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A STUDY OF THE FACTORS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

RELATED TO OVERSEAS' HOLIDAYS FROM THE UK


A Thesis submitted by
DAVID CLIFFORD GILBERT
In fulfilment of requirements for the award of the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in the Department of
Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries
University of Surrey
1992
-p a g e i
ABSTRACT
Thi s study i s the culmi na ti on of a numbe r of ye a rs of i nte re st
i n the fi e ld of consume r be ha vi our i n re la ti on to the de ma nd for
ove rse a s holi da ys. Ove r ti me thi s le d to the conte mp la ti on of
the wa ys i n whi ch ce rta i n a sp e cts of consume r be ha vi our could be
i de nti fi e d, me a sure d a nd a sse sse d.
Thi s study ha s uti li ze d a me thodolog y ba se d up on the consume r
be i ng a ble to construct the i r own me a ni ng s of wha t i s be hi nd the
de si re to wa nt to tra ve l ove rse a s i n te rms of moti va ti ons, e voke d
se ts of de sti na ti ons, p re fe re nce cri te ri a , choi ce se ts a nd
de ci si on rule s. As the re wa s li ttle on whi ch to ba se thi s study
i t forms a n e xp lora tory p i e ce of re se a rch whi ch ca n be bui lt up on
by othe rs a s we ll a s myse lf.
The study ha s p rovi de d a ba ckcloth of the subje ct a re a to da te
wi th cri ti ca l di scussi ons of touri sm a nd consume r be ha vi our
the ory a nd conce p ts. The a nti the si s a nd synthe si s cre a te d from
the se di scussi ons ha s le d to de e p e r i nsi g ht a nd unde rsta ndi ng of
the whole a re a re la te d to touri sm a nd de ma nd functi ons. Cha p te r
one a nd thre e a s we ll a s the se cond ha lf of cha p te r two ha ve
a lre a dy be e n p ubli she d i n re fe re e d journa ls. The fi na l se t of
re sults from cha p te rs fi ve a nd six wi ll hop e fully form the ba si s
of se ve ra l p a p e rs a nd a rti cle s a t a la te r sta g e .
The re sults ca n be se e n to e mbody thre e p ri nci p a l a re a s of
a ddi ti on to e xi sti ng knowle dg e re g a rdi ng the consume r be ha vi our
a sp e cts of ove rse a s holi da y ta ki ng . The se a re : Moti va ti on ;
Holi da y Pre fe re nce Cri te ri a ; a nd De sti na ti on Choi ce a nd De ci si on
Ma ki ng . In a ddi ti on a Dyna mi c Mode l wa s bui lt from the fi ndi ng s.
Motivation
The re sults cle a rly i ndi ca te the re a re ni ne ca te g ori e s of
moti va tors whi ch e ne rg i se p e op le to tra ve l ove rse a s on holi da y:
Cha ng e a nd Esca p e , Soci a l Asp e cts, We a the r, Re st a nd Re la xa ti on,
p a g e i i
Enjoyme nt a nd Adve nture , Acti vi ty, Ge og ra p hy, Culture a nd
Ga stronomy, a nd Educa ti ona l. The se ha ve be e n furthe r re fi ne d
i nto ke y moti va tors whi ch form a tri a d ma de up of Re i nsta te rs,
Ple a sure rs a nd p e rsona l Enha nce rs.
lioliday Preference Criteria
Pe op le 's p re fe re nce cri te ri a , a s to the i r fa voure d re qui re me nts
re la te d to a n ove rse a s holi da y we re i de nti fi e d throug h
Multi Di me nsi ona l Sca li ng to be p osi ti one d on a va le ncy sca le a nd
re la te d to the controlla ble a nd uncontrolla ble a sp e cts of
de ci si on ma ki ng .
Destination Choice and Decision Making
The i de a l e voke d se t of de sti na ti ons wa s found to be a n a ve ra g e
of 5.22 ove rse a s' a re a s me nti one d a nd the corre sp ondi ng choi ce
se t wi th a ssoci a te d choi ce re a sons we re found. Fi na lly the
de ci si ons ma de by g roup s p ri or to de p a rture we re broke n down by
i mp orta nce of g roup me mbe r. The re sults show tha t the re i s only
ma rg i na l di ffe re nce be twe e n a dult ma le a nd fe ma le me mbe rs
re g a rdi ng di ffe re nt a sp e cts of ove rse a s holi da y de ci si on ma ki ng ,
a nd tha t chi ldre n ha ve ve ry li ttle i nflue nce .
Outcome of the Research Study - A Dynamic Model
The ma i n de te rmi na nts surroundi ng ove rse a s holi da y de ci si on
ma ki ng for UK tra ve lle rs ha ve be e n i de nti fi e d a nd qua nti fi e d.
The fi na l outcome of the study ha s be e n the a bi li ty to bui ld a
mode l of the de ma nd p roce ss ba se d up on the re sults. Thi s mode l
(Fi g ure 6.2, p a g e 301) i s dyna mi c i n li nka g e wi th the four
g roup i ng s of, a nte ce de nt va ri a ble s, i ni ti a tor p roce ss va ri a ble s,
fi lte r va ri a ble s a nd choi ce . The i mp li ca ti ons of thi s study a re
tha t i t should p rovi de fa r more unde rsta ndi ng of the consume r
be ha vi our p roce ss of de ci di ng up on a n ove rse a s holi da y a nd
the re fore a i d future re se a rche rs a nd p ri va te a nd p ubli c
org a ni za ti ons i n unde rsta ndi ng some of the unde rlyi ng
comp le xi ti e s whi ch unti l now ha ve re ma i ne d re la ti ve ly
unre se a rche d a nd unqua nti fi e d.
page iii
CONTENTS
A STUDY OF THE FACTORS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO OVERSEAS'
HOLIDAYS FROM THE UK
CONTENTS

PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSvii
The Task and benefits of the research...................1
CHAPTER 1 CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN THE MEANING OF TOURISM
3
Introduction.............................4
Scope, nature and meaning of tourism.....6
Definitions of Tourism...................10
Implications of Definitions ..............17
The Technical Approach ...................18
MeasurementIssues .......................22
Debate of Tourism Industry and Product. .25
The Conceptual Framework of Tourism.. . .3 9
Conclusion...............................41
References for Chapter One ...............43
CHAPTER 2 OVERSEAS HOLIDAYS - THE MARKET AND ITS
DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ...............47
An Examination of TOs and the Tourist. . . .48
Importance of Tour Operator's Role .......51-
Financial Aspects of the Market ..........62
Travel Agents, Technology and Selling. .. .68
Future Methods of Selling ................79
Conclusion...............................82
References for Chapter Two ...............83
CHAPTER 3 AN EXANINATION OF THE CONSUNER BEHAVIOUR
PROCESS REL1TED TO TOURISM..........86
Introduction.............................87
Classification of CB approaches .........
The Concept of Motivation in Tourism.....98
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs .............
Murray's Classification of Needs .........04
Other Approaches to Motivation Study .....108
Dann's Identification of the Concepts .116
Underpinnings of the Term: Motivation. . .118
Importance of Role Concepts ..............120
Main Theories of Consumer Behaviour.......29
Problems of the 'Grand Models' ...........
Consumer Behaviour and Tourism Authors. .146
The Importance of Image ..................150
Conclusion...............................160
References for Chapter Three .............161
AbtrctConttsandAknc E:CGitbrt

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CHAPTER 4 THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH..................168
The Methodological Introduction ..........169
The Main Study Objectives ................169
Range of Pssible Designs ................170
Philosophical Aspects of Research ........173
Research Phases and Data Collection ......186
Alternative Methods of Measurement .......189
Data Collection Methods for the Study ...194
Survey Measurement Instruments ...........197
The Draft Questionnaire Sections .........198
The Pilot Study ..........................201
TheStudy Sample .........................205
ComputerAnalysis ........................209
MultiDimensional Scaling (MDS) ...........212
Advantages and Disadvantages of MDS ......218
Application of MDS to Tourism ............219
Conclusion...............................223
References for Chapter Four ..............224
CHAPTER5 THE STUDY RESULTS ............................229
Research Sample Profiles .................230
MotivationResults .......................233
Motivation Aggregate Rank Order ..........250
Overseas Holiday Decision Preference .....
The MDS Results Interpretation ...........259
EvokedCountry Set .......................270
ChoiceSet ...............................276
DecisionRules ...........................280
InformationSources ......................280
Psychographics and Choice ................282
Influence of Group Members to Decision .284
References for Chapter Five ..............295
CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS ....................296
Introduction of Discussion of Results. . . . 297-V
The Master Model from the study ..........301
A Classification of Motivation Types .....304
Reinstaters, Pleasurers and Reinstaters. .305
Destination Choice and Motivators ........315
Implications of Motivation Findings ......316
Holiday Preference Criteria ..............317
Ideal and Choice Destination Sets ........323
Destination Choice Decision Rules ........328
Information Influences and Choice ........330
Psychographics and Choice ................333
Group Members and Decisions ..............335
Conclusions..............................337
References for Chapter Six ...............341
SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RESEARCH..................338
POSSIBLEFURTHER RESEARCH ...............................340
L e e e i ' t : D c j G i t b e r t

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APPEND ICES. .................344
7.1 Fi nal Re se ar c h Que st i onnai r e .........345
7.2 D r aft Re se ar c h Que st i onnai r e .........351
7.3 Pub li she d Book Chapt e r Fr om The si s .357
7.4 Pub li she d Book Chapt e r Fr om The si s .358
7.5 Pub li she d Ar t i c le Fr om The si s ........359
7.6 Te c hni c al Infor mat i on on MD S .........360
7.7 G lossar y of MD S Te r mi nology..........361
7.8 Mast e r SPSS Comput e r Pr ogr am.........364
7.9 Fr e que nc y Tab le s Pr i nt Out ...........376
7.10 Comput at i on of MD S Infor mat i on......454
L IST OF TABL ES
2.1 UK Re si de nt Tr i ps 1985-88 ............64
2.2 UK Vi si t s Ab r oad 1982-88 .............65
2.3 UK Vi si t or s t o Ot he r Count r i e s ........66
2.4 D e mogr aphi c Pr ofi le of Holi daymake r s.67
3.1 Be havi our i st /Cogni t i vi st Appr oac h .89
3.2 Mur r ay' s Classi fi c at i on of Ne e ds .....105
4.1 Tar ge t Quot a Numb e r s .................207
5.1 Tot al Sample Base ....................231
5.2 Quot a Tar ge t Numb e r s .................231
5.3 Tar ge t b y Soda-Ec onomi c G r oup .......232
5.4 Age and G e nde r of Sample .............232
5.5 Why Pe ople Want e d t o Tr ave l ..........235
5.6 What Pe ople L ooke d For war d To ........236
5.7 Compar at i ve Be ne fi t s t o UK...........238
5.8 Holi day Mot i vat i on We i ght i ng .........240
5.9 St r e ngt h of Mot i vat or Commi t me nt .....242
5.10 Re wor ke d Mot i vat i on Tab le ...........245
5.11 Rank Or de r of Mot i vat i ons ...........246
5.12 Male and Fe male Compar i sons .........248
5.13 Si ngle and Mar r i e d Compar i son .......251
5.14 Soc i o-Ec onomi c G r oup Mot i vat i on .....252
5.15 Age G r oup Mot i vat i on................253
5.16 Fi r st Evoke d Ar e a Se t ...............271
5.17 Evoke d Ar e a Se t as Pe r c e nt age .......273
5.18 Choi c e t o Evoke d Se t ................274
5.19 L i ke li hood of Vi si t .................277
5.20 D e c i si on Rule s t o Choi c e Se t ........279
5.21 Infor mat i on Sour c e s .................280
5.22 Count r y Se le c t e d t o Pe r son Type .....283
5.23 D e gr e e of D e c i si on Influe nc e ........285
6.1 Ide nt i fi e d Mot i vat i on Type s ..........309
6.2 Mot i vat or s t o Choi c e .................315
L IST OF FIG URES
1.1 Tour i sm Indust r y D i me nsi ons ......
1.2 WTO Classi fi c at i on Sc he me ........
1.3 Chadwi c k' s Classi fi c at i on Sc he me .
3.1 Plog' s Psyc hogr aphi c Type s .......
3.2 Husb and and Wi fe D e c i si on Role s..
3.3 The Ni c osi a Mode l ................
3.4 The EKB Mode l ....................
3.5 The Howar d-She t h Mode l ...........
3.6 The Howar d-Ost lund Mode l .........
.9
....21
.37
. . 109
.127
. .132
.135
. .140
....l42
p a g e v i
3.7 She th Fa mi ly Buye r Mode l ........
3.8 The Schmoll Mode l ...............
3.9 The Ma thi e son-Wa ll Mode l ........
3 . 10 The Mouti nho Mode l .............
4.1 Possi ble Re se a rch De si g ns .......
4.2 Log i ca l Emp i ri ci sm Flow Mode l ........177
4.3 Fa lsi fi ca ti on Mode l ..................180
4.4 Qua li ta ti v e /Qua nti ta ti v e Comp a re d. . . .183
145
149
155
159
171
LIST OF GRAPHS
4.5 Sta g e s of Re se a rch Study........
4.6 Surv e y Typ e Comp a ri son..........
4.7 De v e lop me nt of Pre fe re nce s ......

199
4.8 Multi Di me nsi ona l Ap p roa che s .....

214
5.1 Kruska ll's Stre ss Va lue s ........

257
6.1 De ci si on Pha se s .................

300
6.2 Dyna mi c Mode l of Holi da y Choi ce .

301
6.3 Inte rp re ta ti on of MDS Plots .....

318
6.4 Choi ce Hi e ra rchy of Se ts ........

327
5.1 Pri ma ry Se lf Moti v a tors ..............239
5.2 Sp re a d of Moti v a ti on Re sp onse ........241
5.3 Moti v a ti on Commi tme nt ................244
5.4 Ma le a nd Fe ma le Moti v a tors ...........249
5.5 Ev oke d Are a Se ts .....................272
5.6 Choi ce to Ev oke d Comp a ri son..........275
5.7 Li ke li hood of a Vi si t i n Thre e Yrs. .278
5.8 De ci si on Informa ti on Source s .........281
5.9 Concorda nce ov e r Holi da y De ci si on .287
5.10 De ci si on to Tra v e l by Ge nde r........290
5.11 De ci si on to Vi si t De sti na ti on.......291
5.12 De ci si on ov e r Tri p Le ng th...........293
5.13 Fi na nci a l De ci si on by Ge nde r........294
5.14 The Fi na l De ci si on by Ge nde r........295
6.1 Column Ba r of All Moti v a tors .........307
6.2 Full Group e d Moti v a tors i nto Tri a d. . .308
6.3 Ma le s' Group e d Tri a d.................311
6.4 Fe ma le s' Group e d Tri a d...............312
6.5 ABC1 Group e d Tri a d...................313
6.6 C2DE Group e d Tri a d...................314
6.7 De ci si on Pri ori ty Sca le ..............321
6.8 Fle xi ble a nd Infle xi ble Sca le ........322
6.9 Choi ce a nd Ev oke d Se t Comp a ri son.....326
6.10 De ci si on Rule s of Choi ce Se t........329
6.11 Ke y Informa ti on Source s .............332
6.12 Re sp onde nt v a lue s a nd Choi ce ........334
LIST OF PLOTS
5.1 Q7 Nonli ne a rFi t Plot................262
5.2 Q7 Li ne a rFi t Plot ...................263
5.3 Q7 Tra nsforma ti on of Da ta ............264
5.4 Q7 Sp a ti a l Confi g ura ti on Plot ........265
5.5 Q9 Nonli ne a rFi t Plot................266
5.6 Q9 Li ne a rFi t Plot...................267
5.7 Q9 Tra nsforma ti on of Da ta ............268
5.8 Q9 Sp a ti a l Confi g ura ti on Plot ........269
page vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This thesis would not be complete without my acknowledging some
of the guilt that is felt in relation to all those who have
suffered to varying degrees in support of the work. I therefore
thank Louise and Alexis for muffling their music and not
expecting too much of me in the active periods when I was totally
absorbed in work; Jean for the endless cups of coffee and my
relations who saw less of me than is right or polite.
I would like to extend my thanks to my colleagues who found the
time to take an interest in this work, especially Graham Parlett
who had enough confidence in the research and myself to provide
some respite from the administration duties of the university.
Finally I am indebted to James Thomson and Cohn Hales. James for
a scientist's attention to detail and the provision of a
continuous sense of timing and progress. However, his ceaseless
belief in my abilities and my respect for him motivated me to
even greater planes. Cohn for challenging my philosophical
argument to ensure it was grounded in logic, and most of all for
keeping me smiling and sane, especially during the most difficult
periods of the research, with his special brand of humour.
Lastly I would like to include an appreciation of all those
students and researchers who have spent lonely days and sleepless
nights in order to provide the world with a keener sense of its
being and a basis on which I could construct this study.
A STUDY OF THE FACTORS OF
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RELATED TO
OVERSEAS' HOLIDAYS FROM THE UK
The'rask,aidReiifitsaf
page 1
The Task and the Benefits Derived from the Research Study
Any thesis which sets out to identify the factors of consumer
behaviour affecting overseas tourism demand is going to have to
come to terms with a multifaceted phenomenon. Tourism and
consumer behaviour are both broad areas which have been developed
as domains of knowledge since the beginning of the 1960s. As
such, both are still in their infancy with regard to theoretical
and empirical work. The paucity of previous studies has meant
that this thesis required an emphasis on the examination of prior
published text in order to evaluate the merit of its acceptance.
The early part of this thesis is underpinned with one basic
objective. The focus has been that of critically examining the
factors involved in the creation of a model which would explain
certain aspects of the demand from consumer groups for tourism
products. This involves an assessment of existing theory whereby
strengths and weaknesses are exposed. The final research and
discussion benefit from, and build on the background of tourism
and consumer behaviour theory which is examined in the early
section of this thesis. As part of the process of the development
of new theory and with the finalisation of the study it is felt
the following major achievements have emerged:
1. A purposeful, practical body of knowledge in relation to
solving the problems of identifying the process of consumer
demand for tourism products has been gathered. The
strength of this study is the amount of new information
which has been collected.
2.
The investigation was scientifically grounded upon research
and analysis and therefore its methodology may be of
interest to others who want to research the area.
Tht'Iakand8ifitsof p a g e 2
3. The study ha s a tte mp te d to p rovide some e xp la na tion a s to
wha t tourism a nd consume r be ha viour consists of in te rms of
e sse ntia l e le me nts a nd the ir re la tionship s.
4. Cla rifica tion wa s soug ht be twe e n the orie s to p rovide
cla rity a nd consiste ncy of thoug ht in re la tion to the
subje ct a re a .
5. Fina lly, a tte mp ts we re ma de to de ve lop ne w the ory a nd
mode ls for the p roce ss of consume r de ma nd for tourism,
ba se d up on the me thodolog y a nd re sults.
The re ma y a lso be se conda ry be ne fits re la te d to the study:
a ) It ma y be va lua ble for consume rs to de ve lop a more
informe d unde rsta nding of the ir own a ction.
b) Pra ctitione rs in the Tourism Industry ma y be a ble
to imp rove the ir ma rke ting stra te g ie s.
C) Public p olicy ma ke rs ma y be a ble to g a in a more
a ccura te unde rsta nding of the tourism de ma nd
p roce ss.
CHAPTER ONE
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN THE MEANING
OF TOURISM
page 4
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES IN THE MEANING OF TOURISM
This chapter investigates the nature of tourism. It considers
both the use of tourism as a concept in contemporary definitions
as well as the meanings related to tourism practice.
The objective of the chapter is to identify whether current
meanings of tourism are of use for this study, or whether there
is a need to reformulate the meanings in the light of new
understandings or insights.
Introduction
Tourism as a domain of study has, in the main, provided
descriptive analysis based on the narrow 'world view' of various
early tourism authors. This author believes there is a
requirement for theorists to question and change current theory.
Following on from this the task may have to be linked to the
principal premise that there is a need to expand the concept of
tourism by developing a deeper understanding of the consumer of
the tourism product. Contemporary tourism theory has to accept
that narrow operative views of tourism behaviour may be
inappropriate. This author believes the scope, content and role
of being a tourist is often misperceived and this causes
significant conceptual problems.
In developing the arguments within this chapter it will be
established by the researcher that the more traditional view of
tourist behaviour is perhaps too simplistic and could be rejected
and replaced with a new understanding of the tourist as a
consumer who demonstrates particular actions of behaviour. These
actions related to the role of a tourist involve the needs,
motivation, attitudes, values, personality and perceptions linked
to travel, which all lead to specific preferences for tourism-
related activities.
chpteP : cbpage 5
To approach the subject in a scientific manner it is not
necessary to establish facts, test a hypothesis or construct some
a priori theory. Initially it is important to identify the
peculiar nature and concepts of tourism as a particular
phenomenon.
However, it is important to recognise that tourism as a
phenomenon is based upon a social meaning system and has no
substantial property, no real form, or ways of changing. Our
understanding of tourism relies on theorists to attribute a
particular nature, and to identify component parts. The
interpretation of what tourism is, emanates from the way it has
been, and continues to be constructed within our own individual
meaning systems.
This chapter will attempt to argue for a social grounding and
definition for tourism. However, in order to provide a
definition of tourism we need to examine the construction of
different ideas or meanings emanating from the current practice
of industry and the contemporary ideas of theorists. The
approach required, as with the work of all theorists has to be
a filtering out of the unimportant from an array of valid
attributes which make up the daily routines of what we currently
term tourism. From these attributes we can develop universal
statements and explanations. The definitions should therefore
emanate from the process of tourism and be grounded in its
nature.
This chapter recognizes that tourism is concerned with economic,
epistemological and social issues and it attempts to provide
analysis of the conceptual basis for these perspectives.
Moreover it attempts to create a new consensus or paradigm in
which a social definition will be found to be acceptable.
page 6
Scope, nature and meaning of tourism
The underlying objective of this chapter is to examine the need
for the development and expansion of a consumer behaviour
approach within tourism. As it will be argued, the analysis
shows there is gap within current approaches. Therefore, it is
believed that extra emphasis must be placed on a social action,
activity-based understanding of tourism behaviour within the
wider field of recreation. As a starting point it is necessary
to ground this examination of tourism in an understanding of just
what it is that we define and label as tourism.
Various definitions, concepts and descriptions of tourism arise
from the multidisciplinary nature of the topic. As a relatively
new subject area tourism has needed to draw on other disciplines
in order to develop theoretical and empirical roots. This has led
to a body of knowledge and domain of study which have been formed
from the melting-pot of Geography, Economics, Sociology,
Psychology, Business Science and Anthropology.
Within these disciplines, some tourism theorists work from the
perspective of believing that either supply (those interested in
the technical or economic aspects of measurement) or demand
(those utilizing social action or a behaviourial approach of
understanding) is the more fruitful basis for academic activity.
Modern marketing philosophy emphasizes the need to understand the
consumer through demand analysis prior to creating the
appropriate supply of the product. In planning, marketing has
to collect information from both areas so as to assess consumer
needs, trends, market worth, competition etc.
When we speak of tourism we need to remember that inherent in the
term is a meaning which constitutes both tourist and industry.
Each of these associations renders the meaning of tourism
unclear. This is because neither is discrete, unambiguous or
easily identified. Tourism encompasses the act of a tour and of
travel, providing meanings of action within the concept of
tourism as well as the more normal use of tourism as a noun.
page 7
There is a lack of consistency in the definitions of traveller,
tourist and visitor within tourist literature and in addition
some confusion over the boundaries of leisure and recreational
activities.
The use of the term tourism has led to a range of complex
meanings which have become associated with: the movement of
people; a sector of the economy; an identifiable industry;
services which need to be provided for travellers. Wahab (1971)
views this complex combination as a s y stem that relates to the
sociosphere and interrelated industries and trades. Much of what
we define as tourism has its roots in early economic requirements
where income and expenditure figures were gathered in order to
carry out economic analysis. This is less straightforward than
it seems, as there has to be a distinction made between those
services and goods provided solely for tourist consumption as
opposed to other types of consumers. If we recognize that
retailing, hospitality, transport, attractions, etc. which are
treated as tourism industry services, supply to other market
segments other than just tourists then we can begin to understand
why it is difficult, if not impossible, to isolate resources,
revenues and returns which are attributable solely to tourism.
The problem we face with tourism is that in defining its industry
we attempt to isolate a particular type of consumer (i.e., the
tourist as opposed to the local shopper, local traveller etc.)
and we do not focus on the wider aspects of the provider or
producer of the service.
The problem in the development of meaning for the word tourism
is that it is used as a single term to designate a variety of
concepts. The essence of tourism is to be found in a combination
of factors conveying ideas of both industry and tourism
typologies. The confusion and ignorance relating to the
combination of these factors can only be resolved when a clearer
exposition is given of the subject area.
-page 8
The dimension and nature of the tourism industry provides for a
complex set of interrelating services for the tourist. Figure
1.1 indicates the range of inputs required to sustain the
necessary set of services for a modern tourism industry. The
dimension of the tourism industry includes the core product
components of transport, attractions, accommodation and catering.
In addition there are the peripheral public and private services
which are necessary to facilitate the overall operation of the
tourism industry. It is often surprising to find that those
employed in the Tourism Industry have little conception of the
breadth and depth of the component sectors which make up the
dimensions identif led in figure 1.1.
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page 9
FIGURE 1. 1 THE DIMENSIONS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
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page 10
A INVESTIGATION OF THE DEFINITIONS LINKED TO TOURISM
There are various definitions of tourism which can be placed in
the context of their conceptual basis. The particular concern
and perspective of each individual theorist has led to the
evolution of a number of different definitions for the phenomenon
of tourism.
If we begin our understanding of tourism by reference to
Webster's Dictionar y we find that the term tourist is said to be
derived from the word 'tour' meaning 'a journey at which one
returns to the starting point; a circular trip usually for
business, pleasure or education during which various places are
visited and for which an itinerary is usually planned. Such a
definition provides for a number of motives for travel, each of
which creates different market needs.
It is important to recognise that many of the definitions, which
have been commonly referred to, emphasize the tourist as either
an object or a unit of expenditure rather than a reflexive
subject being.
In outlining a number of definitions which have been used to
clarify the underlying concepts of tourism it is sensible to
identify how other theorists have classified the subject.
Burkhart and Medlik (1974) and later Heeley (1980) approached the
classification of definitions of tourism from the premise that
there are two main groups within which definitions broadly fall.
The first area identified is that of conceptual definitions which
attempt to elucidate the essential nature of tourism as an
activity. The second group comprised technical definitions
within which there are a designation of types of tourist and of
what constitutes tourism activity. The technical definitions
allow various agencies to compile statistical measurements of
activity. Buck (1978) followed by Leiper (1979) expanded the
typologies of conceptual and technical to include the addition
page 11
of holistic definitions which embrace the whole essence of the
subject area and allow for both an interdisciplinary and
multidisciplinary approach.
A review of the literature reveals that technical rather than
conceptual definitions were utilized in the initial attempts to
clarify the phenomenon of tourism. Because of this we find many
early definitions of tourism ignore its social nature.
Early definitions
Indications of early definitions, utilizing a technical
perspective, can be found through the examination of the work of
particular economists. For example, in 1910 an Austrian
economist, Herman Von Schullard, defined tourism from this
perspective:
'the sum total of operations, mainly of economic
nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and
movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain
country, city or region'.
Wahab (1971) quotes Edmond Picard, Professor of Economics , who
stated that:
'The function of tourism is to import currency from foreign
resources into the country. Its impact is what tourism
expenditures can do to the different sectors of the economy
and in particular the hotel-keepers.'
Early definitions give us very little insight into the nature of
tourism or why people travel. At this time individual countries
had no consensus as to what tourism involved.
page 12
The need for an international definition of a tourist was
satisfied in 1937 by a committee of statistical experts at the
League of Nations. They defined a tourist:
'as one who travels for a period of 24 hours or more in a
country other than that in which he usually resides.'
This definition included as 'purpose of visit' those travelling
for business as well as pleasure, health or family reasons. It
also included cruise visitors even if they were staying less than
24 hours. It excluded persons travelling to establish a
residence or to take up an occupation, or those who were
travelling to study abroad and persons who were commuters
travelling to work. The definition clarified that persons who
arrived at a destination for a period of less than 24 hours
should be classified as excursionists.
The principal weaknesses of this new definition were its
exclusion of the domestic tourist and its lack of understanding
of what it means to be a tourist.
During the next 30 years the position did not alter
substantially. However, there was a divergence between those who
wanted to measure the volume and value of tourism and those who
wanted to include the nature of tourism in order to create a
broader understanding of the essence of the phenomenon.
The need for governments to obtain a comprehensive definition of
the tourist led to an acceptance of the more general term
'visitor'. In connection with this Murphy (1985) argued that the
definition most widely recognized and used was that produced by
the 1963 United Nations Conference on Travel and Tourism in Rome.
The definition provided at this conference was adopted in 1968
by the International Union of Official Travel Organizations
(IUOTO) which was later to become the World Tourism Organization
(WTO). In the adoption of the definition it was recommended that
the term visitor should be divided into the two categories of
page 13
tourists and excursionists. Tourists would be classified as
those making overnight stays and excursionists as those who were
on day visits.
The definition stated that a visitor was:
'any person visiting a country other than that in which he
has his usual place of residence, for any reason other than
following an occupation remunerated from within the country
visited'.
Within this definition it can be seen that the emphasis for
tourism concerns travellers who made visits to foreign countries
whether it was for pleasure, business or a combination of the
two. A major feature of the definition was its provision for
internationally accepted categories against which expenditure
could be attributed. The concept of this approach involved
economic comparison between countries and regions, with the
emphasis being placed more on the benefits rather than the costs
or needs of tourism. The adoption of definitions similar to that
of the WTO creates meanings for tourism linked to economic
exchange or market activity. This creates object rather than
subject-based associations. As the tourist is part of the
subject world, we should consider the benefits of &LterctatLe
approaches or definitions which balance out the need for both
measurement and tourist identity.
Emergence of a Broader Concept - the Holistic Approach
Walter Hunziker and Kurt Krapf, in their general theory of
tourism published in 1942, attempted to distil the essence of
tourism as both a human and economic activity. Their approach
was subsequently developed by Burkart and Medlik (1974). They
defined the subject of tourism as:
'the totality of relationships and phenomena linked with
the stay of foreigners in a locality provided they do not
exercise a major, permanent or temporary remunerated
activity', (translated from Hunziker, 1942).
-page 14
The work of Hunziker and Krapf is the base upon which later
definitions were built. They viewed tourism as a composite
phenomenon embracing a whole range of different relationships
between travellers and the host population. Tourists are
represented as transitory, embarking on short-term, temporary
visits as distinct from those individuals who migrate and arrive
for the purpose of long-term visits. It is probably fair to
assert that Hunziker and Krapf's ideas of relationships were
incorporated into later ideas of tourism, and that therefore they
had a partial influence on the modern concept of tourism.
However their definition from a technical point of view was weak.
While it introduced ideas concerning the social nature of
tourism, it relied on the use of accommodation as a necessary
component of tourism and it stipulated that only those following
a remunerated occupation within the country visited would be
excluded from tourism measurements.
Burkart and Medlik (1974) in their endeavour to clarify the
situation in the early 1970s, proposed that it would be useful
to distinguish between the conceptual and the technical aspects
of definitions of tourism.
The basis of their argument revolved around the need to
distinguish tourism as a unique domain of study. If they could
provide definitions and concepts of tourism which distinguished
the subject from other activities and phenomena, it would
establish the phenomenon as a separate discipline of study. As
both authors were leading figures in the development of a
Department of Management Studies for Tourism at Surrey
University, they were eager to develop a theoretical framework
which would identify and at the same time create boundaries
encompassing the particular characteristics of tourism.
They stated that the concept of tourism provides a notional
theoretical framework which identifies the essential
characteristics of the activity, and that the technical
definitions evolved through experience over time.These
page 15
technical definitions were developed to provide instruments for
particular statistical, legislative and industrial purposes.
Each of the different technical definitions is seen to be
appropriate for different purposes.
This view of evolutionary definitions grounded in practical
application would seem to hold. In 1979 the British Tourism
Society adopted a definition of tourism based upon the work of
Burkart and Medlik, which in turn was drawn from earlier widely
accepted definitions:
'Tourism is deemed to include any activity concerned with
the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations
outside the places where they normally live and work, and
their activities during the stay at these destinations'.
Within this definition we can identify the inclusion of those
activities which are involved in the stay or visit to the
destination. There is also no insistence on overnight stays or
foreign visits, and it allows for domestic as well as day visits.
Burkart and Medlik's definition stands in sharp contrast to
definitions adopted by others. For example, in certain countries
researchers were more concerned about distance travelled away
from home than tourist activities. In order to compile figures
for day visitors some found it necessary to provide guidelines
as to how far 'outside the places where they normally live and
work' would constitute the spatial distance of particular types
of tourism. In 1979 the Australian Bureau of Industry Economics
placed constraints of length of stay and distance travelled on
its definition of a tourist:
'A person visiting a location at least 40 kilometres from
his usual place of residence, for a period of at least 24
hours and not exceeding twelve months'.
page 16
Definitions emphasizing the spatial nature of tourism have also
been produced in the United States and Canada, where tourist
trips are defined as being over 100 miles and 50miles
respectively (Miii, 1985).
One further definition which requires some discussion is the one
utilized by The International Association of Scientific Experts
in Tourism (AIEST) who in 1981 adopted the following definition
from a proposal made by Kaspar:
'The entirety of interrelations and phenomena which result
from people travelling to, and stopping at places which are
neither their main continuous domiciles nor place of work'.
This definition includes the spatial and dynamic aspects required
for any adequate representation of tourism, but while it captures
the concept of tourism it does not allow technical differences
to be made by purpose of visit.
Epistemological Approaches
There is one other approach which requires exposition. Some
authors, such as Jafari (1977), emphasize knowledge-based
approaches to the concept of tourism. Jafari creates a holistic
definition stressing the concept of a study of man:
'Tourism is the study of man away from his usual
habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs,
and of the impacts that both he and industry have on
the host's socio-cultural, economic and physical
environments'.
page 17
Theoretical Implications of Current Tourism Definitions
The following fundamentals can be distilled from the various
definitions:
1. Spatial/Dynamic. Tourism involves the movement of
people from one location to another outside of their
own community. The movement predominantly corresponds
with the use of some form of transportation due to the
distances covered.The spatial element, following the
work of Gunn (1972); Matley (1976); Dann (1977); and
Leiper (1979) can be broken down into three additional
elements:
a) Origin and features of the area from which the tourist
travels (normal base) and to which he returns.
b) Locations which become tourist destinations, regions
or host areas due to the attraction of visitors on a
temporary basis.
C)The transit req Ion or route.
origin of travel and final destination through which
the visitor will have to travel.
2. Activity. People at tourist destinations demand a range of
activities, experiences and facilities.
3. Social. People enter into a complex system of interacting
relationships. The effects of 1. and 2. above and the
different needs and motivations of visitors create a social
impact which can be both positive and negative.
4. Economic. Income is generated by the sector of the economy
known as the tourism industry.
A range of implications are associated with these concepts:
1.Due to the importance of day visitors (excursionists) there
should be nothing in a definition of tourism which
restricts it to only overnight stays.
page 18
2. A definition should not restrict the total market to those
who travel for leisure and pleasure. There are important
market segments where visits away from home for business,
religious, health, educational etc. purposes create high
levels of demand.
3. While tourism involves the element of travel, we have to be
careful not to include commuter or regular local travel to
neighbourhood facilities such as schools and shops.
4. Tourism involves the temporary movement of individuals who
travel away from their own community and then return.
5. Certain theorists stress that tourism is epistemological in
its basis rather than simply economic.
Statistical Classifications - the Technical Approach
The definitions of tourism discussed so far, while providing an
indication of what needs to be extracted in relation to the
underlying concepts, do not clarify what is included in the
classification of measurement. In order to distinguish the
tourist from other travellers in tourism Morley (1990), proposed
the following clarification:
1) Temporary, to distinguish it from the permanent travel of
the tramp or nomad;
2) Voluntary, to distinguish it from the forced travel of the
exile and refugee;
3) Round trip, to distinguish it from the one-way journey of
the migrant;
4) Relatively long, to distinguish it from the trip of the
excursionist or tripper;
5) Non-recurrent, to distinguish it from the recurrent trips
of the holiday house owner;
6) Non-instrumental, to distinguish it from the travel as a
means to another end such as the business travelling sales
representative or pilgrims;
page 19
7 ) For novelty and change, to distinguish it from travel for
other purposes such as study.
In 1983 the WTO updated its classification by creating a clearer
distinction between residents and non-residents. This was
required because it is only non-residents who are visitors within
international travel.
Residents are those persons returning from a visit abroad
(including foreign nationals having their usual place of
residence in the country) .
International Visitors are defined as any people visiting a
country other than that in which they have a usual place of
residence, for not more than one year, and whose main purpose of
visit is other than following an occupation remunerated from
within the country visited. The category of International
Visitors is subdivided into: International Tourists and
International Excursionists.
International Tourists are international visitors staying at
least 24 hours but not more than one year in the country visited
and the purpose of whose trip may be classified under one of the
following headings:
a) Pleasure, recreation, holiday, sport;
b) Business, visiting friends and relatives, (VFR) ,
mission, meeting, conference, health, studies, religion.
The International Tourist category includes crew members who
visit or stop ov in the country and use its accommodation
facilities.
International Excursionists are international visitors staying
less than 24 hours in the country visited. Also treated as a
subset within international excursionists are visiting crew
members who do not use the country's accommodation facilities.
page 20
Domestic travel only became a subject of interest to the
international agencies in the late 1970s. The WTO recommended
some tentative definitions in its first publication on Domestic
Tourism Statistics (1978(b)). These were subsequently updated
and approved in 1983, when a definition was produced: Domestic
Visitors are any persons, regardless of nationality, resident of
a country and who travel to a place within the same country for
not more than one year and whose main purpose of visit is other
than following an occupation remunerated from within the place
visited. The category of domestic visitors is sub-divided into
domestic tourists and domestic excursionists.
Domestic tourists are domestic visitors staying at least 24
hours, but not more than one year, in the place visited and the
purpose of whose trip can be classified under one of the
following headings:
a) Pleasure, recreation, holiday, sport;
b) Business, visiting friends and relatives, (VFR),
mission, meeting, conference, health, studies, religion.
Domestic Excursionists are domestic visitors staying less than
24 hours in the place visited.
The WTO observed that one other element not included in this
definition but usually employed in national definitions is a
minimum distance criterion. These distance criteria (which have
been discussed in more detail earlier) have been incorporated to
eliminate local travel or short trips which would not correspond
to domestic tourism statistics. Figure 1.2 clarifies the WTO
classification for tourism.
page 21
FIGURE 1.2 THE WORLD TOURISM ORGANISATION'S CLASSIFICATION SCHEME
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Measurement Issues
The focus of the preceding WTO definition becomes the compilation
of statistics from the commercial accommodation sector. It can
be arg ued that this places an emphasis on economic supply
analysis whereas more account should be taken of the various
consumer features which produce variables in demand.
For example, holiday tourism is paid for out of discretionary
income and is therefore sensitive to ag g ressive pricing . There
are features of family life that lead to seasonal demand
patterns, differing leng ths of stay and resort-based decisions.
Ag e and socio-economic variables produce demand variables based
upon short stay, patterns of visits and destination or number of
holidays taken. The VFR market often stays for long er periods
and is more price sensitive to travel than many other g roups.
The VFR market is obviously less likely to use commercial
accommodation or be influenced by promotion.
Business tourism, on the other hand, is normally less sensitive
to price and more sensitive to service. It is oriented to urban
locations and major cities and is influenced by exhibitions,
conferences and trade fairs as well as commercial activity. The
demand patterns are relatively stable year-round with visits
being characterized by short stays.
Current definitions of tourism have been derived for the
economist, and are not adequate for marketers. The terminolog y
places an emphasis on the simplistic characterization of demand.
It stresses homog eneity: One industry - tourism; One categ ory of
consumer...tourist. There are technical definitions of types of
tourist, which were examined earlier in this chapter, but these
are limited to only five major categ ories. To date the approach
has led to a predomintly reductionist perspective of the
phenomenon and the mapping out of an area of study which may not
be ideal for the marketer. By definition all tourism involves
travel yet not all travel is tourism; tourism is part of leisure
page 23
and recreation yet the majority of this type of activity is home-
centred or local to the home. The use of the motor car for
shopping allows major distances to be covered on a regular basis;
there is no distinction between reasons for the movement of
people which restricts the terminology to movement rather than
motivation or product needs. The tourism industry is treated as
a composite whole, yet it is an amalgam of different service
industries providing satisfaction for a wide range of needs.
Tourism as a generic term provides a simplistic focal point of
activity which may not characterize the overall functions of its
definition. An independent tourist will purchase a number of
products from different service providers who may also be in the
business of transporting goods, catering for local functions or
providing public facilities such as toilets and parking for local
inhabitants. The tourist's trip may include the experience of
a local festival even though it may have been intended purely for
local consumption and was not part of an industry structure.
The phenomena of tourism would seem to comprise a range of
products formed from the segmented portions of the larger
industries. The segmented approach to tourism could then be
improved by splitting demand into broader areas. This
perspective reclaims overall areas of human activity rather than
placing importance on the spatial movement of people. Some
segments would consume both local and distant products and there
would be no difference between the demand for products based on
temporary short-term movements of people to destinations outside
the places where they normally live and work and demand from
local inhabitants.
The advantage of this point of view is that from a marketing
standpoint we can more easily understand the overall objectives
and policies of major providers where tourism is not their main
market segment. It is more efficient for marketing to focus upon
place, transport, accommodation, attractions and organizers
within an overall plan for targeting the local and distant
page 24
consumers. For example, a good health club or restaurant would
attract certain segments at varying distances from its premises.
Marketing as a philosophy cannot be efficient in aiding the
management of peripheral companies in tourism if it provides
input solely to the parts, without consideration of the whole.
The heart of the argument is that greater consideration should
be given to demand segmentation and activity preferences in the
analysis of tourism, whether at an international or domestic
level. In addition, if management enterprises in tourism (Figure
1.1) are to be successful in developing marketing plans then they
need to understand the nature and behaviour of each of the
segments they attempt to satisfy. This will probably cut across
demarcations of tourist, excursionist or recreationalist as these
descriptions provide an inadequate basis for management planning.
For example, an attraction in a popular resort area will identify
those of local origin of visit as potential tourists. The
distant target market for these types of attractions will be
excursionists living up to two hours' driving time away. The
tourist in this instance is treated from a promotional viewpoint
as part of the local target community.
The real benefit of a social activity or consumer approach to
tourism is that it helps overcome the compartmentalization of the
areas of leisure, recreation and tourism (LRT). Felder (1987)
has argued that definitional problems of LRT have hindered many
attempts to clarify and specify theoretical relationships between
the three concepts. He argues that leisure and recreation have
proceeded as one camp and tourism as another. The overlaps
between LRT are obvious and therefore progress can only be made
if theorists attempt to develop meanings which integrate the
function, form and process of tourism as an encompassing social
activity, with the consumer as its main focus and perspective.
This does not dispense with measurement of expenditure or the
monitoring of benefits achieved through movements of visitors.
A social activity-based definition for tourism can incorporate
methods of economic data collection.
page 25
DISCUSSION OF TOURISM INDUSTRY, PRODUCT TERMINOLOGY AND
CLASSIFICATION
A Tourism Industry?
One of the benefits of identifying any underlying pattern of
consumer behaviour for tourism has to be the improvement which
can be gained in marketing within the tourism industry. However,
it is necessary to examine whether there is an industry that will
be able to benefit from any advance in consumer theory.
Lickorish (1970) described tourism as '... the movement of
people, a market rather than an industry....', and in 1988 as
...' a movement of people, a demand force and not a single
industry' (1988, Jefferson and Lickorish).
There will probably be continuous debate over the question of
whether tourism constitutes an industry. Industries are made up
of firms which produce the same product or groups of products so
that the consumer regards these as ideal substitutes for one
another even though the products may differ slightly. However,
Medlik (1972) argued that 'a firm may consist of more than one
establishment and operate in more than one industry'. Clearly
we either need to revise our perception of what constitutes
tourism or find some incorporation of ideas, first as to how
establishments as well as firms make up an industry, and second
as to how there can be some overlap between different industries.
Some authors have accepted that tourism is treated as an
industry. Wahab (1971) wrote '...For the country concerned,
tourism is an industry whose "products" are consumed on the spot
forming invisible exports....'.
In his later work (1975) Wahab proposed that 'any product,
whether tangible or intangible, that serves to gratify certain
human needs should be considered an industrial product' and that
'if a bond of product unity exists between various firms and
organizations in a way that characterized their overall function
and determines their place in economic life, they should be
page 26
considered an industry'. The system which serves tourism is
often referred to as a business or industry by other authors
(Lundberg, 1976; McIntosh, 1977).
What makes tourism so difficult to define is the very broad
nature of both the concept and service inputs. In Figure 1.1,
for example, we can see that tourism envelops various other
industries such as the airline, rail, cruise, accommodation and
food service industries. It also involves tour wholesalers,
retailers and attractions as well as a range of public services.
As Young (1973) stated:
tit
is a heterogeneous group embracing
a large variety of trades and industries which have the supplying
of travellers' needs as their common function' and that 'it is
wrong to believe that tourism has a recognizable shape with
neatly interlocking components'.
Rather than examine the structure of the tourism system some
authors examine the product or output. Because tourism does not
produce a distinct product some economists, such as Chadwick
(1981), argue that it cannot exist as an industry. As
Papadopolis (1986) has outlined, tourism in the conventional
sense is not a market. It does not sell simply one product and
there is no single sector involved. We can also identify the
free, natural, non-industrial, intangible resource which provides
input to the product. Free resources such as climate, beaches,
scenic views, host culture and certain other intangibles are
inherently non-industrial. In addition, tourists may travel to
a destination without paying the transport costs due to a free
lift and then stay with friends and relations. This category of
tourists organizes its own trip and is not part of the tourism
industry. It is also difficult to determine what constitutes the
tourism industry because some of the services listed in Figure
1.1 are crucial to tourism while others are only supportive.
Furthermore, some services such as catering and transport provide
for a whole range of people other than what can be described as
a minority of tourists.
c h a p t e t 'ic e p :t ua

