840262E-16 -1.2196459E-16

Type 316L SS

rt

25 70

0

C

4.947300E-02 2.825000E-02

1

C

-7.820685E-04 -3.814120E-04

2

C

9.205307E-07 -1.664940E-07

3

C

-9.753774E-10 1.406040E-09

4

C

7.836576E-13 -1.341640E-12

5

C

-2.709835E-16 3.241850E-16

Type 316/316H SS

rt

30 75

0

C

1.2001323E-02 3.2859229E-02

1

C

-8.8000344E-05 -5.1714106E-04

2

C

-1.5040192E-06 4.6118780E-07

3

C

3.1425000E-09 6.1438157E-10

4

C

-2.4201238E-12 -9.2054227E-13

5

C

6.4067530E-16 2.2901104E-16

Type 317L SS

rt

25 70

0

C

4.947300E-02 2.825000E-02

1

C

-7.820685E-04 -3.814120E-04

2

C

9.205307E-07 -1.664940E-07

3

C

-9.753774E-10 1.406040E-09

4

C

7.836576E-13 -1.341640E-12

5

C

-2.709835E-16 3.241850E-16

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 37

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

Type 321 SS

rt

30 75

0

C

6.863218E-02 6.278852E-02

1

C

-1.184702E-03 -1.080116E-03

2

C

3.244156E-06 2.863153E-06

3

C

-4.905795E-09 -3.697114E-09

4

C

3.536365E-12 2.478506E-12

5

C

-9.654898E-16 -7.256524E-16

Type 321H SS

rt

25 70

0

C

1.0112716E-02 5.1423451E-02

1

C

-1.4446737E-04 -8.3118863E-04

2

C

0 1.4451218E-06

3

C

0 -9.5441766E-10

4

C

0 2.5659891E-13

5

C

0 -8.2941763E-17

Type 347 SS

rt

30 75

0

C

4.9734437E-02 6.9844688E-02

1

C

-8.6863733E-04 -1.2173646E-03

2

C

2.5602354E-06 3.4825694E-06

3

C

-4.5554196E-09 -5.2044883E-09

4

C

3.7224192E-12 3.8869832E-12

5

C

-1.0967259E-15 -1.1567466E-15

Type 347H SS

rt

30 75

0

C

4.9734437E-02 6.9844688E-02

1

C

-8.6863733E-04 -1.2173646E-03

2

C

2.5602354E-06 3.4825694E-06

3

C

-4.5554196E-09 -5.2044883E-09

4

C

3.7224192E-12 3.8869832E-12

5

C

-1.0967259E-15 -1.1567466E-15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

38 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

Alloy 800

rt

30 75

0

C

3.4030711E-02 3.4512216E-02

1

C

-5.9044935E-04 -6.1931709E-04

2

C

1.6819983E-06 2.0239806E-06

3

C

-2.9084079E-09 -3.3262726E-09

4

C

2.4078033E-12 2.7021246E-12

5

C

-7.5887806E-16 -8.8727065E-16

Alloy 800H

rt

25 65

0

C

9.1352894E-03 8.4274949E-04

1

C

-6.7153045E-05 8.2765885E-05

2

C

-1.0330418E-06 -1.5893549E-06

3

C

1.9114308E-09 3.5471048E-09

4

C

-1.1936454E-12 -2.7606359E-12

5

C

2.1862178E-16 6.5642052E-16

Alloy 800HT

rt

25 65

0

C

3.4727533E-02 9.1734120E-03

1

C

-5.3949644E-04 -4.3023314E-05

2

C

6.3686186E-07 -1.5560083E-06

3

C

-2.3816323E-10 4.5571519E-09

4

C

-7.1132721E-14 -4.2665496E-12

5

C

-4.2576695E-18 1.1882810E-15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 39

Table 1 Minimum Yield and Tensile Strength as a Function Of Temperature (F)

Material Parameter Yield Strength (ksi) Tensile Strength (ksi)

HK-40

rt

35 62

0

C

4.3689351E-03 4.7208139E-03

1

C

4.5144996E-05 -1.3979452E-07

2

C

-1.7279747E-06 -1.1239086E-06

3

C

2.8459599E-09 2.4482148E-09

4

C

-1.6093404E-12 -1.8461449E-12

5

C

2.7808712E-16 4.2367166E-16

Notes:

1. In the parameter column, the term

rt

is used to represent the room temperature value of the

yield strength,

rt

ys

, and the room temperature value of the ultimate tensile strength,

rt

uts

.

