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Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu

A potential ecosystem for medicinal plants.


Keywords:
Maruthamali, Western Ghats, Medicinal plants.
ABSTRACT:
The dry deciduous forests of Maruthamalai, part of Western Ghats,
Coimbatore district, Tamilnadu hold rich number of 201 species belonging to 153
genera of 51 families. The families Poaceae, Fabaceae, Mimosaceae and
Euphorbiaceae have contributed high number of species 19, 18, 13, 12 respectively to
the community. In the floristic list, a high number of 165 species (82.5%) is
recognized as economically important also. Based on the importance value index
secured, it is determined that the species like Acacia tora, Albizzia amara, A. lebbeck,
Azadirachta indica, Chromolaena odorata, Commiphora caudata, Erythroxylon
monogynum, Euphorbia antiquorum, Fluggea leucopyrus, Pterolobium indicum and
Zizyphus oenoplia are considered to be ecologically important and established well in
the low hills of Maruthamalai (450m above m.s.l.). In higher altitudes at 750m above
msl, the species like Albizzia amara, Azadirachta indica, Chloroxylon swietenia,
Commiphora caudata, Erythroxylon monogynum, Fluggea leucopyrus and Holoptelea
integrifolia have secured higher importance value index and established well in the
habitats. At 950m above m.s.l., the vegetation has been occupied predominantly by
the species like Acacia torta, Albizzia amara, Commiphora caudata, Erythroxylon
monogynum, Fluggea leucopyrus and Syzigium cumini as they derived higher
importance value index. Among the 165 medicinal plants, 37 species (22%) where
present in all the three plots located at different altitudes. Despite the variation in
species composition and ecological importance at all levels of altitudes throughout
the Maruthamalai hills, the habitat conditions are favourable for the growth of plants
of higher secondary metabolites of medicinal importance. Hence wastelands
available in Maruthamalai hills may be suggested for the cultivation of native
medicinal and other economically important plants.
012-026 | JRPS | 2011 | Vol 1 | No 1
This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution, and
reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
www.plantsciences.info
Authors:
Paulsamy S.


Institution:
Department of Botany
Kongunadu Arts and Science
College, Coimbatore-
641 029, India.




Corresponding author:
Paulsamy S.




Email:
paulsami@yahoo.com




Web Address:
http://plantsciences.info/
documents/PS0005.pdf.


Dates:
Received: 10 Nov 2011 /Accepted: 15 Nov 2011 /Published: 28 Nov 2011
Article Citation:
Paulsamy S.
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu
A potential ecosystem for medicinal plants.
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026
Original Research Paper
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences
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Journal of Research in
Plant Sciences
An International Scientific
Research Journal
An International Scientific Research Journal