page 27
Be c a use t ourism is diffic ult t o de fine c le a rly due t o t h e
e xp a nsive sp re a d of t h e a c t ivit ie s it c ove rs, t h e re is a p roble m
in de t e rmining t o wh a t e xt e nt it fa lls wit h in t h e c ont e xt of a n
indust ry. Th e p roble m is t h a t t ourism is t re a t e d a s a n h olist ic
c onc e p t wh e n in a c t ua l fa c t it is c h a ra c t e rize d by a n e xt re me ly
fra gme nt e d fra me work of indust rie s, bodie s a nd t ourist ic
a c t ivit y.
Mill a nd Morrison (1985) p re fe r t o t h ink of t ourism a s a n
a c t ivit y ra t h e r t h a n a n indust ry. Howe ve r we ne e d t o be a r in
mind t h a t t h ose a c t ivit ie s wh ic h go t o ma ke up t ourism do h a ve
a ma jor be ne fic ia l e ffe c t on ma ny world e c onomie s. Wit h in t h e se
c ount rie s t ourism busine sse s c onst it ut e some of t h e la rge st
single e c onomic group s t o be found t h rough out t h e world.
In summa ry, t ourism wh ile h a ving no c le a r bounda ry de line a t ions
or c onc ise c onc e p t ua l c la rific a t ion doe s, due t o t h e ove ra ll size
a nd imp a c t of sp a t ia l a nd t e mp ora l move me nt s of p e op le wit h
va rying se rvic e ne e ds for sh e lt e r, sust e na nc e , e nt e rt a inme nt a nd
t ra ve l, p roduc e t h e ba sis of a n indust ry. Th is indust ry is
c le a rly de fine d for t h e 'c e nt ra l se rvic e s' of a irline s,
wh ole sa le rs, h ot e ls, e t c . but not for t h ose p roviding p e rip h e ra l
se rvic e s. Th e la rge r t ourism c omp a nie s p roviding 'c e nt ra l
se rvic e s' a re e mba rking up on st ra t e gie s of ve rt ic a l or h orizont a l
int e gra t ion wh ic h st re ngt h e n t h e ide a of t ourism a s a n indust ry.
If ma jor c omp a nie s c re a t e st ronge r bonds wit h inc re a se d p roduc t
unit y t h is will ult ima t e ly c re a t e more ne e d for t ourism indust ry
t e rminology. Wh ile it would a p p e a r t h a t t h e se c h a nge s in
indust ry st ruc t ure ma y h e lp fut ure c la rific a t ion we sh ould be
a wa re t h a t p e rip h e ra l se rvic e indust rie s a re be c oming
inc re a singly c omp le x, a s a re ma ny ot h e r sup p lie rs in t h e t e rt ia ry
se rvic e se c t or. We sh ould not be surp rise d t o find t h a t in t h e
fut ure it ma y be fa r more diffic ult t o a sc e rt a in t h e sup p ly
c h a ra c t e rist ic s of diffe re nt t yp e s of e c onomic a c t ivit y. Th is
h a s le d t h e orist s t o se a rc h for obje c t ive me t h ods of me a sure me nt
by c onc e nt ra t ing on se c t or a na lysis out p ut .
thptePcbeptpage 28
Smith (1988) implicitly agrees with the notion of a tourism
industry and like Medlik (1988), has formulated an operational
measurement for tourism industry activity based upon providing
a weighting for standard industrial classifications. However,
his model, while allowing for a basis of comparison between
different industries, requires a number of assumptions to be made
in order to calculate final outputs. In his so called sup ply-
side view of defining tourism Smith identifies two tiers of
tourism business. One is seen to be composed of businesses which
serve exclusively tourists while the other is seen to serve a mix
of tourists and local residents. He argues for a definition of
tourism which will first identify it as an industry and second
allow it to conform to existing definitional standards and
conventions used in other fields.
This form of theorizing is very much in the tradition of those
stressing the technical nature of tourism. Smith assumes that
an economic or operational approach to measurement, not applied
research into action or activity, will give tourism academics
greater status in the eyes of industry and government. He goes
so far as to say that defining tourism in terms of tourists'
'actions and activities' or motivations is comparable to defining
the health care industry by defining a sick person. It would be
a sorry day for medicine when a social or holistic approach did
not view the patient as part of the process of health care.
Smith's definition for tourism cannot exist without an
understanding of what tourists do and consume. The need to
measure a fragmented, ill-defined set of services and goods
supplied under the umbrella of a tourist industry creates a need
to understand a whole range of actions. This means that Smith's
definition relies on the other approaches of social-action
theorists in order to make his own model operational.
page 29
Tourism and Travel Terminology
In the tourism literature there is an approach whereby various
authors use the words travel and tourism in combination in the
titles of their books as a compromise aimed at those who favour
the use of one word over the other, or because they believe in
both terms (for example, Foster, 1985; Niddleton, 1988). However
changes have occurred in the titles of statutory bodies, placing
greater emphasis on tourism rather than travel. These include
the World Tourism Organization, formerly The International Union
of Official Travel Organizations; and The British Tourist
Authority, previously (1969) The British Travel Association. In
1981 The United States Travel and Tourism Administration replaced
the United States Travel Service, and in 1978 The Travel Industry
Association of Canada became the Tourism Industry Association of
Canada.
Frechtling (1976) argued that the term tourist has two strikes
against it: It is too exclusive and it is pejorative in common
parlance. He went on to write that the word 'travel' has one
strike against it: It includes extraneous activity. The two
strikes of Frechtling are partly if not wholly due to the
definitional categories which provide meaning for tourist
activities.
Medlik (1988) argued that while Americans seem to prefer the term
travel this is probably not so in the rest of the world. He
cites the example of continental Europe, with German-speaking
countries adopting the modern term tourisimus rather than the
traditional but highly expressive term fremdenverkehr. But
Wynegar (1984) showed that in the USA 20 states utilized the word
travel while 33 states used the word tourism or tourist in the
titles of their organization. It would seem that there is
widespread and growing use of the word tourism and that this is
sufficient reason to accept or adopt it as a comprehensive term.
C h a p t e r 1 C o 1 e p t u a p a g e 3 0
Public perception of tourism
In u nde r st a nding t h e co nce p t s wh ich h a ve be e n u nco ve r e d, it is
imp o r t a nt t o r e co g nize t h a t t h e la y p e r so n's ide a s o f t o u r ism a r e
diffe r e nt t o t h a t o f t h e t h e o r ist . Th e p o p u la r no t io ns o ft e n
co nt r a dict t h e imp lica t io ns a nd co nce p t s p r e vio u sly discu sse d.
As Se e king s (1989), p o int s o u t t h e t r a ve l t r a de o r la yp e r so n's
ide a o f a t o u r ist is co lo u r e d by wide sp r e a d co nfu sio n a nd do e s
no t r e fle ct de finit io ns p r o vide d by g o ve r nme nt bo die s.
Th e finding s o f ma ny su r ve ys sh o w t h a t t o u r ist s a r e e qu a t e d wit h
fo r e ig n h o lida yma ke r s r a t h e r t h a n o t h e r t yp e s o f t o u r ist . Th e se
finding s a nd o t h e r su r ve ys, a ime d a t ide nt ifying t h e o p inio n o f
r e side nt s r e g a r ding t h e na t u r e a nd t yp e o f a ct ivit y a sso cia t e d
wit h t h e t o u r ist , indica t e t h a t t o u r ism is e qu a t e d wit h h o lida y
t r a ve l. To u r ist s a r e vie we d a s e it h e r fo r e ig n o r do me st ic
visit o r s o n h o lida y a nd no t a s p e o p le o n bu sine ss, p e o p le
visit ing fr ie nds a nd r e la t io ns, p e o p le p a ssing t h r o u g h t h e a r e a ,
se co nd h o me o wne r s o r da y visit o r s. Th e t yp ica l r e sp o nse t o t h e
qu e st io n 'wh a t is a t o u r ist ' is t h a t it is a p e r so n wh o is
visit ing t h e a r e a fo r le isu r e p u r p o se s. Ho we ve r , wh ile it is
incr e a sing ly a cce p t e d by t h e o r ist s t h a t t o u r ist s sh o u ld inclu de
da y visit o r s, su r ve ys co nfir m t h a t r e side nt s do no t se e t h is
a ct ivit y a s p a r t o f t o u r ism.
Th e na r r o w vie w o f t h e de finit io n o f t h e t o u r ist h a s be e n
co nfir me d in su r ve ys su ch a s t h e Wa le s To u r ist Bo a r d su r ve y,
1979; Gilbe r t 's (1988) su r ve y o f r e side nt s in Ne wp o r t ; a nd
Wa nh ill's (1987) su r ve y o f Su r r e y co u ncillo r s, wh ich r e ve a le d
t h a t 97 p e r ce nt de fine d t o u r ist s a s h o lida yina ke r s st a ying in t h e
a r e a wh ile o nly 1 5 p e r ce nt t h o u g h t t h o se p e o p le co ming t o t h e
a r e a o n bu sine ss we r e t o u r ist s. In a ddit io n, 1 4 p e r ce nt fe lt
t h a t t h o se p e o p le wh o we r e st a ying in t h e a r e a , bu t no t wo r king ,
we r e t o u r ist s. Th e co nce p t o f t o u r ism h e ld by lo ca l r e side nt s
o r lo ca l p o lit icia ns wo u ld se e m t o indica t e t h a t t h e r e is a
disp a r it y be t we e n o fficia l me a ning s a nd p o p u la r me a ning s o f t h e
page 31
term. It is therefore important to indicate to any respondents,
in tourism surveys, the categories of tourist which relate to
questions posed or measurements made regarding the term tourist
or tourism.
Tourism as a product
It is important to uncover the characteristics of tourism as a
product, as this may have important implications for the nature
of consumer behaviour.
Tourism has repeatedly been accepted as a service product by
authors of texts related to tourism (Schinoll, 1977; Foster, 1985;
Buttle, 1986; Holloway and Plant, 1988; Middleton, 1988).
However, not all authors agree that differences exist between
goods and services (Wyckham, 1975; Bonoma and Mills, 1980;
Goodfellow, 1983). Those authors who agree that there are
differences stress the characteristics of intangibility,
inseparability and perishability as making an important
difference to their management. It may not be beneficial to
enter the debate over whether tourism products are service
products or not, but there is strong support for the rationale
of applying service-product theory to tourism. The debate over
how products should be defined can be summed up by Blois- (1983)
who asserts that two knowledgeable observers, presented with the
same set of products, would not agree as to which were services.
A tourism product as the composite of all the services (see Fig.
1.1) and experiences during a stay away from home involves what
a person sees, does and consumes. It follows that the
characteristics of the tourism product are essentially the same
as those which are common to the majority of service products.
page 32
The characteristics most commonly utilized when describing
service products are:
Intangibility : Tourism is predominantly an experience which
cannot be easily demonstrated or evaluated properly prior to
purchase. This creates a number of problems for travel agents
or tourism marketers who have to communicate the benefits of the
product in order to sell it. The consumer has to anticipate the
benefits which will be derived from the purchase.
Inseparability: Tourism is consumed simultaneously with its
production. The consumer needs to be present when either the
service provider or tourism product is being delivered. This
creates problems due to lack of control over which type of
consumer will be present and perhaps spoil the enjoyment of other
tourists or how well the service provider performs their duties.
The consumption of service products is time-bound as there is
always a need to have service on offer in order to anticipate
consumer needs.
Perishability : Tourism in terms of an airline seat, hotel bed
etc. cannot be stored as the product is fixed in both time and
place. Supply therefore is perishable which leads to the high
risk nature of the tourism industry.
Some authors include heterogeneity in their classification as
this stresses the uniqueness of each service delivery. The
problem is seen to be one where standardisation is required to
take place in order to create a more predictable level of
consumer satisfaction.
Several terms can be identified as characteristics of tourism.
This author believes the earlier term of inseparability as a
feature of tourism, adequately incorporates the need to improve
service delivery and control standards. The other
characteristics associated with tourism products include amalgam,
rigidity of supply, seasonality and substitution effects.
page 33
Burkart and Medlik (1974) wrote of 'an amalgam of phenomena and
relationships' and Wahab (1976) of 'an amalgam of various
components that complement each other'. Jafari (1974) considered
the tourism market basket as the gross amalgam of goods and
services. The amalgam creates problems of complementarity where
each component part is reliant on each of the other service
inputs to create an overall satisfactory product, meaning that
each sector and facility involved in trying to satisfy the
tourist has a direct effect on demand which can affect the
overall industry. This concept was developed at an early stage
by Krippendorf (1971).
For the host destination, some aspects of tourism are rigid in
supply and impossible to change while others can only be changed
in the long term. For example, the natural environment, such as
mountains, lakes, seascapes and landscapes; and the culture,
heritage and tourist infrastructure are not responsive to the
need for change. Some aspects of the tourist industry (Figure
1.1), such as airline travel, are increasing at such a rate that
other services, such as airport facilities, cannot be developed
quickly enough to satisfy the growth in demand. There is also
a problem of rigidity of supply for most tourism service
providers in the high season, when capacity cannot be easily
increased.
Patterns of tourist demand indicate fluctuating popularity or
seasonality. Consumers of mass tourism packaged products will
switch demand and substitute one country for another.
This substitution can be in response to minor increases or
decreases in the relative prices of one country to another,
political factors or the perceived risk of physical danger.
Wahab (1976) writes of high elasticity and flexibility factors
creating changes in demand which may even create substitution in
the form of the purchase of a car rather than expenditure on
tourism.While substitution effects can be reduced by an
page 34
improvement in product benefit promotion (Gilbert, 1984), they
remain an important feature of tourism demand patterns.
Middleton and Medlik (1973) and Middleton (1988) define the
product as 'based on activity at a destination' and requiring 'a
price'. Both of these aspects are inadequate claims because the
component of travel, as well as that of free access, are excluded
from his meaning of the nature of the tourism product.
If we required a definition of the tourism product, the following
could be offered:
'An amalgam of different goods and services offered as an
activity experience to the tourist'. This understanding provides
for both payment and free access to tourism as well as the
combination of a package of components all leading to an
experiential state of consumer consumption. This is a social
understanding of the tourism product rather than one which
emanates from tourism as an industry. However, the service
elements of the amalgam inherently incorporate accommodation,
transport, attractions, etc.
Tourism products can either be commercial, with services provided
by commercial organizations in the industry (eg. tour operators,
travel agents, hotels, airlines etc.) or tourism products may be
non-commercial with services provided outside of the industry
(eg. by friends, family, second homes, favours of lifts etc.).
Commercial tourism involves the purchase of the tourism product
which Foster (1985) identifies as meaning different things to
different organizations within the tourism industry. For example,
tourism products for hotels is represented by their supply of
'guest nights, and for airlines 'seat availability' or 'passenger
miles' and for tour operators it is 'packages'.
page 35
Therefore we have to be clear that when services are provided by
coitimercial organizations they are there to facilitate tourism
product purchase and while are a part are not the whole tourism
product.
Burkart and Medlik
clearly define what tourist buy as the
following (1981):
"What tourists buy ; in a wider sense tourist products
are amalgams of what tourists do at the destinations
and of the facilities and services they use to make it
possible (the destination products); the total tourism
product includes also accessibility to the
destination. ." (p320)
Tourist Activity
While any demand for tourism should include some form of
activity, this important characteristic is seldom assessed.
Nevertheless, it is the experiential activity of tourists which
has a bearing on particular types of demand and seasonal
variation. In 1977 the National Travel Survey (US Bureau of the
Census, 1979) collected, compiled and published information on
attendance at six different types of events and attractions and
on participation in eleven specific recreational activities. The
Canadian Travel Survey (Statistics of Canada, 1984) identified
ten different events and attractions and five specific outdoor
recreational or sports activities. Research into the activity
preferences of the younger age market in the UK was carried out
by Gilbert for the English Tourist Board (1986). A number of
other surveys have also been reported but only reflect demand
patterns and do not provide any insight into how activities serve
as indicators of demand criteria.
page 36
In developing a greater understanding of the role of activities
we can draw upon the classification scheme which has been offered
by Chadwick (1987).
The following classification (Figure 1.3) reflects the emerging
consensus that business and same-day travel are both within the
scope of travel and tourism, despite the reservations of some
writers. The classification also extends the primary purpose of
visit to include activities. It extends the notion that many
journeys are undertaken for a combination of reasons yet retains
the primary purpose of visit under the headings: business;
personal business; VFR and pleasure. Personal business is a
welcome addition, because in the future individuals will be more
likely to pay visits to specialist service agencies which are not
in their local area. For example, a trip to a major city for
advice on legal, medical, financial or educational matters could
become a feature of the future linked perhaps to a leisure-based
activity. If we consider Chadwick's scheme of classification
there is no inclusion of education as an activity of tourism, but
this could easily be incorporated under the heading of personal
business.
page 37
FIGURE 1.3 CHADWICK'S SCHEME OF CLASSIFICATION
Residents
Non-travellers
Within scope of
travel and tourism
International
IntercontinentallIContinental I lIn
Visitors
1
Travellers
Othj
travellers
LEters
Other local
travellers (3)
I
Domestic
Crews
Regional
I4ants)
Staying one or
more nights (1)
Business
Same day (2)
purpose
Visiting friendsOther personal
or relatives (VFR)business
Temporary
workers
Pleasure
Primary activities: Primary activities: Primary activities: Primary activities:
ConsultationsSocializingShoppingRecreation
ConventionsDining inVisiting lawyerSightseeing
InspectionsHomeMedicalDining out
entertainmentappointment
SecondarySecondarySecondarySecondary
activities:activities:activities:activities:
Dining outDining outDining outVFR
RecreationPhysical recreationVFRConvention
ShoppingShoppingBusiness
SightseeingSightseeingShopping
VFRUrban
________________ entertainment________________ ________________
(1) 'Tourists' in international technical definitions.
(2) 'Excursionists' in international technical definitions.
(3) Travellers whose trips are shorter than those which qualify for travel and tourism, e.g. under 50
miles (80 km) from home.
(4) Students travelling between home and school only - other travel of students is within scope of travel
and tourism.
(5) All persons moving to a new place of residence including all one-way travellers such as emigrants,
immigrants, refugees, domestic migrants and nomads.
Figure 1.3 Classificationof travellers
Source: Chadwick (1987).
-page 38
Main Forms of Activity Related to Tourism Demand
The following list is believed, by this author, to include the
main types of activity which may represent significant aspects
of tourism demand:
1) Communing with nature.Demand for parks, open areas,
commons, walking, rambling etc.
2) Attractions. Visiting zoos, safari parks, wax works, theme
parks, son et lumiere, etc.
3) Heritage.Visiting castles, stately homes, museums,
ancientmonuments,religioussites,galleries,
battlefields.
4) Sport Activity . Taking part in, or watching, various forms
of indoor or outdoor sport including those of a
specifically rural or urban nature. These would include
ten-pin bowling, fishing, sailing, golf, shooting,
swimming, surfboarding, motor racing, football, cricket,
etc.
5) Entertainment. Other than sport, this would include visits
to the cinema, theatre, bars, concerts, discos, restaurants
etc.
6) Relaxation. Sunbathing, resting, reading, etc.
7) Health. Taking health care treatment, saunas, massage,
therapy.Includes moral health such as religion,
pilgrimages.
8) Shopping. Browsing, souvenir or antique hunting, special-
purchase trips for new outfits, gifts, new high-cost
equipment.
9) Business Activities. Meetings, conferences, exhibitions
etc.
ChattP1.Cot. p t u a L
p a g e 3 9
THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF TOURISM
The re a re ma ny comp le x, int e rre la t e d fa ct ors which t og e t he r
cha ra ct e rize t he doma in of t ou rism. The ma in fa ct ors which
const it u t e t he su bje ct a p p e a r t o be :
a ) It is a dome st ic a s we ll a s a n int e rna t iona l move me nt of
p e op le . The move me nt is sp a t ia lly fa r e nou g h t o t a ke t he
p e rson int o a not he r commu nit y, t hu s ma king him a visit or.
As visit ors, p e op le e it he r be come da y visit ors
(e xcu rsionist s) or t ou rist s. Inhe re nt wit hin t he not ion of
visit or is t he role of host or host commu nit y, a s visit s
a wa y from home re qu ire se rvice p rovision a nd consu mp t ion.
The host commu nit y a lso e nt e rs int o hu ma n re la t ionship s a s
p a rt of p rodu ct de live ry. Bot h host a nd visit or will
e xp e rie nce e it he r ne g a t ive or p osit ive fe e ling s a s a n
ou t come of t he int e ra ct ion.
The ba sis of t ou rism a s a p he nome non is t he hu ma n e le me nt
a s mot iva t or a nd inst ig a t or of t ra ve l a s a n a ct . This role
re qu ire s t he p e rson a s visit or t o move a cross a ce rt a in
p hysica l dist a nce int o u nfa milia r commu nit ie s. The mode of
t ra ve lle r e xist s wit hin a t e mp ora l e le me nt which be come s
t he t ime e la p se d in t he rou nd t rip be t we e n e nt e ring t he
cla ssifica t ion of t ou rist or e xcu rsionist a nd re t u rning
home a s non-t ou rist . The role of t ou rist is only op e n t o
t hose who st a y 24 hou rs, bu t not long e r t ha n one ye a r in a
de st ina t ion, a nd fu lfil WTO crit e ria of p u rp ose of visit
be ing for p le a su re , re cre a t ion, sp ort , bu sine ss, VFR,
me e t ing , re lig ion, confe re nce , mission, he a lt h or st u die s.
The role of e xcu rsionist is op e n t o t hose who fu lfil t he
a bove WTO crit e ria bu t do not st a y more t ha n 24 hou rs.
page 40
b) Tourism is also a fragmented industry of high complexity
due to the price-sensitive nature of demand and the
intangibility, perishability and inseparability of the
product. While it is an industry with no clear boundaries
the central rather than peripheral services do offer a more
clearly defined group of companies which focus
predominantly on the tourist as consumer.
c) The conceptual basis of current tourism is based on (a) and
(b) above; however, other behaviourial variables require
exposition. Tourism is linked to demand for one or a
combination of activities. The choice of these activities
will have a direct effect on the type, timing and length of
demand. Tourists as subjects enter into problem-solving
experiences over which choice to make in order to maximize
their satisfaction. The pattern of choice involves
decisions as to which activities should be evaluated and
included in any travel arrangement. The tourist as human
author of his future is provided with choice in the initial
stages of the tourism process yet this process has to date
been ignored in the range and breadth of contemporary
tourism theory. Until now, much of what we have taken to
mean tourism has been supplied by the economists or
geographers. The marketers who are now influencIng tourism
theory will open up the realm of consumer behaviour.
page 41
Conclusion
The nature of tourism is difficult to isolate given the
difficulties we face in trying to establish the key concepts from
recent practice and theory. However, tourism can be seen to
incorporate the travel activity of individuals and it is upon
this that a working definition can be constructed. We need to
proceed by utilizing the concept of tourism as part of a
continuum of activities ranging from local leisure pursuits and
home-based activities (non-tourist) to those of travel away from
home or work and extended tours (tourist).
It has been established that tourism can be viewed as an
industry. However, industries are specifically defined in terms
of the goods and services they provide, not the characteristics
or motivations of their consumers. To arrive at any true
understanding of tourism we can only measure the output of that
which we understand. Within tourism the product as an amalgam
is not easily identifiable or objectively measured. In addition
while definitions exist which try to establish the basis of
economic measurement, we must recognize that this only addresses
one need within the field of tourism. It is important to identify
the gaps which exist in our quest to understand more about the
hitherto underdeveloped aspects of tourism as a social phenomena.
Different definitions exist which provide for different uses, and
it is acceptable to incorporate different definitions in tourism
as long as a clear statement is given relating to the use and
application of that definition. There may also be a need for a
cascade effect of understanding whereby we create a social
understanding of tourism prior to carrying out economic
assessment. This two-stage process requires two definitions.
-page 42
Definitions in tourism can be based upon these statements:
i) Social: treating tourism as a human, subject-based
activity and therefore synonymous with the actions and
impacts of tourists.
ii) Epistemolocical: dealing with tourism as an academic
discipline or body of knowledge related to a field or
domain of study.
iii) Economic: Assessing the value and output of tourism as an
industry involving the measurement of the activities of
people, businesses, places and sectors.
The working definition proposed for a social understanding of
tourism is:
'Tourism is one part of recreation which involves
travel to a less familiar destination or community,
for a short-term period, in order to satisfy a
consumer need for one or a combination of activities.
This definition places tourism in the overall context of
recreation, retains the need for travel outside of the normal
place of work or habitation and more importantly, places the
emphasis on the reason for travel, which is to satisfy consumer
need for a range of activities. The definition emphasizes not
only the act of tourism but also the motivational aspect of the
reason for being a tourist.
The rationale for this study is therefore the quest to provide
a greater understanding of the consumer and their decision making
processes in relation to tourism demand.
CtteP;:Coneptpage 43
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pp
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200.
CHAPTER TWO
OVERSEAS' HOLIDAYS - THE MARKET
AND ITS DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS
page 48
OVERSEAS HOLIDAYS - THE MARKET AND ITS DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS
A study of the decision process involved in choosing overseas
holidays from the UK requires an indepth analysis of the current
characteristics of the marketplace. This chapter will deal with
the role of the industry and in particular the role of the tour
operator, who has greatly influenced holiday demand patterns
since the Second World War. In addition it is an examination of
the changing patterns of distribution systems, which affect the
current and future demand for overseas holidays.
AN EXAMINATION OF THE TOURISM OPERATOR AND TOURIST
Independent Tourists
First, it is important to discuss independent tourism.
Independent tourism can be defined as experiences in which each
component of the tourist product is purchased separately, and
independently, by the consumer, from commercial tourism
organizations. By purchasing in this way, tourists are free to
construct an entire holiday from the variety of independent
tourism products which are available. With this type of
purchase, the tourist may be able to have more choice than if
they purchased a "package" which had prearranged components.
Prior to deciding upon their arrangements, some independent
travellers will seek the advice, and sometimes service, of a
travel agent, and some will have the experience to decide upon
their own components.
Whereas independent tourism describes an experience which is made
up of a number of individually selected and purchased components,
organised tourism is characterised by the purchase of a single
product which is planned to offer an inclusive set of services
comprising one overall tourist product. These packages are
organized by companies known as tour operators. While discussion
has taken place regarding the growth of independent holidays the
page 49
majority of holidays taken abroad from the UK are organized by
tour operators. The mass market for package holidays or
inclusive tours (often described as ITS within the industry) from
the UK, while affected by the economy, is showing every sign of
fulfilling current holiday travel needs.
Tour Operators
Tour operators undertake a very particular function within the
travel industry. They purchase the separate elements of
transport, accommodation and other services and combine them into
a package which they then sell directly or indirectly to the
consumer. Tour operators are both a service to the providers as
they help market their products, and also to the consumers as
they act as 'holiday packagers'. For this reason, tour operators
are sometimes known as 'wholesalers' but tend to differ from
those traditional wholesalers who deal with tangible goods, as
they are able to actually change the nature of the products sold,
by 'packaging' them in different ways. For example, a hotel room
before being 'packaged' is not the same as a hotel room in the
context of an organized holiday. The tour operator is therefore
responsible for preplanning and negotiating discounts through
bulk purchases in order to reassemble a desirable overseas
holiday, and by doing so, qualifies as a provider of a service
product. This change in the nature of the product has led the
tour operator into the role of being the 'manufacturer' rather
than simply a packager of services.
According to Burkart and Medlik (1981), an inclusive tour
operator is:
"the manufacturer of a true tourist product; he buys
the components of the package, the inclusive tour
(transport, accommodation etc) from the suppliers of
the individual tourist services and packages and
brands them into a single entity".
page 50
According to Middleton (1988):
"product packages are standardised, repeatable offers
comprising two or more elements of transport,
accommodation, food, destination attractions, other
facilities and services (such as travel insurance).
Product packages are marketed to the general public,
described in print or other media, and offered for
sale to prospective customers at a published,
inclusive price, in which the costs of the product
components cannot be separately identified".
The inclusive tour is thus a standardized, repeatable product,
the majority being single destination static holidays as opposed
to twin-centre or touring. When this standardized and repeatable
product is sold in bulk, the producer is often identified as a
mass tour operator.
The tour operator industry in Great Britain is dominated by a
small number of large operators controlling the market; their
size enables them to succeed by using superior marketing and
innovative skills, while their financial strength protects them
to some extent from unpredictable fluctuations in demand, which
have become common-place in the travel industry. Tour operating
is a highly competitive business, with one aspect of success
being dependent on the operator maintaining a low price while
continuing to give value for money. Most holidaymakers today
seek well known destinations such as Spain or Greece and this
implies that the package holiday has become a very 'standardized'
product, differing little between destinations. Immediately
related to this is the fact that there does not appear to be
clear brand-loyalty for one particular tour operator (although
given the recent emergence of Thomson Holidays as clear market
leader they may argue they are the exception to the rule) and
'price' therefore becomes an increasingly important factor in
differentiating between the competition. For this reason, the
British tour operator concentrates on cost, pricing and quality.
c i page 51
The Mass Tour Operator's Role i n the Uni ted Ki ngdom Market Plac e
In 1988, the British population took an estimated, 20.6 million
holidays trips abroad of 4 or more nights (BTSM). Of this
figure, some 12.6 million holidays were foreign inclusive tour
packages (Business Monitor). The 1990 figures, (Key Note
Publications, 1992) is broken down to show that for the first
time there was a reversal of the upward trend in inclusive tours
when 11.4 million foreign visits were reported, while at the same
time other forms of holiday taking abroad and visits to friends
and relations increased. In relation to the rest of the world's
expenditure patterns for tourism, the United Kingdom is the third
highest spending country on international tourism after the
United States of America and West Germany (Goss, 1990), so the
overseas holiday market is of significant size. Goss (1990)
calculates that the Civil Aviation Authority gave authorization
for 14.24 million air holidays for 1989, which represented a 45
percent increase over the 1986 figure.
In this large market for overseas inclusive tours, the dominance
of the mass tour operators is the predominant feature. The
International Leisure Group in 1990 estimated that the top three
operators held more than 70 percent of the market after the
Owners Abroad/ Redwing Consolidation, with Thomson on 35 percent,
the International Leisure Group on 21 percent and Owners Abroad
with 15-16 percent of the market (Davies and Macefield, 1990).
The Thomson Travel Group, in their 1989 Annual Report suggested
different figures for market share; namely, the Thomson Travel
Group 38 percent, the International Leisure Group 19 percent and
a combined Owners Abroad/Redwing Group at 14.5 percent.
Independent statistics also emphasise the market share strength
of the main players in 1989, showing that there were only nine
United Kingdom tour operators in 1989 who were licensed to sell
over 100,000 holidays and that of the nine, there was at the time
clear dominance by the top three. Edwards (1989) estimated that
the top three inclusive tour operators in 1989 held 65 percent
page 52
of the market (Thomson 38.7%, ILG 16% and Owners Abroad 10.3%).
It would therefore appear, that whichever market indicators are
taken, in terms of size, the leading players provide for an
overwhelming domination of the United Kingdom foreign inclusive
market. These three companies, until the demise of ILG in March
1991, were the United Kingdom's primary mass tour operators, with
Airtours, Best Travel, Yugotours, Unijet Travel, Cosmosair and
Pegasus Holidays being the secondary mass tour operators. The
share of position in 1991 is reported to be (Key Note, 1992)
Thomson 35 percent, Owners Abroad 19 percent, Airtours 16
percent, Others 30 percent.
Distinctive Factors in the Marketing of Packa
ge Holidays
The Institute of Air Transport defined an inclusive tour as:
"A trip undertaken for pleasure (tourist travel);
planned in advance with all details (itinerary,
accommodation, excursions etc) by a tour organiser for
an inclusive price covering transport (return or
circular trip), bed and/or half or full board, as well
as any other facilities provided the passenger, such
as transfers, sightseeing trips etc; advertised by the
organizer in folders or brochures; paid for entirely
prior to the commencement of the tour". (Yacoumis,
1975)
Thus the tour operator assembles or packages the individual
components of the inclusive tour, and therefore assumes the risk
(and the marketing responsibility) for the complete product.
Some of the major distinctions between package tours and other
forms of tourist products in terms of their marketing mix
implications are as follows:
A. COMPLEX DECISION-MAKING - the product itself tends to be
very complex and the tour operator must acknowledge that
the decision process in the holiday selection involving
groups or family members may also be highly complex. The
page 53
operator has therefore, to ensure that enough information
and assistance is available for the retail travel agent (or
for a customer of the holiday company if the product is
sold directly).
B. VULNERABILITY TO EXTERNAL FACTORS - fluctuations in
exchange rates, changes in the price of aircraft fuel or
actions of foreign governments can all dramatically change
the market overnight; this implies that a flexible
marketing mix is required to combat such occurrences.
C. BEASONALITY - Mintel, (1985) has indicated that the
growing proportion of the package tour market is made up of
summer, rather than winter, holidays. This means that
pricing policy will be utilized to balance variations in
demand patterns and that aircraft usage patterns will
differ between seasons.
D. TYPE OF HOLIDAY - short-haul, hotel-based holidays
account for nearly 70 percent (volume) of summer market
packages and about 60 percent of winter market packages
(Mintel, 1985). However, the tour operator will also have
to consider other types of holidays, such as self-catering
villas, special activity holidays, weekend breaks or coach
tours; each of which requires a slightly different consumer
approach.
E. OTHER - the package holiday is also distinctive in terms
of transience/perishability (a week reserved at a hotel is
gone forever if not sold); Substitutability ( the consumer
can easily substitute one brand or country for another);
complexity, (excessive publicity and levels of expenditure
are involved in selling the package).
p a g e 5 4
Ea ch of the se fa ctors re inforce the unique ma rke ting sta ndp oint
tha t tour op e ra tors must ta ke whe n constructing stra te g ie s for
p a cka g e holida ys. Ha ving ide ntifie d why p a cka g e holida ys a re
distinctive in ma rke ting te rms, the tour op e ra tor is fa ce d with
the p roble m of how to p ut tog e the r a ba la nce d ma rke ting e ffort
in orde r to counte ra ct some of the se fa ctors.
Contemporary Situation of the UK Tour Operator Industry
One of the ma in cha ra cte ristics of the UK p a cka g e tour ma rke t ha s
for long be e n domina te d by a fe w la rg e tour op e ra tors who a ccount
for a ve ry substa ntia l sha re of tota l sa le s. The re ma inde r of
the ma rke t is hig hly fra g me nte d, a nd se rve d by a la rg e numbe r of
sma ll op e ra tors who a re incre a sing ly fe e ling the p re ssure from
the ir domina nt counte rp a rts. Ma ny of the la rg e r comp a nie s such
a s Thomson Holida ys a re ve rtica lly-inte g ra te d in tha t the y
control the ir own cha rte r a ir tra nsp ort, Brita nnia Airwa ys with
22 p e rce nt ma rke t sha re in 1990 (Ke y Note , 1992), Lunn Poly
re ta il outle ts with 20 p e rce nt sha re in 1990 (Ke y Note , 1992)
a nd, in some ca se s, hote l a ccommoda tion. Thomson Holida ys ha s
imp orta nt comp e titive a dva nta g e s a s it op e ra te s a s ma rke t le a de r
in cha rte r a irline s (Brita nnia Airwa ys) tra ve l a g e nts (Lunn Poly
Ltd) ha s a dire ct-se ll comp a ny (Portla nd) a nd e ve n a fe w of its
own re sort hote ls (Me d Pla ya in Sp a in).
The la rg e r op e ra tors who se ll ove r 100,000 holida ys e a ch ye a r,
re ma in in control of the ma rke t for se ve ra l re a sons. Comp a nie s
such a s Thomson re ly on the ir fina ncia l stre ng th for ba rg a ining
p owe r (for e xa mp le , the y be ne fit from e normous fina ncia l
e conomie s of sca le whe n contra cting ove rse a s hote l rooms). Also,
the 'in-house ' ma rke ting skills of the se op e ra tors ha s me a nt tha t
a re a s such a s ma rke ting re se a rch ha ve be e n g re a tly e xp a nde d, thus
imp roving the ma rke t-orie nta tion of the comp a ny. An inte g ra te d
a nd stre a mline d a p p roa ch to running the busine ss ha s re sulte d in
lowe r op e ra ting costs a nd incre a se d e fficie ncy, a nd the ma jor
tour op e ra tors te nd to be a t the fore front of de ve lop me nts in
:hapter2:; The Overseas page 55
information technology and are the first to benefit from
innovative new reservation systems and analytical models based
upon demand and promotion patterns.
An Historical Overview of the Development of the Mass Tour
Operator
The origins of the tour operating sector of the tourism industry
are normally ascribed to Thomas Cook, who, in 1841, organised a
train charter for a day excursion and, in 1871arranged the first
round the world tour, (Middleton, 1988). At about the same time
in the l880s, Sir Henry Lunn developed the skiing tour. However,
it was not until after the First World War that the package tour
industry really began to establish itself. The 1939-1945 war
provided the initial impetus for the growth of the industry as
the decrease in troop and freight carrying by air, that marked
the end of the war, provided entrepreneurs and airlines with the
opportunity to search for new uses for the then redundant
aircraft. The monopoly of the State airlines in flying
passengers to Europe was finally broken when the first air
inclusive tour was flown for Horizon holidays to Calvi, Corsica
in 1950. According to Allen (1985), the 1950s formed a milestone
as package holiday companies started to flourish, on the basis
of being able to seize advantage of the large number of aircraft
seats available on a charter basis. During the 1960s, the
availability of turbo-jet aircraft which could lower flying costs
placed tour operators' charter flights on an equal footing with
the main private airlines. Since 1964, the growth of the
inclusive tour industry has been remarkable. Charter licensing
became liberal and the imposition of a 50expenditure limit per
person on foreign currency for private travel abroad, as a result
of the 1967 devaluation of the pound sterling, led to tour
operators taking advantage of the ability of consumers to pay in
the UK for all their holiday services. However, the resultant
upsurge in the market for inclusive tour holidays in Europe was
to be gained only by highly competitive pricing (Burkart and
Medlik, 1981)
p a g e 5 6
The History of Inclusive Tour Charter Prices
Ma ny la rg e tra ve l comp a nie s ha ve ta ke n ove r, or constitute d the ir
own cha rte r a irline s; this is p re domina ntly to e nsure se a t
a va ila bility a t low cost for the ir own p a sse ng e rs. Those tour
op e ra tors who forme d the ir own cha rte r fle e t de ve lop e d more
control ove r the op e ra tion of the se rvice but ha d to inve st in
fue l-e fficie nt a ircra ft to ke e p costs a nd ultima te ly p rice s low.
The use of cha rte r a ir se rvice s with the ir se a t p rice a dva nta g e
is of obvious imp orta nce to the tour op e ra tor whe n p la nning the
p a cka g e holida y. The cost of a n a irline se a t norma lly ma ke s up
a bout 40 p e rce nt of the ove ra ll cost of a holida y a nd the
inclusive tour cha rte r se rvice (ITC) ha s g rown a t the e xp e nse of
sche dule d se rvice since the 196 0s. The ITC incre a se d in volume
by 21 p e rce nt just a fte r 1980, whe re a s its sche dule d counte rp a rt
only re a lise d a 12 p e rce nt incre a se (Minte l, 1985 ). The a p p e a l
of the inclusive tour cha rte r ha s e sse ntia lly be e n one of lowe r
p rice . Tour op e ra tors ha ve consiste ntly utilize d hig h bre a k-e ve n
loa d fa ctors a nd low ove rhe a d costs to obta in low p rice s for
cha rte r se rvice s to ove rse a s de stina tions. This ha s ha d a n
imme nse e ffe ct on the de ve lop me nt of the p a cka g e tour industry.
Howe ve r, a ny oil crisis (such a s 1973 a nd 1978/9) will re sult in
dra stic ove rnig ht incre a se s in op e ra ting costs a nd in turn p rice s
if comp a nie s a re to re ma in solve nt.
The re quire me nt for low p rice s in the l970s ne ce ssita te d the
a rriva l of a ne w dime nsion to tour op e ra ting - the 'numbe rs g a me '
which wa s a re quire me nt to e nsure e conomie s of sca le throug h
volume sa le s. The outcome of inte nse comp e tition le d to the
e me rg e nce of la rg e , strong comp a nie s in the ma rke t p la ce , in the
sha p e of ma ss op e ra tors. The minimum p rice re strictions imp ose d
by the Air Tra nsp ort Lice nsing Boa rd we re a bolishe d, e na bling the
op e ra tors to se ll a t rock bottom p rice s (Alle n, 1985 ). Howe ve r,
the p ra ctice of filling a ircra ft se a ts, irre sp e ctive of p rofit,
p rove d disa strous. In 1974, whe n the le a ding op e ra tor, Court
Line , colla p se d, it took with it the inclusive tour comp a nie s
Cla rkson, Horizon a nd 45 othe rs (Alle n, 1985 ) a nd in 1991 ILG
p a g e 5 7
colla p se d which a ffe cte d more p e op le tha n e ithe r the La ke r or
Courtline colla p se . In a ddition, a n incre a se in tour p rice s,
wide sp re a d re ce ssion a nd a la ck of consume r confide nce re sulte d
in the colla p se of ma ny sma lle r op e ra tors. It ha s be come cle a r
tha t to be succe ssful tour op e ra tors re quire d solid fina ncia l
ba cking , a more p rofe ssiona l a p p roa ch a nd ste a die r p rofit-le ve ls
cre a te d throug h imp rove d loa d fa ctors a nd qua lity ma na g e me nt.
The 1980s we re cha ra cte rize d by p rice wa rs a nd a dilution of the
qua lity of the p roduct. The sma lle r tour op e ra tors survive d by
a dop ting a stra te g y tha t a llowe d the cre a tion of a sp e cia list
ma rke t niche . The se op e ra tors a dop te d ca re ful p roduct
p ositioning , hig h se rvice le ve ls a nd a se lling e mp ha sis on
qua lity, the re by a voiding a ny dire ct confronta tion with the
holida y g ia nts. The me dium size d op e ra tor who a tte mp te d to
comp e te wa s e ithe r a bsorbe d by one of the ma ss op e ra tors, or wa s
simp ly p ushe d out of the ma rke t p la ce . For e xa mp le , in Aug ust
1988, Horizon Tra ve l Ltd wa s p urcha se d for 7 5 million by the
Thomson Tra ve l Group (Monop olie s a nd Me rg e r Commission 1989) to
consolida te the p osition of Thomson a s ma rke t le a de r. Anothe r
la rg e p urcha se took p la ce in Ma rch 1990, whe n Owne rs Abroa d, the
the n third la rg e st British inclusive tour op e ra tor p urcha se d a
26 p e rce nt sta ke in Re dwing , the fourth la rg e st op e ra tor, thus
cha lle ng ing the Inte rna tiona l Le isure Group for the numbe r two
p osition (Fina ncia l Time s a nd Gua rdia n, Ma rch 16, 1990).
Se ve re p rice comp e tition a nd the p roble ms of re ce ssion a nd the
a fte rma th of the Gulf Wa r did not imp rove the p osition of the
British inclusive tour industry. Afte r the ILG colla p se
occurre d, a cle a r le a de r in the sha p e of the Thomson Group wa s
le ft to le a d the industry. It should not ha ve be e n a shock to
the industry whe n a la rg e comp a ny colla p se d, a s a t the close of
the de ca de , p rofit ma rg ins, a ccording to some industry source s,
we re a s little a s 7 5 p e nce p e r holida y (Sa inbrook, 1989).
Nuutine n (1989) sta te s tha t in 1988, the ne t p rofit ma rg in of the
top 30 Unite d King dom tour op e ra tors wa s just 0.5 p e rce nt,
page 58
whereas in 1987, they made an aggregate net loss of almost 25
million and 15 companies went bankrupt.
Promotional pricing, such as tactical late-price discounts to
fill unsold stock, is a very flexible way of using the 'price'
component of the marketing mix to maximise capacity.
Unfortunately, it appears that late discounting has had an
adverse effect in that it may have resulted in people waiting
later and later to book (in order to get the best choice of
reduced price holidays).
Price competition has always been of benefit to the potential
holidaymaker, yet the collapse of tour operators who cut their
prices too low may be a thing of the past. Although Thomson
Holidays have already stated that there are now attempts to
differentiate holiday products by using variables other than
price, this does not mean that the 'pricing' variable can be
neglected.
In a saturated market place created by the over zealous pursuit
of market share through volume, there seems to be more sensible
policies emerging in order to provide realistic levels of profit
in relation to the size of the operation. The mass tour
operators are attempting to switch the selling focus from prices
to product quality. Some two million holidays were cut from the
summer 1990 programmes of the mass tour operators (Sambrook,
1989) and further reductions were made for summer 1991.
East (1990) believed that the 1988 inclusive tour purchaser
levels of 12.5 million were unlikely to be exceeded for a number
of years due to a large number of previous purchasers being
priced out of the market. In an ideal world, unhampered by high
interest rates and rises in the cost of aircraft fuel, the mass
tour operators would appear to desire an end to the price wars.
The battles of the 1990s look as if they will be drawn up along
the lines of product quality and brand building. As summed up
p a g e 5 9
by Nuutine n (19 89 ).
"Much de p e nds on the ca p a city a nd p ricing de cisions
ta ke n by tour op e ra tors, be ca use the ir wounds ha ve so
fa r be e n la rg e ly se lf-inflicte d. The e xtre me ly ra p id
g rowth of Europ e a n cha rte r tra ve l since the la te 19 70s
a nd sig nifica ntly throug hout the p rolong e d re ce ssion,
wa s la rg e ly broug ht a bout by the holida y comp a nie s'
p ra ctice of flooding the ma rke t with ove rca p a city a nd
the n e ng a g ing in p rice -cutting until booking s a nd loa d
fa ctors re a che d a sa tisfa ctory le ve l. The industry
wa s tota lly obse sse d with volume a nd ma rke t sha re s, to
the de trime nt of yie ld a nd p rofita bility".
This p osition doe s not se e m to ha ve cha ng e d a s in July 19 9 2
(Bra y, July 13th, Eve ning Sta nda rd) Ne wbold, the Ma na g ing
Dire ctor of Thomson wa s re p orte d to sa y, some firms we re too
e a g e r to fill the void le ft whe n the Inte rna tiona l Le isure Group
colla p se d just ove r a ye a r a g o a nd be twe e n 75 0.000 to one million
holida ys ne e d to be she d be fore 19 9 3. He sta te d tha t othe r
op e ra tors ha d scra mble d to p ick up the 18 p e rce nt ma rke t sha re
le ft whe n ILG including Globa l ha d colla p se d but this le d to
twice a s ma ny holida ys be ing floode d onto the ma rke t.
Economic Conditions
The de ma nd for p a cka g e holida ys is obviously de p e nde nt on curre nt
e conomic conditions tha t a ffe ct the British p ublic, a nd tour
op e ra tors ha ve to a cknowle dg e cha ng e s in diffe re nt a sp e cts of the
e conomy in orde r to re ma in comp e titive in the future .
Une mp loyme nt is like ly to re ma in re la tive ly hig h in the UK,
a lthoug h disp osa ble income s for those in work a re like ly to rise ,
p roviding a p ossible boost in tourism sp e nding . Howe ve r, a s
Minte l in the mid e ig htie s (19 85 ) p ointe d out, une mp loyme nt is
a lwa ys une ve nly distribute d (more in the North of the country
tha n in the South) a nd this g ive s rise to the "Two Na tions
Syndrome ". In the 19 9 0s the south is be ing hit by the p roble ms
re la te d to the se rvice industrie s but on the whole is still we ll
off in re la tion to northe rn a re a s.
p a g e 6 0
Incre a se d le isure time ma y a lso stre ng the n the de sire for
holida ys a broa d, but this de sire will ha ve to re ma in unfulfille d
if the mone y is not the re to imp le me nt it. The re is a tre nd
towa rds le ng the ning the numbe r of holida ys tha t a re ta ke n. The
e xcha ng e ra te for the p ound a nd fue l p rice s will a lso ha ve a
dire ct be a ring on the p rop e nsity to tra ve l a broa d. In the short-
run, no dra stic cha ng e s a re a nticip a te d in e ithe r of the ite ms
me ntione d a bove , a nd inte rna tiona l fa re s a re like ly to de cre a se
in 're a l' te rms a s a re sult of g re a te r sta bility of oil p rice s,
incre a se d comp e tition from de re g ula tion a nd incre a se d e fficie ncy
by op e ra tors.
De mog ra p hica lly, no dra ma tic move me nts a re like ly in the
p op ula tion of the UK - the tota l p op ula tion will re ma in fa irly
sta ble a nd e ve n whe n the 6 5+ a g e g roup g rows to ove r 9 million
in 20 0 1 (Minte l, 1992), the y will not a dd g re a tly to de ma nd a s
ma ny will be ke p t a live long e r within the much olde r se g me nts.
Howe ve r, the 6 5+ a g e g roup te nd to be more mobile tha n the y use d
to be , a nd the re is more sp e cia l p rovision for the ir ne e ds tha n
in the p a st, a fe a ture a long with imp rove d p e nsions tha t ha s
imp lica tions for the future ma rke ting e fforts of tour op e ra tors.
Wha t is ba sica lly be ing a rg ue d he re , is tha t tour op e ra tors
ca nnot re ly on ma rke t conditions for a n a ccura te p icture of the
British holida yma ke r. The p re se nt da y tourist e xhibits a
surp rising a bility to a da p t to cha ng ing conditions, a nd the tour
op e ra tor must follow the tre nds close ly. Eve n thoug h the ir a re
p roble ms re la te d to de ma nd for ove rse a s holida ys it is found tha t
a la rg e p e rce nt of the p op ula tion continue to be motiva te d to
ta ke the ir a nnua l ove rse a s holida y. Althoug h this is p ositive
ne ws for the tour op e ra tor, the re is a n ove r-riding ne e d for more
re se a rch into the de cision ma king p roce ss for ove rse a s holida y
tra ve l.
The
page 61
The Domestic Holiday Market Place
The domestic market for holidays in the UK tends to be dominated
by travel from those social classes (mainly CD) which are
exceptionally sensitive to economic changes in either disposable
income or in the prices of holidays. In 1955, disposable income
represented 8 percent of total personal income, and this figure
rose to 30 percent in 1980 (Jordans, 1986). When this fact is
combined with the escalating cost of holidaying in England, it
is little wonder that we have seen a switch in demand from
domestic to foreign holiday destinations.
To go into greater detail, the prices of each of the five major
items of travel expense - private motoring, public transport,
admission fees, accommodation and eating out - rose in the UK at
rates which were not only well ahead of retail price levels, but
were also well ahead of the internal cost increases of equivalent
products in most competing countries overseas (BTA, 1982). In
relative terms, the British Travel product switched from being
"cheap" to "expensive" between the l970s and l980s.
At the same time as we witnessed the increase in the price of
domestic holidays, the air inclusive tour was maintaining
(although in a somewhat unstable manner) its prices as compared
with the retail price index. Over time favourable exchange rates
occurred for either one country or another, and discount forms
of travel to the destination helped consolidate the position of
the overseas package tour rather than the domestic holiday.
Segmentation
Realising the benefit of segmentation, the mass tour operators
have relatively recently adopted a market segmentation approach
to target to different consumer groups. Tour operators,
frequently use socio-economic and demographic and geographic
variables and many have built up a portfolio of products each
designed to meet the needs of separate target markets. Fitch
-p a g e 6 2
(1987) be lie ve s tha t the ma rke t ha s be e n se g me nte d into a numbe r
of comp one nts, including p rog ra mme s ta rg e te d a t sp e cific a g e
g roup s, those inte re ste d in g e og ra p hic a re a s, flig ht only, or by
p sychog ra p hic va ria ble s.
The te rm 'p sychog ra p hics' re fe rs to the life style cha ra cte ristics
of consume rs a nd is both ne we r a nd le ss fre que ntly utilize d tha n
de mog ra p hic va ria ble s to ide ntify the p rofile of tourists.
Psychog ra p hic re se a rch a tte mp ts to me a sure p e op le 's a ctivitie s,
inte re sts, op inions a nd ba sic cha ra cte ristics such a s the ir sta g e
in the life cycle , income , e duca tion a nd re side nce to unve il
be ha viour p a tte rns tha t ca n subse que ntly be use d in ma rke ting
(Ge e , Choy a nd Ma kins, 1984). In a n e a rly a rticle cite d by Ba ke r
on de mog ra p hics, We lls (1975) de scribe s p sychog ra p hics (which he
a lso re fe rs to a s 'life style ' a nd 'a ctivity a nd a ttitude ') a s
a ble nd which combine s the obje ctivity of the p e rsona lity
inve ntory with the rich, consume r-orie nta te d, de scrip tive de ta il
of the qua lita tive motiva tion re se a rch inve stig a tion. The
be ne fits of p sychog ra p hic se g me nta tion a re be g inning to be
re cog nise d by the ma ss tour op e ra tors.
Financial Aspects of the Market
Some g e ne ra l fina ncia l informa tion conce rning the na ture of the
Europ e a n holida y ma rke t is ne ce ssa ry in orde r to fully comp re he nd
the ma g nitude of the tre nd towa rds ove rse a s holida ys.
The ma in fina ncia l a sp e ct of the curre nt tre nd towa rds holida ying
a broa d is without doubt the incre a se d le ve ls of e xp e nditure on
ove rse a s holida ys. All le isure visits by UK tra ve lle rs a broa d
g re w in the six ye a rs from 1985 to 1990 by 44 p e rce nt to 2 5.2
million visits (Ke y Note , 1992 ), while be twe e n 1986 a nd 1990
tourism e xp e nditure incre a se d p e r trip by 40.2 p e rce nt. (Ke y Note ,
1991). Ta ble 2 .2 shows how the numbe r of visits by UK re side nts
ca n be broke n down by p urp ose of visit, showing a ma jor incre a se
in the numbe r of holida y visits a broa d be twe e n 1985-1988,
e sp e cia lly in re la tion to inclusive tours. Ta ble 2 .1 is ba se d
up on a surve y sp onsore d by the British Tourist Authority (BTA)
p a g e 6 3
a nd Eng lish Tourist Boa rd (ETB) which shows a simila r p a tte rn to
ta ble 2.2.
The g rowth in ove rse a s holida ys is in ma rke d contra st to UK
re side nts trip s a t home , which ha ve re ma ine d fa irly sta tic, (se e
ta ble 2.1). Dome stic e xp e nditure on UK holida ys only g re w by
a bout six p e rce nt p e r a nnum in the de ca de to 1988. This simp le
comp a rison be twe e n ove rse a s a nd dome stic le ve ls of tourism de ma nd
hig hlig hts the p osition of the fore ig n p a cka g e d holida y a s the
ma jor source of re ve nue for the British Tour Op e ra tor. 1978 wa s
a wa te rshe d be ca use for the first time , the British sp e nt more
on holida ys a broa d tha n a t home . The British norma lly ta ke more
holida ys a t home tha n a broa d in the ra tio of a bout 2:1, but in
te rms of e xp e nditure , the ta ble s a re now re ve rse d. Ma ny p e op le
now se e the ir a nnua l holida y in the sun a s a 'ne ce ssity', not a s
a 'luxury', the re fore othe r p urcha se s will be sa crifice d in orde r
to tra ve l a broa d. Holida yma ke rs tra ve lling a broa d in la rg e
numbe rs is not confine d to the British. In 1989 the re we re 200
million trip s a broa d ma de by Europ e a ns which re p re se nte d de ma nd
of 1.9 billion nig hts. The turnove r of this Europ e a n outbound
ma rke t is e stima te d to be 93 billion ECU.
Ta ble 2.3 p rovide s e vide nce of the imp orta nce of diffe re nt
de stina tions which a ttra ct de ma nd from the UK tra ve lle r. Growth
in the de ma nd for Ame rica a nd the imp orta nce of Sp a in, g ive n the
tota l numbe r a ttra cte d, p rovide e vide nce of the p op ula rity of
diffe re nt typ e s of ove rse a s holida ys. Ta ble 2.4 indica te s the
de mog ra p hic bre a kdown of de ma nd by a g e , socia l cla ss a nd p la ce
of re side nce . This da ta wa s utilize d in orde r to de cide up on the
bre a kdown of the quota sa mp le which wa s use d for this study.
p a g e 6 4
TABLE 2.1 PURPOSE AND DESTINATION OF TOURISM TRIPS BY UK
RESIDENTS. 1985-1988
DESTINATION
Gre a tAbroa dTota l
Brita in____________
MillionMillionMillion
________________________
Trip sTrip sTrip s
Holida y198570.215.585.7
1986 71.217.6 88.8
198773.119.392.4
_____________
198873.220.6 93.8
VFR*198530.50.731.2
1986 28.80.329.1
198733.80.734 .5
_____________198832.80.6 33.4
Busine ss198519.82.322.1
1986 22.13.725.8
198720.03.4 23.4
_____________198820.04 .224 .2
Othe r19855.4 0.35.7
1986 5.4 0.4 5.8
19874 .6 0.55.1
______________19884 .3______________
jJ.
Tota l1985125.918.814 4 .7
1986 127.522.014 9.5
1987131.523.9155.4
1988130.325.8156 .1
Visits to frie nds a nd re la tive s
Source : The British Tourism Surve y Monthly BTA/ETB
hapte2;; The
pag e 6 5
TABLE 2.2 VISITS ABROAD BY UK RESIDENTS. 1982-1988 (MILLIONS)
North AmericaWesternOtherTotal
______ _____________________
Europe ____________________ ________
19821.317.61.720.6
19831.018.21.821.0
19840.919.41.822.1
19850.918.91.821.6
19861.221.81.924.9
19871.623.62.227.4
19881.824.52.528.8