2. The yield strength as a function of temperature is computed using Equation (1).

3. The tensile strength as a function of temperature is computed using Equation (2).

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

40 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 2 Elastic Allowable Stress Factor and Applicable Temperature Range

Material

Elastic Allowable

Stress Design Factor

ed

F

Applicable Temperature Range (F)

Minimum Maximum

Low Carbon Steel 2/3 70 1000

Medium Carbon Steel 2/3 70 1000

C-0.5Mo 2/3 70 1050

1.25Cr-0.5Mo 2/3 70 1200

2.25Cr-1Mo 2/3 70 1200

3Cr-1Mo 2/3 70 1200

5Cr-0.5Mo 2/3 70 1200

5Cr-0.5Mo-Si 2/3 70 1200

7Cr-0.5Mo 2/3 70 1200

9Cr-1Mo 2/3 70 1300

9Cr-1Mo-V 2/3 70 1300

Type 304L SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 304/304H SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 316L SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 316/316H SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 317L SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 321 SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 321H SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 347 SS 0.9 70 1500

Type 347H SS 0.9 70 1500

Alloy 800 0.9 70 1500

Alloy 800H 0.9 70 1650

Alloy 800HT 0.9 70 1850

HK-40 0.9 70 1850

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 41

Table 3 Minimum and Average Larson-Miller Parameters as a Function of Stress

Material Parameter

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs. Stress:

Minimum Properties

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs.

Stress: Average

Properties

Low Carbon Steel

Temperature Range (F)

700-1000

C

1.8150000E+01 1.7700000E+01

0

A 3.5093240E+04

1

A -3.6037901E+03

2

A -1.9136590E+03

3

A -250

Medium Carbon

Steel

Temperature Range (F)

700-1000

C

1.5600000E+01 1.5150000E+01

0

A 3.2068370E+04

1

A -3.3755550E+03

2

A -1.5933910E+03

3

A -3.0000000E+02

C-0.5 Mo

Temperature Range (F)

700-1050

C

1.9007756E+01 1.8725370E+01

0

A 3.8792100E+04

1

A -4.9502240E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

1.25Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

C

22.054 21.558

0

A 4.6354380E+04

1

A -6.9466030E+03

2

A -3.4367510E+02

3

A 0

2.25Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

C

1.9565607E+01 1.8918100E+01

0

A 4.3946400E+04

1

A -8.3900000E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

42 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 3 Minimum and Average Larson-Miller Parameters as a Function of Stress

Material Parameter

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs. Stress:

Minimum Properties

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs.

Stress: Average

Properties

3Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1200

C

1.5785226E+01 1.5381060E+01

0

A 3.7264510E+04

1

A -7.9439300E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

5Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1200

C

1.6025829E+01 1.5589280E+01

0

A 3.7264510E+04

1

A -7.9439300E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

Temperature Range (F)

900-1200

C

1.6025829E+01 1.5589280E+01

0

A 3.7264510E+04

1

A -7.9439300E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

7Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1200

C

2.0437460E+01 1.9620550E+01

0

A 4.5219510E+04

1

A -1.0217000E+04

2

A 5.2679960E+00

3

A -6.3855690E+00

9Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1300

C

2.6223587E+01 2.5859090E+01

0

A 5.4758000E+04

1

A -6.1891000E+03

2

A -1.7309000E+03

3

A -6.7715000E+02

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 43

Table 3 Minimum and Average Larson-Miller Parameters as a Function of Stress

Material Parameter

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs. Stress:

Minimum Properties

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs.

Stress: Average

Properties

9Cr-1Mo-V

Temperature Range (F)

900-1300

C

3.0886006E+01 3.0364230E+01

0

A 6.3450000E+04

1

A -1.3800000E+03

2

A -5.1395320E+03

3

A 0

Type 304L SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.8287902E+01 1.7550000E+01

0

A 4.6172960E+04

1

A -8.4187000E+03

2

A -1.4620000E+03

3

A 0

Type 304/304H SS

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1500

C

1.6145903E+01 1.5521950E+01

0

A 4.3539460E+04

1

A -9.7318000E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

Type 316L SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.5740107E+01 1.5200000E+01

0

A 4.1483380E+04

1

A -6.0606000E+03

2

A -1.7620000E+03

3

A 0

Type 316/316H SS

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1500

C

1.6764145E+01 1.6309870E+01

0

A 4.4933830E+04

1

A -9.4286740E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

44 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 3 Minimum and Average Larson-Miller Parameters as a Function of Stress

Material Parameter

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs. Stress:

Minimum Properties

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs.

Stress: Average

Properties

Type 317L SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.5740107E+01 1.5200000E+01

0

A 4.1483380E+04

1

A -6.0606000E+03

2

A -1.7620000E+03

3

A 0

Type 321 SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.332500E+01 1.280000E+01

0

A 3.571361E+04

1

A -5.655000E+03

2

A -7.640000E+02

3

A 0

Type 321H SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.5293986E+01 1.4759580E+01

0

A 4.0541580E+04

1

A -6.5212870E+03

2

A -9.7543650E+02

3

A 0

Type 347 SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.4889042E+01 1.4250000E+01

0

A 3.7960000E+04

1

A -7.1172160E+03

2

A 3.1133520E+03

3

A -2.3000000E+03

Type 347H SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

14.17 13.65

0

A 3.9536020E+04

1

A -1.2225330E+04

2

A 6.7502400E+03

3

A -2.8722460E+03

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 45

Table 3 Minimum and Average Larson-Miller Parameters as a Function of Stress

Material Parameter

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs. Stress:

Minimum Properties

Larson-Miller

Constant and

Parameter vs.