INTRODUCTION
Maruthamalai hills of Western Ghats
harbour rich number of plant species in their
forests. Species composition is varied considerably
according to the altitude in that region. They
belong to different life-forms and many of the
species are recognized as medicinally or important.
Owing to this fact, these bioresources are exploited
by the local public and herb gatherers. In addition
the existence of the temple for the Lord Muruga is a
pilgrimage attraction, due to which thousands of
people are visiting every day and disturb the
vegetation considerably. Easy accessibility and high
transport facility are also encouraging the public to
disturb the vegetation and hence the species
distraction in this region. Hence for management
and conservation, knowledge on ecological features
of the species of the ecosystem is most essential. In
the present study, an attempt has been made to
know the species composition, proportion of
medicinal plants and perpetuation level in terms of
ecological importance in the vegetations at three
different altitudes of Maruthamalai.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area
Maruthamalai hills, part of Western Ghats in
Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu lies between 76
45' and 76 55' E and 11 0' and 11 5' N. The forest
type of this region is dry deciduous (Champion and
Seth, 1968). Annual rainfall is around 450mm and
temperature in an year is varying between 17C and
38C. The hills occupy the altitudinal range
between 450 and 975m above msl. The soil is
generally shallow with sandy loam texture. Rocky
substratum is available at steepy areas.
Vegetation analysis
Three experimental plots (1ha each), each
one at the altitudes viz., 450, 750 and 950m above
msl were established in Maruthamalai hills. In the
month of August, 2005 (middle of the south-west
monsoon period) phytosociological analysis was
carried out to know the ecological importance of all
species through determining frequency, density and
basal area following Curtis and McIntosh (1950),
Philips (1959) and Curtis (1959). For sampling
purpose, each plot was divided into 25 number of
20x20m workable units.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The floristic list, all over the Maruthamalai
hills contains a total number of 201 species which
comes under 153 genera and 51 families (Table 1).
Among these species, 50 were trees 41 were shrubs,
79 were herbs and 31 were climbers. This rich
diversity of taxa may be attributed to the suitable
microclimatic conditions available in the study area
through out the hill ranges from foot hills to top. In
addition, the adaptive features developed by many
constituent species to resist the dry conditions may
aid to survive them in this ecosystem. John Britto
et al., (2001) enumerated a high number of over
150 species in a dry deciduous forest at Pudukottai
district of Tamil Nadu. Similarly, Kadamban and
Balachandran (2005) identified a high diversity of
178 species included in 78 genera and 39 families
in the deciduous forests of Pondicherry. The
members of the families such as Poaceae, Fabaceae,
Mimosaceae and Euphorbiaceae were dominating
the Maruthamalai ecosystem by contributing higher
number of 19, 18, 13 and 12 species respectively to
the community. It is of common fact that the
members of these families are most common in dry
tropical forests in comparison to other families
(Pandit, 2003). Perez-Garcian and Meave (2004)
and Fa-Hu Chen et al., (2006) pointed out that the
members of Poaceae, Leguminosae and
Euphorbiaceae generally possessed higher
ecological amplitude by having many adoptive
features at morphological, anatomical and
physiological levels to resist xeric conditions. This
fact may be attributed to the predominance of the
members of these families in the study area. The
frequency of higher distribution of these species in
the adjoining Velliangiri hills (Murugasen, 2005)
may also be a factor for the supply of propagules to
the study area, Maruthamalai hills, in addition to
the self supply by the Maruthamalai habitats.
The results of the study report that out of
201 species, a greater number of 165 (83%) were
recognized as medicinally important and the
detailed account on the aspects such as ecological
importance in terms of importance value index
(IVI) secured by the individual species, parts used,