I T s Other BusinessVFR*OtherTotal
______ (Tours) Holiday __________ ________ _________ _______
19827.76.52.82.51.120.6
19838.06.62.92.51.021.0
19849.16.13.22.71.022.1
19858.56.43.22.71.022.1
198610.77.23.22.81.024.9
198712.07.73.63.11.027.4
198812.68.13.93.21.028.8
*
Visits to friends and relatives
Its Inclusive Tours
Source:Business Monitor MQ6
page 66
TABLE 2.3 UK TRAVELLERS ABROAD: NUMBERS (BY DESTINATION
COUNTRIES/AREAS) 1978 TO 1988
Principal Country19781982198619871988
Visited(000)(000)(000) (000) (000)
United States554970946 1,2451,486
Canada228329221314337
North America7821,2991,167 1,5591,823
Belgium/Luxembourg 520894761642758
France
2,6865,0025,188 5,3215,032
West Germany
7941,1011,258 1,3971,329
Italy
8311,0681,103 1,1881,036
Netherlands
5718388689401,060
Denmark
106175154152131
Irish Republic
1,4371,4401,425 1,5451,823
Greece
4711,000 1,520 1,8421,715
Spain
2,6273,6885,887 6,5596,828
Portugal
2114729569031,108
Western Europe EEC 10,255 15,678 19,120 20,488 20,820
Yugoslavia
192266661 644652
Austria
199407587 624762
Switzerland255493520 540 564
Norway
101107149 129130
Sweden73134153 142183
Finland2731373650
Gib/Malta/Cyprus322472534 863859
Others9336115 212499
Western Europe non1,2621,9472,757 3,1893,699
EEC
Middle East193222221 201203
North Africa141212280 380375
South Africa5491487986
Rest of Africa117146176 197222
Eastern Europe147123194 225300
Japan823244652
Australia58131161 168197
New Zealand1833273639
Commonwealth91169162 188209
Caribbean3843495377
Latin America279494564 638725
Others
Rest of World1,1441,6871,905 2,210 2,486
All Countries13,443 20,611 24,949 27,446 28,828
Source:BTSY
page 67
TABLE 2.4 DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF HOLIDAYTAKERS AND NON-
HOLIDAYTAKERS 1988
BaseAdultAdultsHolidays Holidays
Population taking noinAbroad %
of GB +holiday % Britain
AGE
16-2418191521
25-34
18181619
35-44
171518 19
45-5414121417
55-64
14131714
65+
19 242111
SOCIAL CLASS
AB-
professional/inanag178 2333
erial
Cl-
22172524
clerical/superviso
ry
C2-skilled manual29292926
DE-
unskilled/pensione 32452417
rs etc
REGION OF
RESIDENCE
North
Yorks & Huinberside 6664
North West98 1010
East Midlands12131112
West Midlands7776
East Anglia 1011107
South East:
London3443
Rest of South13121219
East18161921
South West889 7
Wales5644
Scotland91087
Source:BNTS/BTSY
BTA Digest of Tourist Statistics NO. 13 1989,
p.
59
Note:Regions of residence are the Registrar General's
regions
+ Based on the characteristics of the British resident
adults who formed the basis of the sample survey
The Overseaspage 68
TRAVEL AGENTS. TECHNOLOGY AND METHODS OF SELLING IN EUROPE
Another element which needs to be studied and understood relates
to the changes which may occur in the distribution of travel
products. It is difficult to make generalisations about the
Western European tourism market because of the variety of
nationalities contained within it. However, the main divide is
between Northern and Southern Europe given a line drawn across
the centre of France, with the United Kingdom and West Germany
providing the majority of travellers abroad.
If we examine first, the purchasing habits of United Kingdom
consumers it becomes clear that compared with other European
countries far greater use is made of travel agents. They are
perceived by the British consumer as being the most convenient
place from which to buy a holiday or make travel arrangements.
Although this will be discussed in greater detail further on in
this chapter, there may be two main explanations for this
perception. Firstly, agents do seem to provide the vital
functions required of a distribution channel in the tourist
industry, in that a convenient location for purchase is provided
and advice on the products plus ancillary services such as
inoculations, passports, visas and foreign currency may also be
available. The second explanation for the British consumer's
extensive use of travel agents may simply be one of tradition and
habit. For many years, the family holiday has been booked
through a travel agent and so it has seemed appropriate to carry
on with this. This is not to say that there are no threats to
the travel agents.
The main change in overseas holiday purchase probably comes from
the advance of technology. Until now, this has brought benefits
to both the agents and consumers with computerised database
systems such as Thomsons' TOPS system allowing far greater
efficiency in the industry. It has also facilitated one of the
key aspects of the British tourist purchasing market, with the
The G' Ie,se
page 69
creation of late booking systems. It has led to improved
distribution and utilization of brochures through access to
management information which identifies and grades the
performance level of agents. In the future, however,
technological advances could bring disadvantages for travel
agents and these are discussed later in this chapter.
Travel Agents
The 7,000 ABTA travel agents are under threat in Britain from
alternative distribution points. Several large stores have
diversified into travel sections and the future may see banks and
Post Offices or even supermarkets beginning to follow suit.
However, with a current downturn in the demand for holidays
abroad there have been several travel agency collapses with large
networks such as Exchange Travel disappearing. The 1990 market
shares of UK retail travel agencies were: Lunn Poly 20 percent,
Thomas Cook 11 percent, Pickfords (owned by Wagons-Lits/Accor)
7 percent, Hogg Robinson 5 percent, Carlson Network (A T MAYS)
4 percent, Co-op 2 percent, Others 51 percent. (key Note 1992).
It is ironic that as travel agents in Britain, the country where
they have been firmly established for so long, come under threat,
their North European counterparts have recently become more
popular. This is especially true in the Netherlands and West
Germany. The size of the retail travel trade in West Germany is
difficult to monitor accurately since no licensing regulations
are in force for the establishing of a retail travel business,
and agencies may open without being registered with any authority
or association. Although West German air-based package holidays
to the Mediterranean numbered about 2.5 million in 1985, a large
percentage of these were booked direct with the tour operators
and this has slowed the development of the retail sector of the
travel industry in West Germany. In addition to agency
ownership, the major operators have contracts with other agency
chains or independent retailers. According to the most recent
comprehensive survey, in 1982, there were an estimated 5,600
p a g e 7 0
comme rcia l tra ve l a g e nts in We st Ge rma ny (a nd a furthe r 15,0 0 0
outle ts se lling tra ve l e ithe r on a non-p rofit ba sis or for which
tra ve l forms a minority p rop ortion of turnove r). Of the se 5,60 0 .
2,556 ha ve a n a g e ncy contra ct with Till a nd 1,7 89 with NUR,
re sp e ctive ly the first a nd se cond la rg e st tour op e ra tors in We st
Ge rma ny. In common with the re st of N. Europ e , the se countrie s
ha ve p re fe rre d the dire ct se ll me thods of buying a holida y a nd
only re ce ntly ha s the re be e n a ny sig n of move me nt towa rds the use
of tra ve l a g e nts. In the re st of Europ e , the re still re ma ins
little inclina tion to use tra ve l a g e nts. In Fra nce , for e xa mp le ,
the y a ccount for only 7 p e rce nt of tota l holida y busine ss. This
is surp rising whe n we conside r Fra nce a long with We st Ge rma ny ha s
one of the la rg e st outbound ma rke ts in Europ e , a fte r the UK. It
ha d 2,50 0 lice nse d tra ve l re ta il e sta blishme nts with 3,10 9 p oints
of sa le in 1986. Howe ve r, the Fre nch re ta il tra ve l tra de is
still domina te d by the one -bra nch comp a ny a nd the g rowth of the
multip le s in comp a rison to the UK a nd the USA ha s be e n slow.
This situa tion could cha ng e thoug h if the Nouve lle Frontie rs, a nd
Club Me d fulfils its stra te g y to incre a se the numbe r of own
a g e ncie s.
Le sse r g e ne ra tors for which sta tistics a re a va ila ble , a re
Switze rla nd, Luxe mbourg , Be lg ium a nd the Ne the rla nds. Be twe e n
197 6 a nd 1984 outbound tra ve l a rra ng e me nts ma de throug h tra ve l
a g e nts a ccounte d on a ve ra g e for 25 p e rce nt of tota l sa le s in
Switze rla nd a nd Luxe mbourg with Be lg ium a nd the Ne the rla nds a s
26 p e rce nt in 1986. The se fig ure s be ing twice the Europ e a n
a ve ra g e . The Sp a nish, Gre e k a nd Portug ue se show e ve n le ss
inclina tion to use a n a g e ncy. This is p roba bly be ca use the se
na tiona litie s tra ve l a broa d le ss tha n a ny othe rs in Europ e , a p a rt
from Ea ste rn Europ e , a nd te nd to p re fe r dome stic holida ys for
which the re is le ss ne e d of a tra ve l a g e nt.
0
page 71
Direct Bell
With the exception of the United Kingdom, European consumers
prefer to book their holidays and travelling arrangements through
the direct sell method. In West Germany, 40 percent of package
tours are sold direct (compared with 22 percent in the U.K.).
This has the advantage of cutting out the middle man, the travel
agent, and the commission that has to be paid to him. Direct
sell holidays are very popular in Scandinavia and it was from
Denmark that attempts were made to penetrate the British market,
when in 1978 Tjaerborg began selling inclusive tours in the U.K.
using direct sell campaigns. Vingressor followed in 1979 and
Portland, a subsidiary of Thomson holidays, commenced operation
in the summer of 1980. They were over optimistic about the
appeal it would have and although Martin Rook and Portland were
reasonably successful, the British purchaser has generally been
unwilling to buy from direct sell firms culminating in Vingressor
withdrawing from the market in the mid 1980s.
The early success of these companies has shown that in theory the
consumer is not against the idea of purchasing direct, and
possibly it is only tradition that stops a change in consumption
patterns. Another major use of direct sell has been associated
with group travel. Schools Abroad who organise a range of
activities and educational trips and Page and Moy who organise
groups to major sports events have been highly successful. For
example, Schools Abroad, ski scope programme is reputed to be the
largest specialist ski programme in Europe. A recent pressure
for the consumer to change to direct buying has been created
through the combination of a major credit card company,
Barclaycard, with Page and Moy, a company with expertise in the
tourism industry. The regular customers of Barclaycard were
offered a 'Holiday Club' service with discounted price offers of
about 6 percent on a range of major brands. Barclaycard included
promotional literature of the 'Holiday Club' within its regular
mailings to its clients. This service offers high security to
the client and forms a bridge between travel agents and direct
p a g e 7 2
se ll. The clie nt ma y e ve n visit the tra ve l a g e nt to se le ct
brochure s a nd ta ke a dvice p rior to obta ining a discount by
booking dire ct ra the r tha n with the a g e nt. This me thod of
se lling ma y cre a te long -te rm p roble ms for the tra ve l a g e nt if it
be come s more p op ula r.
Consumer and Product Influence
Ma ny tour op e ra tors fe e l tha t sp e cia lise d informa tion which is
re quire d by the ir clie nts ca nnot be offe re d by a n inte rme dia ry
a nd, the re fore , choose to ma rke t the ir p roducts dire ct to the
consume r. With some sp e cia list op e ra tions, the que stion of
volume of busine ss is ofte n a n imp orta nt de te rmina nt of the
se le ction of a me thod of distribution. Sa g a Holida ys is a n
e xa mp le of such a n op e ra tor. It orig ina lly sold dire ct be ca use
it wa s una ble to a chie ve a de qua te distribution throug h tra ve l
a g e nts. As Sa g a 's busine ss e xp a nde d, the comp a ny we re a ble to
use tra ve l a g e nts a s inte rme dia rie s; sa le s throug h tra ve l a g e nts
a ccounte d for 2 0 p e rce nt of sa le s by the mid 1980s. In la te 1987 ,
Sa g a de cide d to withdra w from se lling throug h the re ta il tra ve l
tra de , fe e ling tha t a g e nts could no long e r p rovide the le ve l of
se rvice ne e de d for the ra ng e of p roducts which the y offe re d.
Booking s ca n now only be ma de dire ctly via a booking form or
te le p hone . Sa g a ha ve a ma iling list of 3 million custome rs which
is use d a s the ba sis of the ir dire ct se lling op e ra tions.
Packaged Holidays
If we e xa mine the de ma nd for p a cka g e d, a ll inclusive p roducts
whe re tra ve l, a ccommoda tion a nd re p re se nta tion is a rra ng e d, the re
is a cle a r division be twe e n Northe rn a nd Southe rn Europ e . In
Northe rn Europ e , the re is a n ove rwhe lming p re fe re nce for p a cka g e
tours to sunsp ots in the South such a s Sp a in, Portug a l a nd
Gre e ce . Pa cka g e tours a re e sp e cia lly p op ula r in Brita in be ca use
of the e xtra e xp e nse a nd p roble ms involve d in crossing the
Cha nne l. UK tra ve l a g e nts a rra ng e booking s for a hug e numbe r of
p a cka g e tours, p rima rily to the sunsp ots of Europ e . In 1987 ,
page 73
Spain was the most popular resort for U.K. residents with just
over 4.4 million on inclusive tour visits, which amounted to
72.5 percent of total U.K. visitors to Spain. The size of this
market alone allows many agencies to remain in business and to
invest in technology.
If people are travelling away from home on a non-package tour,
they may sometimes arrange their travel or accommodation via a
travel agent. Increasingly, however, they are making
arrangements directly with the producer involved be it a coach
company or a hotel. This is true throughout Europe. In fact,
many larger travel agents no longer want to make bookings for
rail, coach or ferry companies feeling that the returns are not
high enough to justify the administration costs.
Despite the problems of generalising about the purchasing habits
of consumers in the European tourism market it is possible to
come to some overall conclusions. In Northern Europe with the
exception of Britain, direct sell is the most popular method of
making travel arrangements. In Britain, travel agents are
extensively used though as will be discussed, they are being
threatened by competitors and by technology.
Technological Developments
The last decade has witnessed a rapid change in the distribution
of travel products. The main cause of this has been the impact
of the electronic age. An indication of how fast this change is
taking place is provided by Thomson Holidays. In five years,
from 1982 to 1987, the company underwent a complete changeover
in their booking systems from using the conventional telephone
to only accepting bookings through their own viewdata system
utilizing Istel network. Other companies rapidly followed with
the then major competitors developing comparable systems.
Advances in technology continues to affect the tourism industry
in many different ways. Gilbert (1989) highlighted the impact
p a g e 7 4
of e le ctronics in the tourism industry: "ce ntra lize d re se rva tion
syste ms for hote ls, a irline s, tour op e ra tors, ca r hire e tc which
ha s le d in turn to more e ffe ctive a nd cost-e fficie nt distribution
syste ms". Without a doubt, it is a p p lie d comp ute r te chnolog y
tha t ha s ha d the big g e st imp a ct - for e xa mp le , a ircra ft de sig ne d
using the la te st Comp ute r-Aide d De sig n syste ms a re more fue l
e fficie nt a nd ha ve g re a te r flig ht ca p a bilitie s. The se a ircra ft
e na ble more consume rs to fly to e xotic long ha ul de stina tions a t
a more a fforda ble p rice . La rg e r comp a nie s ha ve comp ute rise d
ma rke ting informa tion syste ms which e na ble the m to re a ct to
comp e titors' a ctivitie s a nd offe r be tte r fa re s or ne w p roducts
a nd p romotions. Ag a in, the se sp e cia l fa re s ma y e ncoura g e more
p e op le to p urcha se tra ve l.
Current Methods
At p re se nt, the simp le st me thod of p roviding informa tion dire ct
to the consume r is te le te xt. This syste m e na ble s limite d tra ve l
informa tion to be tra nsmitte d by te le vision sta tions a s p a rt of
the ir p rog ra mme se rvice into consume rs' home s. BBC's Ce e fa x a nd
ITV's Ora cle a re two e xa mp le s of te le te xt. Te le te xt p rovide s
only one wa y communica tion. Informa tion is tra nsmitte d by
te le vision sta tions a nd a de coding unit p icks out the sta tic
fra me of informa tion chose n by the use r. Ca p a city is limite d to
a fe w hundre d p a g e s, unlike vie wda ta which ca n hold thousa nds of
p a g e s. Its use is limite d, but tra ve l informa tion ca n be
tra nsmitte d dire ct into the consume r's home . La te a va ila bility
holida ys ca n be a dve rtise d a nd subse que ntly booke d by cre dit ca rd
on the te le p hone . The ne w syste ms will e na ble consta nt up da ting
of informa tion a nd, the re fore , a llow for la st minute de cisions
to be ma de . This ma y p ut e ve n more p re ssure on op e ra tors sup p ly
ca p a bility a s de ma nd p a tte rns will switch to booking s ne a re r to
de p a rture .
Vide ote x, or vie wda ta , is a more comp le x e le ctronic informa tion
se nding syste m, which is linke d tog e the r by using a ce ntra l
comp ute r, te le p hone a nd VDU. It ha s be e n use d ma inly to imp rove
page 75
communications between tour operators and travel agencies. In
1987 it was estimated about 80 percent of all U.K. travel
agencies used Videotex systems (Bruce, 1987). Up to 1979,
communication was made via telephone, paper and/or telex.
Booking and confirmation procedures were time consuming and at
peak booking periods travel agents were often unable to get
through to reservations staff. This led to a loss in potential
customers and travel companies were unable to realise the full
value of their products. The advantages of Videotex are that it
cheapens the cost of communications and improves distribution.
The viewdata systems can check latest availability, up-to-date
prices and general travel information and make electronic
confirmation of bookings. This has speeded up the whole process
of product purchasing at those points of sale where such systems
are in operation and led to the development of the late
availability market. Being interactive, the new systems can help
customers to make their buying decisions 'on the spot'.
Videotex networks have been developed which provide access to a
wide range of principal's products - with Prestel (which is the
brand name for the public system) Istel and Fastrak in the U.K.
At the moment, most principals and agents are connected by means
of the public telecommunications systems. However, the move to
"hard wire" top agents with access to all these systems at once
will offer even cheaper, faster and better access to travel
information. This could influence the consumer to use those
agents where the fastest level of service is offered.
Alternatively, the public may be more willing to invest in
Prestel links in the home with the advantages of full access to
a vast quantity of information. This may lead to the position
of the travel agent becoming increasingly precarious.
There are two types of videotex system - interactive systems and
private or "closed user" systems. The former provides access to
several systems whereas the latter restricts access to a central
computer and a closed group of users. Prestel is an interactive
page 76
system which has around 150,000 users (Hickey, 1988). The system
provides access to products available on the Prestel network and
on the Istel and Fastrak networks. This has the advantage of
providing information on a wide range of products at one source.
Thomson's TOPS (Thomson Open-Line Programme System), on the other
hand, is a closed user system. It allows only those users
trained to use TOPS to on-line access to TRACS (Thomson's
Reservations and Administration Control System). In December
1986, Thomson's made all of its holiday bookings available
through videotex only. Thomson's lead in reservation technology
allowed the company the ability to handle bookings on a massive
scale even when demand was stimulated by a reduction in holiday
prices. Closed user systems now in operation can protect
information from competitors and can help in gaining competitive
advantage. Not only does the system save on reservation staff
and administration costs, it also has the benefit of providing
management information for financial control and strategic
planning. In addition, improved booking information helps
principals in the identification of key travel agents and leads
to improvements in the distribution of brochures and incentives.
A few viewdata systems enable the consumer to purchase travel
products direct at home. Prestel's "Travel Desk" offers quotes
and booking facilities for items such as airline tickets, car
hire and travel insurance. This makes "home shopping" possible,
but the system has proved slow to penetrate the home market
probably because of the expense of linkage, the alternative use
of the TV for entertainment and a lack of a broad base of leisure
and recreation information or general interest data. In addition
to line charges and usage fees, adaptors for domestic television
sets can cost as much again as the television set. There is also
the problem that because the screen only
carries limited information the consumer will not be provided
with all the relevant information that can be provided by social
contact at a travel agency. In France, on the other hand, huge
page 77
progress has been made with home computer systems with PTT (the
national telephone and postal organisation) offering a 'Minitel'
to every telephone subscriber in the country who requires it.
This profitable system of PTT comprises a screen and keyboard,
linked to the telephone. All types of viewdata information can
be requested and accessed by the consumer, ranging from. a
telephone directory service to home shopping. The Minitel system
offers a major threat to the continued success of travel agencies
as it overcomes some of the main problems associated with Prestel
in the UK.
Technology is able to provide access to multiple services at the
same access point. Airline computer reservation systems (CRS)
contain information and facilities to make reservations for
hotels, car hire, the theatre and insurance, as well as airline
seats. This allows for "onestop" shopping. The United States
has stolen the lead in the design and operation of these systems.
CRS is being developed rapidly in Europe with Lufthansa in
Germany having set up the START network of 16,000 terminals. In
the UK, there is the Travicom system, which will allow access to
fifty different airlines. However, recent issues of bias, access
and "Abuse of Dominant Position" in relation to the monopoly of
these systems can have an effect on purchase behaviour. Research
shows that consumers require impartial unbiased information.
However, "the user of an electronic database has no easy means
of seeing the universe from which the selected information is
drawn" (Welburn, 1987).
British Airways' business system BABS (British Airways Booking
System) is now giving worldwide flight availability details.
Agents have the choice of accessing either a British Airways
oriented display or a neutral display (Lewis and Richardson,
1988). The Air Transport Users Committee is demanding
information in simple form, free from bias and the opening up of
CRS to direct access by consumers. This has widespread
implications for the purchase of travel products.
page 78
Recent developments amongst two of the leading computer
reservation systems from America are causing some consternation
for the agent. PARS, developed by TWA, and SABRE, (the market
leader)developed by American airlines, have both introduced
commercial 'in-house' systems specifically designed for the
business world. Both systems are user-friendly versions of the
original computer reservation systems and have similar features.
The main advantage is time savings of up to 50 percent. In-house
travel departments can access reliable travel information
directly, helping to construct the best itineraries at the lowest
possible prices. Both SABRE and PARS offer 24 hour availability,
and can be accessed through public and private networks. Since
business travel has great propensity to change - the advantages
of the system are manifold. In the USA since 1988, CRS systems
are now required to display available flights on a more equal
basis, so the impact is not as great as it may have been. This
is to overcome the bias produced by airlines who programmed
systems to display their own flights on the first line of the
screen. Other important CRS systems in operation are those of
Apollo which is the second largest system in America. It is
operated by United Airlines and a consortium of owners known as
Covia. This group, in turn, has been involved in some of the
development work on the European Galileo system. Two other
American CRS are those of DATAS belonging to Delta Airlines and
SYSTEM ONE owned by Texas Air. The importance of integrated CRS
in the USA is now affecting Europe and almost all of the
technology and software in Europe has been developed in America.
For example, the AMADEUS system in Europe with a head office in
Madrid and development centres in Nice and Munich bought in the
SYSTEM ONE software from Texas Air for $lOOm.
"Front office viewdata terminals are traditionally user-friendly,
but dumb - doing no more than presenting information to the
operator". (Quinton, 1989). However, new systems, such as Sony
Tarsc can give full itineraries, with instant print-outs for
customers. The Tarsc system provides receipts for clients and
p a g e 7 9
cove ring le tte rs to a ccomp a ny invoice s, confirma tions or ticke ts
which a re p roduce d a utoma tica lly ca rrying the custome r's na me a nd
a ddre ss. The syste m a llows for the a bility to ta rg e t clie nt
g roup s from the custome r da ta ba se a nd p rovide more e fficie nt a nd
e ffe ctive custome r se rvice . Ele ctronic ma il ha s he lp e d to imp rove
communica tions be twe e n p rincip a ls, a g e nts a nd consume rs.
Ele ctronic custome r da ta ba se s e na ble sup p lie rs to 'p e rsona lise '
routine ma il a nd g e ne ra te informa tion on ta rg e t se g me nts.
A re ce nt de ve lop me nt which is like ly to be come more common is the
use of vide o-disc syste ms. The se use la se r-cut discs to p rovide
visua l informa tion on a ny chose n de stina tion or othe r tra ve l
p roduct. The consume r ca n wa tch the se in the tra ve l a g e nt a nd
so form a be tte r ide a of the ir p ossible de stina tion a nd ma y be
e ncoura g e d to choose some whe re , which a t first, a p p e a rs to be
a ssocia te d with some de g re e of risk. The y he lp to e limina te
unce rta inty a nd bring a bout a firm sa le . Je tse t holida ys a re to
te st ma rke t 'chroma je t' (TTG, June 22, 19 89 ) a vide o comp a ct
disc, fe a turing colour p hotog ra p hs of hote ls a nd re sorts which
ca n be a cce sse d by tra ve l a g e ncie s using conve ntiona l comp ute rs
with colour scre e ns. This syste m is cla ime d to ha ve me t with
succe ss in Austra lia a nd Ne w Ze a la nd.
Vide o disc te chnolog y ca n now be p rovide d with a n inte ra ctive
touch scre e n to a nswe r que stions or se a rch for informa tion. The
consume r use s a me nu of p romp ts cre a te d on the TV monitor a nd by
touching the scre e n p roduce s vide o like re sp onse s from the vide o
disc.
Future Methods
Sma rt ca rds could re volutionize the p urcha sing of tra ve l
p roducts. The se comp ute rise d p ocke t size d p la stic ca rds could
re p la ce tra ve lle rs che que s, hote l a nd ca r re nta l vouche rs,
va ccina tion ce rtifica te s a nd e ve n p a ssp orts by the e a rly 19 9 0s
(Ma g na y, 19 85). Ea ch ca rd ha s a fixe d cre dit limit a nd p urcha se s
a re re corde d a nd dire ctly de bite d from the a ccount. The ma in
page 80
advantage of smart cards is their ability to provide information,
which could be accessed at suitable points such as airports,
railway stations and hotels. The process of 'check-in' could be
speeded up, which will benefit consumers. British Airways
introduced a 'Blue Chip' card which will speed up check-in and
supply information about passengers to a BA database capable of
keeping track of 50,000 frequent travellers (TTG, 18 May 1989).
In this way, information can be provided for, and about the
consumer. The supplier will be able to monitor the success or
failure of these product purchasing methods. As Welburn (1987)
points out, opinion is split over the likely use of these cards
by business travellers. Some would welcome the opportunity they
give for direct purchase, whereas others 'ia1'e their c'Trre'nt
method of utilizing travel agents.
The trend towards 'self-service' looks set to continue. In the
hotel industry, self check-in and check-out has grown in
acceptance with the wider use of credit card payment. The use
of public access ticketing machines for example at airports,
railway stations or libraries will be appropriate for some
markets. British Airways is considering curb-side, computerised
check-in. However, the consumer will have to be confident that
the information provided for the transaOtion will be
comprehensive, accurate and reliable. As these systems are
developed they will become more 'user friendly' and as such they
will lead to the impetus to buy direct.
Future developments in cable and satellite television could help
to widen product distribution. Cable television offers two way
communication and could be used to supply travel information,
which the consumer could respond to directly at home. Booth
(1983) suggested the development of interactive teletext and
mentioned the possibility of having reservation facilities at the
end of a TV holiday commercial. This would encourage impulse
buying of bargain holidays and may provide an outlet for selling
special interest holidays.
p a g e 8 1
Close ly linke d to the de ve lop me nts in ca ble is dire ct
broa dca sting from sa te llite s (DBS). At the mome nt, this is a
one -wa y form of communica tion but doe s offe r future de ve lop me nt
op p ortunitie s for ne w distribution of tra ve l p roducts. Sa te llite
te le vision could a llow for the e xp a nsion of e ithe r p rincip a ls or
tra ve l a g e nts into wide r inte rna tiona l or Europ e a n ma rke t p la ce s.
The de ve lop me nt of 'e xp e rt syste ms' could e na ble the consume r to
sp e cify tra ve l a rra ng e me nts, such a s da te of tra ve l, p rice a nd
le ng th of sta y, a nd the comp ute r would g e ne ra te a list of
a p p rop ria te tra ve l p roducts. This would g ive p rincip a ls a nd
a g e nts the op p ortunity to 'mix a nd ma tch' tra ve l p roducts to suit
individua l re quire me nts a nd ta ste s. Knowle dg e ba se d syste ms will
comp e nsa te for ina de qua cie s in the e xp e rtise of sta ff in tra ve l
a g e nts, but the syste m will a lso be a ble to disp la ce the tra ve l
a g e nt a nd a llow for a va rie ty of re ta il outle ts to be a ble to
offe r a tra ve l se rvice . As ma chine ticke ting be come s a va ila ble
the tra ve l se rvice op e ra tion will be come de skille d a nd the re fore
op e n to a ny comp a ny who is willing to inve st in the ne w
te chnolog y.
It is p re dicte d tha t in the future the re will be a g re a te r
qua ntity of informa tion te chnolog ie s in the home , workp la ce a nd
the community. Te chnolog y will be come incre a sing ly imp orta nt a s
more p e op le be come fa milia r with it. The tra ve l industry ca nnot
a fford to fa ll be hind or miss out on the op p ortunitie s p rovide d
by ne w te chnolog y. If the a g e nt use s vide ote x te chnolog y to buy
dire ct from hote lie rs a nd a irline s a nd ma tche s this with a
ma iling list of clie nts se g me nte d out from p re vious busine ss the y
will ha ve the a bility to p rovide a lte rna tive p roduct choice . The
ha rne ssing of ne w te chnolog y re la te d to on-line syste ms a nd
sa te llite links a llows for Inte rna tiona l 'custoinise d' tra ve l to
be cre a te d for the ne e ds of sp e cia lise d ma rke ts.
The ra te of a dop tion of te chnolog y is re la te d to the comp e titive
stra te g ie s of tra ve l comp a nie s. Ma ny ha ve se e n tha t comp e titive
page 82
advantage can be achieved by using technology to help in lowering
the cost of distribution and in improving the service provided
to the customer. The major task for management in the travel
industry is to ensure the organisation's technology will take
advantage of future opportunities. In order to achieve this
technology will not be treated as a supportive or service role
but as part of front line marketing strategy formulation to gain
competitor advantage.
Conclusion
Without a doubt, the tourism market is a volatile ever changing
business arena. This chapter has identified the size of the
outbound holiday market and the range of factors which will lead
to either the development of direct or agency channels. While
it is almost impossible to predict the way the market will turn,
we can identify that the tourism industry is investing in
technology in order to create long term advantage. Marketing
campaigns can influence the consumer and direct him to adopt
certain purchasing characteristics. However, with the emphasis
still on price leadership rather than on branding it may be a
while until we see major changes in the current method of buying
package holidays from tour operators. However, there is a
growing trend towards more independence by the traveller and
therefore different purchasing habits of consumers are bound to
develop.
chapter 2:TheO/rseasHaLiday4ar1cet