Stress: Average

Properties

Alloy 800

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

C

1.7005384E+01 1.6508780E+01

0

A 4.3171030E+04

1

A -8.1470000E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

Alloy 800H

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1650

C

1.6564046E+01 1.6042270E+01

0

A 4.5864990E+04

1

A -9.2709340E+03

2

A -1.9293220E+03

3

A 7.0913170E+02

Alloy 800HT

Temperature Range (F)

900-1850

C

1.3606722E+01 1.3234100E+01

0

A 4.0112700E+04

1

A -9.0816690E+03

2

A 0

3

A 0

HK-40

Temperature Range (F)

1400-1850

C

1.0856489E+01 1.0489900E+01

0

A 3.4132000E+04

1

A -7.7078820E+03

2

A -9.4500000E+02

3

A 0

Note: The average and minimum Larson-Miller Parameter is computed using Equation (7) with the

appropriate coefficients from this table.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

46 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

Low Carbon Steel

Temperature Range (F)

700-1000

0

C

2.3405940E+01

1

C -2.4087544E-02

2

C 4.4283728E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Medium Carbon Steel

Temperature Range (F) 700-1000

0

C 2.9832967E+01

1

C -4.8908169E-02

2

C 3.3126428E-05

3

C -1.0132081E-08

4

C 0

5

C 0

C-0.5 Mo

Temperature Range (F)

700-1050

0

C

8.98300

1

C -1.1316171E-02

2

C 9.0861459E-06

3

C -4.3999472E-09

4

C 1.1678546E-12

5

C -1.3028530E-16

1.25Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

0

C

1.7939223E+01

1

C -2.6358008E-02

2

C 2.2487501E-05

3

C -1.1762993E-08

4

C 3.3765405E-12

5

C -4.1070388E-16

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 47

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

2.25Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

0

C

1.6116223E+01

1

C -2.2988479E-02

2

C 2.1835770E-05

3

C -1.2833734E-08

4

C 4.2012778E-12

5

C -5.8449546E-16

3Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

0

C

1.1607134E+01

1

C -8.5353735E-03

2

C 2.3722609E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

5Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

0

C

1.1770651E+01

1

C -8.8389784E-03

2

C 2.5108933E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

Temperature Range (F)

800-1200

0

C

1.1770651E+01

1

C -8.8389784E-03

2

C 2.5108933E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

48 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

7Cr-0.5Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1200

0

C

1.4536269E+01

1

C -1.0232458E-02

2

C 2.7034326E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

9Cr-1Mo

Temperature Range (F)

900-1300

0

C

4.04893689E+01

1

C -4.58475585E-02

2

C 1.52674903E-05

3

C -1.35165711E-09

4

C 0

5

C 0

9Cr-1Mo-V

Temperature Range (F)

900-1300

0

C

3.1524887E+03

1

C -1.4781109E+01

2

C 2.7852967E-02

3

C -2.6205892E-05

4

C 1.2291955E-08

5

C -2.2995921E-12

Type 304LS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

3.8310366E+01

1

C - 7.6035759E-02

2

C 8.5397605E-05

3

C - 5.5768707E-08

4

C 1.9173301E-11

5

C -2.7104077E-15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 49

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

Type 304/304H SS

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1500

0

C

1.3035950E+01

1

C -8.3130608E-03

2

C 1.9505879E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Type 316L SS

Temperature Range

900-1500

0

C

3.1313017E+01

1

C -5.3186547E-02

2

C 5.3079687E-05

3

C -3.3897226E-08

4

C 1.2195544E-11

5

C -1.9272376E-15

Type 316/316H SS

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1500

0

C

1.2629907E+01

1

C -8.0541256E-03

2

C 1.8898310E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Type 317L SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

3.1313017E+01

1

C -5.3186547E-02

2

C 5.3079687E-05

3

C -3.3897226E-08

4

C 1.2195544E-11

5

C -1.9272376E-15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

50 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

Type 321 SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

1.645017E+01

1

C - 1.766063E-02

2

C 8.225988E-06

3

C -1.612134E-09

4

C 0

5

C 0

Type 321H SS

Temperature Range (F)

1000-1500

0

C

1.5128673E+01

1

C -1.0738718E-02

2

C 2.0390552E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Type 347 SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

1.105274E+01

1

C 4.019553E-02

2

C -6.916989E-05

3

C 2.599652E-08

4

C 0

5

C 0

Type 347H SS

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

2.6091589E+02

1

C - 1.0769332E+00

2

C 1.9246050E-03

3

C - 1.7559313E-06

4

C 7.9665773E-10

5

C -1.4196157E-13

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 51

Table 4 Rupture Exponents as a Function of Temperature

Material Parameter Rupture Exponent n

Alloy 800

Temperature Range (F)