medicinal uses and mode of administration are
given in Table 2. The existence of rich number of
medicinal plants may be explained due to the
prevalence of longer period of drought in the
ecosystem which may induce the plants to produce
more varieties of secondary metabolites as defense
mechanism for their survival and establishment
(Baldizan et al., 2006). Paulsamy et al., (2006,
2007) also identified a high number of medicinally
important species in the nearby vegetations of
Nilgiri hills. The perpetuation level in terms of
ecological importance was generally appreciable for
Paulsamy.,2011
013 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026
all the medicinal species. It indicates that the
medicinal plant species adequately defend the
drought stress by producing secondary metabolites
and hence established well in Maruthamalai forests
as explained by Hua Yu et al. (2010) for the
distribution of medicinal plants in the southern
Chinese vegetations.
The study further revealed that the altitude is
an important factor which limits the distribution and
importance of several species in Maruthamalai.
Among the medicinal plants, the species viz., Acacia
torta, Albizzia amara, A. lebbeck, Azadirachta
indica, Chromolaena odorata, Commiphora caudata,
Erythroxylon monogynum, Euphorbia antiquorum,
Fluggea leucopyrus, Pterolobium indicum, Syzigium
cumini and Zizyphus oenoplia are considered to be
ecologically well established in the low hills of
Maruthamalai (Plot I-450m above msl). Similarly, in
plots II (750m above msl) and III (950m above msl)
the medicinal species viz., Acacia torta, Albizzia
amara, Azadirachta indica, Chloroxylon swietenia,
Commiphora caudata, Erythroxylon monogynum,
Fluggea leucopyrus, Holoptelea integrifolia and
Syzigium cumini, and Acacia torta, Commiphora
caudata, Erythroxylon monogynum, Fluggea
leucopyrus and Syzigium cumini were respectively
determined as ecologically important due to their
high perpetuation level. The variation in local
climate at different altitudes may cause this
difference in structural organization of communities.
However a sizeable number of 15 medicinal herbs
out of 54 species (28%), 9 medicinal shrubs out of 38
species (24%), 8 medicinal trees out of 44 species
(18%) and 5 medicinal climbers out of 29 species
(17%) were determined to be present in all the study
plots through out the altitudinal range of
Maruthamalai hills (Table 2). All these species were
perpetuated and established well in all habitats as
they derived generally higher IVI values. It indicates
that all these species are well acclimatized in all
microclimatic conditions of Maruthamalai hills by
producing more amount of secondary metabolites as
defense mechanism.
The findings of the present investigation
showed that the general macroclimate and local
microclimate are favourable for rich diversity of
plant species with respect to medicinal flora. Hence
to meet the demand and to conserve the wilds,
cultivation of medicinal plants particularly the
common species recorded in all the three plots (Table
2) is suggested in the open forests and other open
lands of Maruthamalai. The high IVI value secured
by them confirms the suitability at all areas of
Maruthamalai hills.
Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 014
S.
No
Family
No. of
genera
No. of
species
1 Acanthaceae 6 8
2 Agavaceae 1 1
3 Aizoaceae 1 1
4 Amaranthaceae 6 6
5 Apocyanaceae 4 5
6 Aristolochiaceae 1 1
7 Asclepiadaceae 7 7
8 Asparagaceae 1 1
9 Asteraceae 5 5
10 Bignoniaceae 1 1
11 Boraginaceae 1 1
12 Burseraceae 1 2
13 Cactaceae 1 1
14 Caesalpiniaceae 5 8
15 Capparidaceae 4 7
16 Caryophyllaceae 1 1
17 Celastraceae 2 2
18 Colchicaceae 1 1
19 Combretaceae 1 1
20 Convolvulaceae 4 6
21 Cucurbitaceae 3 3
22 Cyperaceae 3 4
23 Drasaenaceae 1 1
24 Ebenaceae 1 1
25 Erythroxylaceae 1 1
26 Euphorbiaceae 8 12
27 Fabaceae 13 18
28 Lamiaceae 2 2
29 Malvaceae 5 9
30 Meliaceae 1 1
31 Menispermaceae 4 5
32 Mimosaceae 7 13
33 Moraceae 2 3
34 Myrtaceae 2 2
35 Nyctaginaceae 2 2
36 Oleaceae 1 1
37 Passifloraceae 1 1
38 Poaceae 14 19
39 Polygalaceae 1 2
40 Portulacaceae 1 1
41 Rhamnaceae 2 4
42 Rubiaceae 7 9
43 Rutaceae 4 5
44 Santalaceae 1 1
45 Sapindaceae 3 4
46 Solanaceae 1 1
47 Sterculiaceae 1 1
48 Tiliaceae 2 4
49 Ulmaceae 1 1
50 Verbenaceae 3 3
51 Vitaceae 1 1
Table 1. Family-wise contribution of genera and
included species in Maruthamalai.