page 83
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CHAPTER THREE
AN EXAMINATION OF THE CONSUMER
BEHAVIOUR PROCESS RELATED TOTOURISM
-page 87
AN EXAMINATION OF THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PROCESS RELATED TO
TOUR I SM
Introduction
Tourism holiday choice can be treated as a consumption process
which is influenced by a number of different factors. These may
be a combination of needs and desires, availability of time and
funds, supply of the preferred holiday type, image conveyed of
the destination, perception and expectation built on experience
and information gathered. The holidaymaker as a reflexive human
being will bring their own personality and biography to bear on
this process and will therefore exhibit differential motivation
influenced by levels of anxiety, optimism, indecisiveness or
enthusiasm. These will be in the form of energisers toward
action. This is part of a complex process as any motivation will
also be filtered by economic and demographic factors which may
constrain and channel the buying decision. Finally we should
understand that the communication of a particular image for a
destination will affect the final evoked set and purchase
decision. In brief the types of influences are termed by this
author: Energisers; Filterers and Affecters. These are discussed
fully in this chapter.
However, while research has been carried out, both in pre travel,
tourist origin areas and also in tourist destination locations
as post decision studies, to date little empirical evidence
exists to explain the process in any detail. As a relatively new
area of study, tourism consumer behaviour theory is fraught with
unproven assumptions, ambiguous terminology and contradictory
evidence. While at present it may be impossible to solve the
conundrum of the consumer choice process, different approaches
are creating some pattern in an otherwise diffuse situation.
This chapter will attempt to examine the main areas of
motivation, image, tourist role, family behaviour and consumer
models in order to provide a review of the current approaches.
page 88
DISCUSSION OF SOME KEY ASPECTS OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR THEORY
Three Assumptions Related to the Study of Tourism Demand
This study of factors of consumer behaviour related to overseas
holidays is based on three assumptions:
1)-
The consumer should be the focus of each and every aspect
of the final model of the demand process
2)- Consumer motivation and behaviour can be understood through
appropriate research and is, to a certain extent,
predictable.
3)- Consumer decision making and behaviour can be influenced
through information and social relationships
The first assumption is accepted as a cornerstone of this study
and the proposed final model of this study represents a flow
process of consumer decision making.
The second assumption is important in that, if behaviour cannot
be understood or predicted to some extent, then the whole area
of the study is invalid. The study was built on a balance
between consumer led constructs and quantitative methods which
are judged to have been the most appropriate methods available
given the nature of the enquiry.
The third assumption is the basis of modern tourism marketing,
for if behaviour cannot be influenced then the whole philosophy
of marketing in terms of its affect on demand becomes pointless.
The assumptions are well summed up as follows:
'Generally speaking, human beings are usually quite
rational and make systematic use of the information
available to them. We do not subscribe to the view
that human social behaviour is controlled by
unconscious motives or overpowering desires, rather
people consider the implications of their actions
before they decide to engage or not engage in a given
behaviour.' (I Ajzen and M Fishbein, 1975, 1980)
ch$te 3 The Cl
page 89
Comparison of the Behaviourist and Cognitivist Approach
The whole study of consumer behaviour can be found to lie either
within or between two major approaches. On the one hand we will
find the perspective is linked to the Behaviourist approach and
on the other the Cognitivist approach. The differences between
the two approaches can be tabulated as follows:
Table 3.1 Behaviourist and Cognitivist Perspectives
Behaviourist
Cognitivist
Observed behaviour is allWhat goes on in a person's
importantmind is the key to
comprehension
Behaviour is predictable Behaviour is not predictable
People are information People are information
transmittersgenerators
People are all alikeEach person is unique
Behaviour is rationalBehaviour is irrational
Human characteristics can be People must be studied as a
studied independentlywhole
Emphasis is on what person is Emphasis is on what a person
and doescan be
Behaviour can be understoodBehaviour can never be
completely understood
As with most polar opposites, reality probably occurs
somewhere between the above two extremes. Behaviour is
predictable to a certain extent, yet it can never be
completely understood. Decisions are made that are both
chapter :3T he
page 90
rational and irrational in their make-up. The importance of
identifying both extremes is that it sets a framework from
which to work and helps us to understand the more extreme
stances taken by some theorists.
A classification of approach
The four areas which can be associated with the majority of
tourism theory over the past twenty years correspond to an
investigation of:
(1) - Energisers, (2)-Filterers, (3) - Affecters,
(4) - Roles.
Current theory regarding travel and tourism purchase behaviour
falls within one or more of these four approaches. Much of
the work carried out in these areas is subsequently
incorporated into overall tourism models which attempt to
isolate and map out the purchase process. It is the emphasis
on applied research within these four areas which sets tourism
research apart from more general consumer research. Whilst
these four areas are proposed, it is recognised that there are
inter-relationships between each of the areas which create
areas of overlap. Moreover, some of the work carried out in
relation to roles is a typification of the end consumer rather
than part of the process.
1.Energisers: These are the forces such as motivation
which lead the tourist to carry out action. (Wahab, 1975;
Gray, 1970; McIntosh and Goeldner, 1986;
Mills, 1985;
Jubenville, 1978;
Edington and Williams, 1978;
Mayo and
Jarvis, 1981; Plog, 1974; Smith, 1990;
Pearce, 1982;
Cofer and Appleby, 1967;
Dichter, 1967; Arkes and
Garske, 1977; Beck, 1978; Clawson, 1963;
Charms and
htei 3The eorsBthavout PtOcesS and TCwiS D( G1tbetpage 91
Muir, 1978; Mazanec, 1989; Gitelson et al, 1990;
Haukeland, 1990).
2. Filterers: Even though motivation may exist, demand
is constrained or channelled through economic,
sociological or other psychological factors.
(McIntosh and Goeldner, 1986; Krippendorf, 1987;
Parker,1983; Van Raaij and Eilander, 1983;
Woodside and Sherrell, 1977; Jenkins 1978;
Muhibacher and Botschen 1988; Urn and Crompton 1990).
3. Affecters: Individual's decisions or evoked sets are
affected by the image of a destination and information
collected. (Mayo, 1973; Britton, 1978; Hunt, 1975;
Scott, Schewe and Frederick, 1978; Goodrich, 1978;
Taylor, 1983; Williams and Zelinsky, 1970; Farrell,
1979; Eheman, 1977; Mercer, 1971; Gunn, 1972;
Francken and Van Raaij, 1981; Goodall and Ashworth, 1988;
Gartner, 1989; Mazursky, 1989).
4. Roles: There are many possible roles, for example, the
tourist as type of consumer as well as roles adopted in
tourism purchase. Much work has been carried out in the
role of family members in the demand processes. (Cohen,
1972, 1974; MacCannel, 1976; Pearce, 1985; Smith, 1977;
Qualls, 1987; Van Raaij and Francken, 1984; Ritchie and
Filiatraunt, 1980; Myers and Moncrief, 1978; Michie,
1986)
In addition there are those tourism writers who have built
upon some of what this author terms the 'Grand Models' of
consumer behaviour, by utilizing their own research or that of
p a g e 9 2
some of the comp one nts e xa mine d by a uthors in 1 to 4 a bove .
(Wa ha b e t a l, 19 76; Schmoll, 19 77; Ma yo a nd Ja rvis, 19 81;
Ma thie son a nd Wa ll, 19 82 ; Moutinho, 19 87; Woodside a nd
Lysonski, 19 89 ).
The Weakness of Contemporary Tourism Theory - An Overview
Just a s la rg e sup e rma rke ts cre a te own bra nd p roducts utilizing
the ir own la be ls on le a ding ma nufa cture rs' food or drink
p roducts, so tourism the orists ha ve utilize d e sta blishe d
consume r be ha viour the orie s. For e xa mp le , Ma slow's hie ra rchy
of ne e ds ha s p rovide d a numbe r of conve nie nt conta ine rs which
diffe re nt tourism the orists ha ve la be lle d to suit the ir own
inte re sts. In a ddition the g ra nd the orie s of consume r
be ha viour ha ve , in ma ny insta nce s, be e n borrowe d ofte n
p a rtia lly, without re fe re nce to the orig ina l source .
Omissions of the conte nt of the se tra ditiona l mode ls ofte n
occur with ite ms such a s p e rce p tion, p e rsona lity, informa tion
p roce ssing a nd me mory be ing a bse nt.
Howe ve r, ma ny the orists ha ve not simp ly borrowe d but ha ve
a tte mp te d to de ve lop diffe re nt a p p lica tions. Piog (19 74) for
e xa mp le ha s de ve lop e d a the ory of p e rsona lity typ e s linke d to
de ma nd. His mode l a lthoug h rig id doe s e xp la in why it is tha t
diffe re nt p e rsona lity typ e s will p urcha se diffe re nt typ e s of
holida y.
The ma in p roble m of re se a rch within the fie ld of tourism
p urcha se be ha viour is tha t ma ny of the studie s p roduce a
re ductionist mode l of the tourist. Tourism is re duce d to
a ctivity or role a nd so the the ory stre sse s sp e cific a ction of
p e rson or typ e . This is in contra st to a n a p p roa ch which
would se e k to uncove r the dyna mics of the p roce ss of de cision
ma king . Ma za ne c (19 89 ) ha s p rovide d a che ck-list of control
chaptei3.:The;caiu'nehaviOiw
page 93
criteria for research into consumer behaviour in tourism based
upon the following:
1.
Are the hypothesized relationships between dependent and
explanatory variables made explicit? (In this study the
explanatory variables are displayed in both graphical and
tabular form in chapters 5 and 6).
2.
What are the standards laid down which will ensure that
the 'model algebra' of a behaviourial study captures
accurately the tourist's cognitive algebra of travel
product evaluation? (Accuracy for the study is assured
through the careful selection of a representative sample,
a sound methodology and the use of high level software
packages).
3.
Does the study utilize advanced measurement techniques?
(multidimensional instead of unidiinensional methods).
(The study utilizes different techniques one of which is
multidimensional analysis).
It is felt that this study has been carefully designed so that
any areas of weakness have been addressed and overcome.
However in any study, because there is always a trade off
between different forms of methodology, any one approach
creates its own strengths and weaknesses. On balance this
author believes the chosen methodology was currently the most
efficacious.
GENERAL APPROACHES TO AN UNDERSTANDING OF TOURISM DEMAND
Many tourism authors have produced publications which stress
actions involving some balance of biological, social and
psychological needs. This leads to the identification of
specific circumstances which permit rather than stifle
satisfaction of these needs. This culminates in the
actualization of particular forms of tourism within which
Chipter 3: The CirBthaviProcess andToiwis DCiThertpage 94
empirical research is used as an attempt to identify specific
linkages.
Travel behaviour is related to sex, age and education,
(McIntosh and Goeldner, 1986). Six factors are identified
which it is claimed create barriers for travel even though
different motivations exist. These are the filter factors of
cost, time, health and family life cycle constraints as well
as level of interest or risk perception. Cost led decision
making is a recurring theme in the literature (e.g. Van Raaij
et al, 1984 with Eilander, 1983).
1.
Cost - This is straightforward as travel competes with
the purchase of other products and available funds.
2.
Time - People are constrained by responsibilities to
business or home.
3.
Health - Poor health or handicap may restrict travel
arrangements.
4.
Family - Parents with small children are said to often
find travel inconvenient.
5.
Interest - A lack of interest is associated with
unawareness.
6.
Fear and safety - Because the world is unfamiliar, and
crime and unrest exist, potential travellers fear for
their safety.
In developing their ideas McIntosh and Goeldner explain that
tourism can take the form of:Ethnic, Cultural, Historical,
Environmental, Recreational and Business. This however, may
not lead to a full understanding of consumer behaviour as it
focuses on activity or outcome rather than process.
The attempt by recent authors to explain the factors behind
demand, while more comprehensive than authors such as Burkart
and Medlik (1974), offer little to enlighten the reader
regarding the existence of any predictors of action linked to
consumer demand for tourism products.
-p a g e 9 5
The re is a lso little in the lite ra ture de a ling with ma rke ting
a sp e cts of tourism whe re a n a p p ra isa l of ma rke t dyna mics a nd
consume r be ha viour would be e xp e cte d. Middle ton (19 88),
Je ffe rson a nd Lickorish (19 88), Hollowa y a nd Pla nt (19 88), a nd
Wa ha b e t a l (19 76), ha ve a ll p roduce d ma rke ting te xts in which
consume r be ha viour ha s not be e n cove re d in a ny de p th. An
e xa mina tion of the conte nt of the se books re ve a ls a
sup e rficia l tre a tme nt of the consume r buying p roce ss.
Middle ton quote s thre e othe r a uthors' se ts of motiva tions.
Foste r (19 85 ) p rovide s his own list with four ma in ca te g orie s
of motiva tions. Je ffe rson a nd Lickorish quote from Gre e ne
(19 83) who ha s p rovide d a list of e ig hte e n fa ctors. None of
the se a uthors offe r a ny critica l a na lysis of the motiva tiona l
fa ctors the y p ublish. We a re not e ve n informe d whe the r the
motiva tion is for the tra ve l, the sta y, the a ctivitie s or the
p ost consump tion p e riod. The re is no g uide line in a ny of the
p ublishe d works on why we should a dop t one list of motiva tions
a s op p ose d to a nothe r.
Murp hy (19 85 ) p rovide s us with a historica l re vie w of the
ma jor tre nds in tourism. He use s thre e he a ding s: Motiva tion,
Ability a nd Mobility to a ccount for the g rowth. He a rg ue s tha t
motiva tion is ne ce ssa ry for the de ve lop me nt of tourism be ca use
without inte re st or the ne e d to tra ve l, the tourist industry
could not e xist. His he a ding s for motiva tion p re se nt us with
sociolog ica l cha ng e s ra the r tha n motiva tions.
A common de nomina tor which p roba bly unde rlie s some forms of
le isure tra ve l is the ne e d for va rie ty. This diffe rs from one
individua l to a nothe r a nd is re la te d to e a ch individua ls core
ne e ds a nd va lue s.
Ma yo a nd Ja rvis (19 81) ha ve ide ntifie d a nd ca te g orise d some of
the ma jor disting uishing va lue s of p e op le a s the ba sis for the
page 96
strength of their need for variety. These include; adventure,
respect , deliberateness , scepticism, and tradition.
1. Adventure: this group of people have the strongest need
for variety in their lives and are adventurous, they
desire to take limited risks and try new and different
things.
2. Respect: this group do not value adventure as much as
the respect of others. They exercise more discretion in
their activities and their need for variety and desire to
try novel activities is less than those of group (1).
3. Deliberateness:these people like to try new and
different things before the average person although it is
unlikely that they would be the first to travel to novel
destinations or experiment with new leisure time
activities.
4. Scepticism:
these individuals usually like to
wait for the majority of people to legitimise
something before they try it. Although they like to
go to Florida or California it would take some time
before they would venture to Europe, Asia or Africa.
5. Tradition:this group of people who place a high
value on tradition are suspicious of anything new
and or different. They are more likely to return to
the same place, lake or cottage each year indicating
that they travel to satisfy a need for change rather
than for novelty.
In addition to physiological and psychological needs the
authors argue that there coexists a separate hierarchy of
intellectual requirements which consist of the need to know
page 97
and to understand. This allows for the distinction between
the sightseer and the vacationer.
One of the difficulties with the Mayo and Jarvis approach is
the inability to treat the categories as discrete clusters.
Significant overlap may occur with each of their categories
and there is an inability to predict demand because of this
weakness. Thus the categories are finally no more than
descriptions of different need strengths.
In any study of tourist consumer behaviour there are problems
related to the identification of specific motives.
Krippendorf (1987) points out that there are problems with
studies asking a tourist what are your reasons or motives for
travel - partly because there are always several motives that
prompt a person to travel and also because. t r.aoser
are often reiterations of all the reasons that feature in
advertising and which are repeated over and over again in all
tourist brochures and catalogues. In attempting to research
travel motivations, many things remain hidden in the
subconscious and cannot be brought to light by simple
questions.
Krippendorf identifies eight theories of travel motivation
found in the literature on tourism. Krippendorf found that
travel is treated as:
Recuperation and regeneration
Compensation and social integration
Escape
Communication
Freedom and self-determination
Seif-realisation
Happiness
and travel is seen to broaden the mind.
Krippendorf identifies a thread running through all these
theories. Firstly the pattern of travel is motivated by
page 98
'going away from' rather than 'going towards' something, and
secondly travellers' motives and behaviour are found to be
markedly self-oriented.
THE CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION IN TOURISM
The classic dictionary definition of motivation is derived
from the word 'motivate' which is to cause (person) to act in
a certain way; or stimulate interest. There is also reference
to the word, motive which is concerned with initiating
movement or inducing a person to act. As would be expected,
many texts associated with tourism utilize the concept of
motivation as a major determinant of consumer behaviour.
Wahab (1975) has argued that the whole area of travel
motivation is so basic and indispensable in tourism studies
that ignoring it, or passing lightly over it would defeat the
whole purpose behind any tourism development plans. Travel
may be seen as a satisfier of needs and wants yet it is only
when a need is recognised that it becomes a want. When a
person tries to satisfy a want situation it then becomes
motivated action. An understanding of motivation is therefore
of fundamental importance since it forms a major influence on
tourism demand patterns.
Wahab (1975) provides us with more assessment of motivation
than some of the other authors in the field of tourism.
Although he is brief, he does distinguish between general and
specific motives relating to tourist demand. He argues that
travel motives are multiple yet operate on a general plane
when they induce people to change their environment.
Motivation is seen to become specific or selective when a
tourist is urged to visit a certain destination, country or
area. Wahab argues that both types of motives differ from
I
Uiapter3.z The COiuI'page 99
person to person. Specific motives are related to certain
variables which include socio-economic environment and
personal character. These variables are not discussed in any
detail apart from the claim that the socio-economic
environment is influenced by the cost, distance and available
means of transport in the time available. Wahab also claims
that travel motivation will differ from one tourist generating
country to another. This is an important cultural aspect
because, as he points out, some people, such as the Japanese,
have only recently begun to travel even though they had the
economic conditions to support wider demand. Wahab stresses
that research is required to find out more about motivations
and that this research will have to be based on psychological
method. He proposes introspection, observations and
association and projection be used in combination to reveal
the nature of motivations in tourism.
Burkart and Medlik (1974) deal with consumer behaviour under
the heading of 'determinants and motivations'. They refer to
economic determinants such as standard of living, income
levels, degree of urbanisation, ability and willingness to pay
the price. They also refer to social influences such as age
distribution, life cycle stages for families, terminal level
of education and population concentration. Finally they deal
with motivation. Following from Gray (1970) they identify the
dominant type of demand as being either 'sunlust' or
'wanderlust'. Wanderlust is seen as the desire to exchange
the known for the unknown in order to see different places.
Sunlust as the term implies is involved with demand for
facilities and activities in a sun destination. The variables
isolated by Burkart and Medlik become person-specific and are
not explained in any detail or placed in the context of any
notion of process.
McIntosh and Goeldner (1986) also examine the motivation for
travel and choosing travel products. Their model, as with
p a g e 1 0 0
Mill a nd Morrison's a p p roa ch (1 985), is built on Ma slow's
hie ra rchy of ne e ds. McIntosh a nd Goe ldne r utilize four
ca te g orie s of motiva tion:
1. Physical Motivators: Those re la te d to re fre shme nt of
body a nd mind, he a lth p urp ose s, sp ort a nd p le a sure . This
g roup of motiva tors a re se e n to be linke d to a ctivity
which will re duce te nsion.
2. Cultural Motivators: Those ide ntifie d by the de sire to
se e a nd know more a bout othe r culture s, to find out a bout
the na tive s of a country, the ir life style , music, a rt,
folklore , da nce , e tc.
3. Interpersonal Motivators: Include a de sire to me e t ne w
p e op le , visit frie nds or re la tive s, se e k ne w a nd
diffe re nt e xp e rie nce s. Tra ve l is a n e sca p e from routine
re la tionship s with frie nds or ne ig hbours, the home
e nvironme nt or it is use d for sp iritua l re a sons.
4. Status and Prestige Motivators: Include a de sire for
continua tion of e duca tion (ie p e rsona l de ve lop me nt, e g o
e nha nce me nt a nd se nsua l indulg e nce ). The se motiva tors
a re se e n to be conce rne d with the de sire for re cog nition
a nd a tte ntion from othe rs, in orde r to boost the p e rsona l
e g o. This ca te g ory a lso include s p e rsona l de ve lop me nt in
re la tion to the p ursuit of hobbie s a nd e duca tion.
As with most of the a uthors de a ling with motiva tion no
scie ntific ba sis is cla ime d for the ca te g orie s nor is a ny
indica tion g ive n of the p rop ortion of tourists who would
e xhibit one typ e of motiva tion ra the r tha n a nothe r. No
e xp la na tion is g ive n of the typ e of consume r who ma y e xhibit
more tha n one sp e cific motiva tion. For e xa mp le , a two-ce ntre
Sa fa ri a nd Be a ch holida y or a we e k a t Disne yworld a nd a we e k
page 101
on the coast which would involve different types of holiday
within the same package. Furthermore, the four categories
mentioned above are not mutually exclusive - visiting a luxury
health farm abroad may cover all four aspects.
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY MODEL
It could be argued that due to its simplicity, Maslow's need
hierarchy is probably the best known theory of motivation. It
is used in industrial, organisation and social science texts
on a regular basis. The theory of motivation proposed by
Maslow is in the form of a ranking, or hierarchy, of the
arrangements of individual needs (1943). Maslow argued that
if none of the needs in the hierarchy was satisfied, then the
lowest needs, the physiological ones, would dominate
behaviour.
If these were satisfied, however, they would no longer
motivate and the individual would be motivated by the next
level in the hierarchy.
1. Physiological - hunger, thirst, rest, activity.
2. Safety - security, freedom from fear and anxiety.
3. Belonging and love - affection, giving and receiving
love.
4. Esteem - self esteem and esteem for others.
5. Self-actualization - personal self-fulfilment.
Mill and Morrison incorporate extra categories to the above
list of Maslow's intellectual needs categories of, 'To know
and understand' and 'Aesthetics'. Maslow postulated that a
smaller hierarchy existed which related to the desire to know
and to understand as personality needs and he also made some
reference to the existence of 'aesthetic' needs whereby some
T h e p a g e 1 0 2
individua ls h a ve a n a ve rsion to ug line ss (1 954). It is not
surp rising th a t Mill a nd Morrison a dmit th a t th e re la tionsh ip
be twe e n th e ir se ve n ne e ds is not cle a r. In orde r to
op e ra tiona lise th e ir conce p t th e inte rp re ta tion of tra ve l
motive s we re re la te d to se ve n ca te g orie s a s a simp le
la be lling e xe rcise . T h is th e ory is not a de qua te , a s it le a ds
to comp le x a nd unsa tisfa ctory re la tionsh ip s e g . tra ve lling
for re a sons of h e a lth is inte rp re te d a s a wa y of a tte mp ting to
sa tisfy one 's sa fe ty ne e ds.
Se ve ra l studie s in th e re cre a tion ma na g e me nt fie ld (Mills,
1 985; Jube nville , 1 978, Eding ton a nd Willia ms, 1 978) h a ve ,
a tte mp te d to sup p ort th e notion of a ne e ds h ie ra rch y but
with out re a l succe ss.
MASLOW'S NEED THEORY EXAMINED
In 1 970 Ma slow re vise d h is e a rlie r (1 954) h ie ra rch ica l mode l
of ne e ds. His mode l re lie s on th e notion of lowe r le ve l ne e ds
wh ich h a ve to be la rg e ly sa tisfie d be fore h ig h e r le ve l ne e ds
come to be fe lt. Ma slow (1 968) ide ntifie d th a t th e re a re two
motiva tiona l typ e s of se que nce me ch a nism in motiva tion. T h e se
ca n be g re a tly simp lifie d a s:
1 . De ficie ncy or te nsion re ducing motive s.
2 . Inductive or a rouse d se e king motive s.
Ma slow ma inta ine d th a t h is th e ory of motiva tion is h olistic
a nd dyna mic a nd ca n be a p p lie d to both work a nd non-work
sp h e re s of life . De sp ite h is cla ims, Ma slow's ne e d h ie ra rch y
h a s re ce ive d no cle a r sup p ort from re se a rch .
Ma slow tre a ts h is ne e d le ve ls a s unive rsa l a nd inna te ye t of
such instinctua l we a kne ss th a t th e y ca n be modifie d,
a cce le ra te d or inh ibite d by th e e nvironme nt. He a lso sta te s
th a t wh ile a ll th e ne e ds a re inna te , only th ose be h a viours
wh ich sa tisfy p h ysiolog ica l ne e ds a re unle a rne d. Wh ile a
chapter3:: Thepage 103
great deal of tourism demand theory has been built upon
Maslow's approach it is not clear from his work why he
selected five basic needs; why they are ranked as they are;
how he could justify his model when he never carried out
clinical observation or experiment; and why he never tried to
expand the original set of motives. His theory was developed
out of a study of neurotic people and he argued that he was
not convinced that its application elsewhere (in
organisational theory) was legitimate (1965).
The early humanistic values of Maslow seem to have led him to
create a model where self-actualization is valued as the level
'man' should aspire to. It is not as if Maslow has been
extended or distorted by tourism theorists but simply that he
has provided a convenient set of containers which can be
relatively easily labelled. The notion that a comprehensive
coverage of human needs can be organised into a an
understandable hierarchical framework, is of obvious benefit
for tourism theorists.
Within Maslow's model human action is wired into
predetermined, understandable and predictable aspects of
action. This is very much in the behaviourist tradition of
psychology as opposed to the cognitivist approach which
stresses the concepts of irrationality and unpredictability of
behaviour. However Maslow's theory does allow for 'man' to
transcend the mere embodiment of biological needs which sets
him apart from other species.
To some extent the popularity of Maslow's theory can be
understood in moral terms. It suggests that, given the right
circumstances, people will grow out of their concern for the
materialistic aspects of life and become more interested in
'higher' things. In examining the needs that Maslow has
isolated, we should question some of those that may be absent.
For example, individuals often strive for dominance or
p a g e 1 0 4
a ba se me nt. The se a nd othe r ne e ds a re to be found in Murra y's
work on ne e ds.
Murray's Classification of Human Needs
A conte mp ora ry of Ma slow wa s H A Murra y. Following on from
his e xte nsive re se a rch, Murra y (1 938) ide ntifie d a tota l of 1 4
p hysiolog ica l a nd 30 p sycholog ica l ne e ds. Some of the ma in
ne e ds ide ntifie d by Murra y a re g ive n in Ta ble 3.2 be low:
Conta ining a s it doe s, in its orig ina l form, ove r 4 0 diffe re nt
ne e ds org a nise d unde r only two ma in he a ding s, Murra y's
cla ssifica tion syste m doe s not le nd itse lf a s re a dily a s
Ma slow's ne e d hie ra rchy to e a sy p re se nta tion. Furthe rmore ,
Murra y's the ory of huma n ne e ds is not a s e a sy to a p p ly a s
Ma slow's. Unlike Ma slow, Murra y e nvisa g e s ne e ds va rying
inde p e nde ntly, which me a ns tha t knowing the stre ng th or de g re e
of sa tisfa ction of one ne e d will not ne ce ssa rily te ll us
a nything a bout the stre ng th of othe rs. Thus ide ntifying wha t
motiva te s p e op le involve s me a suring the stre ng th of e a ch of
the ir imp orta nt ne e ds ra the r tha n simp ly working out wha t
le ve l in a hie ra rchy the y ha ve re a che d.
Proba bly for the se re a sons, Murra y's work on huma n ne e ds ne ve r
be ca me a s p op ula r a s tha t of Ma slow. Ne ve rthe le ss, it did
le a d to furthe r re se a rch into sp e cific ne e ds, p a rticula rly the
ne e ds for a chie ve me nt, a ffilia tion a nd p owe r. From the p oint
of vie w of tourist motiva tion, it doe s p rovide a much more
comp re he nsive list of huma n ne e ds which could le a d to some
influe nce ove r tourist be ha viour.
page 105
Table 3.2Selected Examp les from Murray 's Classification
System of Needs
PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS
Sentience: The inclination for sensuous gratification,
particularly from objects in contact with the body: taste
sensations and tactile sensations.
Sex: To form and further an erotic relationship. To have
sexual intercourse.
Heat and Cold: The tendency to maintain an equable
temperature; to avoid extremes of heat and cold.
Activity: The need to expend built-up energy: to discharge
energy in uninhibited movement or thought.
Passivity: The need for relaxation, rest and sleep: the
desire to relinquish the will, to relax, to drift, to
daydream, to receive impressions.
PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS
Conservance: To collect, repair, clean and preserve things.
To protect against damage.
Achievement: To overcome obstacles. To exercise power. To
strive to do something difficult as well and as quickly or
independently as possible. To attain a high standard.
Recognition: To elicit praise and commendation. To demand
respect. To boast and exhibit one's accomplishments. To seek
distinction, social prestige, honours or high office.
Exhibition: To attract attention to one's person or make an
impression. To excite, amaze, amuse, stir, shock, thrill
others. Seif-dramatisation.
page 106
Dominance: To influence or control others by suggestion,
seduction, persuasion, or command. To prohibit, dictate. To
lead and direct. To restrain. To organize the behaviour of a
group.
Autonomy: To resist influence, restriction or coercion. To
defy an authority or seek freedom in a new place. To strive
for independence or to be free to act on impulse. To defy
convention.
Contrariance: To act differently from others. To be unique.
To take the opposite side. To hold unconventional views.
Aggression: To assault or injure another. To oppose
forcefully or punish another. To fight or overcome opposition
forcefully. To take revenge.
Abasement: To surrender. To comply and accept blame, injury,
criticism, punishment. To apologise, confess, atone. Self-
depreciation or admittance of inferiority. Masochism.
Affiliation: To form friendships and associations and remain
loyal. To please and win affection. To greet, join and live
with others. To co-operate and converse socially with others.
To love. To join groups.
Play: To relax, amuse oneself, seek diversion and
entertainment in sport, games, dancing, drinking, parties,
cards etc. To 'have fun', to play games. To like to laugh,
joke and be merry. To avoid serious tension.
Cognizance: To explore. To ask questions. To satisfy
curiosity. To look, listen, inspect. To read and seek
knowledge.
(Source, based on Murray, 1938)
The
p a g e 1 0 7
Howe ve r, ne e ds form only one p a rt of the motiva tiona l te nde ncy
to tra ve l. As Murra y (1 938) p oints out, a ne e d is a n e me rg e nce
from the p a st, a 'p ush from the re a r' ra the r tha n a 'p ull from
the future '.
For a more comp le te e xp la na tion of huma n
motiva tion, two thing s a re re quire d. Firstly, we ne e d to
unde rsta nd the individua l's p re fe re nce s with re sp e ct to the
va rious diffe re nt obje cts, e ve nts a nd situa tions which ca n fulfil
a ny one ne e d. For e xa mp le , two individua ls ma y e xp e rie nce the
sa me le ve l of bore dom a t home , but ha ve quite diffe re nce
p re fe re nce s with re sp e ct to the typ e of holida y the y would like
to e xp e rie nce in orde r to re duce it. Se condly, we ne e d to ta ke
into a ccount the e ffe ct of p e op le 's e xp e cta tions on motiva te d
be ha viour, be ca use wha t p e op le a re a ctua lly motiva te d to do will
be influe nce d not only by the ir p re fe re nce s, but a lso by the
e xte nt to which the y be lie ve tha t a ctions on the ir p a rt will be
instrume nta l in p roducing a n outcome which will sa tisfy the ir
ne e ds. The re fore , whilst ne e ds p rovide the force which a rouse s
motiva te d be ha viour in the first p la ce , it is p e op le 's
p re fe re nce s a nd e xp e cta tions which g ive it dire ction. The se
ide a s form the ba sis of a more re ce nt a p p roa ch to the study of
motiva tion, known a s e xp e cta ncy the ory. It ha d its orig ins in
the 1 930 s, but it wa s more fully de ve lop e d a s a the ory of work
motiva tion in the 1 960 s.
Expectancy Theories of Motivation
Exp e cta ncy the ory is a na me g ive n to a p a rticula r typ e of
motiva tion the ory. The re a re a numbe r of diffe re nt ve rsions of
the the ory, but the y a ll ha ve in common the ba sic p re mise tha t:
'The stre ng th of a te nde ncy to a ct in a ce rta in wa y
de p e nds on a n e xp e cta ncy tha t the a ct will be followe d
by g ive n conse que nce s (or outcome s) a nd on the va lue
or a ttra ctive ne ss of tha t conse que nce (or outcome ) to
the a ctor.' (La wle r, 1 97 3, p .45)
The de ve lop me nt of this a p p roa ch owe s much to the e a rly cog nitive
a p p roa che s to motiva tion whe re by a s re a sone d be ing s we ha ve
p a g e 1 0 8
be lie fs a nd e xp e cta tions a bout future e ve nts in our live s. This
include s e xp e cta tions a bout the outcome s of p a rticula r forms of
be ha viour tha t ma y be a dop te d. A de cision to tra ve l to a
p a rticula r de stina tion will the re fore be influe nce d by the wa y
a n individua l p e rce ive s the e xp e cte d re wa rds a nd sa tisfa ctions
linke d to the a ccomp lishme nt of the ove rse a s trip . Ba se d up on
the va le ncy of the re wa rd the re will be a corre sp onding le ve l of
e ffort e xe rte d.
OTHER APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OP MOTIVATION
Psychographic classification. (Plog, 1974).
Plog de ve lop e d a the ory within which the US p op ula tion could be
cla ssifie d a s a se rie s of inte rre la te d p sychog ra p hic typ e s.
The se typ e s ra ng e from p sychoce ntric which is de rive d from p syche
or se lf-ce ntre d whe re a n individua l ce ntre s thoug hts or conce rns
on the sma ll p roble m a re a s of life , to a lloce ntric whe re the
de rivision of the root 'a llo' me a ns va rie d in form (Fig ure 3.1 ).
The ma jority of the p op ula tion we re found to fa ll in the ce ntre
in a n a re a which Plog te rme d: Midce ntrics. Plog a lso found tha t
those who we re a t the lowe r e nd of income sca le s we re more like ly
to be p sychoce ntric typ e s whe re a s a t the up p e r income ba nd the re
wa s more of a like lihood of be ing a lloce ntric.
In a la te r study it wa s obse rve d tha t middle -income g roup s
e xhibite d only a sma ll p ositive corre la tion with p sychog ra p hic
typ e s. This cre a te d p roble ms be ca use the re we re a numbe r of
p sychog ra p hic typ e s who could not, throug h income constra int,
choose the typ e of holida y the y p re fe rre d e ve n if the y we re
motiva te d towa rd it. Plog e xp la ine d tha t his re se a rch finding s
(1 98 7, in Ritchie a nd Goe ldne r) e volve d from syndica te d re se a rch
for a irline comp a nie s who we re inte re ste d in conve rting non-
flye rs into flye rs. His me thodolog y wa s ba se d up on in-de p th
inte rvie ws with non-flye rs who ha d a bove a ve ra g e income s a nd
be ca use of this we ma y wonde r why so much e mp ha sis ha s be e n
p la ce d on the use fulne ss of his work.
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p a g e 109
FIGURE 3.1 PLOG'S CATEGORISATION OF PSYCHOGRAPHIC TYPES
p a g e 1 1 0
On a na lyzing the tra nscrip ts front the re se a rch, Plog found a
common p a tte rn a mong non-flye rs tha t include d:
- Te rritory Boundne ss The g roup wa s found not to be
ve nture some a nd tra ve lle d ve ry little within the ir
life time .
-Ge ne ra lise d Anxie tie sThe y we re inse cure a nd unce rta in
within the ir da ily live s.
- A 'Se nse of Powe rle ssne ss' The y fe lt the y we re not in
control of the ir live s a nd tha t the y we re p e ssimistic
re g a rding the ir future .
Be ca use of the conunon te nde ncy for the a bove cha ra cte ristics to
a p p e a r in e a ch non-flye r re sp onse the te rm - Psychoce ntrism wa s
a p p lie d to the g roup .
Plog the n built on the work of Re isma n (inne r- a nd othe r-dire cte d
individua ls, a nd Rotte r (inte rna l/e xte rna l sca le ) by de ve lop ing
e ig ht que stions to se p a ra te p e op le on a continuum into diffe re nt
p e rsona lity g roup s ra ng ing from p sychoce ntric to a lloce ntric.
The se dime nsions p roduce d a be ll-sha p e distribution curve for
Plog 's na rrow sa mp le of the p op ula tion of hig h income e a rne rs.
While Plog 's the ory is use ful in its a p p lica tion it is still
fra ug ht with we a kne sse s. Tourists will tra ve l with diffe re nt
motiva tions on diffe re nt occa sions. A se cond holida y or short-
bre a k we e ke nd ma y be in a ne a rby, p sychoce ntric de stina tion
whe re a s the ma in holida y ma y be in a n a lloce ntric de stina tion.
Smith (1 990 ) te ste d Plog 's mode l, utilizing e vide nce from se ve n
diffe re nt countrie s. He conclude d tha t his re sults did not
sup p ort Plog 's orig ina l mode l of a n a ssocia tion be twe e n
p e rsona lity typ e s a nd de stina tion p re fe re nce s. Smith que stione d
the a p p lica bility of the mode l to countrie s othe r tha n the Unite d
Sta te s. Plog (1 990 ) in a nswe r to Smith, que stione d the va lidity
-p a g e 1 1 1
of the va ria ble s of me a sure me nt a nd the sa mp le fra me use d by
Smith. He cla ime d the re se a rch ha d fa lle n into unne ce ssa ry
'p othole s'. He dismisse d Smith's comp a ra tive study on the ba sis
tha t it did not re p lica te a de qua te ly his (Plog 's) own
me thodolog y. Re g a rdle ss of this de fe nce , furthe r controlle d
e mp irica l studie s will be re quire d in orde r to e nsure Plog 's
the ory ca n be justifie d a s a ce ntra l p illa r within tourism
the ory.
A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO MOTIVATION
Motiva tion a s a n a re a within the discip line of p sycholog y ha s
e sta blishe d itse lf a s a se p a ra te a re a of e nquiry. Motiva tion a s
a fie ld of re se a rch ha s be e n a p p roa che d from the biolog ica l,
instinctua l, cog nitive , a nd se lf-a ctua liza tion p e rsp e ctive s.
Pe a rce (1 982) following on from Cofe r a nd Ap p le y (1 967) p oints
out tha t motiva tion the ory ha s be e n e xp e cte d to e xp la in too much,
ye t if motiva tion the ory unde rp ins a ll huma n be ha viour, due to
a ll a ction be ing motiva te d, the n its imp orta nce should not be
unde r e stima te d. Pe a rce p re se nts p sychoa na lytic the ory a s be ing
consiste nt with this p e rsp e ctive for it p rop ose s tha t se xua l a nd
a g g re ssive instincts a re the root ca use s of a ll be ha viour. He
quote s from Dichte r (1 967) who vie ws the motiva tion for tra ve l
a s be ing '...a trip is the re fore a form of birth or re birth.'
Pe a rce sug g e ste d tourist motiva tion should be vie we d in te rms of
the long te rm p sycholog ica l ne e ds of a n individua l in a n a p p roa ch
which incorp ora te s intrinsic motiva tions such a s se lf-
a ctua liza tion.
p a g e 1 1 2
Freudian theory: A basis for contemporary themes
If we e xa mine Fre ud's p sychoa na lytic the ory of motiva tion we find
the re a re a numbe r of the me s which ha ve continue d to be quote d
e ve n thoug h Fre ud e la bora te d the fra me work of his the ory a nd ma de
cha ng e s. It ha s be e n cla ime d by Gre e nbe rg (1 983) tha t Fre ud's
me a ning for his the ory should be stre sse d be ca use this ove rcome s
the me cha nistic influe nce of his writing which is couche d in
te rms of hydra ulic or biolog ica l me ta p hors. Fre ud's work ha s
be e n sp lit into the thre e p ha se s of:
1 . Affe ct a nd de fe nce - 1 880-1 905
2 . Drive /structure mode l - 1 905-1 91 0
3. Inte g ra tion of conce p ts in p ha se 2 - 1 91 1
The se funda me nta l conce p ts we re a n e volve me nt of thinking with
the first p ha se la sting the long e st ye t with ce rta in conce p ts
such a s se duction the ory be ing a ba ndone d.
Fre ud p rop ose d tha t p e op le try to a ffe ct a sta te of consta ncy by
discha rg ing a ny te nsion which is built up in the syste m. Wha t
ma tte rs most to p e op le is to rid the mse lve s of stimula tion.
Huma n be ha viour is se e n to be re g ula te d by the consta ncy
p rincip le , which wa s unde rstood to re g ula te the stimuli which
re quire d discha rg e . Pe rsona lity a s we ll a s the e ve nt itse lf wa s
a rg ue d to ha ve a n a ffe ct on the outcome . In contra st, some
the orists ha ve a rg ue d in op p osition to this the ory due to the
occurre nce of p e op le se e king e xcite me nt sta te s. Howe ve r, te nsion
re duction which ta ke s p la ce whe n the re is a fe lt ne e d sta te is
a fe a ture of conte mp ora ry consume r be ha viour the ory following on
from the work of De we y (1 91 0).
John De we y conside re d the sta g e s of de cision ma king to be :
1 . A fe lt difficulty;
2 . Loca tion a nd de finition of difficulty;
3. sug g e stion of a p ossible solution;
-page 113
4. Consequences are considered through reasoning;
5. A solution is accepted.
In the Interpretation of Dreams, Freud (1900) began to develop
insight into different aspects of human motivation, Freud began
by restating the constancy theory where human effort is directed
towards keeping itself free of stimuli by reflex action leading
to a discharge of the sensory excitation. For Freud this led to
some expression of emotion or if in the longer term this does not
lead to constancy, an experience of satisfaction will be
required. The experience of the satisfaction state provides a
particular perception or nemory which becomes associated with the
excitement associated with the need. Thus the next time the need
arises the perception is reinvoked and the original experience
of satisfaction is re-established. The impulse to do this Freud
terms a 'wish'. The content of the unconscious mind for Freud
in 1900 was exclusively made up of wishes. Dreams were then
formed by the press toward satisfaction of those wishes developed
in the unconscious. The wish in 1900 was to be the drive
mechanism of later theory whereby each created the internal
tension which through the constancy process led to move the mind
to some action. Both the earlier wish or the subsequent
terminology of drive mechanism provided the motive force which
led to action. While for Freud the need state may have included
sexual, destructive or self preservation tendencies, there is
great latitude to include consumer behaviour within the
theoretical assumptions. With his three essays on the theory of
sexuality Freud abandoned the indeterminacy of his early wish
model. He now emphasised drive as "an instinct" as an energy
source which activated the psychic apparatus. The 1940 statement
of Freud was that drive 'is the ultimate cause of all activity'.
Freud pointed out although there are a number of instincts ' .
only primal instincts - those which cannot be further dissected
can lay claim to importance. I have proposed that two groups of
c h a * e * 3 2 T h e c o i i j a i ' page 114
suc h pri ma l i nsti nc ts sh o uld be di sti ngui sh e d: th e e go , o r se lf-
pre se rva ti o n i nsti nc ts a nd th e se xua l i nsti nc ts' .
He we nt o n to a rgue th a t h i s po stula te wa s ...' me re ly a wo rki ng
h ypo th e si s, to be re ta i ne d o nly so lo ng a s i t pro ve s use ful' .
Fre ud (1915). It se e ms th a t be c a use th e se dri ve s ta ke no a c c o unt
o f th e so c i a l c o nte xt o f be h a vi o ur th e n Fre ud h a s pro vi de d a
re duc ti o ni st th e o ry c o nc e ptua li se d o n th e ba si s o f i nsti nc t, no t
i nte ra c ti o n. It ma y be a c c e pte d th a t th e e a rly wi sh mo de l
c re a te s a n unde rsta ndi ng o f th e mo ti va ti o n pro c e ss. Ho we ve r, th e
dri ve mo de l do e s no t pro vi de i nsi gh t i nto di ffe re nc e s be twe e n
c h o i c e ba se d upo n th e so c i a l c o nte xt o f be h a vi o ur, a nd must be
furth e r de ve lo pe d.
T h i s a uth o r be li e ve s th a t fo llo wi ng o n fro m Fre ud, wi sh e s, wh i c h
de sc ri be d th e de si re to re -e sta bli sh si tua ti o ns wh i c h h a d o nc e
sa ti sfi e d a n e a rli e r i nte rna lly pro duc e d ne e d, pro vi de so me li nk
to c urre nt c o nsume r be h a vi o ur th e o ry. Ho we ve r, th e dri ve mo de l
o f Fre ud o nly a llo ws us to unde rsta nd be h a vi o ur li nke d to
bi o lo gi c a l i nh e ri ta nc e wh i c h pro vi de s ri gi d, i mpo se d sti mula ti o n.
Fre ud a lso , i n h i s c o nsta nc y th e o ry, de sc ri be d h uma ns a s fo re ve r
stri vi ng to re duc e th e i nte rna l pre ssure c re a te d by dri ve s but
ne gle c ti ng th o se a c ti o ns wh i c h i nc re a se th e sta te o f te nsi o n suc h
a s c uri o si ty o f o th e r pla c e s a nd c o untri e s. T h i s wo rk i s fo unde d
o n i ts a ssumpti o ns, a nd i s no t a ble to gi ve pre di c ti o n a nd mo re
i mpo rta ntly i t ma y ne gle c t th e so c i a l na ture o f h uma n a c ti o n.
T h e re i s a n o ppo rtuni ty, uti li zi ng Fre ud, to bui ld a mo de l ba se d
upo n th e c o nfli c t si tua ti o n wh i c h o c c urs be twe e n th e i nsti nc tua l
de si re s o f th e bo dy a nd th e c o nsc i o us a c ti vi ti e s o f th e mi nd to
re so lve th e m. T h e re i s th e no ti o n i n Fre ud' s wri ti ng th a t th e re
i s th e de ve lo pme nt o f stre ss pro duc e d by suc h sta te s. As we pa ss
th ro ugh di ffe re nt sta ge s o f ma turi ty fro m c h i ldh o o d th ro ugh
e a rly, mi ddle a nd th e n la te a dulth o o d, th e se c ri se s sta te s ma y
be re so lve d th ro ugh di ffe re nt a c ti o ns. It c o uld be o f i nte re st
to re se a rc h i nto di ffe re nt tra ve l be h a vi o ur li nke d to th e e ne rgy
fo rc e s o f th e se c ri se s sta te s but i t wo uld be e xtre me ly di ffi c ult
to i so la te th e ne c e ssa ry va ri a ble s.
chaptei3.: Thep a g e 1 1 5
Pa rke r (1 983) ha s conside re d le isure be ha viour to be linke d to
p a rticula r forms of work situa tions. This socia l p sycholog ica l
a p p roa ch could be e xte nde d to incorp ora te stre ss sta g e s in a
p e rson's biog ra p hy. Krip p e ndorf (1 987) ha s ide ntifie d diffe re nt
combina tions of work a nd le isure which he a rg ue s will cre a te
thre e diffe re nt sta g e s of life style for the future . In the ca se
of the first g roup individua ls we re se e n to tre a t work a s a focus
of life . Tourism for this g roup is of se conda ry imp orta nce a nd
se rve s ma inly to a llow the individua l to re g e ne ra te working
e ne rg y. The se cond g roup p ola rise work a nd le isure . Althoug h
the g roup be lie ve s the re is a ne e d to work in orde r to live , the y
a lso find tha t life ta ke s p la ce only in le isure time . In
contra st the third life style g roup a ims to re duce the p ola rity
be twe e n work a nd le isure a nd se a rche s for fulfilme nt in both
a sp e cts of life . The work a nd le isure combina tions outline d by
Krip p e ndorf would form a n initia l ba sis on which to de ve lop
the orie s of stre ss a nd life style combina tions.
An a lte rna tive re sp onse to Fre udia n the orie s is tha t much
be ha viour is not motiva te d but is the p roduct of re fle x a ctions,
ha bits a nd e nvironme nta l a nd e xte rna l force s. Cofe r a nd Ap p le y
(1 967), Arke s a nd Ga rske (1 977), Be ck (1 978), e tc. who a dop t this
se cond a p p roa ch a re se e n to be conce rne d with 'e ne rg ise d' cha ng e s
in the be ha viouria l stre a m which cha ra cte rise s huma n a ction.
The se cha ng e s a re found to e xhibit incre a se d le ve ls of a ctivity
a nd a rousa l a t le a st in the e a rly sta g e s. The inte re sting a sp e ct
of tourism consump tion is tha t the de cision for ma ny forms of
tra ve l is ta ke n long in a dva nce of the a ctua l consump tion ta king
p la ce . The work of Cla wson (1 963) a nd Cha rms a nd De Muir (1 978)
indica te motiva tion should be re la te d to the function of how the
ta sk corre sp onds to the life sp a ce of the a ctor with re g a rd to
future e ve nts a nd p ossibilitie s.
p a g e 1 1 6
AN EXPLANATION OF THE APPROACHES TO TOURISM MOTIVATION (Dann,
1981).
The study of tourism motiva tion ha s be e n de rive d from a ra ng e of
discip lina ry a re a s which ha s le d to a dive rsity of a p p roa ch. Fe w
a uthors, with the e xce p tion of Da nn (1 981 ) ha ve trie d to ide ntify
diffe re nt e le me nts within the ove ra ll a p p roa ch. Da nn ide ntifie d
se ve n diffe re nt p e rsp e ctive s:
1. Travel is a response to what is lacking yet desired.
This a p p roa ch sug g e sts tha t tourists a re motiva te d by the
de sire to e xp e rie nce p he nome na which a re diffe re nt from
those a va ila ble in the ir home e nvironme nt.
2. Destination 'pull' in response to motivational 'push'.
(Cromp ton, 1 979, Da nn, 1 977).
This disting uishe s be twe e n motiva tion of the individua l
tourist in te rms of the le ve l of de sire ('p ush') a nd the
'p ull' of the de stina tion or a ttra ction, once the de cision
to tra ve l ha s be e n ta ke n; 'Pull' fa ctors a re se e n to
re sp ond to, a nd re inforce the 'p ush' fa ctors.
3. Motivation as fantasy.
This is a subse t of the first two fa ctors a nd sug g e sts tha t
tourists tra ve l in orde r to unde rta ke be ha viour which ma y
not be cultura lly sa nctione d in the ir home se tting .
4. Motivation as classified purpose.
A broa d ca te g ory which invoke s the ma in p urp ose s of a trip
a s a motiva tor for tra ve l. Purp ose ma y include visiting
frie nds a nd re la tive s, e njoying le isure a ctivitie s, or
study.
5. Motivational typologies.
This a p p roa ch is inte rna lly divide d into be ha viouria l
typ olog ie s such a s the motiva tors 'sunlust' a nd
p a g e 1 1 7
'wa nde rlust' a s p rop ose d by Gra y, a nd typ olog ie s which
focus on dime nsions of the tourist role .
6. Motiva tion a nd tourist e xp e rie nce s.
This a p p roa ch is cha ra cte rise d by de ba te re g a rding the
a uthe nticity of tourist e xp e rie nce s a nd de p e nds up on
be lie fs a bout typ e s of tourist e xp e rie nce .
7 . Motiva tion as a uto-de finition a nd me a ning .
This sug g e st tha t the wa y in which tourists de fine the ir
situa tions will p rovide a g re a te r unde rsta nding of tourist
motiva tion tha n simp ly obse rving the ir be ha viour.
Da nn sug g e ste d tha t the se ve n ide ntifie d a p p roa che s de monstra te
a 'de finitiona l fuzzine ss' which ma y ma ke it difficult to
discove r 'whe the r or not re se a rche rs a re studying the sa me
p he nome non'. (Da nn 1 981 ). Da nn ha s be e n inte re ste d in
motiva tion for a numbe r of ye a rs. In 1 97 7 he p ostula te d tha t
the re a re two ba sic unde rlying re a sons for tra ve l: Anomie a nd
e g o-e nha nce me nt. According to Da nn we live in a n a nomic socie ty
a nd this foste rs a ne e d in p e op le for socia l inte ra ction which
is missing a t the home p la ce - the re fore the re is a ne e d to
tra ve l a wa y from the home e nvironme nt, whe re a s 'e g o-e nha nce me nt'
de rive s from the le ve l of p e rsona lity ne e ds. Just a s the re is a
ne e d for socia l inte ra ction, so too doe s ma n ne e d to be
re cog nise d. Ana log ous to the de sire for the body to be
tra nsforme d into imp rove d he a lth is the ne e d to ha ve one 's e g o
e nha nce d or booste d. A tourist on holida y is cha ra cte rise d a s
be ing a ble to 'e sca p e ' into a world of fa nta sy or be a ble to
indulg e in kinds of be ha viour which a re g e ne ra lly frowne d up on
a t home .
p a g e 1 1 8
UNDERPINNINGS OF THE TERM MOTIVATION
Historica lly tourists ha ve tra ve lle d a s a ma jor life e ve nt. The
p ilg rima g e s, g ra nd tour, or he a lth cure visit ma y ha ve be e n a
ma jor e xp e rie nce in the life of individua ls from the time of the
Roma ns until the p re se nt da y. We could e mba rk on a numbe r of
g e ne ra lisa tions re g a rding the ne e ds which ma y ha ve be e n
a ssocia te d with the se trip s but it ma y be imp ossible to judg e
e a rlie r motiva tions utilizing curre nt ide a s of wha t constitute s
conte mp ora ry motiva tion. We a re bound by cultura l a s we ll a s
historica l me a ning s formula te d from our own unique p e rsp e ctive .
If motiva tions a re a ttribute d to those inha bita nts of Ale xa ndria
or Athe nia who tra ve lle d to mounta in re sorts in the summe r or the
young we a lthy me mbe rs of Que e n Eliza be th's court who took a
'Gra nd Tour' the y will re fle ct the historica l informa tion which
ha s be e n se le cte d by historia ns a s we ll a s our own p a rticula r
inte rp re ta tion a nd va lue s which g ive me a ning to the se e ve nts.
This could p roduce inva lid conclusions which a re not re la te d to
the motiva tions which would ha ve e xiste d in p a st time s.
Arg ume nts by the orists, such a s Da nn a nd Se tha (1 977), tha t the
historica l a nd a ne cdota l tourist motiva tion lite ra ture ca n be
summe d up by the conce p t of e sca p e , fa il to comp re he nd the
re la tive na ture of the conce p t a nd its inhe re nt a mbig uity.
We a lso ne e d to a sk whe the r motiva tion should be vie we d a s a
p re dictive or e xp la na tory conce p t. We could e xp la in tra ve l a s
the outcome of a ne e d to e sca p e , but it would not ne ce ssa rily be
p ossible to p re dict tha t tra ve l would occur due to some one
wa nting to e sca p e . This bring s us to the que stion of individua l
or comp le x motiva tion re se a rch. We ne e d to a sk whe the r it is
ne ce ssa ry to use multi-motive a sse ssme nt to find the ca usa tion
of tra ve l be ha viour.
The curre nt lite ra ture offe rs little to he lp our unde rsta nding