900-1500

0

C

1.4784080E+01

1

C -1.8623974E-02

2

C 1.4953835E-05

3

C -7.2413632E-09

4

C 1.9220365E-12

5

C -2.1442147E-16

Alloy 800H

Temperature Range (F)

1100-1650

0

C

6.9797821E+00

1

C 2.5834678E-03

2

C -2.4115193E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Alloy 800HT

Temperature Range (F)

900-1850

0

C

1.5182940E+01

1

C

-1.5959900E-02

2

C

9.6990330E-06

3

C

-3.1060390E-09

4

C

4.0509520E-13

5

C 0

HK-40

Temperature Range (F)

1400-1850

0

C

1.4332073E+01

1

C -9.2105347E-03

2

C 1.7274314E-06

3

C 0

4

C 0

5

C 0

Note: The average and minimum Larson-Miller Parameter is computed using Equation (16) with

the appropriate coefficients from this table.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

52 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Table 5 Material Designation and Applicable ASTM Specifications

Material Applicable ASTM Specifications

Low Carbon Steel A161, A192

Medium Carbon Steel A53 Grade B (seamless), A106 Grade B, A210 Grade A-1

C-0.5Mo A161 T1, A209 T1 A335 P1

1.25Cr-0.5Mo A213 T11, A335 P11, A200 T11

2.25Cr-1Mo A213 T22, A335 P22, A200 T22

3Cr-1Mo A213 T21, A335 P21, A200 T21

5Cr-0.5Mo A213 T5, A335 P5, A200 T5

5Cr-0.5Mo-Si A213 T5b, A335 P5b

7Cr-0.5Mo A213 T7, A335 P7, A200 T7

9Cr-1Mo A213 T9, A335 P9, A200 T9

9Cr-1Mo-V A213 T91, A335 P91, A200 T91

Type 304L SS

A213 Type 304L, A271 Type 304L, A312 Type 304L, A 376 Type

304L

Type 304/304H SS

A213 Type 304, A271 Type 304, A312 Type 304, A 376 Type 304

A213 Type 304H, A271 Type 304H, A312 Type 304H, A 376 Type

304H

Type 316L SS

A213 Type 316L, A271 Type 316L, A312 Type 316L, A 376 Type

316L

Type 316/316H SS

A213 Type 316, A271 Type 316, A312 Type 316, A 376 Type 316

A213 Type 316H, A271 Type 316H, A312 Type 316H, A 376 Type

316H

Type 317L SS A213 Type 317L, A312 Type 317L

Type 321 SS A213 Type 321, A271 Type 321, A312 Type 321, A 376 Type 321

Type 321H SS

A213 Type 321H, A271 Type 321H, A312 Type 321H, A 376 Type

321H

Type 347 SS A213 Type 347, A271 Type 347, A312 Type 347, A 376 Type 347

Type 347H SS

A213 Type 347H, A271 Type 347H, A312 Type 347H, A 376 Type

347H

Alloy 800 B407 UNS N08800

Alloy 800H B407 UNS N08810

Alloy 800HT B407 UNS N08811

HK-40 A608 Grade HK-40

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 53

13 TECHNICAL BASIS

13.1 Overview

For each of the materials included in this document, the following four graphs are provided.

a) Yield and ultimate tensile strength as a function of temperature. Values for the yield and ultimate

tensile strength as a function of temperature are based on new test results above room temperature

and are anchored to the specified minimum yield and ultimate tensile strength properties at room

temperature. The new values shown are compared to the elevated temperature values given for the

yield and ultimate tensile strength in RP530/ISO 13704, Revision 6. Note the elevated temperature

values in RP530/ISO 13704, Revision 6 are anchored at 300F or 400F depending on the material.

b) The average and minimum stress rupture strengths as functions of the Larson-Miller Parameter. The

proposed relationship between rupture stress for minimum and the average materials are presented

using optimized Larson-Miller Parameter constants based on recent analysis of material properties

for virgin materials. The new parameter curves are shown and compared to the curves given in

RP530/ISO 13704, Revision 6. Note that presentation using separate curves for average and

minimum properties follows the presentation of stress rupture design curves in RP530/ISO 13704,

Revision 6 where separate curves for average and minimum properties are provided for use with a

single Larson-Miller constant that depends on the class of material, usually 15 or 20. For the new

plots when using the average and minimum curves for computations, the optimized average Larson-

Miller Constant from Table 3 is used to adjust all the lines so they may be compared. The test

results used to calculate the proposed curves are shown on these plots. Again they are calculated

using the optimized average constant in each case. Properties for service-exposed materials were

not included at the specific directive of the API committee which cited the historical use of only virgin

(unexposed) material in assembling the property data base. Thus, the Larson-Miller Parameter

equations and constants provided herein are not the identical to those for the same materials as

presented in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 on fitness-for-service. Equations presented for use in

determining fitness-for-service of service-exposed materials were established by testing materials as

near as possible to design level stresses and temperatures with an emphasis on identifying creep

strain rates and a creep damage parameter referred to as Omega, see API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, for

the properties developed under service conditions. Changes in materials during service affect both

the time-dependent and time-independent properties, identified in item a) above, of these materials.