Paulsamy.,2011
015 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026
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.


Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 016

1
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0
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p
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r




Paulsamy.,2011
017 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026

3
6

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3
8

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0
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9
9



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3
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6
1



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4
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4
9



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4
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0
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8
2



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4
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0
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6
6



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4
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0
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7
8



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4
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0
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4
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9



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4
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4
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1
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6
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*

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4
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1
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2
9



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4
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0
.
4
1



L
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5
0

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3
.
1
0



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5
1

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1
.
4
3



L
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5
2

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2
.
8
5

*

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5
3

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1
.
8
8



W
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5
4

W
a
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t
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0
.
7
1



R
o
o
t
,

f
l
o
w
e
r
s
,

l
e
a
v
e
s
,

r
o
o
t

b
a
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k

S
k
i
n

e
r
u
p
t
i
o
n
s
,

c
l
e
a
n
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n
g

w
o
u
n
d
s
,

c
o
u
g
h
,

a
s
t
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i
n
g
e
n
t
,

f
e
b
r
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f
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g
e
,

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m
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t

D
e
c
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c
t
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o
n

o
f

r
o
o
t
,

r
e
s
i
n
o
u
s

p
o
w
d
e
r


Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 018

5
5

S
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b
s

A
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a
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.



M
i
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a
e



8
.
2
5



*



F
r
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s
h

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s
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b
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k



M
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s



D
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5
6

A
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2
.
9
2



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A
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5
7

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0
.
6
4



T
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5
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0
.
9
6



R
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5
9

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1
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6
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1
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2
8



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6
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0
.
3
2

*

W
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h
a
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a
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,

a
n
t
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d
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,

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u
m
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s
,

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a
n
d

p
a
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n
.

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o
w
d
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r

a
n
d

p
a
s
t
e


6
2

C
a
p
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s

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v
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a

D
C
.

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a
p
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1
.
7
5



F
r
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s

T
o

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t


6
3

C
.

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L
.

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.

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1
.
1
7



L
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6
4

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.

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1
.
6
8



L
e
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k

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c
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,

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,

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6
5

C
a
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a
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L
.

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p
o
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e

1
.
3
9



F
r
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c
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6
6

C
.

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L
.

A
p
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1
.
1
7



L
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P
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E
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t
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6
7

C
a
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(
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.
)

M
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s
.

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n
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e

3
.
3
8



R
i
p
e

f
r
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i
t
s
,

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a
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k
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s
,

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A
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d
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D
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6
8

C
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L
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1
.
7
5



R
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s
,

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D
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6
9

C
h
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(
L
.
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.

M
.

K
i
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g

&

H
.

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x
b
.

A
s
t
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a
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e

4
.
5
6

*

L
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A
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p
t
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c

a
g
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n
t
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p

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s

a
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d

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f

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l
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p
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e


7
0

D
o
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a

v
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a

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L
.
)

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a
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.

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p
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1
.
6
4

*

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v
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s
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s
,

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k
,

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R
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m
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,

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p
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p
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7
1

E
r
y
t
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r
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x
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l
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m
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y
n
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m

R
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1
3
.
0
0

*

W
o
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d
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b
a
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k

F
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d
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p
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p
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k
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n

d
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s
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a
s
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s

A
s
h

o
f

t
h
e

p
l
a
n
t




Paulsamy.,2011
019 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026

7
2

F
l
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6
.
4
9

*

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7
3

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1
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2
2



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7
4

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1
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4
1



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7
5

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0
.
9
7



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7
6

J
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(
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1
.
4
9



R
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p
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7
7

J
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1
.
3
9



R
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P
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7
8

L
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L
.

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2
.
9
8

*

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7
9

M
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1
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0
9



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k


8
0

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R
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0
.
1
1



F
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s
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A
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D
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8
1

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.
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.

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0
.
0
9



F
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I
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8
2

P
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R
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0
.
9
4



L
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R
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B
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8
3

P
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1
.
9
8



W
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8
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8
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8
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8
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P
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Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 020
8
9

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8
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b
a
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k
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p
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s
t
e




Paulsamy.,2011
021 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026
1
0
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6



R
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R
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p
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r


Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 022

1
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023 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026

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Paulsamy.,2011
Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026 024

1
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Paulsamy.,2011
025 Journal of Research in Plant Sciences (2011) 1: 012-026

1
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.

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