of the UK p op ula tion's tra ve l motiva tions. If we ta ke the ca se
of the de ma nd for holida ys from the Unite d King dom, with e ve r-
incre a sing numbe rs of tourists visiting de stina tions a broa d, the n
page 119
we could start to assess the different authors' proposed lists
of motivations against some of the reasons given for this pattern
of behaviour. A warmer climate has been the major reason given
and is a renowned reason for holidaying abroad (Mintel Report,
1984). Mintel surveys have shown that in 1981, 59 percent of the
sample and in 1984, 45 percent of the sample reported weather was
the most important factor leading to their decision on
destination. On the assumption that weather as a need for change
in climatic conditions is an important aspect of demand we can
compare this with the literature. If we examine this research
finding in relation to the proposed lists of motivation, we find
that we cannot easily identify this aspect within the motivation
factors proposed by various authors. This is not to say all
nationalities enjoy hot weather, for it may be argued those
visitors to Britain from America's sun-belt, Arab States or other
high- temperature continually sunny areas visit Britain for the
coolness of the climate. This point is reinforced by Jefferson
and Lickorish (1988) who argue that the United Kingdom offers
a 52-week holiday destination because weather would be well down
any one's motivation chart for overseas visitors.
This study was undertaken with the hope of clarifying the
situation in relation to the motivations of overseas UK
hol idaymakers.
In utilizing the notion of motivation as a concept we are left
not knowing why or how those motivations came into being or are
thought to exist. We also find that the majority of authors have
created meaning for motivations as being specific to individuals,
while it is clear that there are both national and cultural
interpretations which complicate this relationship.
The terminology stresses the singular and the theory is presented
without any evidence to show us what will happen within a family
to resolve any difference which may exist if each member displays
conflicting motivations. It implies motivation is idiosyncratic
p a g e 1 2 0
whe re a s it ma y be e sse ntia l to conside r sha re d motiva tions in
re la tion to tourism de ma nd.
The dime nsions of the conce p t of motiva tion in the conte xt of
tra ve l a re not e a sy to ma p out, or comp re he nd, ye t it se e ms to
include :
i) the ide a tha t tra ve l is initia lly ne e d-re la te d a nd tha t
this ma nife sts itse lf in te rms of wa nts a nd stre ng th of
motiva tion or 'p ush', a s the e ne rg ise r of a ction;
ii) Motiva tion is g rounde d in sociolog ica l a nd p sycholog ica l
a sp e cts of a cquire d norms, a ttitude s, culture , p e rce p tions
e tc., le a ding to p e rson-sp e cific forms of motiva tion; a nd
iii) the ima g e of a de stina tion cre a te d throug h 'induce d' or
'org a nic' communica tion cha nne ls will influe nce motiva tion
a nd subse que ntly a ffe ct the typ e of tra ve l unde rta ke n.
Althoug h the lite ra ture on tourism motiva tion is still in a n
imma ture p ha se of de ve lop me nt it ha s be e n shown tha t motiva tion
is a n e sse ntia l conce p t be hind the diffe re nt p a tte rns of tourist
de ma nd. Howe ve r, we should re me mbe r tha t a lthoug h motiva tion ca n
be stimula te d a nd a ctiva te d in re la tion to the wa nt for a
p roduct, ne e ds the mse lve s ca nnot be cre a te d. Ne e ds a re de p e nde nt
on the huma n e le me nt throug h the p sycholog y a nd circumsta nce s
re la ting to the individua l. The re is a lso the whole que stion of
wha t typ e s of motiva tion ma y be inna te in us a ll (curiosity, ne e d
for p hysica l conta ct) a nd wha t typ e s a re le a rnt (sta tus,
a chie ve me nt) be ca use the y a re judg e d a s va lua ble or p ositive .
This would le a d to a n a na lysis of p rima ry a nd le a rne d motive s.
Tourist Roles
While motiva tion a nd mode ls of de ma nd ha ve be e n e xte nsive ly
discusse d in tourism-re la te d lite ra ture , the se ma y not be
a de qua te ly linke d to a cce p te d notions of tourist role s. A
combina tion of the orie s se e ms to be a log ica l de ve lop me nt for
future e mp irica l re se a rch. For consume r be ha viour study it is
page 121
perhaps even more pertinent, for tourists can be characterised
into different typologies or roles which exercise motivation as
an energising force linked to personal needs. However, this
cannot be simplified to the redescription of motivations or vice
versa as in the case of theorists such as Mayo and Jarvis (1981).
Utilizing this approach, roles can be studied in relation to goal
oriented forms of behaviour or holiday choice activity.
Therefore some understanding of tourist roles may bring about a
deeper understanding of the choice process of different consumer
segments.
The majority of authors who have identif led tourist roles have
concentrated on the assessment of the social and environmental
impact of tourism or the nature of the tourist experience. This
has not provided any in-depth understanding of the process of
holiday purchase behaviour. Any definition or interpretation
of tourist roles, like those of motivation, vary according to the
analytical framework used by the individual author. The initial
ideas of role developed from the work of sociological theorists
such as Goffinan (1959), who suggested that individuals behave
differently in different situations in order to sustain
impressions associated with those situations. As actors have
different front and backstage performances, participants in any
activity vary their behaviour according to the nature and context
of that activity. Consequently individual roles can be
identified and managed according to social circumstances.
Whereas tourists may vary considerably, a pattern of roles is
seen to be constructed which can be studied. Theoretical studies
focusing on the sociological aspects of tourism role were
developed in the 1970s through the work of Cohen (1972, 1974),
MacCannell (1976) and Smith (1977).
Cohen (1972) proposed a typology of tourists based upon elements
of the tourist experience, in particular the dimension of
similarity/novelty between the
touristts
home environment and
that of the destination.Cohen suggested that whilst
c h a p t e r 3TheCiiii page 122
de st ina t ions ma y be e njoye d a s nove l, most t our ist s p r e fe r t o
e xp lor e t h e m fr om a fa milia r ba se . Th e de gr e e of fa milia r it y of
t h is ba se unde r lie s Coh e n's t yp ology in wh ic h t h e a ut h or
ide nt ifie s four t our ist r ole s:
Or ga nise d ma ss t our ist ; Individua l ma ss t our ist ; Exp lor e r a nd
Dr ift e r .Ea c h of t h e se a r e de fine d wit h in t h e ne xt four
de sc r ip t ions:
1. Th e or ga nise d ma ss t our ist wh o t r a ve ls on guide d t our s
wit h fixe d it ine r a r ie s a nd a h igh de gr e e of fa milia r it y.
Coh e n de sc r ibe s t h e se t our ist s a s a c t ing wit h in a n
"e nvir onme nt a l bubble " wh ic h func t ions t o r e c r e a t e t h e
t our ist 's h ome e nvir onme nt a t t h e de st ina t ion.
2. Th e individua l ma ss t our ist h a s a simila r r ole a s t h e
or ga nise d ma ss t our ist e xc e p t wit h some fle xibilit y wit h in
t h e p la nne d t our st r uc t ur e . Th us t h e de gr e e of fa milia r it y
is le ss t h a n for or ga nise d ma ss t our ist s.
3. Th e e xp lor e r t r ie s t o "ge t off t h e be a t e n t r a c k" by ma king
t h e ir own a r r a nge me nt s a nd se e king some c ont a c t wit h loc a l
p e op le . Exp lor e r s will st ill se e k r e lia ble se r vic e s suc h
a s a c c ommoda t ion a nd t r a nsp or t .
4. Th e dr ift e r t r ie s t o be c ome imme r se d in loc a l t r a dit ions
a nd life a nd r e t a ins only e sse nt ia l or ba sic c ust oms fr om
h ome life . For suc h t our ist s t h e nove lt y a sp e c t of t h e
e xp e r ie nc e is e mp h a sise d a nd t h e e le me nt of fa milia r it y
r e duc e d t o a minimum.
Coh e n de sc r ibe d t h e fir st t wo r ole s a s inst it ut iona lise d a nd t h e
la t t e r t yp e s a s non-inst it ut iona lise d. Coh e n wa s int e r e st e d in
c la ssifying gr oup s in or de r t o unde r st a nd, not de ma nd but t h e
a ffe c t s or imp a c t of inst it ut iona lise d for ms of t our ism wh ic h h e
found t o be a ut h e nt ic it y issue s, st a nda r disa t ion of de st ina t ions,
page 123
festival and the development of facilities. He also identified
the impact of non-institutionalised forms of tourism upon the
destination which he found acts as a 'spearhead for mass tourism'
Cohen (1972) as well as having a demonstration effect on the
lower socio-economic groups of the host community.
Cohen's typology has formed the basis for numerous further
studies, both theoretical and empirical. It assists in
formulating operational approaches to tourism research and forms
a framework for management practice. Although it is not complete
and cannot be applied to all tourists at all times, it does
afford a certain amount of organisational structure.
MacCannell (1976) rejected views of the tourist which
predominated within the literature on the basis that they were
'superficial' and hence precluded a deeper understanding of the
tourist. Instead the author proposed that tourists are modern
pilgrims seeking an experience akin to religious fulfilment.
MacCannell argues that authenticity forms the focal point for
tourism and that tourists are seeking 'real' rather than 'staged'
experiences. MacCannell has been criticised (Cohen 1979) for
presenting an overly simplistic globalised view of tourists,
However, there remains some support for this approach which has
been modified and used as the basis for further research and
debate. In addition, the work of Smith (1977) and Pearce (1982)
can be seen to be directly related to the early pioneering work
of Cohen.
page 124
Role and Family Influence
As the fundamental social unit of group formation in society, the
influence of a family on tourism demand is pervasive. It is a
complicated purchasing organisation supplying the needs of
perhaps two or more generations. In addition it socializes
children to adopt particular forms of purchasing and acts as a
wider reference group. Given the importance of family behaviour
in the purchase of leisure products, we may want to question the
preponderance of literature which treats consumer behaviour as
an individual model of action. The primary forms of the scarce
research work in the area has been on the decision outcome rather
than on how families make decisions.
Lifestyle and life cycle exert a great influence on buying
behaviour. Wells and Gubar (1966) have conceptualised the life-
cycle of families in the USA, from the bachelor to solitary
survivor stage, as follows:
1. Bachelor stage; young single people not living at home.
2. Newly married couples; young, no children.
3. The full nest I; young married couples with dependent
children.
4. The full nest II; married couples with dependent children
over six.
5. Full nest III; married couples with dependent children.
6. The empty nest; older married couples with no children
living with them. Head of household in labour force.
7. As above but head retired.
8. The solitary survivor; older single people in labour force.
9. As above but retired.
Many of these different stages represent attractive market
segments for those who market and sell travel products and
services e.g. 18-30, Saga etc.
p a g e 1 2 5
Ea ch me mbe r of a fa mily fulfils a sp e cia l role within the g roup .
The y ma y a ct a s husba nd/fa the r, wife /mothe r, son/brothe r a nd
da ug hte r/siste r. Fa mily de cision-ma king a ssig ns role s to
sp e cific me mbe rs of the fa mily. De cision ma king ma y be sha re d,
or ma de by one p e rson. One me mbe r of the fa mily ma y be the
fa cilita tor, while informa tion ma y be g a the re d by a nothe r. The
fa mily a cts a s a comp osite buying unit with the diffe re nt role
p a tte rns le a ding to p a rticula r forms of tourism p roduct p urcha se .
Olse n (1983) sug g e sts tha t one should a ssume disa g re e me nt a nd a
la ck of cong rue nce a mong fa mily me mbe rs ra the r tha n a ssume tha t
one is de a ling with a n inte g ra te d a nd hig hly cong rue nt g roup of
individua ls (Olse n, 1983, 235). Inde e d, while much re se a rch ha s
be e n conducte d in orde r to de te rmine the diffe re ntia tion a nd
distribution of role s within the fa mily in re la tion to p urcha sing
be ha viour, the re ha s be e n little the ore tica l e nde a vour to
de te rmine the e ffe cts of la ck of conse nsus on fa mily de cision
ma king . Olse n cla ims tha t fa mily de cision ma king move s a wa y
from e g a lita ria n p re fe re nce s towa rd a more ce ntra iise d structure
a s fa milie s move a long the sta g e s of the life cycle .
Qua ils (1987), Va n Ra a ij a nd Fra ncke n (1984) a nd Da vis e t a l
(1974) ha ve sug g e ste d how se x role orie nta tion a nd ma rita l role s,
re sp e ctive ly, ca n a ffe ct fa mily de cision-ma king a nd p urcha sing
be ha viour. Ritchie a nd Filia tra unt (1980), Mye rs a nd Moncrie f
(1978) ha ve linke d this to the p roce ss of holida y de stina tion
choice . The funda me nta l influe nce of conflict a nd its nume rous
source s ca nnot be ove rsha dowe d. One source of conflict is
de cision-ma king itse lf, a nd p urcha sing be ha viour in p a rticula r,
whe re the re will be a conflict of inte re sts in re g a rd to
p urcha sing obje ctive s, a ttitude s towa rd a lte rna tive bra nds, e tc.
(Assa e l, 1987,
p.
395). The de cre a se in g e nde r diffe re ntia tion
a s re p orte d by Qua lls (1987) a nd the cha ng ing role of wome n in
socie ty in g e ne ra l a nd in the fa mily in p a rticula r (Ve nka te sh,
1980) he ra ld a n ine vita ble incre a se in joint de cision-ma king
be twe e n husba nd a nd wife within the fa mily.
page 126
The study of Davis et al (1974) placed this joint decision-making
in the context of husband-wife decision-making in general. For
various individual and domestic products they indicated the role
of husband and wife in the decision making process (see Figure
3.2 ) e.g. kitchenware came under the category of 'wife
dominant', life insurance under 'husband dominant', alcoholic
beverages under 'autonomic', and children's education under
'syncratic'. They stressed however that the placing of certain
purchases depends as well on the stage in the decision making
process i.e. Phase 1: problem recognition, Phase 2; search for
information, Phase 3; final decision. Their findings, based on
Belgian families, show that in all stages of the decision making
process vacation decisions tend to be highly syncratic.
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page 127
FIGURE 3.2 HUSBAND AND WIFE ROLES IN FAMILY DECISIONS
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page 128
In addition to particular commodities that are linked with joint
decision making, Sheth (1974) defined certain situations where
joint decisions are made. He identified that where the level of
perceived risk in buying is high then joint decisions are more
likely in order to reduce individual risk, also where the
purchasing decision is important to the family as a whole or
where there is high involvement in the purchase, and finally
where there are few time pressures (a shortage of time will
usually encourage one member to make a quick decision). Certain
demographic groups are identified as more syncratic, e.g. middle-
income groups, families at the early stages of life cycle,
childless families and families where only one parent is employed
(e.g. Jenkins, 1978).
The influence of children in the family decision-making process
has not received the attention from researchers that it deserves.
Assael (1987) reports that while the parents are responsible
initially for a child's consumer behaviour, as the child learns
about purchasing and consumption primarily from his or her
parents, the child eventually becomes a dominant force in certain
purchasing decisions. This is an important aspect where teenage
children may have to negotiate with their parents to take
separate holidays, or influence the final holiday choice
decision.
c h 8 p t e J ' 3 : z T h e p a g e 1 2 9
THE MAIN THEORIES OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Pe rh a p s t h e most fruit ful a p p roa c h t o a n unde rst a nding of t ourism
de ma nd is t o ide nt ify a nd e va lua t e t h e broa de r t h e orie s of
c onsume r be h a viour linke d t o p urc h a se be h a viour. T h is is fa r
from simp list ic for we a re fa c e d wit h a p rolife ra t ion of
re se a rc h wit h in a disc ip line wh ic h h a s disp la ye d sig nific a nt
g rowt h a nd dive rsit y. T h e disc ip line h a s borrowe d a ra ng e of
c onc e p t s from t h e qua nt it a t ive a nd be h a viouria l sc ie nc e s in orde r
t o g e ne ra t e int e g ra t e d mode ls of a c t ion. Be c a use of t h e
diffic ult ie s wh ic h a re involve d in p roving t h a t one mode l is
sup e rior t o a not h e r, we a re c onfront e d by a ra ng e of mode ls
wh ic h re ly on a c orre sp onde nc e of be lie f ra t h e r t h a n a ny log ic a l
p roof t h a t t h e y a re rig h t or wrong . T h e orie s c a n only be
a sse sse d on t h e c ont ribut ion t h e y ma ke t o t h e p roc e ss involve d
in p a rt ic ula r forms of p urc h a se .
An int e re st ing int e rp re t a t ion of t h e role of t h e t h e ore t ic a l
a p p roa c h is g ive n by Arndt (1 9 8 6):
"A c omp le x mode l of be h a viour c a n ne ve r be p rove n or
va lida t e d in a ny fina l se nse ..., t h e only p re se nt c rit e ria
for a c c e p t ing one (t h e ory) ove r a not h e r a re : Doe s it ma ke
se nse bot h in t e rms of int uit ion a nd e xist ing knowle dg e a nd
do p re dic t ions from t h e mode ls c ome t rue "
Howe ve r be h a viour is not t ot a lly ra ndom or be yond our
c omp re h e nsion due t o t h e p a t t e rns of c onsume r be h a viour wh ic h c a n
be p re dic t e d.
Early Empiricist Phase
T h is p h a se wh ic h c ove re d t h e ye a rs be t we e n 1 9 3 0 a nd t h e la t e
l9 40s c a n be se e n t o be domina t e d by e mp iric a l c omme rc ia l
re se a rc h . T h is re se a rc h disp la ye d a p ronounc e d a p p lie d foc us.
As obse rve d by Sh e t h (1 9 74) t h is e ra wa s c h a ra c t e rise d by
a t t e mp t s in indust ry t o ide nt ify t h e e ffe c t s of dist ribut ion,
a dve rt ising a nd p romot ion de c isions.T h e se t h e ore t ic a l
page 130
underpinnings came mainly from the economic theories relating to
the Company.
The Motivational Research Phase
The l950s was an age where clinical psychologists were stressing
Freudian and drive related concepts. There was a greater
emphasis placed upon in-depth interviews, focus groups, thematic
apperception tests and other projective techniques. There was
a great deal of activity directed at uncovering 'real' motives
for action which were perceived to lie in the deeper recesses of
the consumers mind. Much of the theory was based around the idea
of there being instinctual needs which reside in the "id" and are
governed by the "ego" which acts to balance unrestrained
instincts and social constraints. The "super ego" in turn was
seen to embody values but limit action on the basis of moral
constraint. The major problem of such theories is that they are
based on unconscious needs which are by definition impossible to
prove empirically. Furthermore they are often hard to translate
into effective marketing strategies.
The Formative Phase
The 1960s can be seen as the formative years. The first general
consumer behaviour textbook became available in 1968 (Engel,
Kollat and Blackwell) and other influential books such as Howard
and Sheth (1969) followed soon after. In fact it was only in the
late 1960s when we first witnessed the introduction of consumer
behaviour courses into universities (Williams, 1982).
During the formative phase, models of behaviour proved useful as
a means of organising disparate knowledge of social action into
a somewhat arbitrary yet plausible process of intervening
psychological, social, economic and behaviourial variables. The
major theories were those of Engel, Kollat and Blackwell (with
Miniard, 1986); Howard and Sheth (1969, 1963) and Nicosia
(1966). These preceding theorists have developed 'Grand Models'
page 131
of consumer behaviour which have been subsequently utilized or
transformed by authors interested in the tourism choice process.
These models can be found to share several commonalities:
1. They all exhibit consumer behaviour as a decision process.
This is integral to the model;
2. They provide a comprehensive model focusing mainly on the
behaviour of the individual consumer;
3. They share the belief that behaviour is rational and hence
can, in principle, be explained;
4. They view buying behaviour as purposive, with the consumer
as an active information seeker, both of information stored
internally and of information available in the external
environment. Thus, the search and evaluation of information
is a key component of the decision process;
5. They believe that consumers limit the amount of information
taken in, and move over time from general notions to more
specific criteria and preference for alternatives; and
6. All the 'Grand models' include a notion of feedback, that
is, outcomes from purchases will affect future purchases;
A brief overview of the 'Grand models' will provide a better
understanding of the decision making process:
The Nicosia Model
The Nicosia Model (1966) along with the Andreasen model are
attempts to explain the adoption process for products. The
Nicosia model was the first to gain wide recognition as a way of
accounting for the dynamics of consumer decision making. The
model, illustrated in Figure 3.3 is expressed as a series of
linked fields where each field output acts as the input to the
next field. The Nicosia model assumes that a firm is introducing
a new product or brand and that the consumer has no prior
attitudes toward either the brand or its product class.
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page 132
FIGURE 3.3 THE NICOSIA MODEL
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The de cision flow of the Nicosia mode l consists of se ve n
comp one nts which a re discusse d a t g re a t le ng th in the orig ina l
te xt:
1 . The initia l p romotion or me ssa g e flow
2. The consume r's e xp osure
3 .
Inte ra ction of consume r a ttribute s/p re disp osition with
me ssa g e conte nt
4. The re sulting a ttitude forma tion
5.
The p ossibility of the a ttitude s le a ding on to
se a rch/comp a ra tive e va lua tion a ctivity, re sulting in
motiva tion.
6. The conve rsion of motiva tion to a p urcha se /re je ction
de cision.
7. Fe e dba ck of p urcha se informa tion comp le te s the loop to the
firm (sub fie ld one ) a nd to the consume r (sub fie ld two)
which le a ds to ne w stra te g ie s in re la tion to p urcha se a nd
se lling .
Nicosia be lie ve d tha t comp ute r flow cha rting me thods which could
incorp ora te simula tion te chnique s would be e ffe ctive in
e xp la ining a nd p re dicting the consume r de cision p roce ss. The
inte rve ning va ria ble s re quire re duction to a se t of e qua tions
which ca n be fe d into a comp ute r.
Lunn (1 971 ) p oints out tha t Nicosia utilize s the notion of a
"funne l" a p p roa ch to de cision ma king , a nd p la ce s much store on
the ide a of the consume r p re disp ositions moving from ve ry broa d
inte ntions throug h the se a rch a nd e va lua tion of a lte rna tive
p roducts, culmina ting in the se le ction of one p a rticula r bra nd.
This p e rsp e ctive in Nicosia 's work, shows he vie ws consume r
be ha viour a s a p roble m solving a ctivity ba se d up on ra tiona l
a ction. Howe ve r, his mode l is ba se d up on a ve ry re stricte d a re a
de a ling with a dve rtising a nd p roduct a cce p ta nce which limits the
use fulne ss of his the ory. (Chisna ll, 1 985). In a ddition the
chipter3.;The : coiaipage 134
purely linear relationship which Nicosia proposes between the
variables is not empirically grounded. According to Tuck (1976)
Nicosia's attempt at a mathematical solution to buying behaviour,
flounders even though he has managed to bring together a
multitude of variables and incorporated them into a decision-
making process. She argues that Nicosia took broad psychological
over-generalisations as given, so that he could enter everything
into his flow chart. We are left with a model which shows more
of what might happen, not necessarily what does happen. It
provides a process without any means to predict what occurs
within the content.
The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB) Model
The Engel, Kollat and Blackwell (EKB) model has been widely
referenced and is acknowledged as one of the most comprehensive
explanations of consumer behaviour. The original model has been
subject to three major revisions since 1968 and the current model
while retaining some of the fundamentals has become more
sophisticated in definitional and explanatory aspects and
therefore varies from the original version. This reflects the
progress made in knowledge which required some adaption to the
original model for its continued survival.
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page 135
FIGURE 3.4 THE E NGE L KOLLATBLACKWE LL (E KB) MODE L
page 136
The EKB model, Figure 3.4 takes a broader view than that of
Nicosia who took attitude, motivation and experience to be key
values. The EKB model incorporates inputs such as perception and
learning, which are discussed in great detail. A key feature of
their model is its incorporation of differences between high and
low involvement as part of the buying process. High involvement
is normally present in the decision making process when the
perceived risk in the purchase is high. This element of risk is
higher when the consumer is unsure about the outcome of his
purchase decision. This arises when (i) information is limited
(ii) the buyer has low confidence (iii) the price relative to
income is high. This has obvious connections to tourism demand.
Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (EKM) in the 1986, fifth edition
point out that limited problem solving (LPS) activity takes place
when there is little perceived risk that a wrong decision will
be made and as they point out, Olshavsky and Granbois (1979) have
found most consumer decisions are of the LPS type. However,
extended problem solving (EPS) when present affects the amount
of effort put into the search to reduce the perceived risk. This
will involve a great deal more external searching.
The EKB Model has the decision process as pathway of convergence
passing though various stages of processing prior to any choice
being made. The central process can be seen to incorporate five
stages:
1. Problem recognition/arousal
2. Internal search - Alternative evaluation
3. External search - Alternative evaluation
4. Choice/purchase
5. Outcomes as dissonance or satisfaction
The influences of environmental factors, such as cultural norms
and values, motives etc which influence these stages are
important. The model incorporates influence which moves from the
page 137
general to the specific, which is from the macro level (reference
group, social class, norms) to the micro level (belief,
intention, attitude).
The EKB model was constructed primarily with a didactic purpose
and the authors are the first to concede that no explicit attempt
was made to specify quantifiable functional relationships. It
would seem that their main purpose was to provide a structure for
teaching and learning rather than a testable model of consumer
problem solving. They outline their purpose as, "to explore and
evaluate .....to advance generalisations and propositions from
the evidence .....to assess practical implications .... (and)
to pinpoint areas where research is lacking". These
objectives should not detract from the importance of the various
modern developments, but it is an indictment on the lack of
progress within the area of research that we are left with
descriptive texts rather than an informed treatise.
Howard & Sheth's Model
The original model (1969) was built from earlier research carried
out by Sheth (1963) and was later improved upon by Howard and
Ostlund in 1973. Many theorists have regarded the Howard and
Sheth model (Figure 3.5) as the most satisfactory of all
available consumer behaviour models Lunn (1971), Mason (1984),
while others who have tried to apply the model have found it
empirically weak, Ehrenberg (1972), Tuck (1976).
At its most simplified level the model includes:
EXOGENOUS VARIABLES
11
11
STIMULI----PERCEPTION----LEARNING----RESPONSES
hypothetical constructs
p a g e 1 3 8
The mode l is cha ra cte rise d by a ce ntra l re cta ng ula r box which
indica te the va ria ble s tha t a ffe ct the sta te of the buye r. The
mode l de scribe s sta g e s of the de cision p roce ss which a re simila r
to those of Eng e l-Kolla t-Bla ckwe ll (bra nd comp re he nsion,
a ttitude , inte ntion a nd p urcha se ). The re a re a lso 'routinise d
re sp onse ' a nd 'e xte nde d a nd limite d p roble m solving ' p roce sse s
incorp ora te d in both mode ls.
The ce ntra l a re a of the e a rly mode l is se e n to incorp ora te
le a rning a nd p e rce p tua l constructs which a ffe ct the sta te of the
buye r a nd inte ra ct to p roduce a p a rticula r outp ut. The se
va ria ble s, te rme d e ndog e nous va ria ble s, a re hyp othe tica l
constructs which ha ve be e n borrowe d from the be ha viouria l
scie nce s.
The le a rning constructs include :
1 . Motive s. The se re la te to the g oa ls of buye rs;
2. Bra nd comp re he nsion. The se a re the bra nds which the buye r
will know of (e voke d se t);
3 . Choice crite ria . The orde re d se t of motive s re le va nt to
the p roduct cla ss be ing conside re d;
4. Attitude . The se a re p re fe re nce s for sp e cific bra nds in the
e voke d se t, ba se d up on be lie fs a s to how the y ca n sa tisfy
the buye r's ne e ds;
5. Inte ntion. A fore ca st re g a rding whe n, whe re a nd how the
buye r will a ct towa rd a bra nd in vie w of e xte rna l
(e xog e nous) inhibiting fa ctors such a s hig h p rice , la ck of
a va ila bility, socia l influe nce s e tc;
6. Confide nce . This is the de g re e of ce rta inty p e rce ive d for
the bra nd; a nd
7. Sa tisfa ction. The ma tch be twe e n the a ctua l a nd e xp e cte d
p urcha se conse que nce s.
Thepage 139
The perceptual constructs relate to the variables of information
processing:
1. Attention. The opening and closing of sensory receptors
which control the perception and filtering of information.
The sensitivity of the buyer is related to the amount and
extent of information processed;
2. Stimulus ambiguity.Perceived uncertainty and lack of
confidence in stimulus display input;
3. Perceptual bias. A distortion of the information input
received; and brought about by the buyer, either
consciously or otherwise.
4. Overt search.This is the active searching out of
information, carried out by the buyer.
Outside the rectangle there are the initial inputs which
stimulate the process and the final outputs in relation to the
purchase activity. The response variables are very similar to
hierarchy models of Lavidge and Steiner, or Rogers.
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PIGUR 3.5 THE HOWARD--SHETH MODEL (1969 Version)
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Close ly re la te d to the p roce ss of p urcha se is the imp orta nce of
time p re ssure a nd fina ncia l sta tus. It is outline d tha t time
p re ssure ma y inhibit the se a rch for comp a ra tive da ta in ce rta in
buying situa tions. In the ca se of fina ncia l influe nce s, che a p e r
bra nds ma y be substitute d for luxury bra nds e ve n if the y do not
ha ve the fe a ture s of the p re fe rre d bra nd.
The mode l conce ntra te s on the wa y in which informa tion is
p e rce ive d a nd the a da p tive be ha viour tha t re sults throug h the
le a rning p roce ss. At its ba sis is the a ssump tion tha t the
consume r will a lwa ys try to simp lify the ir buying de cision
throug h the a cquisition of more informa tion a nd g a ining more
e xp e rie nce . It vie ws a ction a s dyna mic with a ny cha ng e in
e xog e nous va ria ble s le a ding to a consume r conside ring diffe re nt
bra nds or a lte ring the ir choice crite ria . Howe ve r, the consume r
is only vie we d a s choosing be twe e n bra nds ra the r tha n
a lte rna tive s. The re fore the mode l g ive s us no he lp whe re
de cisions would involve the choice be twe e n a ne w ca r or a
holida y. This is be ca use the consume r only conside rs a choice
se t of bra nds which me e t the crite ria ne ce ssa ry to e nsure the y
ca n be de e me d a s sa tisfa ctory a lte rna tive s.
The mode l is e sse ntia lly one of ra tiona l choice de cision ma king ,
ba se d up on the limits of the consume r's p e rce p tua l, le a rning a nd
informa tiona l p roce ssing ca p a bilitie s. La te r ve rsions of the
mode l include d a rousa l, e voke d se t a nd me mory which p rovide for
a more comp le te p roce ss for the mode l. (Howa rd 1 977).
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FIGURE 3.6 HOWARD--OSTLUND MODEL
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Willia ms (1 982) ha s p ointe d out tha t the distinctions be twe e n the
e ndog e nous a nd e xog e nous va ria ble s a re not sha rp , a nd e mp irica l
e vide nce ha s sug g e ste d tha t some of the e xog e nous va ria ble s ha ve
a s much influe nce on the outcome a s some of the e ndog e nous
va ria ble s.
The orig ina l mode l wa s imp rove d by Howa rd a nd Ostlund in 1 973 in
orde r to imp rove its p re dictive ca p a bilitie s. This is re p roduce d
a s Fig ure 3 .6 The mode l include s e xog e nous va ria ble s such a s
socie ta l a nd institutiona l e nvironme nts a s we ll a s p e rsona lity
fa ctors. The mode l a lso re cog nise s bia s broug ht a bout throug h
time constra ints which re stricts the informa tion se a rch. Motive s
be come the driving force towa rds e nd g oa ls a nd so form the
cog nitive a nd p urcha se p roce ss p a rt of the mode l. The motive s
a re cha ra cte rise d by conte nt a nd inte nsity. The forme r re la te
to the g oa ls which the p ote ntia l p urcha se r is trying to a tta in
a nd the la tte r a p p e rta in to the re la tive imp orta nce of e a ch g oa l.
The p ost p urcha se p ha se ma y include re inforce me nt if buying
e xp e cta tions ha ve be e n fulfille d a nd the re fore confide nce is
g a ine d a nd re p e a t p urcha se is ma de more like ly. The mode l is
e xtre me ly comp re he nsive a nd a s such is difficult to follow
without ca re ful study.
Sheth's Family Model of Behaviour
Quite ofte n the p urcha se de cision p roce ss is ofte n inve stig a te d
in te rms of the individua l. For e xa mp le some of the e a rlie r
mode ls ha ve stre sse d the individua l a s the sing le focus of
a tte ntion. It is cle a r tha t for the p urcha se of a n ove rse a s
holida y the de cision p roce ss involve s a hig h le ve l of risk tha t
the de cision ma y be a p oor one . It a lso ofte n involve s the
p re fe re nce re solution of more tha n one individua l. This cre a te s
a comp le x situa tion whe re by more ofte n tha n not, the p urcha se ha s
to sa tisfy the dive rg e nt ne e ds of the g roup . Obviously a fa mily
de cision involve s multip le influe nce from its me mbe rs. The se
page t4
were studied within this thesis by utilizing a transfer points
system of judgement in relation to the perceived decision
influence of different group members. Within the theory of
family buying behaviour there is the concept of role structure
whereby certain members of the family take on roles of collecting
information, deciding on the available budget etc. Whatever way
a family makes its final decisions we have to realize we are not
dealing with an homogeneous unit but with a collection of
individuals with different goals, needs, motives and interests.
The Sheth model of the family decision process (Figure 3.7),
provides one of the few examples of an attempt to replicate the
behaviour of group decision making. The problem with the schema
of Sheth is that aspects of search, motives, beliefs and
predispositions occur in tandem with each member of the group
prior to there being a resolution of the group to a final
decision, whereby joint or autonomous outcomes occur. While we
have to applaud Sheth for breaking away from an overreliance by
theorists on individual decision models, we may need to question
the reality of his model as to how groups bargain and trade off
parts of the larger decision, especially in relation to overseas
holiday demand. The objectives of this thesis included the
basics of trying to understand the differing importance of group
members to specific decisions regarding the financial, duration,
instigation etc. aspects of the holiday purchase.
thapter3:: Thepage 1 4 5
FIGURE 3.7 THE SHETH MODEL OF FAMILY BUYER BEHAVIOUR
chapte!:3::niecaiuw page 146
The Problems of the 'Grand Models'
In relation to tourism demand the 'Grand Models' have several
shortcomings. Firstly they all concern themselves with the
purchase of goods as opposed to services. While it is true that
certain principles relating to goods hold for services there are
a range of differences which are glossed over within the
classical theories. Secondly, the 'Grand Models' are based on
individual rather than joint processes. Much of the tourism
demand for holidays involves joint family decision-making rather
than individual decision-making. Thirdly, while the models and
theories have proved useful in organising and presenting
disparate knowledge, each is arbitrary in its arrangement of the
ubiquitous : attitude - intention - behaviour, sequence. Even
where intensive research has been carried out on a derivation of
the Howard-Sheth model (Farely et al, 1974) of thirty seven tests
only twenty four showed there was some positive evidence for
certain parts of the model. Many of the models, therefore, offer
a plausible yet unproven view of consumer behaviour.
TOURISM AUTHORS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Models of Consumer Behaviour Related to Tourism
One of the first attempts to provide some understanding of
tourism purchase behaviour is to be found in the work of Wahab,
Crampon and Rothfield (1976). These authors presented the
consumer as purposeful and conceptualise his buying behaviour in
terms of the uniqueness of the buying-decision:
-No tangible return on investment
-Considerable expenditure in relation to earned income
-Purchase is not spontaneous or capricious
-Expenditure involves saving and preplanning
page 147
They presented a model of the decision-making process based upon
the preceding 'grand models' of consumer behaviour and having the
following stages:
initialconceptualfactdefinition of_____ design of
framework alternativesgatheringassumptionsstimulus
forecast ofcost benefit of_____ decisionoutcome
consequencesalternatives
Wahab et al. (1976), while acknowledging that the experiential
nature of tourism products make them different from commodity
purchases, goes on to question the applicability of general
consumer behaviour models. However, it is emphasised that the
process may be much more spontaneous and less deliberate than the
form they have provided.
In 1977 Schmoll published his book on tourism promotion. He
argued that creating a model of the travel decision process was
not just a theoretical exercise, for its value could be found in
its aid to travel decision making. His model was based on the
Howard-Sheth and Nicosia models of consumer behaviour. (Figure
3.8). This model is built upon motivations, desires, needs and
expectations as personal and social determinants of travel
behaviour. These are influenced by travel stimuli, the
travellers' confidence, destination image, previous experience
and cost and time constraints. The model has four fields, each
of which exert some influence over the final decision, and
according to Schmoll (1977). 'The eventual decision (choice of
a destination, travel time, type of accommodation, type of travel
arrangements, etc.), is in fact the result of a distinct process
involving several successive stages or fields'.
Field 1: Travel stimuli. This comprises external stimuli in
the form of promotional communication, personal and
trade recommendations.
p a g e 1 4 8
Fie ld 2: Pe rsona l a nd socia l de te rmina nts. The se de te rmine
custome r g oa ls in the form of tra ve l ne e ds a nd
de sire s, e xp e cta tions a nd the obje ctive a nd subje ctive
risks thoug ht to be conne cte d with tra ve l.
Fie ld 3: Exte rna l va ria ble s.The se involve the
p rosp e ctive tra ve lle r's confide nce in the
se rvice p rovide r, de stina tion ima g e , le a rnt
e xp e rie nce a nd cost a nd time constra ints.
Fie ld 4 : This consists of re la te d cha ra cte ristics of the
I de stina tion or se rvice tha t ha ve a be a ring on the
de cision a nd its outcome .
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FIGURE 3.8 THE BCHMOLL MODEL
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The model (with the exception of some changes which incorporate
the word travel in the headings and the location of previous
experience in field three) has been borrowed directly from the
'Grand Models' already discussed. In Schmoll's model there is
no feedback loop and no input to attitude and values and
therefore it is difficult for us to regard the model as dynamic.
However, Schmoll does highlight many of the attributes of travel
decision-making which while not unique in themselves, do
influence tourism demand. For instance decisions regarding
choice of a mix of services which make up the product: high
financial outlay; destination image; the level of risk and
uncertainty; necessity to plan ahead and difficulty of acquiring
completeness of information.
Schmoll, while highlighting some of the characteristics
associated with the problem-solving activity of travel, simply
reiterates the determinants of cognitive decision-making
processes which have already been discussed. Within Schmoll's
work we are introduced to the importance of image which plays a
significant part in the demand process. This importance is
reflected in the amount of work related to tourism image studies.
THE IMPORTANCE OF IMAGE
An individual's awareness of the world is made up of experiences,
learning, emotions and perceptions, or more accurately, the
cognitive evaluation of such experiences, learning, emotions and
perceptions.Such awareness can be described as knowledge
producing a specific image of the world. This image will
obviously affect an individuals preference and motivation towards
tourists, as it will provide a 'pull' effect resulting in
different demand schedules.
There are various kinds of definitions adopted to describe the
word 'image' in different fields. For example, the World Tourism
Organisation (1979) gives its definitions as follows:
thapter3:TheCaii
page 151
-the artificial imitation of the apparent form of an object;
- form resemblance, identity; (e.g. art and design);
- ideas, conceptions held individually or collectively of the
destination.
The World Tourism Organisation (WTO), following the work of Gunn
(1972), suggests that the tourist image is only one aspect of a
country's general image, with the two being closely interrelated.
Nobody is likely to visit a country for tourism if for one reason
or another he dislikes it. Conversely, a tourist discovery may
lead to a knowledge of other aspects of an economic, political
or cultural nature, of that country. The WTO further adds that
the presentation of a destination or a country image must allow
for the fact that it is generally a matter not of creating an
image from nothing but of transforming an existing image.
Tourist behaviour both of individuals and groups depend on their
image of immediate situations and the world. The notion of image
is closely related to behaviour and attitudes. Attitudes become
established on the basis of a person's derived image and are not
easily changed unless his image is changed. We can, therefore,
deduce that consumer behaviour depends on particular images and
attitudes.
The Holiday Image
Mayo (1973) examined regional images and regional travel
behaviour. Among other things he indicated that the image of a
destination area is a critical factor when choosing a
destination. Mayo further concluded that, whether or not an
image is in fact a true representation of what any given region
has to offer the tourist, what is important is the image that
exists in the mind of the vacationer.
The tourist may possess a variety of images in connection with
travel. The image he has formed of the destination, of the term
page 152
'holiday' itself, of the mode of transport he wishes to utilize,
of the tour operator or travel agency and of his own self-image,
etc.
Lawson and Baud-Bovy (1977) defined image as 'An expression of
all objective knowledge, impressions, prejudices, imagination and
emotional thoughts an individual or group have of a particular
object or place'.
Research in recreational behaviour attaches considerable
importance to the kinds of images held by tourists of the places
they visit. Britton (1979), notes that 'short or long term
migration decisions are more influenced by how distant places are
perceived than by how they actually are', while, more
specifically, Hunt (1975) remarks: 'The perceptions held by
potential visitors about an area may have significant influences
upon the viability of that area as a tourist-recreation region'.
Scott, Schewe and Frederick (1978) compare images of four New
England states; Goodrich (1978) examines the images of nine
resort areas from Hawaii to the Bahamas; Taylor (1983) discusses
visitors from the United Kingdom, France and Japan to Canada in
terms of measured images; Williams and Zelinsky (1970,
p
566)
suggest that 'the mental image of potential target areas as
harboured by potential visitors' is one of the factors
influencing international tourist flows; while Farrell (1979)
states; 'Each tourist arrives at a Pacific country or an island
group with his or her preconceived construction of local life and
landscape. Eheman, (1977), Hunt (1975) and Mayo (1973) all argue
that although there are a variety of images associated with a
destination, the overall view may be favourable or unfavourable.
As Mercer (1971), points out 'Probing images of this sort is an
immensely important exercise because action proceeds on the basis
of such subjective reality'.
It is probable that the term 'holiday' evokes different images
to different people. However, it is likely that similar images
chpter3:Thecani
page 153
of a particular holiday experience are held by people within the
same segment of society and who have experienced a similar
lifestyle and/or education. C. Gunn (1972) put forward the idea
that there are two levels of image. Viewed in terms of a country
or destination, the 'organic' image is the sum of all information
that has not been deliberately directed by advertising or
promotion of a country or destination; this information comes
from geography books, history books, what
other people have said about the area, newspapers and magazines.
An imaginary picture is built up which is the result of all this
information. The individual, following Gestalt psychology,
attempts to make sense of it by forming a pattern or a picture
of what he imagines the area must be like.
The second level of image is the 'induced' image. This is formed
by deliberate portrayal and promotion by various organisations
involved with tourism.
Gunn stresses the importance of distinguishing between these two
levels since the induced image is controllable whilst it is more
difficult to influence the organic image. However, there may be
four stages which can be isolated in the development and
establishment of a holiday image.
The first is a vague, fantasy type of image created from
advertising, education and word of mouth and is formed before the
subject has thought seriously about taking a holiday. This
belief may be that people engage in taking holidays as a
desirable activity.
The second stage is when a decision is made to take a holiday and
then choices must be made regarding time, destination and type
of holiday. This is when the holiday image is modified,
clarified and extended. On completion of the holiday plans, the
anticipatory image is crystallised.
page 154
The third stage is the holiday experience itself, which modifies,
corrects or removes elements of the image which prove to be
invalid and reinforces those which are found to be correct.
The fourth stage is the after-image, the recollection of the
holiday image which may induce feelings of nostalgia, regret or
fantasy. This is the stage which will mould an individual's
holiday concepts and attitudes and promotes a new sequence of
holiday images leading to a future holiday or avoidance of one.
Mayo and Jarvis
Mayo and Jarvis (1981) have also borrowed from the Grand
Theorist's models. They have taken the basic Howard-Sheth (1969)
three-level decision-making approach where problem-solving is
seen as: Extensive, Limited or Routinised. These headings also
reflect the EKB descriptions of low and high involvement. Mayo
and Jarvis (1981) follow the earlier theories by describing
extensive decision-making (destination purchase for them) as
being characterised as having a perceived need for an information
search phase and needing a longer decision-making period. The
search for, and evaluation of, information is presented as a main
component of the decision-making process whereby the consumer
moves from general notions to more specific criteria and
preferences for alternatives. Mayo and Jarvis argue on the one
hand that travel is a special form of consumption behaviour
involving an intangible, heterogenous purchase of an experiential
product yet they then fail to develop an activity based theory.
Other authors: ( Holloway and Plant, 1988; Middleton, 1988;
Gitelson and Crompton, 1984; Mathieson and Wall, 1982; Van Veen
and Verhallen, 1986; Van Raaij and Francken, 1984 and Moutinho,
1987), have also developed theories which can only be described
as secondary theories of consumer behaviour, due to an
overreliance on the 'Grand Theories'.
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FIGURE 3.9 THE MATHIESON AND WALL MODEL
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Mathieson and Wall (1982) (Figure 3.9)offer a five-stage
process of travel buying behaviour:
Felt Need/InformationTravel Decision
TravelCollection and(Choice between_
Des ireEvaluation by Imagealternatives)
_______Travel Preparations______________________ Travel Satisfaction
& Travel ExperienceOutcome & Evaluation
Felt Need orA desire to travel is felt and reasons for
Travel Desireand against that desire are weighted.
Information
Potential tourists utilize travel intermediaries,
&
brochures and advertisements as well as friends,
Evaluation
relatives and experienced travellers.
This information is evaluated against both economic
and time constraints as are factors such as
accessibility and alternatives.
Travel Decision Stage advancement occurs with destination, mode of
travel, accommodation and activities being selected.
Travel PreparationTravel takes place once bookings are made and
& Travelconfirmed, budgets organised, clothing and
equipmentequipment are arranged,
Travel
During and post travel the overall experience
Satisfactionis evaluated and the results influence
Evaluationsubsequent travel decisions.
The framework offered by Mathieson and Wall is influenced by four
interrelated factors.These are : 1. Tourist Profile (age,
education, income attitudes, previous experience and
motivations); 2. Travel Awareness, (Image of a destination's
facilities and services which are based upon the credibility of
the source); 3. Destination Resources and Characteristics,
(Attractions and features of a destination) and Trip Features,
(Distance, trip duration and perceived risk of the area visited).
In addition MathiesoiYand Wall recognise that a holiday is a
service product with the characteristics of intangibility,
page 157
perishability and heterogeneity, which in one way or another
affect the consumer's decision-making. However, apart from
pointing out that consumption and evaluation will occur
simultaneously, the basis of their model relies on the previously
reviewed Grand Models. This is not to say that the Matheison and
Wall model reflects the depth of insight of these models; on the
contrary it only incorporates the idea of the consumer being
purposive in actively seeking information and the importance of
external factors. The Mathieson and Wall model omits important
aspects of perception, memory, personality and information-
processing, which is the basis of the traditional models. The
model they provide is based on a geographer t s product-based
perspective rather than that of a consumer behaviourist.
One of the most recent models of holiday purchase behaviour is
that proposed by Moutinho (1987). The author acknowledges his
model owes its basis to the work of the Grand Theorists: EKB,
Howard and Sheth and Nicosia. The Moutinho model (Figure 3.10)
is composed of three individual parts containing further fields
and sub-fields all related to specific tourist purchase
behaviour. The model is broken down into the three key units of:
1. Pre-decision and Decision Processes;
2. Post Purchase and Evaluation; and
3. Future Decision Making;
Part 1 The pre-decision and decision process part is the
initial stage in the flow of events in which
stimulation, information search, perception and
personality play important parts.The three
individual fields in Part I are: Preference
structure; Decision; and Purchase. Preference
structure includes influences of family, motivation,
attitudes, financial status, class and environment,
all of which lead to a specific intention or
preference. This preference is seen to be inhibited
p a g e 1 5 8
by the le ve l of confide nce , a nxie ty, ca ution a nd
inde cisive ne ss towa rd the p urcha se .The de cision a nd
p urcha se fie lds, in Pa rt I a re a ctiva te d by the
stimuli of informa tion, the e xisting ima g e of the
de stina tion a nd informa tion g a the re d from
a cqua inta nce s or p e rsona l e xp e rie nce . The p urcha se
a ct is ba se d up on the fa ctors include d in the p re vious
fie lds which a lso include a n a sse ssme nt of the risk in
ma king the p urcha se .
Pa rt 2 The se cond p a rt involve s the p ost-p urcha se p ha se of
e va lua tion a nd the re fore it ha s to be a ssume d tha t the
p re ce ding p urcha se fie ld a lso involve s consump tion.
This sta g e is conce rne d with the imp orta nce of
ne g a tive or p ositive fe e dba ck (sa tisfa ction
dissa tisfa ction) which will a ffe ct the de cision-
ma ke r's a ttitude se t a nd ma y le a d to cha ng e s in future
p urcha se be ha viour.
Pa rt 3 This de a ls with future de cision-ma king whe re by ce rta in
p roba bilitie s will occur ba se d up on the fore g oing
p roce ss of the e ntire mode l. The re ma y be a n a rg ume nt
le ve lle d a t the mode l, which que stions why this p a rt
is not incorp ora te d in the first p a rt of the mode l
whe re issue s of a ttitude , e voke d se t a nd p e rce p tion
ca n be tre a te d in a more comp le x wa y. The re is the
furthe r a rg ume nt tha t the subse que nt be ha viour sta g e
of this p a rt is a lre a dy incorp ora te d in p a rt two of
the mode l within the a ttitude outcome fie ld of
sa tisfa ction or dissa tisfa ction whe re re inforce me nt to
re buy ma y ha ve a lre a dy ta ke n p la ce .
Within Moutinho's mode l the inte rre la tionship be twe e n fie ld a nd
the dire ctiona l p roce ss towa rds consume r g oa ls is not a lwa ys
cle a r. Howe ve r, the mode l is more comp re he nsive in its cove ra g e
tha n ma ny of the othe r a lte rna tive s offe re d.
El Decision
LI
Purchase
PartIllFuturedecision-making
F [ Repeat buying
Lprobability
Repeat buy
(high positi'
Repeat buy'
(medium pc
Hesitation
Refusal to t
F = Field
SSubfield
Subsequent behaviour:
Straight rebuy
Future rebuy
subsequent
short-term
medium-term
long-term
Modified rebuy
o to competition
chapter 3 : The Ccinsiamr Uthaviour Process and Tourism - I) C Ci Lbcrt