Additionally, the materials properties for the MPC Omega Method found in API 579-1/ASME FFS-1

were not intended to and do not represent material behavior at stresses and temperatures outside

the range of design conditions.

c) Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US Customary Units.

A single curve is provided for the relationship between stress and Larson-Miller parameter. The

differentiation between minimum and average time-dependent properties is accounted for by using

the respective Larson-Miller Constants shown on each plot; C

min

to calculate the minimum properties

and C

avg

to calculate average properties.

d) Rupture Exponent versus Temperature A plot of rupture exponent versus temperature is provided

for each material. The rupture exponent is the slope of the (log) time vs. (log) rupture stress relation

at a particular time specified by API. For most materials then, this plot is a shows a slope changing

with temperature and usually decreasing with increasing temperature (decreasing stress). This is

expected if a Larsen-Miller parameter is used for correlating data since absolute temperature

appears in the denominator of the terms in the slope defining equation.

However, the microstructures of some of the alloys vary with temperature and the ruptureexponent

may increase or decrease with increasing temperature. The same may be true of ductility. To

capture this variable relation between creep rate and ductility second or third order polynomials are

needed to describe the shape of the parameter plot. The rupture exponent then may be a second

order polynomial which may show inflections, minima (or even a maxima) in the range of interest.

The microstructure /temperature changes that lead to an inflection in the rupture exponent curves at

the time specified by API can be seen in the plots for Type 347 SS, Type 347H SS, Alloy 800H and

Alloy 800 HT. There is nothing in nature to preclude that possibility.

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

54 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.2 Low Carbon Steel

The data base compiled was limited to tubular components and the typical low tensile strengths

associated with normal heat treatments. For this study test results at very high stresses were eliminated

to avoid imposing unfounded curvature on predicted low stress behavior. The resulting database was

well fit by a linear expression, but the scatter is undeniable. The current use of a Larson Miller constant

of 20 in API 530, Revision 6 in comparison to the appropriate value in the range of 17-19 results in too

high design stresses when test results are extrapolated to typical carbon steel operating temperatures.

Figure 13.2-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Low Carbon Steel

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 55

Figure 13.2-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Low Carbon Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

56 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.2-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Low Carbon Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=17.70

C

min

=18.15

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 57

Figure 13.2-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Low Carbon Steel

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

700 750 800 850 900 950 1000

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

58 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.3 Medium Carbon Steel

As with low carbon materials the Larson Miller constant is well below 20 and results in more conservative

stresses at expected operating temperatures as compared to the current document. The data used in the

analysis was mostly from overseas sources for tubular products. Within this data set a clear beneficial

effect of molybdenum on strength is seen at levels of only 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02% Mo. Data on heats with

higher Mo content was typically eliminated because of its strong biasing effect.

Figure 13.3-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Medium Carbon Steel

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 59

Figure 13.3-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Medium Carbon Steel

1

10

100

20 22 24 26 28 30 32

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

60 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.3-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Medium Carbon Steel

1

10

100

20 22 24 26 28 30 32

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.15

C

min

=15.6

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 61

Figure 13.3-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Medium Carbon Steel

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

700 750 800 850 900 950 1000

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

62 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.4 C-0.5Mo

Data for the very high stresses at which this strong alloy can be tested were eliminated because, absent

data at low, realistic design level stresses, the polynomial fit would tend to show an inflection and

nonconservative strength values at design levels. The resulting design lines from this analysis do not

differ much from the current API 530 values. However, there is very little foundation for the design

stresses at temperatures much above 950 F.

Figure 13.4-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: C-0.5Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 63

Figure 13.4-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: C-0.5Mo

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

64 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.4-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: C-0.5Mo

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=18.72537

C

min

=19.007756

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 65

Figure 13.4-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: C-0.5Mo

3.00

3.20

3.40

3.60

3.80

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

66 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.5 1.25Cr-0.5Mo

Most prior curves in API 530 were taken from Smith's work for MPC in the 60's and 70's. For this material

new data were obtained primarily from J apan. The superior behavior predicted at low stresses is based

on MPC's Project Omega studies in which the material did not suffer from severe oxidation in tests at

temperatures used in the low stress range. The trends are demonstrated by the equations and

coefficients found in Annex F of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. These validate the more linear curve shape for

these low alloy steels.

Figure 13.5-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 1.25Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 67

Figure 13.5-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 1.25Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

68 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.5-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 1.25Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=21.387

C

min

=21.891803

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 69

Figure 13.5-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 1.25Cr-0.5Mo

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

70 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.6 2.25Cr-1Mo

Most prior curves in API 530 were taken from Smith's work for MPC in the 60's and 70's. New data were

obtained primarily from J apan. The superior behavior predicted at low stresses is based on MPC's

Project Omega studies, in which the tested material did not suffer from severe oxidation in tests at

temperatures used in the low stress range. The trends are demonstrated by the equations and

coefficients found in Annex F of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1. These validate the more linear curve shape for

these low alloy steels.

Figure 13.6-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 2.25Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 71

Figure 13.6-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 2.25Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

72 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.6-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 2.25Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=18.9181

C

min

=19.565607

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 73

Figure 13.6-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 2.25Cr-1Mo

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

74 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.7 3Cr-1Mo

The 3 Cr-1Mo alloy is not widely used and very little test data of any type, new or old, is available. It is

believed that there is a continuum of behavior from annealed 2 Cr-1Mo to the 5 Cr alloys. The sparse

stress rupture data was inadequate, on its own for analysis. Combining the available data with new data

for the 5 Cr alloy tubes showed the lower Cr alloy be slightly stronger as expected because of richer Mo

and lower Cr. MPC software permits identifying the behavior of the 3Cr-1Mo in the general population.

The average and minimum values represent that unique subset. No new tensile data were available.

The current API trend was adopted but indexed to the specified minimum properties. This resulted in

slightly lower curves when the curve was ratioed to those specified values.

Figure 13.7-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 3Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 75

Figure 13.7-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 3Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

76 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.7-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 3Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.38106

C

min

=15.785226

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 77

Figure 13.7-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 3Cr-1Mo

4.50

4.70

4.90

5.10

5.30

5.50

5.70

5.90

6.10

6.30

6.50

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

78 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.8 5Cr-0.5Mo

A large amount of data on 5Cr-0.5Mo tubes was obtained from overseas sources. The stress rupture

database exceeded 500 test results, many lasting many years. Tensile data were also obtained but there

was significant scatter, especially at higher temperatures. Over 20 heats were evaluated with good

agreement with the current lines.

Figure 13.8-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 5Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 79

Figure 13.8-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 5Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

80 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.8-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 5Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.58928

C

min

=16.025829

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 81

Figure 13.8-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 5Cr-0.5Mo

4.50

4.70

4.90

5.10

5.30

5.50

5.70

5.90

6.10

6.30

6.50

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

82 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.9 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

There are no new data sources for 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si. Therefore, the material parameters developed for 5Cr-

0.5Mo are used to develop the following plots.

Figure 13.9-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 83

Figure 13.9-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

84 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.9-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 5Cr-0.5Mo-Si

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.58928

C

min

=16.025829

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 85

Figure 13.9-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 5Cr-0.5Mo-1Si

4.50

4.70

4.90

5.10

5.30

5.50

5.70

5.90

6.10

6.30

6.50

800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

86 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.10 7Cr-0.5Mo

This alloy is seldom specified and has been deleted from several current ASTM specifications. Little data

could be found in the literature and the data were not considered statistically meaningful or suitable for

generating new curves. The plots shown are based on the previous API 530 curves for the alloy

converted to the format used in this document. They are not intended to represent any change in the

properties anticipated.

Figure 13.10-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 7Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 87

Figure 13.10-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Miller Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US

Customary Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 7Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

88 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.10-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 7Cr-0.5Mo

1

10

100

34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=19.62055

C

min

=20.43746

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 89

Figure 13.10-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 7Cr-0.5Mo

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

90 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.11 9Cr-1Mo

The data base compiled was confined to tubes produced overseas for heat exchangers as opposed to the

original database of domestic products that produced an unusually wide scatter band. The relatively

good oxidation resistance of the alloy permitted tests to very low stresses and a normal scatter band was

obtained from this analysis. Most of the data tracked APIs mean line but the resulting minimum (design)

lines are higher than the current lines at most temperatures. A second order polynomial was selected to

provide conservatism for extrapolation beyond the range of available data.

Figure 13.11-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 9Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 91

Figure 13.11-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 9Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

42 44 46 48 50 52 54

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

92 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.11-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 9Cr-1Mo

1

10

100

42 44 46 48 50 52 54

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=25.85909

C

min

=26.223587

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 93

Figure 13.6-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 9Cr-1Mo

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

11.00

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

94 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.12 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V

For this material new data were obtained primarily from J apan.

Figure 13.12-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V

1

10

100

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 95

Figure 13.12-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V

1

10

100

52 54 56 58 60 62

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

96 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.12-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V

1

10

100

52 54 56 58 60 62

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=30.36423

C

min

=30.886006

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 97

Figure 13.12-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: 9Cr-1Mo-0.25V

3.00

5.00

7.00

9.00

11.00

13.00

15.00

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

98 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.13 Type 304L Stainless Steel

Type 304L Stainless Steel Very little rupture testing of 304L is intentionally carried out. MPC studied

many heats and found 304 produced with carbon content in the range of 0.04%. These were used as the

basis for estimating performance at the L grade level.

Figure 13.13-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 304L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 99

Figure 13.13-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 304L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

32 34 36 38 40 42

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

100 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.13-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 304L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

32 34 36 38 40 42

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=17.55

C

min

=18.287902

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 101

Figure 13.13-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 304L Stainless Steel

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

102 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.14 Type 304 & 304H Stainless Steel

Data was obtained from overseas sources. Only data on tubes were utilized since the data were

adequate for analysis. A total of 28 heats where studied of different manufacturing process and

producers. More than 450 results were included in the final data base. Materials could not be separated

and so 304 and 304H were lumped together. The resulting scatter band was less than the current curves

but the minimum was about the same.