page 159
FIGURE 3.10 THE MOUTINHO MODEL
Part IPre-decision and decision processes
Personality
Internalised
I
Confidence
environmentallifestyle
Attitude
generation
influences
III
PerceivedFamilyInhibitors
role setinfluence
Motives
f
Preference structureIntention
TravelS Stimulus
stimulifiltrationSearchEvoked setChoice criteria
display(stimulus
I
ambiguity)ComprehensionPerceived
I
risk
Perceptual
bias
Sensitivity______Cognitive
to informationstructure

______ Attention
I
and learning
Part IlPost-purchase evaluation
Post-purchase
information
Adequacy
evaluation
Cost-benefit
analysis
Product
consistency
r- Expectations
ConfirmationDisconlirmation
L_Reality
I
Satisfaction
J
Reinforcement
-
Dissatisfaction- cognitive
dissonance
levels of
reward
//
Latitude of
High
acceptance
positive
(-i)
/Medium
of

Medium
relection
High
negative
page 160
CONCLUS ION
This chapter has attempted to provide an overview of some of the
major approaches of those authors and researchers who are trying
to provide an understanding of consumer behaviour linked to
tourism.
Although a great deal of written material has been produced to
explain different aspects of the process, much of it is general
in nature or unsubstantiated empirically. However, progress is
slow due to the newness of the discipline area and the problems
associated with research into complex cognitive and behaviourial
relationships. Moreover, progress is also hampered by a
borrowing of theories from the work of those who have
concentrated on more tangible products which can be more easily
assessed prior to purchase. It is more difficult to develop and
construct models of the process which relates to the purchase of
a holiday destination experience. This has not deterred interest
in the area as is shown by the number of references which have
been made. While progress may be occurring on a partial,
disaggregate level, the emergence of improved general theories
hopefully such as this study will help in the development of a
greater understanding of the phenomenon.
The preceding three chapters have set the scene for the
methodological approach to the stidy of the factore c er
behaviour related to overseas holidays from the UK. It is
believed this current study is now well positioned to build upon
and add new insights to the existing body of tourism knowledge.
p a g e 1 6 1
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CHAPTER FOUR
THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
chapter4: The $eth page 169
THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH
Introduction
This chapter discusses the methodological approach utilized for
this study of the aspects of consumer behaviour related to the
demand for overseas holidays. In order to offer an adequate
argument for the method adopted first of all there is a
comprehensive discussion included of the strengths and weaknesses
of either a qualitative or quantitative approach to the study.
The conclusion is that there is a need for a balance between both
approaches and the research design has been planned to quantify
a number of self-constructed responses.
In addition, the chapter discusses the available scaling
techniques which could have been utilized in this study and some
of the reasons for their exclusion. Finally as multidimensional
scaling techniques were favoured for part of the study, due to
the power of the program to describe underlying patterns of
association, an exhaustive description of the technique is
provided. The chapter also contains a section describing the
different stages which led to the sample selection and
compilation of the final questionnaire.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The overall aim and objective of the research is to understand
and quantify decision-making factors relating to tourism demand
for overseas holidays. The specific tasks then follow as:
a) What factors do people consider important when making a
decision on where to go for their holiday?
b) What are the individual degrees of involvement in decision
making by members of groups who travel abroad?
c) What are the motivational aspects related to travel?
d) How important are variables such as values, gender and
socio-demographic aspects in the decision making process?
e) How many destination areas does someone consider in
the stages leading up to the final decision2
p a g e 1 7 0
The ove ra ll obje ctive s of the study a nd the ne e d for scie ntific
me thod p rovide d the imp e tus for a chie ving :
1 ) The qua ntifica tion of the de cision rule fa ctors which a re
imp orta nt to ove rse a s holida y ma ke rs.
ii) The de ve lop me nt of a se nsitivity of a na lysis which a llows
for a n indica tion of the imp orta nce of e a ch of the
diffe re nt fa ctors.
It wa s the re fore ne ce ssa ry to se le ct a n a p p rop ria te te chnique to
sa tisfy the re quire me nts of the se crite ria . In a ddition the
na ture of the p op ula tion to be sa mp le d imp ose d a numbe r of
p ra ctica l conside ra tions on the choice of the me a sure me nt
te chnique : A wide ra ng e of a dults we re to be sa mp le d a nd
the re fore a ny te chnique ha d to be re a dily unde rstood by a ll
p ote ntia l re sp onde nts. In a ddition the imp orta nce of a
re p re se nta tive sa mp le ba se ne ce ssita te d a te chnique which would
a llow for e fficie nt coding a nd p roce ssing . Fina lly, the re se a rch
de sig n wa s re quire d to be re p e a ta ble a nd re lia ble in orde r for
re p lica tion or continuing me a sure me nt.
Re se a rch De sig n
The re a re fe w e mp irica l studie s a nd little ba ckg round informa tion
a ssocia te d with consume r be ha viour in tourism. The re se a rch
a p p roa ch chose n for this study incorp ora te d both e xp lora tory a nd
de scrip tive cross-se ctiona l de sig ns in orde r to cre a te wide r
unde rsta nding while a t the sa me time a llowing for qua ntita tive
a na lysis.
The de sig n chose n wa s in p a rt due to the la ck of p re ce ding
re se a rch a nd the ne e d to la y a founda tion of finding s which could
p rovide a corne rstone a nd be built up on by future re se a rch.
Exp lora tory re se a rch ha s the be ne fit of p roviding g re a te r
unde rsta nding of the a re a unde r study, while qua ntita tive
Exploratory
Research Greater
Understanding
Descriptive
itudinal
or cross-sectional)
Effect
Probable
Cause
Causal
I
page 171
descriptive research attempts to measure specific aspects of the
data which has been revealed. Therefore exploratory and
descriptive approaches were considered to be potentially the most
fruitful. The research design does not incorporate causal,
experimental methods as it is necessary to have isolated the
important factors prior to taking this approach. It may be
possible for a causal design to be utilized as a follow up to
this study in order to gain further insight or to cross check
against the study's findings.
The following figure (4.1), shows the range of design options
that are open to any researcher. It also shows that exploratory
and descriptive research are carried out prior to any design
which reveals cause and effect.
Figure 4.1

Range of Possible Research Designs


Exploratory
research. This approach is utilized in order to
seek insights into the general nature of the problem, the
possible decision alternatives and relevant variables which need
to be considered. The research could not be easily built on
prior knowledge and was carried out with very few preconceptions.
The research design incorporated methods of self construct
response (eg., Section A of the questionnaire (Appendix 7.1)
which allows the respondent to use their own language regarding
motivation to travel.
p a g e 1 7 2
De scri p tive re se a rch. The ma jor be ne fit of de scrip tive
re se a rch is tha t it will a llow for a te nta tive re la tionship to
be de ve lop e d be twe e n diffe re nt va ria ble s. The se re la tionship s
will de scribe the wa y be ha viour occurs a nd ca n le a d to the
de ve lop me nt of a hyp othe sis which ma y le nd itse lf to ca usa l
re se a rch. De scrip tive re se a rch ca n p rovide e vide nce of a
re la tionship or a n a ssocia tion (e q., the da ta colle cte d on
p re fe re nce a nd de cision ma king ca n be cross-ta bula te d to
de mog ra p hics to show links, or be twe e n income or a g e to othe r
va ria ble s).
Unde rsta nding the p roce ss of de cision ma king for ove rse a s
holida ys a s a me re conce p t or a s simp ly a p roce ss of de cisions
is not in itse lf of a ny p ra ctica l imp orta nce . Only whe n the
p roce ss is me a sure d a nd e va lua te d ca n it p rovide the ne ce ssa ry
de p th of unde rsta nding re quire d to p roduce insig ht into its
comp le xity.
This is howe ve r not e a sy. De cision rule s, motiva tions a nd
p re fe re nce s a re difficult to e xp re ss, not obje ctive a nd ofte n
subconscious. As such, the y a re not e a sily qua ntifia ble . The
de g re e of the ir sa lie nce or inte nsity is difficult to me a sure in
a dire ct wa y. The re se a rch de sig n de ve lop e d for this study
p rovide s for a me thodolog ica l te chnique which a llows for some
qua ntifica tion of a sp e cts of the holida y de cision p roce ss which
in turn a llows for infe re nce s to be ma de with re sp e ct to its
occurre nce . The re se a rch de sig n for the fina l que stionna ire
(which wa s de ve lop e d from initia l in de p th re se a rch) is of
p a rticula r inte re st a nd imp orta nce a s it a llows re sp onde nts to
construct the ir own sca le s a nd me a ning s p rior to me a sure me nt
crite ria sca le s be ing a p p lie d.
-page 173
Evaluation of Different Research Approaches
As there is a great deal of debate regarding the efficacy of
quantitative over qualitative methods, and vice versa, it was
decided that an indepth analysis was required of the different
schools of thought. The following is an attempt to clarify the
different arguments and current position of both perspectives.
THE PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF RESEARCH
'7
The Research Process
The research approach for this study was planned to be as
scientific as possible in its methods yet to balance this with
certain open-ended responses. The scientific method emphasizes
the need to be orderly, accurate in measurement and observation,
and to have a minimum of bias. This study has attempted to
outline the principles of the investigation so that the validity
of the research can be judged by others. The main foundation of
any research design has to have a basis which is systematic,
impartial and replicable. However, this is not as straight
forward as it seems. Much debate has occurred regarding the
efficacy of the scientific, versus humanistic approach.
Arguments Regarding the Application of Scientific Method
While this research incorporates the scientific method, based
upon quantification as imperative, the use of its application is
based upon other qualitative techniques. The following section
deals with the philosophical arguments of quantitative versus
qualitative research. There has been a great deal of controversy
regarding the scientific nature of social research. For
simplicity, two major schools of thought, positivism and humanism
(representing the quantitative and qualitative paradigm
respectively) can be diiiguished. Positivism (in its modern
form) incorporates research that is seen as involving a minimum
of interpretation and a maximum of facts. The emphasis is placed
on measurement, causality and experimentation. Positivists have
often seen qualitative research as a useful adjunct to
p a g e 1 7 4
qua ntita tive re se a rch whe re a s huma nists obse rve qua lita tive
re se a rch a s de p e nding up on a tota lly diffe re nt me thodolog ica l
fra me work.
The huma nist a p p roa ch e mp loying qua lita tive re se a rch te chnique s,
de a ls with p e op le 's me a ning s, be lie fs a nd be ha viour. Qua lita tive
re se a rch, in its broa d se nse consists of de ta ile d de scrip tions
of situa tions, e ve nts, p e op le , inte ra ction a nd obse rve d
be ha viour, dire ct quota tions from p e op le a bout the ir e xp e rie nce ,
a ttitude s, be lie fs a nd thoug hts, corre sp onde nce re cords a nd ca se
studie s. Unlike p ositivists, the ide a is not to re ly up on
re sp onse s which ha ve be e n p roce sse d throug h a comp ute r to a chie ve
sta tistics, p e rce nta g e s e tc, but ra the r to try to unde rsta nd in
g re a te r de p th tha n the p ositivist the me a ning s of wha t p e op le a re
doing or sa ying . The de sig n for this re se a rch incorp ora te s a
ra ng e of que stions which a tte mp t to uncove r me a ning s a ssocia te d
with motiva tion to tra ve l. While the de sig n of this study doe s
not a tte mp t to unde rsta nd the me a ning s in g re a te r de ta il tha n
the ir ve rba lisa tion furthe r work could build up on this study's
finding s.
Evaluation of Qualitative Research
Qua lita tive re se a rch te chnique s ha ve a ttra cte d both criticism a nd
sup p ort. One criticism is tha t the inductive me thod is re g a rde d
a s the na tura l me thod of qua lita tive re se a rch a nd the re follows
a n obje ction to induction in tha t, the orie s g e ne ra te d by one se t
of da ta a re not te ste d out by comp a rison to othe r da ta , or tha t
qua ntita tive re se a rch ca n be ove rly inductive , ie ., building
mode ls from curre nt obse rva tIons a nd ne ve r te sting those mode ls
with ne w da ta (Colling s, 1 97 5). Furthe r a rg ume nts a g a inst the
inductive me thod in qua lita tive re se a rch is tha t it ca nnot be
a p p lie d with a ny string e ncy, which le a ds to the a bse nce of
p rude nt e xp e rime nta l control. The re fore , qua lita tive me thods a re
a lwa ys que stione d on the g rounds of va lidity by those stre ssing
the imp orta nce of scie ntific me thods.
page 175
Another major argument against qualitative research arises in
relation to the topic of sampling. Large samples are thought to
be unmanageable within qualitative research and the methodology
is therefore based on small, purposively selected samples. Two
major problems can be associated with such a sample. First, the
range of issues are not covered and second, because of small
sampling the prevalence of population differences cannot be
accurately reflected as the sample selected needs to be big
enough to generate the full range of categories. However, Griggs
(1987) argued that large samples were not necessary to assume
generalisability, and emphasized the relevance of small sample
methods utilized in much of the academic psychology in journals.
While neither the qualitative nor quantitative approach is
intrinsically more valid than the other, studies have shown that
their results can be similar. A large scale focus-group study
was conducted among ten US cities about food shopping and
preparation by Reynolds (1978) and the outcome was that the
qualitative research results were very similar to other research
utilizing quantitative methodology. These authors therefore
generated the idea that qualitative research could be a
substitute for quantitative research.
Positivism
Much of what we treat as scientific research has its roots in
positivism. During the l920s positivism emerged in the form of
logical positivism. It was developed by a group of scientists
and philosophers called the Vienna Circle. In fact, positivism
originated from the great social theorists, such as Auguste Comte
and Emile Durkheim whose positivism seeks the facts and external
causes of social phenomena with little regard for the subjective
states of individuals. In other words, the key element is the
belief that only objective and detached observation can ensure
inter-subjective certification. Since inductive inference can
never be justified on purely logical grounds (Heinpel, 1965)
p a g e 1 7 6
log ica l p ositivism fa ce d the p roble ms of induction too be ca use
inductive p roce sse s a re p a rt of scie ntific me thod.
Following the de ba te a bout the p roble ms of log ica l p ositivism a
more mode ra te ve rsion of p ositivism wa s de ve lop e d from the work
of Ca rna p (1 936 ), known a s log ica l e mp iricism. The log ica l
e mp iricist p a ra dig m a ssume s socia l re la tions to ha ve a concre te
a nd re a l e xiste nce which is inde p e nde nt of the obse rve r. Ca rna p
be lie ve d tha t unive rsa l sta te me nts could ne ve r be ve rifie d (if
ve rifica tion is comp le te a nd de finite e sta blishme nt of truth) but
the y ma y be confirme d by the succe ssful e mp irica l te st. The
ba sis of log ica l e mp iricism is inductive sta tistica l me thod a nd
the sta rting p oint of scie nce is obse rva tion. The orie s a re
justifie d by the a ccumula tion of furthe r obse rva tions which will
e ve ntua lly p rovide p roba bilistic sup p ort for conclusions.
Logical Empiricism
Log ica l e mp iricism be ca me one of the most imp orta nt the orie s in
the p hilosop hy of scie nce . Howe ve r, de sp ite its de cline during
the 1 96 0s, conte mp ora ry discussions of scie ntific me thod a re
still domina te d by its influe nce . Ca rna p re p la ce d the conce p t of
ve rifica tion with the ide a of g ra dua lly incre a sing confirma tion.
He note d tha t if ve rifica tion is ta ke n to sug g e st comp le te a nd
de finitive e sta blishme nt of truth, the n unive rsa l sta te me nts ca n
ne ve r be ve rifie d. Howe ve r, the y ca n be confirme d by the
a ccumula tion of scie ntific te sts. Fig ure 4.2 shows a mode l of
log ica l e mp iricism (Ande rson 1 983).
page 177
Figure 4.2Flow Model of Logical Empiricism
Perceptual
Experiences
Image of Real

Negative
World Structure
Feedback
A Priori Model
or Theory
Hypotheses
I
Empirical
Tests
Not confirmed
Confirmed
Tentatively accept
a Priori Model or
Theory
page 178
Induction and Deduction
Controlled observation is normally the basis for scientific
induction. This is why science is generally defined as the
careful gathering of a large enough collection of facts, and the
use of particular criteria of measurement in order to form a
sound basis for formulating hypotheses or laws of nature.
Deductions on the other hand are the specific conclusions drawn
from generalized rules or laws.
It can be recognized that logical empiricism is characterised by
inductive statistical method. However, Black (1967) agreed that
it remains to be shown how a finite number of observations can
'lead to the logical conclusion that a universal statement is
probably true'. Moreover, attempts to justify induction on the
basis of experience are circular. The argument that induction
has worked in the past is itself an inductive argument and cannot
be utilized to support the principle of induction (Chalmers,
1976).
Logical empiricism also encountered other difficulties because
of its insistence that science rests on a secure observational
base. There are at least two problems here. One of them is that
the observations are always subject to measurement error and the
second is based on the theory dependence of observation. As Kuhn
and Hanson suggested, the observations are always interpreted
according to the prior knowledge.
The emphasis on falsification
The other major positivist pillar is Poppers' falsification
(Figure 4.3, based on Anderson, 1983). Popper accepts the fact
that "observation always presupposes the existence of some system
of expectations". According to Popper the scientific process
begins when observations clash with existing theories. A new
p a g e 1 7 9
the ory would be forme d to solve the p roble ms cre a te d a nd would
be rig orously te ste d e mp irica lly. Whe n a the ory's p re diction is
fa lsifie d, it would be re je cte d imme dia te ly. Thus Pop p e r's
the ory is a de ductive one which a voids the p roble m of induction
by de nying tha t scie nce re sts on inductive infe re nce .
Howe ve r, historica l re cords show tha t most ma jor scie ntific
the orie s ha ve a dva nce d in sp ite of a p p a re nt re futa tions by
e mp irica l da ta , e g ., the ory of oxida tion, kine tic the ory,
Cop e rnica n a stronomy (Kuhn, 1 9 62). All re ce ive d se ve re criticism
a t one time or a nothe r.
Va rious p hilosop he rs a nd historia ns of scie nce note d tha t
scie ntific p ra ctice is ofte n g ove rne d by a conce p tua l fra me work
tha t is hig hly re sista nt to cha ng e . Kuhn (1 9 62) p ointe d out tha t
the e sta blishe d fra me work is ra re ly re je cte d by a sing le a noma ly.
Kuhn's mode l he lp e d to initia te a ne w a p p roa ch ba se d on the
conce p tua l fra me work p a ra dig m. Ba sica lly, a p a ra dig m constitute s
the world vie w of a scie ntific community. It would include a
numbe r of sp e cific the orie s a s we ll a s a se t of symbolic
g e ne ra liza tions. Ea ch p a ra dig m would a lso include e xe mp la rs or
concre te p roble m solutions known to a ll me mbe rs of the community
e q., Ne wtonia n me cha nics, qua ntum the ory. The following fig ure
is diffe re nt from Fig ure 4.1 a s it se ts out to fa lsify a nd
ove rthrow e xisting or ne w the orie s ra the r tha n confirm the m.
Falsified
[Generate
New Theory
Hypotheses
Empirical
Tests
Rej ect
New Theory
chJ*4The$etIiocktcpage 180
Ficzure 4.3A Falsificationist Model of Scientific Method
Existing
Experiences
ITheory
I
Accept all C ons is tent
Existing
I
Theory
Not Falsified
Tentatively
Accept New
Theory
p a g e 1 8 1
Kuhn's approach
The Kuhnia n mode l ha s a ttra cte d ma ny criticisms (Fe ye ra be nd,
1 970; La ka tos, 1 974). An imp orta nt criticism is tha t Kuhn's mode l
is historica lly ina ccura te since studie s of the na tura l scie nce s
ra re ly re ve a l p e riods in which a sing le p a ra dig m ha s domina te d
a discip line . Anothe r ma jor criticism a rise s from the fa ct tha t
ma ny p hilosop he rs of scie nce obje ct to Kuhn's cha ra cte riza tion
of the ory se le ction a s a n a ct of fa ith. The y a rg ue tha t this
re move s the e le me nt of ra tiona l choice from scie ntific p rog re ss.
La uda n (1 977) ha s p rop ose d the re se a rch tra ditions conce p t which
a tte mp ts to re store ra tiona lity to the ory se le ction. He a rg ue s
tha t the obje ctive of scie nce is to solve p roble ms by g iving
a cce p ta ble a nswe rs. The re fore , the truth or fa lsity of a the ory
is irre le va nt a s a n a p p ra isa l crite rion. The imp orta nt p oint is
whe the r the the ory offe rs a n e xp la na tion to e mp irica l p roble ms.
Thus from La uda n's p oint of vie w, the ory a p p ra isa l involve s a n
a sse ssme nt of the ove ra ll p roble m solving a de qua cy of a the ory.
As La uda n ha s fa ile d to p rovide a ra tiona l ba sis for initia l
the ory se le ction, it ha s not a ttra cte d so ma ny followe rs.
Fe ye ra be nd ha s a rg ue d tha t a kind of e p iste molog ica l a na rchy ha s
e xiste d in which the re is not a sing le rule , howe ve r p la usible
tha t wa s not viola te d a t some time or a nothe r. It is inte re sting
to note Fe ye ra be nd be lie ve s tha t the viola tion of a cce p te d
scie ntific norms is e sse ntia l for scie ntific p rog re ss.
So fa r, the scie ntific a p p roa ch a nd the scie ntific me thod ha s
be e n a na lyze d. In g e ne ra l, it ca n be a rg ue d tha t scie ntific
me thods ca n le a d the ir p rop one nts to be lie ve the 'na tura l scie nce
mode l' is g ood scie nce while a ny a lte rna tive ne ce ssa rily must
suffe r by comp a rison. 'Ntura 1 Scie nce ' is a me ta p hor p re va le nt
within the qua lita tive p a ra dig m. In criticising this vie w,
Mitroff (1 974) ha s de ve lop e d cothe r me ta p hor - 'the story book
vie w' of scie nce , which re 1 a e s to a me thod of e nquiry in
a nthrop olog y which, it is a rg ie d, ha s be e n a dop te d a s a
ctpt4TheMetho&tc1
page 1 8 2
qualitative paradigm. It assumes the importance of understanding
the situations from the perspective of the actors and
participants in that situation. Followers of this paradigm are
on the opposite end of an objectivity-subjectivity continuum from
those of the positivist school of thought. Figure 4.4 shows the
characteristics of quantitative and qualitative paradigms. It
should be kept in mind that in general, individual researchers
fall somewhere along the continuum between the two extremes.
Patton (1 978 ) has described both sides of the continuing debate
with the hypothetico-deductive method being a dominant paradigm
which assumes quantitative measurement, experimental design and
multivariate parametric statistical analysis to be the epitome
of good science. By way of contrast, the alternative subject
based paradigm is derived from the tradition of anthropological
field studies. Through the use of techniques of indepth open-
ended interviewing and personal observation, the alternative
paradigm relies on qualitative data, holistic analysis and
detailed description derived from close contact.
The followers of qualitative research or humanists believe there
is no real world to discover, apart from individual meanings of
individuals, and data does not provide an objective test of a
theory because data are created, at least in part, by theory.
Humanists are relativists, that is to say that they believe that
objective knowledge does not exist and that all knowledge is
relative to the knower. This "humanism" in the sense in which
it is employed, in marketing research holds that the study of
people, in areas such as psychology, sociology, marketing and
marketing research calls for special people-oriented methods.
(Gabriel, 1 98 9)
chapter4The$ethaato*
page 183
Fiqure 4.4A Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative
Paradiqms
Qualitative ParadigmQuantitative Paradigm
Qualitative methods usedQuantitative methods used
Concerned with understanding Seeks the facts or causes of social
human behaviour from the actor's phenomena without advocating
frame of referencesubjective interpretation
Phenomenological approach

Logical - positivistic approach


Uncontrolled, naturalistic,

Obtrusive, controlled measurement


observational measurement
Subjective insider's perspective Objective, outsiders perspective
Grounded, discovery-oriented,
exploratory, expansionist,
descriptive, inductive
Process - oriented
Validity is critical
Ungrounded, confirmatory, reductionist,
inferential, hypothetico-deductive
Outcome - oriented
Reliability is critical
Holistic - attempts to Particularistic - attempts to analyze
synthesize
Source: Adapted froni Reichardt and Cook (1979)
page 184
The Need for a Combined Approach
While quantitative inethodologists would criticize qualitative
researchers for their neglect of aspects of reliability and
replicability and lack of work contributing toward a cumulative
body of knowledge, qualitative researchers would criticize
quantitativists for not understanding the real meaning of their
data, because of the emphasis on statistical measurement and
formulations. This conflict among both sets of methodologists
may be diminished by the use of a mixture of both qualitative and
quantitative research methods while understanding each of the
approaches weaknesses and strengths. See Figure 4.4 for the
major differences between qualitative and quantitative paradigms.
This study incorporates both approaches on the basis that, as
with tin and copper, it was not until someone fused these two
otherwise unrelated metals together that the benefits of the
bronze age were enjoyed.
It is obvious from the foregoing discussions that positivism can
no longer rely on empirical testing as the sole means of theory
justification. This point is widely accepted in contemporary
philosophy and the sociology of science. Despite its dominance
in marketing research, positivism has been abandoned by many of
the disciplines over the last decade. Also, it should be clear
that there is no single unique theory of science, and the decline
of positivism has led to a number of competing theories in the
philosophy and sociology of science. This implies that it would
be inappropriate to seek a single best method for the evaluation
of this current study. The important task should be to find
methodologies which will convince other researchers of the
validity of a particular approach.
This current study incorporates a design which allows for a
combination of the two approaches. It incorporates initial
indepth research to provide qualitative input to overall study.
It utilizes open-ended questions and allows the respondents to
construct their own meaning related to motivation to travel etc.
page 185
The final questionnaire was carefully constructed to include some
techniques which were developed specifically for the study. This
was based on the belief that a bridge had to be built between
indepth understanding and quantitative measurement criteria. The
current study utilizes methods which combine both discovery and
quantification of data in order to generate new insights. Sheth
(1981) provides the view that consumer behaviour requires more
than deductive research.
"...Consumer information as an area of scientific
research.., the theory is at its infancy in consumer
behaviour ... It is therefore premature to conduct
deductive research ... we must do a considerable
amount of empirical inductive research".
page 186
THE FINAL METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR THE STUDY
COLLECTION OF DATA AND RESEARCH PHASES
The approach adopted for identifying important features involved
in the demand for overseas holidays adhered to the following
scheme of events.
Figure 4.5Stages in the Application of Research to the
Study Area
SECONDARY DATA

IN DEPTH
Search of journals,

Discussions with holiday


books etc

makers to identify important


holiday choice variables
V
Initial drafts of
survey questionnaires
V
Pilot study to evaluate the questionnaire
and the techniques adopted
V
Final questionnaire to identify
and quantify variables
V
Personal survey of representative quota
sample of overseas holidaymakers
V
Data processing
Write Command Program
V
Analysis of results, formulation
of conclusions
The $ethock,p a g e 1 8 7
Re se a rch De sig n Adop te d
The colle ction me thods utilize d for the study we re ba se d up on a
combina tion of e xp lora tory a nd de scrip tive re se a rch de sig ns:
Exp lora tory
o Initia l inde p th inte rvie ws we re ca rrie d out with p e op le who
ha d ta ke n ove rse a s holida ys. This wa s in orde r to ide ntify
the imp orta nt fa ctors which would re quire qua ntifying .
o Lite ra ture se a rche s we re conducte d to g a the r informa tion on
a ll the a p p roa che s use d to da te . The re se a rche r wa s a lso
re quire d to unde rsta nd the the ory of the consume r de ma nd
p roce ss in a s much de ta il a s p ossible . (Cha p te rs one to
thre e a re e vide nce of this).
oThe re wa s a ne e d for the de ve lop me nt of some se lf-construct
sca le que stions for use in the fina l que stionna ire .
De scrip tive
This took the form of a structure d colle ction of da ta
on a p a rt p re -code d que stionna ire with some me thods of
cre a ting op e n que stions which could the n ha ve the ir
re sp onse s qua ntifie d a nd code d. The re se a rch wa s ba se d
on the utiliza tion of a p e rsona l inte rvie w in orde r to
colle ct the typ e of da ta re quire d for the study.
The combine d a p p roa ch of e xp lora tory a nd de scrip tive de sig ns wa s
conside re d to be the a p p rop ria te ove ra ll de sig n. As Aa ke r a nd
Da y (1 990) ha ve note d:
"Se ldom is a da ta colle ction me thod p e rfe ctly suite d
to a re se a rch obje ctive . A succe ssful choice is one
tha t ha s the g re a te st numbe r of stre ng ths a nd the
fe we st we a kne sse s, a nd ofte n this is a chie ve d by
combining se ve ra l me thods."
page 188
FIGURE 4.6 COMPARISON OF POSSIBLE SURVEY TYPES
Mail SurveyTelephone Survey Personal Interview
Survey
Cost(assumesOften lowestUsually in-Usually highest
good responsebetween
rate)
No personalSome, through* Greatest
Ability to probecontact orelaboration onopportunity for
observationquestions, but no observation,
personalbuilding rapport
observationand probing
Some, perhaps due
Interviewer biasNo chanceto voiceGreatest chance
inflection etc
Known respondents LeastSome* Greatest
Sampling problems Up to date,Up to date,* Interviews could
accurate mailing accurate phonebe prearranged
list and lowsubscriber list,
response ratesunlisted numbers,
no phones
ImpersonalityGreatestSome due to lack Least
of face to face
contact
Complex questions Least suitable Somewhat suitable * Most suitable
Visual aids useLittle opportunity No opportunity Greatest
opportunity
RapportLeastSomeGreatest
Likely reaction"Junk mail""Junk calls"Invasion of
privacy
Control ofSome in selection
interviewLeastof time to call* Greatest
environment
Time lagsGreatestLeast* Prearrangement
SuitableSimple, mostlySome opportunity * Greatest
questionsdichotomousfor open- endedopportunity for
(yes/no) andquestionscomplex questions
multiple choice
Skill requirement LeastMediumGreatest
of researchers
* Major reason for choice ot survey type
-p a g e 1 8 9
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
It wa s ne ce ssa ry to conside r a lte rna tive me thods of da ta
colle ction. Give n the re se a rch de sig n se le cte d, que stionna ire s
we re re quire d to le nd the mse lve s to the fina l coding of re sp onse s
a nd comp ute r a na lysis. The a bove re quire me nts rule d out a numbe r
of a lte rna tive a va ila ble te chnique s. Some we re re je cte d on the
ba sis of the following re a sons:
1 .Prolective Techniques
The se a re indire ct p robing te chnique s use d whe n it is
ne ce ssa ry to p e ne tra te be low the le ve ls of conscious
a wa re ne ss or be hind a n individua ls socia l fa ca de . The y a re
utilize d whe n it is fe lt re sp onde nts will not, or ca nnot
re sp ond me a ning fully to a dire ct que stion. The y include
such me thods a s word a ssocia tion, se nte nce comp le tion,
ca rtoons (whe re sp e e ch 'ba lloons' a re fille d in by the
re sp onde nts), p icture inte rp re ta tion (whe re fa irly
a inlig uous p icture s a re inte rp re te d by the re sp onde nts),
role p la ying a nd p la y te chnique s. For a more e xte nsive
de scrip tion of the se te chnique s the re is a n ove rvie w of the
p roje ctive te chnique by Klop fe r (1 9 76) or Ke rling e r (1 9 8 6),
Wa ire n a nd Ja hoda (1 9 73) or Op p e nhe im (1 9 68 ).
The se te chnique s we re not se le cte d for the p rop ose d
re se a rch, since the re sults a re ofte n judg e d to be hig hly
se le ctive . More imp orta ntly the da ta doe s not le nd itse lf
to p re code d re sp onse s a nd qua ntita tive a sse ssme nt. As one
obje ctive of the re se a rch wa s to qua ntify the finding s this
te chnique , while a ble to g e ne ra te insig ht, doe s not a llow
for me a sure me nt.
2 .Re p e rtory Grid
The re p e rtory g rid te chnique wa s de ve lop e d to ove rcome the
criticisms which ha d be e n le ve lle d a t the tra ditiona l
e xp lora tory re se a rch te chnique s. It wa s de ve lop e d by Ke lly
(1 9 55) a nd a dva nce d by Ba nniste r (1 9 62 ). The te chnique
a tte mp ts to ide ntify the me a ning ful a ttribute s of stimuli
th4W4TheNethobt page 190
for a particular individual. This is achieved by asking,
out of three objects, which two are alike and in the same
way different from the third. In this way respondents
verbalise their attitudes and so indicate the constructs
which they use to define and perceive particular stimuli.
These, in turn, may be translated into their own semantic
differential scales.
The repertory grid technique has been used in tourism
research as shown by the work of Embacher (1989), Potter
(1988), Pearce (1982), Gyte (1988), Gyte and Phelps (1989),
and Saleh and Ryan (1990). This technique does not
however, meet the requirements of this study as the
technique is highly time consuming, and is hampered at
times by social, language and emotional barriers. Also it
would be impossible to precode the responses for computer
analysis and so provide quantitative analysis.
Personal Constructs and the Holiday Haker's Perspective
Vickers (1978) has pointed out that the categories, 'objective'
and 'subjective' as they are commonly defined, are inadequate to
comprehend the combined process of design and discovery that goes
into human knowing. The argument here is between a view of
reality as a perception or a view of reality as a construction.
In dealing with the motivations and preferences of the
holidaymakers what is significant is the meaning each respondent
brings to bear on their own choice for travel.
The research design for this study was chosen to ensure that for
some of answers the respondent would be able to construct their
own motivations and show their own strength of preference for
particular holiday components. The research design does not
impose a multiple choice selection for the major questions and
in the few questions where choice exists, the constructs were
pre-established in indepth research carried out prior to the
main study. The respondent provides the meaning for much of the
p a g e 1 9 1
re sults a s the y a re a llowe d op e n-e nde d or inte rp re tive re sp onse s
for ce rta in que stions.
Whe re a s the re se a rch de sig n for this study doe s not utilize
Ke lly's re p e rtory g rid te chnique it doe s subscribe to a be lie f
tha t a n individua l's own ve rba liza tions ca n le a d to constructs
which ca n be qua ntifie d. On ba la nce Ke lly's re p e rtory g rid
te chnique wa s re je cte d due to its limita tions. It did not fulfil
a de qua te ly the obje ctive s of the study.
Problems Associated with Repertory Grid Techniques
The a p p lica tion of Ke lly's construct the ory is se e n by ma ny
the orists a s ha ving se ve re limita tions a s a tool of re se a rch
a na lysis. Ha rme r-Brown in Chisna ll (1 9 86) indica te d tha t:
"I ha ve be e n conce rne d with only four ca se s in which
re p e rtory g rid a na lysis ha s be e n use d to ca te g orise a
ma rke t. In e ve ry ca se the re sults we re e xtre me ly
limite d, obvious to the p oint of ba na lity or downrig ht
incomp re he nsible ".
Also Sa mp son in Chisna ll (1 9 86) indica te d the va lue le ss na ture
of some of the re sp onse s de rive d from re p e rtory g rid by
ca te g orising two substa ntia lly use le ss re sp onse s:
1 . Those which a re too de scrip tive or irre le va nt to the study.
("Those two come in bottle s; tha t one come s in a ca rdboa rd
p a cke t");
2. Those which a re too e va lua tive ("I like those two; I don't
like tha t one ").
Furthe rmore , Fra nse lla a nd Ba nniste r (1 9 77) comme nte d on some of
the we a kne sse s of the g rid. The y p ointe d out tha t:
- The g rid "ha s be e n turne d into a te chnolog y which g e ne ra te s
its own p roble ms a nd the n solve s the se p roble ms. Such
p roble ms do not ne ce ssa rily re la te to a ny a tte mp t, to
unde rsta nd the me a ning which the p e rson a tta che s to his
unive rse "
(p .
1 1 3);
-"It is a fa ir g ue ss tha t it is the ma the ma tica l ing e nuity
of the g rid which ha s a ttra cte d p sycholog ists ra the r tha n
chater4The*eth&bLpage 1 9 2
its possibilities as a way of changing the relationship
between 'psychologist' and 'subject'.
3 .The Semantic Differential
Another technique which was rejected was the Semantic
Differential technique. This technique is concerned with
the measurement of the different kinds of meaning, or the
different semantic dimensions, which we adopt in the
conceptualization of any object or stimulus (see Osgood,
Suci and Tannebaum (1 9 57) and Osgood, Nay and Miron (1 9 75),
or Jaffe (1 9 84) for the development of this technique).
Three main dimensions of judgeinent have been identified,
evaluative (good/bad), active (inactive/passive), and
potency (strong/weak). The Semantic Differential thus
utilizes a number of unidimensional scales each assigned a
range of values with opposite points on each end of the
scale. However, Chisnall (1 9 86) supported that "the
versatility of this measuring device is tempered to some
degree by two factors identified by an American researcher:
i. There may be subjective interpretation of the
adjectives attached to each end of semantic scales,
eg., a 'fast' car may be one capable of 70mph to one
respondent, and 1 50mph to another;
ii. A 'halo effect' may lead to evaluation along one
dimension biasing others".
These scales are a possible technique which could have been
utilized to measure the attitudes of respondents to the
particular stimuli across a number of ciimensions. In the
final analysis the semantic differential scale was judged
to be a possible technique but was rejected in favour of
other methods.
4.Scalograin Analysis
Developed by Guttman (1 9 44) and frequently referred to as
the Guttnian Scale, this technique uses attitude statements
chp4The$et Jt page 193
to form an ordinal scale. This means that a respondent's
particular score on the scale indicates exactly what items
he has endorsed. This method is only suitable, however,
for investigating fairly narrow concepts or stimuli for
which a suitable quantitative variable may be assigned.
The concept of overseas holidays encompasses a whole range
of factors that would be difficult to rank in any
meaningful ordinal scale. Furthermore, the Guttman Scale
requires the items to be dichotomous, that is, respondents
may only agree or disagree which does not allow for any
sensitivity of analysis. There is thus no option to
express a range of strengths to statements which is a
requirement for multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis.
For these reasons, this technique was not selected for this
study.
Two techniques that almost satisfy the objectives already
discussed for this research design are the Thurstone Method and
the Likert Method. Both use statements with which respondents
can provide a strength of feeling response. The Thurstone method
concentrates on creating a scale with attitude statements spread
out at equal intervals along a positive attitude-negative
attitude continuum. Respondent's attitudes are then measured
according to the statements with which they have agreed, that is
the degree to which they are positive or negative attitude
statements (Thurstone, 1928; Oppenheim, 1968).
Although the Thurstone method produces reliable scales, it is
also very time consuming to develop. The Likert method however,
is less laborious and requires much less time to develop. Direct
comparisons between the two approaches by Barclay and Weaver
(1962) have indicated that the Thurstone scale takes around 43
percent more researcher time to construct than does the Likert
scale. Furthermore, early research by Edwards and Kenney (1946)
has revealed that Likert scales correlate well with Thurstone
scales (correlation coefficient of +0.92) and as Oppenheim (1968)
p a g e 1 9 4
sta te s, the ir re lia bility is ofte n hig he r - a re lia bility
coe fficie nt of 0.85 is ofte n a chie ve d (Edwa rds a nd Ke nne y found
a re lia bility coe fficie nt of 0.9 4 for the Like rt sca le ).
The fina l sca le s utilize d in this study we re ba se d up on both the
Thurstone a nd Like rt a p p roa che s but we re de ve lop e d to include
se lf constructs.Some of the sca le s e mp loye d for the
que stionna ire (Ap p e ndix 7.1 ) we re op e n (Pa rt A a nd B) while
othe rs we re more simila r to the a bove sca le s (Pa rt D). Stre ng th
of fe e ling wa s me a sure d on 1 00 p e rce nt or 1 00 p oint sca le s
a g a inst va ria ble s tha t the re sp onde nt ha d to construct. This is
a de p a rture from the Thurstone a nd Like rt p re orda ine d me thod a nd
it is a rg ue d this cre a te s more se nsitivity for the finding s.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS UTILIZED IN THE STUDY
The Likert method of attitude measurement
(Pa rt D of the que stionna ire is ba se d on this a p p roa ch). Ha ving
brie fly de scribe d the a lte rna tive me thods of a ttitude
me a sure me nt, a nd the re a sons for the ir re je ction, the Like rt
(1 9 32) me thod will now be discusse d. The me thod ma y be de ve lop e d
in a nuiithe r of sta g e s a s follows:
Initia lly a p ool of a ttitude sta te me nts conce rning the
stimulus in que stion must be g e ne ra te d. The se sta te me nts
should be cle a r, concise a nd p hra se d such tha t the sa mp le
g roup ca n unde rsta nd a nd re la te to the m. Double ne g a tive s
in p a rticula r should be a voide d a nd a sa mp le of the
p op ula tion should be sa mp le d to p re te st the sca le s in orde r
to e nsure the ir va lidity. It is g e ne ra lly g ood p ra ctice to
g e ne ra te a g ood ma ny more sta te me nts tha n a re like ly to be
fina lly use d since a numbe r will be rule d out a t la te r
sta g e s a s unsuita ble for use . The p re se nt study sta te me nts
we re ta ke n from, or ba se d up on, initia l inde p th re se a rch or
p ublishe d p re vious re se a rch, to e nsure va lidity.
ii Norma lly, sta te me nts should be a ssig ne d five p ossible
re sp onse s -strong ly a g re e , a g re e , indiffe re nt, disa g re e ,
p a g e 1 9 5
strong ly disa g re e . From the se the re sp onde nts ha ve to
se le ct one a s re p re se nta tive of the ir vie w on tha t
sta te me nt. For this study, to e nsure re sp onde nts could not
choose a ce ntra l va lue (Ap p e ndix 7.1 , Pa rt D), a four p oint
sca le is use d. Ea ch of the re sp onse s is a ssig ne d a score
of be twe e n one a nd four, in orde r to ca p ture stre ng th of
re sp onse be twe e n p ola r e xtre me s. Thus for a sta te me nt tha t
is most norma l, it will be a ssig ne d a score of one , whilst
for a le a st norma l sta te me nt will be a ssig ne d a score of
four.
Sca le s in the Que stionna ire
Ma ny of the study's que stions a re formula te d to p rovide a strict
orde ring of the da ta . This p rovide s for una mbig uous orde ring
ra the r tha n we a k orde ring whe re a re sp onde nt ma y conside r two
obje cts to be simila r a nd the re fore not be a ble to show
p re fe re nce . Se ve ra l of the que stions a re de vise d to g ive a
strict orde r a nd in a ddition for Pa rt A a nd B (Ap p e ndix 7.1 ) of
the que stionna ire to g ive stre ng ths. Pa rt A a nd B cre a te a
hig he r-orde re d me tric sca le with dista nce s g ive n be twe e n p oints.
This a llows for the p ossible tra nsforma tion of the sca le a nd the
p ote ntia l for multidime nsiona l a na lysis.
Data Collection Method
The me thod of da ta colle ction by p e rsona l inte rvie w wa s
de te rmine d by the comp le xity of the da ta re quire me nts. The
obje ctive s of the re se a rch rule d out p osta l a nd te le p hone surve ys
a s the se re quire too much simp licity whe n use d. (Se e Fig ure 4.6).
The fina l surve y me thod chose n wa s tha t of p re a rra ng e d p e rsona l
inte rvie ws ba se d on a p a rt p re code d que stionna ire .
chp4:;TheMet1t

p a g e 1 9 6
Construction of the Questionnaire
Inde p th Discussions
Prior to the formula tion of the first p ilot que stionna ire inde p th
discussions we re ca rrie d out with a dults in the Surre y a re a who
ha d ta ke n a ny ove rse a s holida ys in the p re vious five ye a rs. This
e nsure d tha t the conte nt of the que stions would be re le va nt a nd
the la ng ua g e would be a p p rop ria te . A numbe r of p e op le both ma le
a nd fe ma le we re inte rvie we d (e ig ht re sp onde nts) a nd a n e a rly
ha ndwritte n dra ft of the que stionna ire wa s utilize d to te st the
va lidity of its scop e . The a ims of the se discussions we re to:
a ) e na ble the re se a rche r to g a in a n unde rsta nding a nd fe e l for
the p op ula tion to be sa mp le d;
b) ide ntify the a sp e cts of ove rse a s holida y choice tha t a re
p e rce ive d a s imp orta nt by re sp onde nts;
c) imp rove the p re fe re nce , de cision rule a nd a ttitude
sta te me nts for use in the p ilot surve y;
d) a ct a s a ba sis for the p hra sing of que stions in a form
which would be re a dily comp re he nde d.
As a qua lita tive te chnique , the a im of the se initia l inde p th
discussions wa s not to qua ntify va ria ble s but toide ntify fa ctors
of re le va nce to the sa mp le d p op ula tion.
All discussions took p la ce in home loca tions a wa y from the
distra ction of othe r fa mily me mbe rs. The y la ste d for
a p p roxima te ly one hour. Ea ch wa s p re ce de d by a brie f introduction
e xp la ining tha t the inde p th discussion wa s a p re cursor to a wide r
study of the fa ctors of de ma nd re la te d to ove rse a s holida ys.
The re wa s no dire ct me ntion of consume r be ha viour during this
introduction so tha t a ny imp orta nt p e rsona l fa ctors mig ht a rise
sp onta ne ously during the course of the discussion. This a lso
e nsure d tha t othe r imp orta nt a sp e cts of a holida y we re discusse d
in g re a te r de ta il. Ap a rt from the introduction the re wa s no
forma l structure imp ose d on the discussion. Individua ls we re
a llowe d to ra ise the top ics tha t we re fe lt to be imp orta nt a nd
ch4eI'4ThMep a g e 1 9 7
only occa siona l p romp ts were g iven in order to reta in the
objectives of the discussion. Fina lly, the ba sic dra ft
questionna ire wa s discussed in order to imp rove its content.
For the indep th discussions to be successful in identifying
imp orta nt decision va ria bles a nd a ttitudes to holida y choice, it
wa s essentia l tha t the individua ls could be p ut a t ea se a nd would
feel free to exp ress themselves fully. With this in mind, it wa s
p a rticula rly stressed tha t the resea rcher wa s seeking their help
a nd tha t the informa tion g a ined from the discussion would be
emp loyed to dra w up a worka ble questionna ire for la ter study.
SURVEY MEASURING INSTRUMENT )D INFORMATION COLLECTION
Cha p ter 3 p rovides the seconda ry resea rch ba ckg round informa tion
which wa s ta ken into a ccount in the resea rch desig n a nd
techniques utilized.
Survey Questionnaire - Initial Draft
Using the informa tion g a ined from the initia l indep th interview
a nd from the seconda ry resea rch ca rried out for Cha p ter 3 it wa s
p ossible to formula te the initia l dra ft of the questionna ire.
Before devising the p ilot questionna ire, however, the a ims a nd
the typ es of informa tion exp ected to be g enera ted were identified
from the initia l indep th interviews a nd seconda ry informa tion
sea rch a s follows:
1 ) to qua ntify the fa ctors tha t were to be included a nd which
it ha d been found to be imp orta nt.
2) to interp ret the p references of resp ondents with the a id of
a multidimensiona l sca ling desig n.
3) to eva lua te the existing litera ture's use of motiva tion
theory by a p p lying a weig hted devia nce desig n.
4) to determine the imp orta nce of different g roup members in
the oversea s holida y decision p rocess.
5) to determine where resp ondents g et their informa tion from
in rela tion to their likelihood of tra vel a ctivity.
p a g e 1 9 8
6) to de te rmine the e xte nt of the influe nce of va lue s a nd
p sychog ra p hic typ e s of de ma nd sche dule s a nd the ir re la tion
to motiva tion.
7) to a na lyze the a bove finding s by a g e , se x, ma rita l sta tus,
e duca tiona l le ve l a nd income .
The dra ft que stionna ire utilize d for the p ilot study is shown in
Ap p e ndix 7.2. The que stions in the p ilot surve y we re p re code d
in orde r to ma ke p ossible da ta p roce ssing by comp ute r a fte r
discussion with the comp uting ce ntre .
THE SECTIONS OR PARTS CONTAINED IN THE DRAFT OUESTIONNAIRE
The dra ft que stionna ire wa s divide d into five diffe re nt se ctions
or p a rts. (Se e Ap p e ndix 7.2).
PART A The obje ctive of Pa rt A is to ca p ture motiva tiona l
a sp e cts of de ma nd for ove rse a s holida ys. Que stions 1 to 3
a tte mp t to p rovide inde p th re sp onse s which we re code d a nd use d
a s the re sp onde nts own construct. This ove rcome s the p roble m of
the que stionna ire be ing too rig id or only a llowing for re sp onse s
which a re not va lid. Que stions 4/5 utilize the a nswe rs from
que stions 1 to 3 g ive n a s the re a son for tra ve l, a nd a lso
ca p ture s the stre ng th of e a ch one in orde r to g ive a ra nk orde r.
The que stions we re formula te d for Pa rt A in orde r to p rovide
we ig hte d a na lysis of the re a sons p e op le g ive for tra ve l
be ha viour. The motiva tions ca p ture d a s this p a rt of the re se a rch
a re dire ctly re la te d to a sp e cts of the holida y a nd sta te me nts
we re not include d to uncove r a ny se conda ry minor motiva tors, such
a s tra ve l to e nha nce sta tus or disp la y we a lth.
PART B The obje ctive of Pa rt B is to re ve a l re sp onde nts'
ide a l p re fe re nce s linke d to a n ove rse a s holida y de cision. A
showca rd list wa s p rovide d for e a se of re sp onse . The list wa s
dra wn up following the initia l inde p th disqussions with ove rse a s
holida yma ke rs. The va lidity of the fina l list wa s cross-che cke d
in Que stion 6 for p ossible e xtra inclusions g ive n the fina l
sa mp le of re sp onde nts wa s to be fa r broa de r tha n the p ilot
ch4The$etho&Lpage 199
sample. Part B questions were developed as a list from the
initial indepth discussions to reduce the length of time required
to compile such a list if each individual respondent were to
devise their own individual list. Questions 6 to 9 replicate
each other in order to allow the respondent to provide a more
considered rank order, by spatial importance, for Question 9.
The use of strong rank order response allowed for MDS analysis
to be carried out in order to give a clear display of spatial
relationships of holiday component preference. This analysis is
based upon salience and corresponds to Box ii in Figure 4.6.
In addition, Part C of the questionnaire provides information on
destination preference rankings of Figure 4.7, Box ii as well as
information for Box i, by way of the question which is related
to advantages or unacceptable decision rules. The development
of holiday preferences is obviously quite complex and the
questionnaire attempts to uncover ideal type components.
Fiqure 4.7The Development of Preferences (ada p ted from Mayo
and Jarvis, 1981)
Information
i) Individual's belief aboutii) Relative importance
the destination's potentialxor salience of each
to deliver one or morebenefit to the
advantagesindividual
Overall Attitude
Relative Preference
cb$*ei4The$ethxbta'fpage 200
In examining specific aspects of the decision process in tourism
it is important to realise that preference for types or places
of holiday are highly complex (for example Woodside and Lysonski,
1989). The research design measures preference ratings of holiday
components and destinations by utilization of a spatial scale to
enable MDS analysis.
PART C The objective of Part C is to capture the evoked set
of destinations for each individual and to link these to decision
rules and information search. The ideal evoked set is important
as it is this set which an individual employs to chose their
choice set and ultimate final destination. Question 12 utilizes
decision rules statements based upon consumer behaviour theory.
Reference to similar holiday decision rules has been made by
Moutinho (1984). The final question in Part C examines the
search for information linked to rank order of destination
choice. This is an important part of the decision process.
According to Gyte (1988, p.21):
"image affects choice in the early stages of decision
making through a process of sorting of possible
destination choices".
The importance of the use of information sources is covered in
this section as the first three destination choices are cross
checked against any source of information utilized.
PART D The objective of Part D is to provide both
psychographic and further decision rule insight to the holiday
choice. The first three questions aim at capturing the type of
personality and values the respondent has, while the final part
examines the degree of influence of group members over holiday
choice decisions.
PARTEThe objective of Part E is to capture the socio-
demographic profile of each respondent to enable cross-
tabulations to be carried out on each of the other aspects of the
research findings.
page 20].
THE PILOT STUDY
Questionnaire construction is properly regarded as an imperfect
art. However a pilot or pretest of a draft questionnaire will
be able to reduce basic errors. The purpose of a pretest, is
to ensure that the expectations of the researcher, in terms of
the information that will be obtained from the questionnaire are
met (Aaker and Day 1990). The pilot should safeguard the study
objectives and identify possible problem areas which will require
remedy. The pilot study involved asking respondents what they
thought each question meant once they had answered all the
questions. The draft questionnaire was checked to ensure:
a) It was bias free. It was important to ensure that response
was not biased by the question wording. Questions had to
be neutral to ensure the elimination of bias.
b) Questions were conurehensib1e. As the questionnaire was to
be utilized with a large cross-section of the population it
was important to ensure respondents were not confused or
bored by long complex questions, or seemingly ambiguous
wording. The questionnaire had to be understood.
C) The guestionnaire was colniDrehensive. Katz (1946) argued
that questions should always be integrated so problems are
explored from more than one angle. It was important to
ensure that Section A and B of the questionnaire which
utilizes this approach had harmonious question integration.
d) The questionnaire had lo gical flow. Coherence and a
logical flow of one question or section to the next to
retain the interest of the respondent.
e) Technical aspects functioned properly . It was necessary to
consider whether:
-there was enough space to record responses
-show cards were clear, useful and not overused
-the length and difficulty of the questionnaire was
within acceptable limits.
chi4::The$ettt

p a g e 2 0 2
In summa ry the p retest a p p roa ch a ddressed the following :
i) suita bility of questions in rela tion to their
retention within the fina l questionna ire
ii) cla rity a nd a dequa cy of instructions
iii) log ica l sequence a nd mea ning of questions
iv) eva lua tion of fieldwork p rocedure a nd timing
Pretest Sample
A sa mp le of twelve individua ls were selected to test the dra ft
questionna ire. These individua ls included a broa d ra ng e of
occup a tions from p rofessiona l to unskilled. There were: 3
housewives, 2 students, 4 p rofessiona l p eop le (p ersonnel a nd
ma rketing ma na g ement) a nd 3 unskilled p eop le (ca nteen a nd
g a rdeners). The dra ft questionna ire wa s a dministered to this
g roup a nd they were then a sked to discuss wha t they thoug ht ea ch
question required by wa y of a resp onse.
It wa s found tha t the more educa ted resp ondents ha d less trouble
tha n others in following the interviewer's instructions. The
p roblem a rea s rela ted to p ercenta g e mea surements a nd question
mea ning s. These p roblems were ta ken into considera tion in the
imp rovement of the dra ft questionna ire. The following p a ra g ra p hs
deta il the na ture of the cha ng es which culmina ted in the fina l
questionna ire (Ap p endix 7.1).
Changes Made to the Draft Questionnaire
First, the questionna ire wa s initia lly p urg ed of incorrect coding
a nd flow of question numbers. Imp rovements were a lso ma de to
ena ble the da ta p rocessing sta g e to flow more ea sily (eg ., the
first three inp uts were ra ng ed on the rig ht of the
questionna ire).
Secondly, some question wording wa s cha ng ed due to p roblems of
imp recise instructions a nd p rocedure.
i) Q9 on the dra ft questionna ire required a n instruction to
p la ce the a sp ect of the holida y, which wa s thoug ht to be
page 203
most important, highest on the board. Initially a measure
based upon a board divided along a metre scale was
utilized. The metre rule technique was modified to a
smaller A3 size board technique as the size was more
manageable and to improve the flow of the coding data
capture by the interviewer. These changes also economized
on time.
ii) Q12 on the draft questionnaire was found to be too
confusing in its range of possible choice for the
respondent even though the decision statements had been
utilized in previous research. The change was made to the
statements about unacceptable features. There was the
addition of a new line on unacceptable features to broaden
the reason for the respondent's rejection of a destination.
iii) Q15 on the draft questionnaire was simplified to the first
three destination choices only, as it was found the
respondent did not readily respond to further questions.
Probing on the pretest revealed that anything after the
third choice was not thought a serious contender for
purchase activity. This change also shortened the time
required to complete the questionnaire.
iv) Q17 on the draft questionnaire had the word 'venturesome'
which on probing for meaning created some misunderstanding
for respondents. The wording was changed to 'adventure'
which was found to be more acceptable.
v) Q18 on the draft questionnaire had most and least normally
added as polar opposites on the four point scale to provide
more clarity for the respondent.
vi) Q19 on the draft questionnaire produced a confusion between
the allocation of points given for marriage partner and
friends. This was overcome by splitting these two under
separate codes. The extra benefit for this split is the
improved richness of results which can be captured.
vii) Q20 and Q22 on the draft questionnaire had the numbers
changed to letters to ensure consistency with Q26 and
to avoid the possibility of miscoding occurring.
p a g e 2 0 4
viii Q2 6 on the dra ft que stionna ire wa s cha ng e d to p rovide
for a n up p e r income ba nd a s it wa s found the up p e r
le ve l wa s not se nsitive e noug h.
ix) A ne w que stion wa s a dde d to ca p ture the socio-e conomic
g roup of the re sp onde nt so a s to p rovide a cross-che ck
a g a inst officia l ove rse a s holida y de ma nd fig ure s. This
would a lso a llow for a quota -sa mp le se le ction p roce dure .
Question Meaning
It wa s found tha t some confusion e xiste d re la te d to the me a ning
of sp e cific que stions.
In Pa rt A, the word 'ove rse a s' or 'a broa d' wa s a dde d to a ny
me ntion of holida y to e nsure re sp onde nts we re cle a r a bout the
na ture of the re sp onse re quire me nt be ing re la te d to non-dome stic
holida ys. The word 'booke d' wa s cha ng e d to 'a rra ng e me nt' a s
'booke d' wa s confuse d with p a cka g e holida ys.
In Pa rt C, the re wa s confusion ove r the te rm de stina tion. This
wa s subse que ntly cha ng e d to country.
Whe n a ske d que stions in Pa rt D, re sp onde nts we re surp rise d a t the
cha ng e in que stion typ e , whe re by the ne w stre ss wa s p la ce d up on
the re sp onde nts va lue s. This se ction ha d 'I a m now g oing to a sk
you some thing a bout yourse lf' a dde d to introduce the cha ng e in
e mp ha sis be twe e n diffe re nt p a rts of the que stionna ire .
Some young e r re sp onde nts wa nte d to know why in Se ction E, the
wording for ma rita l sta tus did not me ntion, "living with
some one ". This wa s subse que ntly a dde d to the fina l que stionna ire
a nd the word ma rria g e ha d bra cke ts p la ce d a round it to
incorp ora te the ne w te rm of p a rtne r, if two p e op le we re living
tog e the r but we re not ma rrie d.
th4;The$etf
p a g e 2 0 5
The Final Questionnaire
The revised fina l questionna ire used in the survey is shown in
Ap p endix 7.1. This fina l version is the result of the
modifica tion to the dra ft version in lig ht of results a nd
exp erience g a ined in the p ilot study. While it ma y be
unrea listic to exp ect p erfection in a fina l questionna ire a ll the
p otentia l fa ults which could be identified were ta ken into
considera tion for the chosen instrument of mea surement.
Length of Questionnaire
The questionna ire is required to collect a full ra ng e of da ta
rela ted to the oversea s holida y decision p rocess. This
p redetermines the need for a broa d ra ng e of questions utilizing
a resea rch desig n which is comp lex. The leng th of the
questionna ire a t 6 p a g es a nd the forty minutes to one hour
required to comp lete the questions p la ces some p ressure on the
interviewer to ma inta in the resp ondent's interest. There a re
sp ecific fa ctors which a llow for the use of the fina l
questionna ire even thoug h the conta ct time of interview is hig h.
1) It dea ls with a top ic which most p eop le find interesting .
2 ) The questionna ire would be a dministered in the home or
a lterna tive comforta ble surrounding s with a ta ble a nd
cha ir.
3) Resp ondents were to be conta cted p rior to ea ch interview so
a s to p rea rra ng e the interview time. They were a lso to be
informed, in a dva nce, tha t the interview could ta ke up to
one hour to comp lete.
The Final Study Sa mp le
The sa mp le chosen wa s ba sed up on sp ecific criteria , these were
linked to the overa ll objective of the study:
oIt ha d to be a s rep resenta tive a s p ossible of those UK
citizens who tra vel on oversea s holida ys
oEa ch cell size in the six a g e ra ng es (question
p a g e 2 0 6
e ig hte e n) wa s p la nne d to be a minimum of forty
re sp onde nts to e nsure the va lidity of a ny cross-
ta bula tions of a g e da ta .
The fina l sa mp le wa s ba se d up on a quota sa mp le te chnique . Quota s
we re ca lcula te d from a va ila ble da ta from the 1989 BTA Sta tistics
(Se e Cha p te r 2 , Ta ble 2 .4) to e nsure tha t the fina l sa mp le chose n
corre sp onde d in the rig ht p rop ortions to the tota l sa mp le
p op ula tion. While a g e a nd se x control p re se nts little difficulty
in the se le ction of a quota sa mp le , socia l cla ss in ma ny studie s
is tre a te d a s a le ss de finitive ca te g ory. The re se a rch de sig n
for this study incorp ora te d socia l cla ss control into the quota
sa mp ling a s the bre a kdown by socio-e conomic g roup for holida ys
a broa d is a va ila ble from BTA re p orts.
Be ca use quota sa mp ling is not truly ra ndom, it is not p ossible
to e stima te sa mp ling e rrors. Howe ve r, a s Mose r a nd Ka lton (1979)
p oint out, with quota sa mp le s the sa mp ling e rrors a re so sma ll,
in comp a rison with othe r e rrors a nd bia s tha t e nte r into surve ys
tha t it is no g re a t disa dva nta g e not to be a ble to e stima te the m.
For the p urp ose of this study a socia l cla ss bre a kdown wa s
ca lcula te d for e a ch of the a g e ca te g orie s, to ove rcome the
p roble ms norma lly a ssocia te d with socia l cla ss controls. Se e
Ta ble 4.1 for the ta rg e t quota sa mp le ta rg e ts.
cber4,TheKetti
page 207
Table 4.1 Target Quota Samp le Numbers of Respondents (by age,
gender and socio-economic group)
% hols 18-24 yrs 25-34 yrs 35-44 yrs 45-54 yrs 55-65yrs 65+
abroad (21%)(19%) ____ (19%) ____ (17%) ____ (14%) (11%)
Mal Fern Mal Fern Ma]. Fern Mal Fern Male Fern Mal Fern
eeeee
33% AR 12121111111110108877
24%Cl998888776655
26%C210109999887755
17%DE 666666554444
Total
362746868605042
The target sample selected was of 362 respondents based upon the BTA profile
of tourists travelling abroad on holiday (1989).
Procedure for the Research Interviews
The procedure adopted for the study involved ensuring there was
no distraction for the interview. All interviews were carried
out in quiet rooms with no other person present. There was no
break in the interview and most lasted on average forty five
minutes. The procedure was led by the flow of the questionnaire
as measuring instrument. The main difference in timing was
linked to the time taken on part 'B' of the questionnaire where
a number of respondents took longer than others to complete the
rank ordering of holiday preferences.
1) Respondents were met at a prearranged convenient time and
made to feel as relaxed as possible. The interview was conducted
in seated positions near to a surface which could be used for
Part B of the questionnaire.
2) The first three open-ended responses were captured on the
questionnaire.
3) The respondent was asked to look at their responses to the
page 208
above and if there was no other reason to travel on holiday
abroad, to rank them with the most important reason first.
4) Finally the respondent was asked to allocate a strength to
each of the motivations out of 100%.
5) For part B the respondent was asked to look at a show card
with a list of (items provided from the initial research)
important attributes linked to overseas travel, to ensure that
there were no missing aspects which were important to when taking
an overseas holiday. The respondent was then given small cards
with the individual attributes printed on. Respondents were then
told to look at the cards and to place them in the order of
importance which related to the decision they make when
travelling on holiday abroad. Fifteen cards were then sorted
into rank order and if necessary the individuals extra item was
incorporated. Once these had been noted the meanings related to
the attributes were then captured.
6) An A3 size board was then introduced which had 9 different
ruled markings. The respondent was allowed to rearrange the
previous order if they wanted to, and was asked to place the
cards spatially apart from each other on the board to reflect the
differences in importance they felt to each item. For example if
they felt one group or item was more important than another they
would need to space it away from the others. They were
instructed to place the most important highest on the board.
7) Respondents were then asked to provide a list of countries
they would consider for their next holiday. They were then asked
to give them in the order of most realistic choices and the
likelihood of a visit within a three year period was captured.
8) The previous list was read back to the respondent who was
requested to allocate one of five choices of belief about each
decision. The respondent was also asked about types of knowledge
about the destinations mentioned.
9) Parts D and E were more straightforward with either
unprompted or showcard prompted questions finding out information
about the respondent.
4The Metli
p a g e 2 0 9
Computer Analysis and Processing
The ma infra me unive rsity comp ute r wa s a va ila ble for the da ta
p roce ssing a nd a na lysis, but a s the He wla rt Pa cka rd syste m ha d
just be e n insta lle d whe n this re se a rch be g a n the re wa s only
limite d e xp e rtise a nd knowle dg e of the comma nd syste ms by
unive rsity p e rsonne l. It wa s the re fore difficult to se le ct the
most suita ble syste m whe n the me thodolog y wa s be ing a g re e d. It
wa s not ne ce ssa ry to try to ma ste r the diffe re nt e diting a nd
comma nd p rog ra ms for the ma infra me a s a numbe r of a lte rna tive
op tions we re a va ila ble in orde r to a na lyze the da ta . The se
include d Minita b a nd othe r micro p a cka g e fa cilitie s.
Eve n thoug h the re could ha ve be e n difficultie s it wa s fina lly
de cide d tha t the a na lysis should be ma de on the Surre y Unive rsity
UNIX (He wla rt Pa cka rd) syste m. As indica te d this syste m
incorp ora te s the sta tistica l p a cka g e for the Socia l Scie nce s
Ve rsion 3.0 (SPPS-X, 19 88).
The syste m wa s se le cte d for the following re a sons:
o The syste m ha d a comp re he nsive softwa re p rog ra m which
could a na lyze a nd disp la y da ta from a lmost a ny typ e of
file ;
o The syste m p rovide d the ne ce ssa ry p owe r to de a l
with la rg e se ts of da ta unde r cross-ta bula tion
comma nds;
oThe syste m ha d be e n de ve lop e d ove r a numbe r of ye a rs
for a ra ng e of socia l scie nce re se a rch.
o The re wa s a choice of softwa re p rog ra ms one
of which wa s Aisca l which wa s to be run for
the Multidime nsiona l Sca ling Ana lysis.
page 210
Despite the advantages of using a mainframe computer, a number
of complications in the use of SPSSX arose. It was found that
the Hewlart Packard UNIX system was highly complex. UNIX
utilizes an editor named VI for the preparation of a command
program for SPSS. This editor has no overwrite facility and as
such is both time consuming and difficult to master. This editor
I found to be 'User Hostile' as it takes only lower case commands
within specific modes. A wrong mode and the touch of the wrong
key could mean minutes of lost time. In addition the plots from
the MDS Alscal program could only be reproduced on computer paper
when the system was first installed.
The graphs for the results stage of the study were produced on
'Quatro Pro' software which was found to be easily mastered. An
extra facility of the software is an annotation mode which
allowed for the enhancement of finished graphs.
Data Processing
Utilization of the Hewlett Packard UNIX system at the University
of Surrey required efficient data processing administration.
o All completed questionnaires were checked to ensure
coding was clear and unambiguous. This was essential
as the university staff who were to input the data had
neither the time nor background to be able to
interpret the responses.
o The data for processing was placed on the right hand
side of the questionnaire to facilitate rapid
processing.
oThe data was input twice and cross-checked to ensure
accuracy.
oThis researcher had to write an SPSSX
command program to run the data
ANALYSIS USED
Part of the data was processed utilizing SPSS-X series three,
multidimensional scaling software. The program selected was
'Alscal' (Alternating least squares approach to scaling). Alscal
p a g e 2 1 1
incorp ora te s multidime nsiona l sca ling (MDS) a nd a n unfolding
(MDU) p rog ra m with se ve ra l individua l-diffe re nce s op tions. One
be ne fit of the Aisca l p a cka g e is its fle xibility of a na lysis
since it incorp ora te s most of the sig nifica nt sta tistica l
de ve lop me nts into one p rog ra m. The Aisca l p rog ra m include s a ll
the following mode ls: non-individua l diffe re nce s mode ls (e g
Cla ssica l MDS); individua l diffe re nce s mode ls, multidime nsiona l
unfolding mode ls (MDU); a nd e xte rna l MDS a nd MDU mode ls (Young
a nd Le wyckyj, 1 979). Alsca l ca n p roce ss a ny typ e of two or thre e
wa y da ta (re cta ng ula r or squa re , symme tric or a symme tric,
conditiona l or unconditiona l, with or without missing e le me nts),
which ma y be me a sure d a t the nomina l, ordina l, inte rva l or ra tio
le ve l of me a sure me nt. The p rog ra m is a lso a ble to a cce p t a n
unlimite d numbe r of ma trice s, e a ch ha ving a n unlimite d numbe r of
rows a nd columns. In othe r words, the re a re no re strictions
conce rning the numbe r of obje cts (stimuli) or subje cts. Fina lly,
the Aisca l solution ca n be p re se nte d in a s ma ny a s six dime nsions
if the da ta a llows the p lot.
page 212
A DETAILED EXPOSITION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING (MDS)
Introduction
The tendency to collect data about the characteristics of
individuals, their behaviour patterns and attitudes has increased
significantly during recent tines. This growth of research
activity has put pressure on the final phase of the survey
process ie., data analysis (Hoinville et al, 1983). In this
field of data analysis there are many analytical techniques and
their applicability is governed by the number of variables
involved which may range from one to several. When dealing with
multivariable analysis, some of the most advanced techniques used
are factor analysis, multidimensional scaling and cluster
analysis. These are usually known as the analysis of
interdependence techniques since they examine the interdependence
between questions, variables or objects. Our concern here is
multidimensional scaling (MDS) which is a powerful mathematical
procedure that can help in systemizing data by presenting the
similarities of objects spatially as in a map (Schiffman et al,
1981)
1 .1 DB in General
The aim of multidimensional scaling is to reduce data so as to
make it more manageable and meaningful and at the same time to
identify whether there is any fundamental underlying structure
within the data (Fenton & Pearce, 1988). It also allows the
researcher to take a series of single dimension relationships and
transform them into one dimensional relationship (Kress, 1988).
Furthermore, it enables the data to be presented in an easy to
understand way, such as a graph or map.
The History of Multidimensional Scaling
There are two major stages through which the MDS technique
evolved (Shepard 1972). The first one is the "classical" or
"metric" or the "Torgerson" approach to MDS. The Gulliknen's
psychometric group at Princeton University - including Messick
and Abelson (1972), and Torgerson (1952) - were the initiators
p a g e 2 1 3
a s we ll a s the first one s to form a worka ble me thod of MDS
a na lysis. The se cond sta g e is the "nomne tric" or the "She p a rd-
Kruska l" a p p roa ch to MDS. The de ve lop me nt of this a p p roa ch be g a n
in the e a rly 1 960s a t the Be ll Te le p hone La bora torie s.
The ma jor a dva nta g e s of the se cond a p p roa ch a g a inst the first one
ca n be summa rise d a s follows. It ha s the a bility to "e xtra ct
qua ntita tive , me tric informa tion from qua lita tive , nonme tric
da ta " (She p a rd in She p a rd, 1 972 ). This is e xtre me ly va lua ble to
socia l scie ntists who colle ct the ir da ta from p e rsons a ble to
ma ke ordina l ra the r tha n me tric judg me nts. Furthe rmore , the
"nonme tric" a p p roa ch g ua ra nte e s tha t the fina l solution is "a n
op timum fit to the initia lly g ive n da ta " (She p a rd). This is due
to the fa ct tha t the solution g ive n a t e a ch ite ra tion a s we ll a s
the fina l solution is che cke d a g a inst the orig ina l da ta in orde r
to a chie ve the close st fit to it. Fina lly, the ne w a p p roa ch ca n
e a sily cop e with p roble ms such a s missing , or diffe re ntly
we ig hte d da ta , e tc.
Ove ra ll the history of MDS ca n be ide ntifie d by four sta g e s:
1 ) the se mina l work of Torg e rson (1 952 ) who p rovide d the
initia l Me tric solution.
2 ) the work of She p a rd (1 962 ) a nd Kruska l (1 964) on nonme tric
MDS.
3 ) the work of Ca rroll a nd Cha ng (1 970) on individua l
diffe re nce s in MDS with a consolida tion of the work to da te
by Ta ka ne , Young a nd de Le e uw (1 977) a nd by de Le e uw a nd
He ise r (1 980).
4) the work of Ra msa y (1 982 ) a nd Ta ka ne (1 980) a nd othe rs on
the de ve lop me nt of MDSto p rovide da ta on ma ximum
like lihood.
In a ddition, Young a nd Ha nie r, 1 987, tra ce some of the founda tions
of MDS ba ck to Coombs (1 964) who a ddre sse d the p roble ms of
vie wing da ta a s re la tions be twe e n p oints in sp a ce . It is a rg ue d
tha t Coombs da ta the ory wa s me rg e d with the work of She p a rd,
Kruska l a nd a lso Roska m (1 968) to p rovide inve stig a tors with
e a rly me thods for re p re se nting da ta sp a tia lly.
page 214
Several approaches to MDS exist and they all differ in the
assumptions they employ, the perspective taken and the input data
used. Figure 4.8 clarifies this:
Fi qure 4.8Approaches to Multidimensional Scaling
MDS
attribute data
I I
factordiscriminant correspondent
analysis analysisanalysis
4
non- attribute data
I I
similarity preference
Source: Aaker & Day, 1990
I n the attribute-based techniques the respondents have to
evaluate a set of brands or other objects, such as Finlandts
destination image as in the study conducted by Haahti (1986), on
a large number of attributes. This is usually done by using
semantic differential or Likert scales (Tull & Hawkins, 1990).
I t should be noted that in order for the attribute-based
approaches to isolate the complete set of underlying dimensions,
the set of attributes techniques are being used the individuals
are asked to rate alternatives on the basis of perceived
similarity to one another. However, they are not told which
criteria to use to determine similarity or ranking. Respondents
use their own meanings to provide data and then a computer
program converts the data into distances on a map within a number
of dimensions so that similar alternatives are close together.
I t also determines the underlying dimensionality to individuals'
similarity judgements and position of alternatives on each of
those dimensions (Ritchie & Goeldner, 1987).
Row an MDS Program Works
Schiffman, et al., (1981, p. 10) describe how MDS works as
follows:
"What an NDS program does is to assume or calculate
some set of coordinates for the stimuli called the
starting configuration. Distances are calculated from
The $ethxkpage 215
these coordinates and compared with the data.
Depending on how large the differences are, the
program then moves the coordinates around a bit and
recomputes the distances. This process is repeated
until the distances fit the data as well as practical.
Each of the programs contains specific criteria for
determining when this state is achieved".
However MDS programs do not immediately achieve solutions as they
require numerous trials or iterations before acceptable levels
of stress are achieved.
The use of MDS can best be described utilizing the following
description:
"Presenting one with a map of the United States and asking one
to measure with a ruler the distance among 10 diversely located
American cities is a straight forward project. MDS does the
opposite of this; it takes a set of distances and creates the
map" (Schiffman, et al., 1981,
p.
6). Similar examples with
reference to the United States and to Australia are given by
Kruskal and Wish (1978), and Fenton and Pearce (1988)
respectively.
The term Multidimensional Scaling refers to a family of data
analysis methods, all of which portray the data's structure in
a spatial pattern which can be easily assimilated by an untrained
human eye whereas most MDS constructs a geometric representation
of the data in a Euclidian space. Some Multidimensional Scaling
Methods display the data structures in non-Euclidian spaces, and
some Methods provide additional information about how the
structure varies over time, individuals or experimental
conditions. (Young and Hamer, 1987). In particular,
"multidimensional scaling" refers to a number of techniques used
for the analysis of social and behaviourial data (Shepard in
Shepard, et al., 1972, Vol I). They are classified on the basis
of the following three concepts (Schiffman, et al., in Fenton and
Pearce, 1988):
p a g e 2 1 6
osha p e or mode of the da ta (which ca n be re cta ng ula r or a
squa re ma trix);
o"wa y" of the da ta (which re p re se nts the dime nsiona lity of
the orig ina l da ta ); a nd
oMDS mode ls (which a re e ithe r we ig hte d or unwe ig hte d). (This
study utilize d unwe ig hte d mode ls).
The ir common p urp ose a ccording to She p a rd (1 972 ) is to uncove r
a ny unde rlying p a tte rn or structure in the ma trix of da ta a nd
furthe rmore p re se nt it in a n e a sy to unde rsta nd wa y such a s a
g ra p h or a p icture . The p oints in this g ra p h re p re se nt the
obje cts unde r inve stig a tion whe re a s the ir p osition a nd
g e ome trica l re la tions e xhibit the funda me nta l re la tionship s of
the se obje cts. (This study inte rp re ts such re la tionship s).
Howe ve r, inte rp re ta tion of the dime nsions is a ve ry difficult a s
we ll a s hig hly subje ctive ta sk.
Differences Between MultiDimensional Scaling and Factor Analysis
Whe re a s MDS re fe rs to a colle ction of da ta a na lysis p roce dure s,
fa ctor a na lysis (FA) re fe rs to a fa mily of p roce dure s use d to
a na lyze inultiva ria te da ta se ts such a s va rious a ttribute ra ting s
for a numbe r of stimuli. According to Fe nton a nd Pe a rce (1 988),
multidime nsiona l sca ling wa s a t first a va ria tion of fa ctor
a na lysis use d in p sychop hysics in the la te 1 930's.
She p a rd, (in She p a rd, e t a l., 1 972 , Vol. I) re fe rs to fa ctor
a na lysis a nd the p rincip a l comp one nts a na lysis, which a re both
wide ly use d in the socia l scie nce s, a s be ing ve ry simila r to
multidime nsiona l sca ling a na lysis. The diffe re nce be twe e n the m
a nd MDS lie s in the "dime nsiona lity a nd conse que ntly
visua liza bility" of the re sults. In p a rticula r, hig h
dime nsiona lity, de rive d from strict a ssump tions of line a rity,
cha ra cte rise s the solution in fa ctor a na lysis. This ma ke s its
The &thohpage 217
graphical presentation impossible and thus results are given in
a matrix form not easily interpretable by the researcher.
Furthermore, the MDS model is based on distances between points
whereas the FA model is based on the angles between vectors.
Both models use Euclidean space, but MDS has the advantage of
easier interpretation of the solution due to its use of distance
rather than vector angles. In addition, data for MDS, when
collected by direct judgement of dissimilarities, are least
subject to "experimentation bias" and most likely to contain a
relevant structure. Also data for FA generally contain scores
for each stimulus on a list of attributes which may or may not
be relevant. Finally, factor analysis requires that the
variables to be analyzed must be measured on at least an interval
scale. Several writers have no reservation about the benefits
of MDS over FA. They argue from an experimental, mathematical and
interpretive viewpoint that NDS is to be preferred. (Schiffman,
1981, Fenton, 1988).
Data on which the MDB Analysis is based
Input data for MDS analysis is either a direct or indirect
measure of proximity , ie a number that shows the degree of
(dis) similarity between a pair of stimuli within a defined set.
Data is characterised as direct when the subject gives a direct
estimate of the amount of (dis)similarity between any pair of
elements either through rating or classification. The opposite
holds true for indirect measures of proximity. Some of the
direct measures of proximity are rating, grouping, and ranking
procedures (Fenton and Pearce, 1988). Direct measures of
proximity are difficult to collect when the number of elements
is large. For example, with 8,12, and 20 elements; 38, 66 and
190 paired various kinds of input data, that can be used for NDS,
is also found. (Coxon, 1982). Within this research 15 row
elements were compared which is not only a manageable set but
also one that allows for a three dimensional solution.
p a g e 2 1 8
Advantages and Disadvantages of MDS (Schiffman, 1981)
Adva nta g e s:
owhe ne ve r the da ta on which the MDS a na lysis is ba se d
consist of "dire ct" p roximitie s (simila rity or
dissimila rity ) it ha s the a dva nta g e of "be ing low in
e xp e rime nte r conta mina tion".
oknowle dg e of the a ttribute s of the stimuli tha t will be
a na lyze d is not a p re re quisite for the a p p lica tion of MDS;
oMDS uncove rs dime nsions re le va nt to the da ta use d;
o e xp e rime nts de sig ne d to colle ct simila rity da ta for MDS
a na lysis g e ne ra te a la rg e a mount of informa tion a nd
g e ne ra lly yie ld sta ble sp a ce s with only a fe w subje cts.
Disa dva nta g e s:
oe xp e rime nts use d for da ta colle ction or dire ct p roximity
a re ve ry e xp e nsive .
o( this re se a rche r found the ra nking e xe rcise ve ry time
consuming .)
Problems and Possible Limitations of Multidimensional Scaling
Multidime nsiona l Sca ling like e ve ry othe r tool ca nnot fulfil
e ve ry ne e d of the re se a rche r who is trying to inte rp re t a se t
of da ta or to re vise a the ory. The re a re thre e sig nifica nt
limita tions to this me thod:
o ma ny kinds of da ta tha t a re colle cte d in the socia l or
be ha viouria l scie nce s a re just not of a form suita ble for
a na lysis by the a va ila ble me thods. ( Pa rt of this re se a rch
study wa s sp e cifica lly p la nne d to colle ct some da ta which
wa s sufficie nt for MDS tra nsforma tion);
oe ve n whe n the da ta a re of a sup e rficia lly a p p rop ria te form
to be use d a s inp ut for a p a rticula r multidime nsiona l
sca ling me thod, this is no g ua ra nte e tha t the y should be
use d; a nd
p a g e 2 1 9
o it ca n ha p p e n tha t the a na lysis of da ta ca n subtly
influe nce a n inve stig a tor to a cce p t the forma l mode l
unde rlying the me thod a s a substa ntive mode l for the
p he nome non unde r study to the e xclusion of othe r quite
diffe re nt a nd p e rha p s more fruitful substa ntive mode ls.
Applications of Multidimensional Scaling to Tourism
MDS a na lysis is a ve ry e ffe ctive te chnique for the e xa mina tion
of ma rke ting p roble ms, such a s:
p roduct life cycle a na lysis; ma rke t se g me nta tion; ve ndor
e va lua tions; a dve rtising e va lua tion; te st ma rke ting ; sa le sma n a nd
store ima g e re se a rch; bra nd switching re se a rch; a nd a ttitude
sca ling (Gre e n a nd Ca rmone , 1 9 72 ).
It ca n a lso be a p p lie d to tourism re se a rch. In p a rticula r, it
is use d for cla ssifica tion of le isure a ctivity typ e s (Be cke r,
Hirshma n, 1 9 88; Ritchie , 1 9 75), the re la tionship be twe e n p ublic
a nd p riva te re cre a tiona l syste ms (Loving ood a nd Mitche ll, 1 9 88),
a n e xp lora tion of the kinds of p sycholog ica l be ne fits which a
re cre a tiona l p a rk ca n p roduce (Uluch a nd Addoms, 1 9 88). In
a ddition, Russe l a nd Hultsma n (1 9 88) use d MDS to inve stig a te the
structura l na ture of le isure , Ha a hti, (1 9 86) p ointe d out the
corre ct ma rke ting use of MDS re se a rch, a nd Ke mp e r, Robe rts a nd
Goodwin (1 9 88) e xp lore d the cultura l p e rce p tions of a Ne w Me xico
community from a n a nthrop olog ica l p e rsp e ctive . It is a lso
me ntione d by Fe nton a nd Pe a rce (1 9 88) tha t hyp othe sis te sting is
a nothe r a re a whe re MDS ca n be a p p lie d.
A numbe r of ima g e me a sure me nt re se a rche s use d the MDS a na lysis
te chnique . Four of the m will be re fe rre d to he re . Pote ntia l
tra ve lle rs' p e rce p tions of Me dite rra ne a n de stina tions we re
e xa mine d by Ande rson a nd Colbe rg (1 9 88). This study stre sse s the
use of MDS a na lysis for p roduct ima g e me a sure me nt a mong
comp e titors a nd throug h time . The ima g e of nine tourist
de stina tions in a nd outside the Unite d Sta te s wa s studie d by
p a g e 2 2 0
Goodrich (1978) using the MDS a na lysis. The study shows how MDS
ca n he lp in sug g e sting ma rke ting stra te g ie s with p a rticula r
re fe re nce to p roduct diffe re ntia tion. The ima g e a nd the tourist
a p p e a l of the Austra lia n hig hwa ys we re a lso inve stig a te d by
Pe a rce a nd Prouinitz (1988). The imp orta nce of the ir me thodolog y
lie s in the link be twe e n ima g e a nd tourist be ha viour tha t ca n be
studie d throug h MDS a na lysis. Attitude ide ntifica tion a nd
tourism p roduct p osition we re studie d by Ga rtne r (1989). The
sig nifica nce of this re se a rch lie s in the sta te me nt ma de by
Ga rtne r "inste a d of unde rta king consume r re se a rch to a sce rta in
the most like ly a ttribute s imp orta nt to a p a rticula r de stina tion
de cision, one ca n a sse ss a n a re a 's ima g e for sp e cific tra ve l
p roducts a nd uncove r from the re se a rch unde rlying p roduct
a ttribute s". This is the e sse nce of MDS a na lysis.
Problems of MD8 Applications in Tourism Research
Ha a hti utilize d the a ttribute -ba se d me thod in his study. The
a ttribute s, the re fore ha d to be g e ne ra te d. Althoug h Ha a hti use d
va rious me thods to de rive the te n most hig hly-ra te d a ttribute s
from a se t of sixty se ve n, it is not cle a r tha t re sp onde nts
p e rce p tions a nd e va lua tions of the 11 countrie s (obje cts which
we re utilize d) a re re p re se nte d by the se a ttribute s. This vie w
is sup p orte d by Cha n e t a l (1990 ), a nd thus furthe r inve stig a tion
is ne e de d to unde rsta nd whe the r tourists of diffe re nt
na tiona litie s ha ve a diffe re nt se t of a ttribute s in se le cting
holida y de stina tions.
Anothe r p roble m a ssocia te d with the a ttribute ba se d te chnique is
tha t the a ttribute s of the stimuli ha ve to be sca le d. The re fore ,
the dile mma s of a rticula tion a nd me a ning do e xist. For e xa mp le ,
wha t doe s "g ood va lue for mone y" me a n to diffe re nt re sp onde nts
(Schiffma n e t a l, 1981). He nce , it could be sug g e ste d tha t the
da ta for MDS should be colle cte d by dire ct judg e me nt of
(dis)siinila ritie s inste a d of undire ct, de rive d me a sure of
(dis)simila ritie s (Ha a hti, 1986). Howe ve r, if we ta ke into
conside ra tion tha t the e xp e rime nts for colle cting dire ct
chtUThe1*ethockpage 2 2 1
judgements can be very expensive and time-consuming, Haahti's
technique offers an acceptable compromise.
There is also a practical problem of data availability. When
using an MDS approach, it is difficult to obtain data from the
total population. For example, in Haahti's study, data was
collected only by interviewing tourists visiting Finland. Due
to this bias in sampling, it is not known how these tourists and
their perceptions vary from the non-sampled population's
perceptions. In this case the non-visitors. This is undoubtedly
a shortcoming of this study of Finland's competitive position as
a destination. Yet, as Haahti stated "a pragmatic point of view
is that one is only interested in those who come to Finland in
order to discover something common in this group's wishes and
wants" (1986).
As mentioned earlier, there exists some problems with the
dimensionality of presentation. Firstly, there is no one index
that will specify the correct number of dimensions (Fenton and
Pearce, 1988). In his study, Haahti employed test runs (1 -5
dimension solutions) and the property fitting analysis in order
to determine the proper number of dimensions. This has led to
the two dimensional presentation, which normally provides the
best interpretation (Tull & Hawkins, 1990). Since Haahti put
more emphasis on this aspect of understanding, the solution given
might not be the one with the optimum stress value and thus, the
third dimension should be considered. In addition, the naming
of the dimensions can be questioned in Haahti's study. It may
have been better if different dimensions had been used for the
separate respondent groups.
To provide a database for determining and targeting marketing
strategies, Haahti tried to present the solution in the most
interpretable way. This is not to say that the application of
this two-dimensional presentation is an easy task. In fact,
additional information must be introduced in order to decide why
chptt4The$ethockpage 222
countries (objects) are located in their relative positions.
Moreover, it should be noted that the perceptual maps are only
static snapshots at a certain point of time. Therefore,
forecasting how the market events influence these maps is
problematic (Aaker & Day 1990). In fact, only a few attempts
have been made to assess the predictive aspects of MDS (Green,
1975).
Yau and Chan (1990) examined the perceptions of travellers in
Hong Kong in relation to other Asian countries using MDS
analysis. ( Interestingly I refereed this article for Tourism
Management and consequently several changes were made to it) As
the research was only carried out in English, the findings have
to be viewed as representative to only English speaking visitors.
However, the methodology is sound.
The research tries to overcome the problems of pure descriptive
approach as a deductive approach was chosen. The hypotheses were
laid before the study on the basis of earlier research. In order
to determine the perception of Hong Kong as a travel destination
the researchers felt it important to study the destination choice
criteria and especially in pairwise comparisons between other
destinations.
In this respect the study clearly provides a more relevant
picture of destination choice criteria than earlier studies.
The position of Hong Kong as seen in comparison to its closest
neighbours is seen through the MDS presentation as having unique
attributes over other destinations. The multidimensional
perceptual map can be utilized to inform different marketing
decisions. The information provided by Yau and Chan can be used
in segmenting the market or for focusing on new product
development.
Much of the current use of MDS in tourism marketing, although
limited to a few studies, does show there is major benefits to
The Methockpage 223
be gained from the use of this analytical tool. For this reason,
MDS was selected as one method of analysis to be applied to the
current study of the factors of demand related to overseas
holidays.
Conclusion
This chapter has outlined the methods employed in the research.
It has shown how a balance of qualitative and quantitative
techniques have been utilized in order to be sensitive to the
nature of the type of area under study. The importance of this
approach has been highlighted by the comprehensive discussion of
positivist and humanist approaches to research methods.
The chapter has also discussed different research options which
were available for the study, but for one reason or another were
rejected as less favourable than competing methods given the
objectives of the study. Finally a comprehensive exposition of
the development of the questionnaire through its various stages
of compilation has been outlined.
page 224
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CHAPTER FiVE
THE RESEARCH RESULTS
p a g e 2 3 0
THE RESEARCH RESULTS
Introduction
This cha p te r p rovide s the re sults, which a re ba se d up on the
tra nsforma tion of da ta from va rious comp ute r p rintouts. The
first p a rt of the cha p te r p rovide s e vide nce of the p rofile of the
sa mp le ba se a nd the re ma inde r offe rs va rious ta ble s, g ra p hs a nd
p lots in orde r to disp la y the re sults to be st e ffe ct. The whole
of the re sults a re ba se d up on robust da ta which offe r ne w
insig hts into the ove rse a s holida y de cision ma king p roce ss. The
cha p te r following on from this (cha p te r 6), de a ls with the
discussion of the re sults a nd the re fore if cla rity is re quire d
a s to the sig nifica nce of some of the finding s the se will be
found in the p roce e ding cha p te r.
Research Sample Profile
The re sults of the re se a rch a re ba se d up on va rious p rintouts of
the SPSS-X ve rsion thre e : fre que ncy, cross-ta bula tion a nd a isca l
p rog ra ms. The a p p e ndix conta ins the Ke y p rintouts which forme d
the p rincip a l ba sis of the sta tistica l da ta which we re p roce sse d
to cre a te the ta ble s, g ra p hs a nd e xp la na tions conta ine d in this
cha p te r.
The da ta de rive d from the se p rog ra ms is ba se d up on a quota sa mp le
se le ction which re fle cts the p rofile of UK ove rse a s holida y
ta ke rs. The justifica tion for the sa mp le se le ction is to be found
in cha p te r 4, which p rovide s a n e xp la na tion of the me thodolog ica l
ba sis which unde rp ins the re se a rch. The fina l sa mp le which the
re sults a re ba se d up on comp rise s 3 62 re sp onde nts broke n down into
a g e a nd socio-e conomic g roup s a s follows:
p a g e 2 3 1
TABLE 5.1 TOTAL SAMPLE BASE (362 respondents)
Socio-1 8-2 42 5-3 43 5-4445-5455-6465 yrs
Economic
Group
yrsyrsyrsyrsyrs& ove r
AB2 42 2 2 3 1 91 61 3
Cl1 71 61 61 41 2 1 0
C2 2 1 1 81 81 61 41 0
DE1 2 1 2 1 2 999
Tota l7468695851 42
A comp a rison of the a ctua l sa mp le a g a inst the ta rg e t re ve a ls in
Ta ble 5.2 tha t the re is a g ood ma tch be twe e n the ta rg e t a nd
a ctua l by a g e g roup crite ria . The cha p te r on re se a rch me thodolog y
p rovide s the ra tiona le for the fina l sa mp le se le ction. In
a ddition Ta ble 4.1 in cha p te r 4 indica te s the quota sa mp le
bre a kdown which p rovide s the ta rg e t a g e a nd socio-e conomic ce ll
numbe rs for ta ble 5.2 a nd 5.3 .
TABLE 5.2 QUOTA TARGET NUMBERS TO ACTUAL BY AGE
1 8-2 42 5-3 43 5-4445-5455-6465 yrs
yrsyrsyrsyrsyrs& ove r
Ta rg e t746868605042
Actua l7468695851 42
Diffe r
e nce 001 -2 1 0
page 232
The match of socio-economic group by percentage to the target is
also perfectly acceptable:
TABLE 5.3 QUOTA TARGET TO ACTUAL BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUP
_______AB%Cl%C2%DE%
Target33.024.026.017.0
Actual32.323.526.817.4
Differ
ence-0.7-0.50.80.4
The split between male and female can be seen to be a very good
fit throughout the age bands. This also matches the preset quota
targets very well :
TABLE 5.4 AGE GROUP OF SAMPLE BY GENDER (BASE 361 RESPONDENTS)
Gender18-2425-3435-4445-5455-6465 yrs
_________ yrsyrsyrsyrsyrs& over
Male373434282621
Female363435302521
Total736869585142
A chi-square analysis was computed on the above matrix of table
5.4. This provides an assessment of expected distribution and
sample variances of the male and female breakdown of the sample.
At five degrees of freedom the significance is .9998. Any
comment made regarding gender in the interpretation of the
results in this chapter is therefore in agreement with a balanced
male to female sample.
Place of Interview
The respondents, who made up the quota sample for this study,
were interviewed mainly in Surrey (299 prearranged interviews)
with the remainder being selected primarily from the London area
(62 prearranged interviews).
c h a p t e r s : : The Rirp a g e 2 3 3
MOTIVATION : THE RANKING OF TRAVEL ENERGISERS
Th e Us e of a Two Le ve l Ap p r oa c h
Th e fir s t p a r t of t h e que s t ionna ir e p r ovide d infor ma t ion r e la t e d
t o mot iva t ion. Th e mot iva t ion of r e s p onde nt s , t o t r a ve l a br oa d
on h olida y, wa s c a p t ur e d a g a ins t a t wo-le ve l a p p r oa c h wh e r e by for
e a c h individua l:
Le ve l 1. Th e fir s t le ve l ut ilize d t h r e e op e n-e nde d
que s t ions wh os e r e s p ons e for me d a de t a ile d lis t of
mot iva t or c ons t r uc t s wh ic h c ould be dr a wn up on for t h e
s e le c t ion of a s e c ond le ve l lis t .
Le ve l 2 . Th e fir s t s e t of r e ve a le d mot iva t or s c r e a t e d
fr om t h e fir s t t h r e e que s t ions we r e us e d t o p r ovide a
p r omp t for t h e r e s p onde nt t o r a nk t h e ir r e s p ons e of
t h e mos t imp or t a nt t o le a s t imp or t a nt mot iva t ions
p e r c e ive d t o be linke d t o wa nt ing t o g o on a n ove r s e a s
h olida y.
Th e s e e me r g e d fr om t h e r e s e a r c h r e s ult s a s s t a t e me nt s wh ic h c ould
e a s ily be p la c e d in t h e c a t e g or ie s of e it h e r Re s t a nd Re la xa t ion,
Enjoyme nt a nd Adve nt ur e , Ch a ng e a nd Es c a p e , Cult ur e a nd
Ga s t r onomy, We a t h e r , Educ a t iona l, Soc ia l a s p e c t s , Ac t ivit y, a nd
Ge og r a p h y.
Th e r e s p ons e s wh ic h le d t o t h e a bove h e a ding s we r e c omp ile d fr om
t h e following me nt ions by r e s p onde nt s . Ma ny g a ve t h e a c t ua l
h e a ding wh e r e a s ot h e r s g a ve t h e de s c r ip t ions wh ic h a r e it e mis e d:
Rest and Relaxation : r e s t , r e la xa t ion, doing not h ing , la ying
in, no ne e d t o g e t up e a r ly, g e t ove r e xh a us t ion, p ut fe e t up ,
c a n la ze a r ound, g r e a t r e s t , r e la x a nd unwind, r e g e ne r a t ion.
Enjoyment and Adventure : t o e njoy our s e lve s , e njoy t r a ve l,
e xp e c t g ood t ime s , like c h a lle ng e s , fun, a dve nt ur e of s ome wh e r e
ne w, dis c ove r y, e xc it e me nt of jour ne y/t r a ve l, c a n e xp lor e ,
c ur ios it y, fulfi]. dr e a ms , h a ve fun.
chapters:: The
page 234
Change and Escape : want break, get away, like being abroad,
away from UK, change important, get a break, no work, break
routine, needed it, to be of f work, good escape, different
atmosphere, less stress, no housework, to miss work, my routine
break, less pressure, refreshment, unwind, away from house,
recharge, time to myself, be away from everything, escape
boredom, escape, hassle.
Culture and Gastronomy : local food, food taste, how people
live, culture, museums, restaurants, nice food, like food and
drink, bars, like foreign life, music, wine, markets.
Weather : miss winter weather, warmth, change of climate,
sunshine, guaranteed sunshine, beat the cold, no rain, heat, sun,
brighter sun.
Educational : learn something about: an area, people, country,
languages or practice a language.
Social aspects : meet people, see relatives, for family, like
friendly people, visit people I know, being with others, mixing,
tobewithwife/husband/friends/children/family,see
grandchildren, with partner, meeting locals,romance,
affiliations, visit friends.
Activity : more to do, going sightseeing, shopping, going out,
excursions, reading books, golf, windsurfing, swim in sea, like
activities, photography, riding, walks, sports, nightlife, beach
activities, sea fishing.
Geography : scenery, beauty of place, mountains, countryside,
see flowers, environment, seeing area, country sights, the views,
rural landscape, geography.
chaptei':5zTheReeacfpage 235
RESULTS FROM QUESTIONS ONE, TWO AND THREE - THE MOTIVATORS
In response to being asked the first open-ended question about
the last time they travelled why they wanted to go away (Question
1 , aggregation of possible three reasons) the following results
were obtained from all respondents, (table 5.5). It should be
noticed that the majority of respondents only gave one or two
rather than three reasons. Clearly the most important finding
is that change and escape (190 mentions) and social reasons (132
mentions) emerged as important motivators.
From the cross tabulation on age the significant figures for
question one are that the l8-24yr group are high on the activity
motivators in comparison to other groups. The 25-44yr group are
more highly represented for change and escape. A crosstabulation
of motivation of reasons for travel against gender uncovers a
greater preference of females for weather, rest and social
aspects and for males it is activity.
An examination of Ql against socio-economic grouping reveals the
DEs are the only group not to be represented in the education or
culture and gastronomy cells.
TABLE 5 5 WIlY PEOPLE WANTED TO TRAVEL ABROAD
SELF SELECTED1st2nd3rdTotal
MOTIVATORSreason reason reason
rr
4333379
Rest38296 73
Enjoyment and adventure 133525190
Change and escape911424
Culture and gastronomy16 16 537
Weather6 8014
Educational82446 132
Social1920342
Activity16 15132
Geography
(Base 36 2)
chaptei5zThe1teea-chRpage 236
The second open-ended question collected data on what was desired
or looked forward to in relation to the last overseas holiday.
While it was possible to provide three answers it was found that
the majority of people submitted two reasons in response to this
question. The results are different from the previous result in
table 5.5 as the desired benefits uppermost in peoples' minds are
social, weather, rest, activity, and change and escape.
The results in table 5.6 are also flatter than the preceding
table showing that peoples' expectations of benefits are broader
than their thoughts on why they want to travel.
TABLE 5.6 WKAT PEOPLE LOOKED FORWARD TO ON THEIR HOLIDAY
SELF SELECTED1st2nd3rdTotal
MOTIVATORSreason reason reason
Rest553414103
Enjoyment and adventure2220547
Change and escape61324 97
Culture and gastronomy464016102
Weather554111107
Educational1607
Social445314111
Activity50381199
Geography2826761
(Base 362)
The crosstabulations carried out for question two show that it
is predominantly the under 54yr age group who want rest and the
l8-34yr group who look forward to activity and social aspects.
This confirms what may be expected by age group.
An investigation against gender reveals, as in the previous
finding for question two, females are more likely to mention rest
more than males, whereas males are more likely to report activity
and enjoyment and adventure.
-page 237
Within socio-economic group rest and culture and gastronomy is
more highly represented by ABs as a motivator.
The third open-ended question collected data on the perceived
benefits which would give someone reason to travel abroad due to
the comparative differences between being abroad or in the UK.
The two clear motivators which emerged from this question are
weather and, change and escape.
On crosstabulation to age against the findings for Q3 the overall
frequency of responses are almost identical between males and
females. However, females mention rest more often than males,
and males mention enjoyment and adventure more often than
females. Further analysis shows the AB socio-economic group had
significantly more mentions of culture and gastronomy than the
other categories. Education is found to be important for the ABC1
set.
The three questions elicited different responses in terms of
number of self-constructed mentions of each motivation. A
regression analysis to find out whether it would have been
possible to predict one set of figures from the other shows the
degree of difference to be greater than could be predicted.
Therefore the questions were different enough from each other to
elicit a range of response to be utilized as input for question
4 which required respondents to prioritise and rank their
motivations. The following statistics indicate the usefulness
of the three different approaches as a way of creating a prompt
list as no one list could be predicted from the other. The r
squared values at seven degrees of freedom against the nine
categories of table 5.7 on 5.5 were computed and produced a value
of 0.12; For table 5.6 on 5.5 a value of 0.15 is found, and for
table 5.6 on 5.7 it is 0.35.
p a g e 2 3 8
TABLE 5.7 COMPARATIVE BENEFITS TO THE UK, OF A HOLIDAY ABROAD
SELF SELECTED1st2 nd3 rdTota l
MOTIVATORSre a son re a son re a son
Re st462 918 93
Enjoyme nt a nd a dve nture 3 02 912 71
Cha ng e a nd e sca p e 72 441112 7
Culture a nd g a stronomy 13 3 18 52
We a the r112 72 2 52 09
Educa tiona l3 2 2 7
Socia l3 93 8 12 8 9
Activity2 2 1712 51
Ge og ra p hy2 43 02 56
(Ba se 3 62 )
In orde r to cla rify the imp orta nce of the diffe re nt re a sons to
e mba rk on ove rse a s tra ve l the thre e se ts of motiva tors from
ta ble s 5.5, 5.6 a nd 5.7 we re comp a re d. Gra p h 5.1 indica te s a
comp a rison be twe e n the first thre e que stion re sp onse s. It is
inte re sting to note tha t whe n a ske d for the ir re a son to tra ve l
re sp onde nts me ntione d cha ng e a nd e sca p e a nd only we a the r on a fe w
occa sions, ye t whe n a ske d a comp a ra tive que stion re g a rding the
be ne fits of be ing a wa y we a the r is of ma jor imp orta nce .
As a n initia l sta g e the first thre e op e n-e nde d que stions ha d
p rovide d individua l constructs a s informa tion which could be use d
in the ne xt p ha se . The inte rvie we e wa s a ske d to use the
informa tion the y ha d g ive n a s re sp onse s to que stions 1 to 3 , in
orde r to p rovide a ra nk orde r of e ve ry me ntion ma de . From the
tota l motiva tions me ntione d (in the p re vious ta ble s) re sp onde nts
we re instructe d to g ive the ir most imp orta nt re a son for
tra ve lling on holida y a broa d first, the n the se cond most
imp orta nt a nd so on. The ra nking . a s indica te d in the ne xt se t
of re sults, wa s a ble to re ve a l a more conside re d motiva tion orde r
for tra ve l on holida y a broa d be ca use it wa s ba se d up on a ll the
p re vious constructs p rovide d by the individua l.
page 239
uoquesj jo Aouenbeid
GRAPH 5.1 PRIMARY SELF MOTIVATORS FROM THE FIRST THREE QUESTIONS
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page 240
QUESTION FOUR RESULTS PROVIDING FOR MOTIVATION RANK ORDER
The rank order results are created by respondents ranking of the
total of responses for questions one to three. The first three
aggregate motivators for the total sample are revealed in table
5.8 as:
1) Change and Escape
2) The Weather
3) Social aspects
However, we may have to be careful in our judgement of weather
as it is not a first or second order motivator due to Rest,
Enjoyment and Adventure, and Social Motivators gaining higher
rankings in the first two indicators of ranked motivations.
TABLE 5.8 MOTIVATION WEIGHTING OF A HOLIDAY ABROAD
MOTIVATORS 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Total
Rest50643927221010213
Enj oyment/
adventure4643282713411163
Change &
Escape
13571503823631327
Culture &
Gastronomy8162950301223150
Weather10428585401401277
Education1641833026
Social79605137251831274
Activity1927363731721160
Geography1432373118412139
(Base 362)
Graph 5.2 indicates the range of the first six motivational
responses. The size of mention of change and escape and social
activities can be seen to start high and fall away whereas the
mention of weather builds, and then falls away. It was therefore
important to examine the weighting of each level of response.
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cha pter 5 The Resea rch ResuLts - I) C GiLbert page 241
GRAPH 5.2 SPREAD OF MOTIVATION RESPONSES
0
:
7- 1
SUO!JUeI,AJ 10Aouenbeid
p a g e 2 4 2
A Review of the Weighting of Motivation responses
As e xp la ine d e a rlie r it should be note d tha t whe re a s we a the r is
hig h in the a g g re g a te it did not fe a ture a s a first orde r
motiva tion. The we a the r wa s p la ce d in a p osition of imp orta nce
only from the third ra nking onwa rd.
It wa s de cide d a s p a rt of the me thodolog y to a sk re sp onde nts to
a ssig n a stre ng th of imp orta nce out of 100 p e rce nt to the ir
se le cte d motiva tions. This a llowe d the re se a rche r to e xa mine
e a ch individua l's commitme nt to motiva tors. This p rovide d a n
a tte mp t to e xa mine the re a lity of the re sp onde nts be lie fs to
e nsure some va lidity is p rovide d a s to a ny fina l motiva tor
ra nking . It wa s de cide d to e xa mine the stre ng th of commitme nt
to the motiva tors, ta ble 5.9, to ide ntify which ra nking of
motiva tors to include which ha d a stre ng th a bove 50%. The re sults
could the n be use d a g a inst ta ble 5.8 to imp rove the ove ra ll
ra nking .
The stre ng th of Motiva tion for the individua l choice s we re a s
follows:
TABLE 5.9 STRENGTH OP COMMITMENT TO MOTIVATORS
stre 1st2 nd3rd4 th5th6th7th 8th
ng th
100168702 18812 1
90104 783384 100
805511085316510
70164 4 72 67184 11
6083163683562 2
50512 4 978552 2 31
4 01812 3734 1800
3012 12 182 4 94 1
2 002 812 9530
10101316604
(Ba se 362 )
page 243
From the above table it can be found that the first four rankings
have strengths of conmiitment where above 50 percent aggregates
outweigh under 50% in all cases up to rank 5.
Graph 5.3 provides an indication of the fall off in motivational
commitment from the fourth mention onward and it also
demonstrates the grouping of strength of commitment.
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page 244
GRAPH 5.3 MOTIVATION COMMITMENT BY MENTION
(x!s
sJ!)
suoiuoj o Aouanbeid
;hapter5::TheReea,'