Figure 13.14-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 304 & Type 304H

Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 103

Figure 13.14-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 304 & Type 304H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

104 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.14-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 304 & Type 304H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.52195

C

min

=16.145903

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 105

Figure 13.14-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 304 & Type 304H Stainless

Steel

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

106 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.15 Type 316L Stainless Steel

Data analysis was performed on Type 316L to develop the Type 317L parameters, see paragraph 12.16.

In addition, the data indicates that the differences in the yield and ultimate tensile strength trend curves

are indistinguishable. Therefore, the material parameters developed for Type 317L are used for Type

316L.

Figure 13.15-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 316L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 107

Figure 13.15-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 316L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

108 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.15-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 316L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.2

C

min

=15.740107

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 109

Figure 13.15-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 316L Stainless Steel

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.50

8.50

9.50

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

110 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.16 Type 316 & 316H Stainless Steel

Over 700 data points were included in the final set, mainly on tubular products. Other product forms were

included to obtain results at over 1500F (low stresses). The data were all from foreign sources. The

tensile trends were remarkably similar to the current trends, when the different room temperature index

values were considered. Some heats showed poor stress rupture behavior. These aspects are being

studied further. However, the design values are very similar to those used now where the curves are

supported by data.

Figure 13.16-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 316 & Type 316H

Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 111

Figure 13.16-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 316 & Type 316H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40 42

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

112 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.16-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 316 & Type 316H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=16.30987

C

min

=16.764145

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 113

Figure 13.16-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 316 & Type 316H Stainless

Steel

4.50

4.70

4.90

5.10

5.30

5.50

5.70

5.90

6.10

6.30

6.50

1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

114 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

13.17 Type 317L Stainless Steel

There are very little data available on Type 317L. Thus far only a few test results were found, some were

incomplete and relatively short. However, a database of modern low carbon Type 316 was compiled from

J apan. This is far larger than anything Smith had to work with. MPC heat centered procedures enable

indexing on the limited 317L data and adjusting to provide a better estimate of low carbon material

performance. These heats should have increased nitrogen levels.

Figure 13.17-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 317L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 115

Figure 13.17-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant (Using Type 316L Data): Type 317L Stainless

Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

116 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.17-3: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant (Showing Type 317L Data Points Relative to

Type 316L Parameter Equations): Type 317L Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 117

Figure 13.17-4: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 317L Stainless Steel (Using Type 316L Data)

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=15.2

C

min

=15.740107

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

118 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.17-5: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 317L Stainless Steel (Using

Type 316L Date)

3.50

4.50

5.50

6.50

7.50

8.50

9.50

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 119

13.18 Type 321 Stainless Steel

Only 321 tube data conforming to modern specifications, but not classified as 321H by the foreign

suppliers was used. The average stress rupture strength found is in reasonable agreement with Smith's

original analyses for MPC that provided the values used by API 530 for this material. However, the

variance was much smaller in the current work. It is believed that Smith included products that did not

conform to today's specifications. Therefore the minimum strength is a more reasonable (higher) fraction

of the average. Failure to assure proper heat treatment and composition can lead to unsatisfactory

performance.

Figure 13.18-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 321 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

120 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.18-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 321 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 121

Figure 13.18-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 321 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

24 26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=13.325

C

min

=12.8

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

122 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.18-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 321 Stainless Steel

2.75

3.25

3.75

4.25

4.75

5.25

5.75

6.25

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 123

13.19 Type 321H Stainless Steel

The data collection focused on tubular products. The yield strength data found were scattered, as is often

the case for products heat treated to high temperatures, rapidly cooled and then straightened. Statistical

analysis of yield strengths revealed a weak temperature correlation, best described by a straight line.

The stress rupture data displayed less scatter than the API 530 plot for this alloy probably because of

greater attention to conformance of the materials to the H grade requirements. The average behavior

was substantially unchanged, but the minimum was elevated. Most data were obtained for material

produced by modern processes in J apan.

Figure 13.19-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 321H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

124 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.19-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 321H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 125

Figure 13.19-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 321H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=14.75958

C

min

=15.293986

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

126 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.19-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 321H Stainless Steel

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 127

13.20 Type 347 Stainless Steel

For this material new data were obtained primarily from J apan. The trends are demonstrated by the

equations and coefficients found in Annex F of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1.

Figure 13.20-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 347 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

128 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.20-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 347 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36 38

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 129

Figure 13.20-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 347 Stainless Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36 38

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=14.25

C

min

=14.889042

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

130 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.20-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 347 Stainless Steel

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

11.00

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 131

13.21 Type 347H Stainless Steel

For this material new data were obtained primarily from J apan. The trends are demonstrated by the

equations and coefficients found in Annex F of API 579-1/ASME FFS-1.

Figure 13.21-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: Type 347H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

EXISTINGRP530TENSILE

EXISTINGRP530YIELD

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

132 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.21-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: Type 347H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 133

Figure 13.21-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: Type 347H Stainless Steel

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=13.79341

C

min

=14.458025

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

134 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.21-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: Type 347H Stainless Steel

3.50

4.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.50

9.00

9.50

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 135

13.22 Alloy 800

The data chosen for this class of material excluded results from heats that do not take advantage of the

heat treating and compositional controls imposed to obtain the 800H and 800HT grades. These include

controls on aluminum, titanium, and carbon contents, grain size and annealing temperatures. Such

unrestricted material is not usually used for creep service and the data base is relatively small. The very

high temperatures permitted for 800H and 800HT cannot be recommended with confidence.

Figure 13.22-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: UNS N08800 (Alloy 800)

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

136 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.22-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: UNS N08800 (Alloy 800)

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 137

Figure 13.22-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: UNS N08800 (Alloy 800)

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=16.50878

C

min

=17.005384

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

138 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.22-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: UNS N08800 (Alloy 800)

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

4.80

5.00

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80

6.00

900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 139

13.23 Alloy 800H

Yield and ultimate tensile strength data were obtained for tubular products of Alloy 800H. The stress

rupture data shown represent a broad international database generally in conformance with prior

estimates. Some of the test results captured here are from tests lasting in excess of 100,000 hours.

Figure 13.23-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: UNS N08810 (Alloy 800H)

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

140 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.23-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: UNS N08810 (Alloy 800H)

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 141

Figure 13.23-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: UNS N08810 (Alloy 800H)

1

10

100

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=16.04227

C

min

=16.564046

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

142 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.23-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: UNS N08810 (Alloy 800H)

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 143

13.24 Alloy 800HT

MPC combined the original database used in setting the control limits that defined the 800HT class of

material with more recent data on tubular products from overseas sources. Some results on the newer

products were for tests that lasted beyond 30,000 hours at low stresses and very high temperatures. As

a result the parameter curve is well defined. It should be noted that the improvement for 800HT versus

800H is not expected to be very large at intermediate temperatures and disappears at very high

temperatures due to the redissolving of carbides and strengthening nickel-aluminum-titanium compounds.

Figure 13.24-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: UNS N08811 (Alloy 800HT)

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

144 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.24-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: UNS N08811 (Alloy 800HT)

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 145

Figure 13.24-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: UNS N08811 (Alloy 800HT)

1

10

100

28 30 32 34 36 38 40

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=13.2341

C

min

=13.606722

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

146 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.24-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: UNS N08811 (Alloy 800HT)

3.75

4.25

4.75

5.25

5.75

6.25

6.75

7.25

900 995 1090 1185 1280 1375 1470 1565 1660 1755 1850

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 147

13.25 HK-40

Elevated temperature yield and ultimate tensile strength values were obtained for the high carbon content

HK 40 castings. The strength properties found varied, but the trend shown was strongly indicative of an

increase in yield strength in the 1200-1300F range due to precipitation at those temperatures. The

extent of the increase in yield strength is not easily displayed by the smooth curve of the polynomial used

to display the properties. The large database collected shows lower minimums than the existing API 530

curves.

Figure 13.25-1: Yield and Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Temperature Comparison of

Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary Units: HK-40

1

10

100

0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

TEMPERATURE,F

PROPOSEDTENSILE

STRENGTH

PROPOSEDYIELDSTRENGTH

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

148 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.25-2: The Average and Minimum Stress Rupture Strengths as Functions of the Larson-

Miller Parameter Comparison of Existing RP530 Data and Proposed New Data in US Customary

Units Based on the Average Larson-Miller Constant: HK-40

1

10

100

26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

PROPOSEDAVERAGE

PROPOSEDMINIMUM

EXISTINGRP530AVERAGE

EXISTINGRP530MINIMUM

RUPTUREDATA

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530 149

Figure 13.25-3: Design Curve Showing the Larson-Miller Parameter as a Function of Stress in US

Customary Units. The Minimum Larson-Miller Constant (C

min

) is used to Calculate Minimum Time-

Dependent Properties and the Average Larson-Miller Constant (C

avg

) is used to Calculate Average

Time-Dependent Properties: HK-40

0.1

1

10

100

22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

S

T

R

E

S

S

,

K

s

i

LARSONMILLERPARAMETER/1000

C

avg

=10.4899

C

min

=10.856489

The Welding Research Council, Inc.

WRC Bulletin 541

150 Evaluation of Material Strength Data for Use in Conjunction with API 530

Figure 13.25-4: Rupture Exponent as a Function of Temperature: HK-40

3.00

3.20

3.40

3.60

3.80

4.00

4.20

4.40

4.60

4.80

5.00

1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850

R

U

P

T

U

R

E

E

X

P

O

N

E

N

T

,

n

TEMPERATURE,F

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