page 245
Based upon the foregoing analysis a reworking of table 5.8
reveals the following:
TABLE 5.10 REWORKED MOTIVATION WEIGHTING OP A HOLIDAY ABROAD
MOTIVATORS 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Total
Rest50643927180
Enj oyment/
adventure46432827144
Change &
Escape135715038294
Culture &
Gastronomy816 2950103
Weather10428585222
Education16 4112
Social79605137227
Activity19273637119
Geography14323731114
(Base 362)
The resultant rank list based upon strength of commitment is
altered slightly from the preceding analysis to give:
1) Change and Escape
2) Social Aspects
3) Weather
4) Rest and Relaxation
5) Enjoyment and Adventure
6) Activity
7) Geography
8) Culture and Gastronomy
9) Educational
cbaptet5zTheRr'page 2 4 6
The new list for motivators places weather in third order behind
social aspects and moves geography up over culture and
gastronomy. This is a more acceptable ranking as it corresponds
to strength of weighting.
In order to judge the strength of each placement we can examine
the ranking by deviation from the mean. The following table
utilizes the first four ranking aggregates as above. The total
was worked out for both the total mentions and first four
mentions and the percentage of each is given in the table below.
It is therefore possible to see the difference created by
utilizing the first four motivators. This table also provides
an indication of the strength of the individual motivators in the
first four rankings by their deviance from the mean.
TABLE 5.11 RANK ORDER OF MOTIVATIONS BY RESPONSE
MOTIVATORSTOTAL% of% of% DEV. /
MENTIONS first TOTALMEAN
(first4 fourMENTIONS (four

ranks)ranks(allranks
______________ __________ _______ ranks)11.1%)
Change and
Escape2 94 2 0.718.99.6
Social2 2 716 .015.84 .9
Weather2 2 2 15.716 .04 .6
Rest18012 .712 .31.6
Enj oyment and
Adventure14 4 10.2 9.4 -0.9
Activity1198.4 9.3-2 .7
Geography114 8.08.0-3.1
Culture and
Gastronomy1037.38.7-3.8
Educational12 0.91.5l0.2
(Base 36 2 )
chapter5meRiei' pag e 2 4 7
The previous table (5.11) indicates that Chang e and Escape is a
strong motivator ( + 9.6% deviance) and is clearly separate from
the next g rouping of Social Aspects and Weather which are both
strong in comparison to the g roup (4 .9 and 4 .6 respectively).
Examination of Aspects of Motivation by Different Groups
An investig ation of the differences within the final motivation
ranking s indicates some g roups are more represented in specific
ranking categ ories than others. A chi-square analysis on the
first three ranking s of motivation by g ender indicates a less
than 2 % expected to actual cell frequency. ( With all calculated
at eig ht deg rees of freedom the finding s are: 1st .0014 , 2 nd
.0037 and 3rd .017 2 ).
The differences are sig nificant whereby females are more likely
than males to place more emphasis on rest and weather in the
first ranking while males place more emphasis on enjoyment and
adventure. However for the most important ranking of chang e and
escape the fig ures are closer than the preceding fig ures, with
a male dominance of 54 .8 to 4 5.2 percent as a row split and 4 1.1
to 33.7 on a column percent split. In the second ranking the
patterns are somewhat similar but with the males indicating a
strong er preference for weather. The third ranking is different
with females just dominating the important categ ories of weather
and social aspects whereas the males remain in a similar position
with chang e and escape.
Based upon the preceding analysis which showed the first four
niotivators are the most important the following table (table
5.12 ) is an ag g reg ate of the first four ranking s for both males
and females. The fig ures are based upon the four column percent
totals which represent a four hundred percent split for each
g ender. The table was drawn up to clarify the g ender motivation
relationships.
page 248
TABLE 5.12 MALE TO FEMALE FIRST FOUR RANKED COMPARISONS
Ranked Motivatorsmalefemale
(first four)
Rest3567
Enjoy/Adventure4536
Change/Escape8975
Culture/Gastronomy3030
Weather6167
Education33
Social6266
Activity4128
Geography3529
The combined totals above reinforce the earlier claim based upon
the raw data that females are more motivated toward rest and
relaxation and for males greater emphasis is placed on change and
escape, geography, activity and enjoyment and adventure. A rank
order of the above figures indicates some interesting differences
to the previous aggregate order. For females it was found rest
and weather had exactly the same figures as each other (66.7 %)
prior to rounding so the highest place at the third rank was
taken. Here rest emerged as the highest place. For males rest
and geography are in equal place so the first three places were
examined for final position. This placed rest above geography.
Graph 5.4 clarifies these differences in bar form. The importance
of rest for females and enjoyment, change, activity and geography
for males is portrayed within this graph. This has important
implications for any promotional communication targeted by
gender.
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page 249
GRAPH 5.4 MALE AND FEMALE MOTIVATORS COMPARED
0
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ciiapter5meRarchRez page 250
The final list indicating the Aggregate and Male and Female
motivation rankings is:
Aggre gate RankMales' RankFemales' Rank
1) Change & Escape1) Change & Escape 1) Change & Escape
2) Social Aspects2) Social Aspects 2) Rest & Relax'
3) Weather3) Weather3) Weather
4) Rest & Relax'4) Enjoy & Adven'4) Social Aspects
5) Enjoy & Adven'5) Activity5) Enjoy & Adven'
6) Activity6) Rest & Relax'6) Culture & Gas'
7) Geography7) Geography7) Geography
8) Culture & Gas'8) Culture & Gas'8) Activity
9) Educational9) Educational9) Educational
Married versus single motivators
Further investigation was carried out to identify the differences
between married and single people. The first four motivations
mentioned have been normalised between the single and married
categories of the cross tabulation by increasing the single
results by 2.052 (base 226 to 110), 2.042 (base 225 to 110),
2.029 (base 223 to 110) and 2.032 (207 to 102) respectively, to
ensure comparability. The separated and widowed category were
ignored for this exercise as they only represent just over 7% of
the sample.
The following table 5.13 represents a breakdown of the results:
page 251
TABLE 5.13 SINGLE AND MARRIED MOTIVATION COMPARISON
Ranked MotivatorsSingleMarried
(first four)
Rest86130
Enjoy/Adventure14464
Change/Escape177185
Culture/Gas'6568
Weather116149
Education106
Social143134
Activity9065
Geography4880
The above table indicates the importance of enjoyment and
adventure for single people and of rest for married people. While
not high in overall terms geography on a comparative basis is
more important to married respondents. Both groups treat change
and escape as a very important aspect of motivation.
Socio-economic considerations
In order to comprehend the differences between socio-economic
groups the cross tabulations of the first four ranked motivations
were amalgamated into ABC1 and C2DE groups. The C2DE groups were
then reweighted to balance the ABC1 totals ( 1st rank by 1.2625,
2nd rank by 1.2625, 3rd rank by 1.2641 and 4th by 1.2965). The
following table was then constructed:
page 252
TABLE 5.14 MOTIVATION BY SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUP
Ranked MotivationABC1C2DE
(first four )

total mentionsweighted mentions


Rest101100
Enjoy/Adventure8476
Change/Escape158173
Culture/Gast'7438
Weather120131
Education111
Social112146
Activity6470
Geography6957
The above table provides evidence that the ABC1 group is more
interested in the scenic, cultural and educational aspects of
travel when compared to the C2DE groups who favour weather,
social and marginally change and escape as more important.
Motivation by age group
The crosstabulation of age groups was transformed through
weighting to provide between group comparisons. The weighting
were computed taking into consideration the base year group as
18 to 24 years. After several by rank order transformations the
following table was computed :
page 253
TABLE 5.15 AGE GROUP MOTIVATION COMPARISONS (FIRST FOUR)
Rank18-25-35-45-55-65+
Mot24yrs34yrs44yrs54rs64yrsyrs
Rest254152493516
Enjoy493014223427
Change 616661626153
Cult192324232414
Weath374656474448
Educ313116
Social504538395362
Activ352326231719
Geog142019282250
The table (5.15) above illustrates the important motivations for
different age groups. For example the 18 to 24 year group is
more likely to report the importance of enjoyment and adventure
as well as activities. However the aspects of weather are not as
important for this group in comparison to others. Social aspects
are important to this group as well as to all those over the age
of 55 years. The 25 to 54 year group mention rest as significant
part of an overseas holiday. The 65 plus year group is not
motivated as much as others by rest, change and escape and
culture and gastronomy but does consider social relationships and
the geographical aspects of a visit important. While these
figures would seem to confirm what we may already expect it is
interesting to note the different strengths related to each
motivator.
tt:ih:Rierch

page 254
PART TWO RESULTS - OVERSEAS HOLIDAY DECISION PREFERENCE
The second part of the research attempted to uncover the rank
order of consumers preferences when making a decision to travel
abroad. This was based upon the utilization of 15 different
statements on separate cards, which were then required to be
placed in rank order. As the statements utilized for this part
of the research had been developed out of the work carried out
at the pilot survey stage (see chapter four) a filter question
was utilized in order to ensure the final fifteen statements were
suitable across the whole of the final sample.
Only 8.6% of the people interviewed thought that perhaps the
existing headings did not include what they believed is an
important aspect of holiday decision making preference. However,
a lower number (only 3.6%) wanted to add one extra preference.
This figure was not significant enough to bias the findings and
therefore the statement list compiled as a result of the pilot
survey can be judged to be valid.
The respondents assembled two rank order lists. The first was a
strong order list as the list could only be given one set number
on the one to fifteen scale. The second list gave the respondent
the opportunity to place the upper ten places, identified from
the strong order list, into spatial order. This provided for
perceptual differences to be translated into space between
rankings.
The resultant data from both lists was computed on spss-x for
proximities in order to create a euclidian dissimilarity
coefficient matrix. (see Appendix 7.10 for full computation
history). This matrix was then fed into the spss-x Alscal
(Alternating least squares approach to scaling) program which
revealed the underlying spatial configuration of the original
data. As the original data was complete it was not necessary to
use weighted MDS. Therefore classical MDS was chosen as the most
appropriate form of analysis.
p a g e 2 5 5
The first ra nking s (Q7 for VAR3O To VAR44) we re comp ute d a nd 361
ca se s we re a cce p te d with one re je ction due to a missing va lue .
The p roximity ma trix for the da ta is a s follows:
VAR3O

VAR31

VAR32

VAR33

VAR34
VAR31
VAR32
VAR33
VAR34
VAR35
VAR36
VAR37
VAR38
VAR39
VAR4O
VAR41
VAR42
VAR43
VAR44
VAR36
VAR37
VAR38
VAR39
VAR4O
VAR41
VAR42
VAR43
VAR44
VAR41
VAR42
VAR43
VAR44
73.3962
167. 2 15 4
100.2 696
95 . 7706
115 .7497
117.4989
109.75 88
165 .6442
134.3019
12 6.2 85 4
15 8.5 844
108.62 78
108.8439
15 3.4080
VAR35
88.3063
108.5 311
113.472 5
85 .0941
100.0300
105 .05 71
105 .6693
100.2 846
110.95 04
VAR4O
106.82 2 3
109.0871
108.0602
107.32 19
168.2 676
109.0000
75 . 345 9
107.3732
118.5 875
98.315 8
169.5 907
12 2 .4010
130.4109
15 2 .3483
105 . 75 92
106.3767
15 2 .882 3
VAR36
117.8346
99.5 5 90
101. 1682
92 . 1846
106.2 5 91
110.2 45 2
87.812 3
95 .12 10
VAR41
118. 05 5 1
12 5 .02 00
100.4141
131.6776
171.75 85
109.4669
115 .6763
15 1.7168
91.62 42
113.5 077
111.395 7
104.9000
137.735 3
130.6905
109. 1375
VAR37
15 5 .6631
112 .9070
130. 85 49
131.362 1
103.1940
115 .2 736
141.65 10
VAR42
110.5 305
12 3.1666
12 2 .335 6
102 .82 02
115 . 85 34
114.15 34
135 .72 03
117.5 2 02
109.2 795
12 4.02 82
101.2 62 0
110.12 2 7
130.1077
VAR38
116.5 890
95 .4987
99.5 741
138.9100
12 7.2 75 3
93.3916
VAR43
12 0. 2 5 39
119.82 49
134.45 45
109.0917
177.9663
119.5 2 82
140.7196
161. 7 189
117.7030
115 .1043
15 8. 3414
VAR39
107. 065 4
98.315 8
115 .2 2 5 9
109.5 5 36
110.9009
The a bove p roximitie s we re utilize d for the Alsca l e uclidia n
op tion to de rive a two dime nsiona l solution. The p roximity da ta
from the lowe r tria ng le ma trix a llowe d for a n unwe ig hte d
cla ssica l multidime nsiona l sca ling a s it re p re se nts the de g re e
of dissimila rity be twe e n e le me nts. This ma de Alsca l the be st
choice of mode l to run the da ta .
page 256
The formula used by the Alscal program for two dimensions is
based upon the square root of the sum of two differences which
have been squared. In order to create plots the algebra of the
euclidian distance formula is based upon the geometry of the
Pythagorelu theorem.
Alscal, by iteration attempts on up to thirty occasions to
improve the s-stress by comparison to the previous value to a
convergence criterion of .001.
The iterations for the program ceased at the sixth computation
as the improvement was less than .001. Based upon Young's stress
factor the final iteration was .0009. This is an acceptable
figure.
For the final plot the figures, related to Kruskal's stress
formula one, indicated a final matrix stress and squared
correlation (RSQ) with stress as .119 and RSQ .932. We can
interpret the RSQ as an indication of the proportion of variance
of the optimally scaled data which is accounted for by the MDS
model. The overall RSQ is the average of the individual RSQ
values and is the best indicator of how well the data fit the
model. In this case over 93% is accounted for. RSQ is
considered a preferable indicator of the appropriate
dimensionality rather than Stress.
In judging what is an acceptable level of stress it is similar
to asking the common statistical question, "does the non-metric
MDS model fit the data well enough that the stress value could
not have arisen by chance?" As Kruskal (1973) has pointed out,
we advance a null hypothesis that some chance mechanism could
have generated the data, and we use this as a bench mark to
assess how far the actual configuration departs from a random
distribution.As can be seen the stress for the above
computation is only .119 which shows a Good Quality of
representation of the level the data departs from the actual
model. (see figure 5.1 : Kruskal's interpretation of stress
values). The .119 figure is derived from the root mean square
of the individual stress values.
hater5:;TheitearchRestLt:s.

page 257
FIGURE 5.1Kruskal's Stress Values
Stress in percentQuality of the representation
40poor
20fair
10good
5 Excellent
0Perfect
The scatterplots of the linear and nonlinear fit for both MDS
solutions show a good spread of data throughout the range with
a close fit pattern to the perfect fit line which runs from the
lower left hand corner to the upper right corner. (plots 5 .1,
5 .2, 5 .3 and plots 5 .5 , 5 .6, 5 .7). The plots are scatterplots
of the raw data or disparities (horizontally) against either the
distances or disparities(vertically). The raw data has been
standardised and the distances are the euclidian distances
between all pairs of points in the configuration plot. Similarly
judged statements (low dissimilarity) are represented by points
close together and statements perceived to be dissimilar (high
dissimilarity judgement) by points that are far apart, (plots 5 .4
and 5 .8). The scatterplots for the data collected indicates by
spread and shape that the multidimensional scaling is able to
produce a valid result. As indicated earlier the plots of the
linear, nonlinear and transformation of the data based upon the
distances, observations or disparities indicate an overall
tightness of fit of the data.
The Kruskal and Wish recommendation on solution dimensionality
is adhered to for this analysis. This is to ensure the solution
remains statistically stable. The rule is that the number of
elements minus one (in this case 14) should be greater than four
times the proposed dimensionality. This means that with the
above analysis it is possible to create a plot in three
dimensions. This also meets with the Schiffman et al
recommendation (1981) that there should be about twelve stimuli
for two dimensional solutions.
p a g e 2 5 8
MDS wa s a lso ca rrie d out for the se cond se t of ra nking s (Q9 for
VAR62 To VAR76). The se we re comp ute d a nd 35 7 ca se s we re a cce p te d
with five re je ctions due to missing va lue s. The p roximity ma trix
for the da ta is a s follows:
VAR62

VAR63

VAR64

VAR65

VAR66
VAR63
VAR6 4
VAR65
VAR66
VAR67
VAR68
VAR69
VAR7O
VAR71
VAR72
VAR73
VAR74
VAR75
VAR76
60.778 3
118 .8 613
8 4.2 734
79.3473
98 .498 7
95 . 8 697
90. 4378
118 .2 45 5
110.0364
102 . 3377
119.678 7
8 7.8 5 78
91.192 1
114.8 2 60
12 0.8 470
91.5 5 33
62 .8 649
93.7763
98 .5 95 1
77.9936
12 1. 4 002
101. 2 62 0
107.9769
118 .2 413
8 8 .1646
8 9.8 5 5 4
116.9316
8 6.2 670
12 5 . 7140
73.2 393
76. 45 2 6
106.2 12 1
5 7.98 2 8
78 .8 797
76.0197
63.6318
92 .9032
8 5 .708 8
64.42 8 3
100.5 68 4
8 3.642 1
90.6035
91.4166
91.7170
93.5 094
8 3.5 2 8 4
8 9.3700
8 0.7403
8 6.8 677
92 .395 9
102 .4305
110. 3 8 5 7
8 4.705 4
12 7.8 98 4
98 .0918
115 . 5 3 79
12 4.7678
99.2 72 4
98 . 8 130
12 1.2 5 5 9
VAR68
VAR69
VAR7O
VAR7]
VAR72
VAR73
VAR74
VAR7 5
VAR76
VAR67
70. 98 5 9
8 7.5 38 6
75 . 78 92
68 .1616
78 .7718
75 . 62 41
8 7.412 8
78 . 5 111
78 .2 113
VAR72
VAR68
96. 072 9
66. 2 344
8 2 .35 90
72 . 0417
76. 02 63
8 7.45 2 8
64.3195
66.8 8 8 0
VAR73
VAR6 9
108 . 5 8 64
91.7006
104. 192 1
99.48 8 7
8 2 .0610
91. 1098
104.795 0
VAR74
8 6. 8 965
8 7.2 92 6
VAR7O
8 0.6102
64.08 5 9
64.95 38
96 0469
8 2 .0366
5 8 . 35 2 4
VM75
8 2 .8 674
VAR71
8 4.7172
75 . 3060
92 .0163
8 5 . 3112
8 0.1935
VAR7374.8 999
VAR748 5 .95 35 8 5 .5 336
VAR75 8 3.5 165 8 8 .0738
VAR7672 .6498 64.45 15
chapterThepage 259
The above proximities based upon the spatial ranking were
utilized for the Aiscal euclidian option to derive a two
dimensional solution.
The iterations for the program ceased at the fifth computation
as the improvement was less than .001. Based upon Young's stress
factor the final iteration was .00078. This is an acceptable
figure.
For the final configuration plot (plot 5.8), the figures, related
to Kruskal's stress formula one, indicated a final matrix stress
and squared correlation (RSQ) with stress as .115 and RSQ .944.
As with the previous computation this indicates there is good
quality representation for the data.
Similar to the first configuration the scatterplot of the linear
and nonlinear fit show a good spread of data throughout the range
with a close fit pattern. (plots 5.5, 5.6 and 5.7). This
indicates the multidimensional scaling program is able to produce
a valid result. As with the first plot the number of possible
dimensions is three but the solution required no more than two
for an acceptable interpretation.
Interpretation of the MDS results
In order to bring meaning to the results, the final MDS
configuration plots (5.4 and 5.8) have to be judged in relation
to the interpretation of the researcher who has developed an
understanding of the characteristics of the stimuli and
responses. The initial statements presented to respondents did
not have any accompanying criteria as to the way the ranking
should be organized. Therefore the final ranking is a reflection
of each individual respondents preference attributes.
The MDS solution should therefore provide some division in the
derived stimulus space whereby the opposite ends of a plot or
line should differ from each other in a describable way.
Sometimes the coordinate axis in the stimulus space may not lie
in the same directions as the perceptual dimensions. However the
page 260
plot for these results can be taken to provide coordinates as
perceptual dimensions as the interpretation fits well with the
derived spatial configuration. According to Schiffman et al
(1981) this is not unusual as programs such as Alscal and Indscal
frequently provide coordinate axis which can be interpreted as
perceived dimensions. It was therefore not necessary to rotate
either axis to improve the interpretation of the derived plots.
Clustering of the plots into groups was also examined as a
possible way to translate the findings. No clear clustering was
found and it is believed this is due to the character of the
research whereby respondents had experienced prior holidays and
were lucid in their preference decision making.
The two most important plots are of the derived spatial stimulus
(plots 5.4 and 5.8) which provide for an interpretation that
there are two important aspects to overseas holiday decision
making. The first is explicitly linked to the strength of
preference toward aspects of an overseas holiday. The horizontal
continuum can be judged to flow from right to left graduating
between strong to weak preference for specific holiday
attributes. For plot 5.8 which provided for greater spatial
freedom for the respondent, the results of strong to weak were:
the overall cost; climatic conditions; landscape and scenery;
range of activities available; level of tourism development;
destination's foreign people; accommodation types; type of food;
food and drink costs; cleanliness; physical safety; the travel
company; other visiting holidaymakers; distance to travel;
available medical services.
The vertical axis is more difficult to interpret but affords a
more interesting plot. It provides a spread of holiday preference
considerations between those that are personally controllable
with some degree of flexibility, to those that are less
controllable and more unalterable. For example a foreign
destination has certain physical and social attributes which are
unalterable and no degree of flexibility on the part of the
p a g e 2 6 1
tourist ca n a lte r a sp e cts such a s sce ne ry, or culture of the
p e op le .
The ve rtica l a xis of p lot 5.8 is inte rp re te d to be cha ra cte rise d
to ha ve config ura tions from fle xible to infle xible a ttribute s.
The se we re found to fa ll into the continuum of: food a nd drink
costs; ove ra ll cost; ra ng e of a ctivitie s; typ e of food; othe r
visiting holida yina ke rs; a va ila ble me dica l se rvice s; tra ve l
comp a ny; a ccommoda tion typ e s; clima tic conditions; dista nce to
tra ve l; cle a nline ss; p hysica l sa fe ty; le ve l of tourism
de ve lop me nt; la ndsca p e a nd sce ne ry; de stina tion's fore ig n p e op le .
The MDS Plots 5.4 a nd 5.8 of the de rive d da ta ha ve code s which
re la te to e a ch of the va ria ble s. The se a re a s follows:
1 ) la ndsca p e a nd sce ne ry
2 ) clima tic conditions
3) dista nce to tra ve l
4) de stina tion's fore ig n p e op le
5) ove ra ll cost
6 ) typ e of food
7) cle a nline ss
8) ra ng e of a ctivitie s a va ila ble
9) a va ila ble me dica l se rvice s
A) food a nd drink costs
B) p hysica l sa fe ty
C) othe r visiting holida yma ke rs
D) le ve l of tourism de ve lop me nt
E) Accommoda tion typ e s
F) the tra ve l comp a ny
page 262
PLOT 5.1. MDS Q7 NONLINEAR FIT BETWEEN DISTANCES AND OBSERVATIONS
PLOT OF NONLINEAR FIT:DISTANCES (VERTICAL) VS OBSERVATIONS (HORIZONTAL)

4.5-++
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page 263
PLOT 5.2 MDS Q7 LINEAR FIT BETWEEN DISTANCES AND DISPARITIES
SCATTERPIOT (PLOT OF LINEAR FIT): DISTANCES (VERTICAL) VS DISPARITIES (HORIZONTAL)
4.5-++
X
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page 264
PLOT5 3 MDS PLOT OF Q7 TRANSFORMATION

PLOT OF TRANSFORMATION:DISPARITIES (VERTICAL) VS OBSERVATIONS (HORIZONTAL)

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page 265
PLOT 5.4 14DB PLOT OF Q7 DERIVED SPATIAL CONFIGURATION
DERIVED STIMULUS CONFIGURATION:DIMENSION 1 (HORIZONTAL) VSDIMENSION 2 (VERTICAL)
2.0+ : +
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iaper5TheResearthRuLts .. DtGiLbi page 266
PLOT 5.5 MDS Q9 NONLINEAR FIT BETWEEN DISTANCES AND OBSERVATIONS
PLOT OF NONLINEAR FIT:DISTANCES (VERTICAL) VS OBSERVATIONS (HORIZONTAL)
4.4-i-+
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page 267
PLOT 5.6 MDS Q9 LINEAR FIT BETWEEN DISTANCES AND DISPARITIES
SCATTERPLOT (PLOT OF LINEAR FIT): DISTANCES (VERTICAL) VS DISPARITIES (HORIZONTAL)
44-+ +
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page 268
PLOT 5.7MDSPLOT OFQ9 TRMSFORHATION
PLOT OF TRANSFORMATION:DISPARITIES (VERTICAL) VS OBSERVATIONS (HORIZONTAL)
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page 269
8
5
PLOT 5.8 MDB PLOT OF Q9 DERIVED SPATIAL CONFIGURATION
DERIVED STIMULUS CONFIGURATION:DIMENSION 1 (HORIZONTAL) VS DIMENSION 2(VERTICAL)
2.0 -+
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page 270
PART THREE RESULTS
Evoked Country Bets
Part C of the questionnaire attempted to isolate the number of
countries that the overseas holidaymaker has in their evoked
consideration set and any variables which may have a bearing on
this. Within the evoked set it is of interest to consider the
spread of destinations considered and to note the number of long
haul destinations which are mentioned in response to this section
of the questionnaire, (table 5.16). The 'others' category for
response includes a number of far away countries such as
Australia.
It was established that the evoked set provides a high number of
the more exotic destinations in the first placing. It would seem
some individuals may provide their dream destination as a first
evoked response.
The evoked set is an important concept because if an overseas
country fails to get into this set it will have no chance of
being selected for purchase.
It is interesting to compare the evoked set in relation to the
second stage ranked choice set on the basis of the possibility
of a visit. Table 5.18 was drawn up to show the realistic choice
set in comparison to the initial evoked set.
page 271
TABLE 5.16 FIRST EVOKED OVERSEAS AREA SET
PROPENSITY 1st2nd3rd 4th5th6th 7th 8th
OFMENTION _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
France4039253015620
Spain446429268230
Greece141332177200
Rest W.
Europe137133146122772867
East
Europe1411666710
N. America4019262817740
Africa121617109240
Far East2020201691110
Others404445434010113
(Base 361)
Examination of further data on evoked sets uncovers on an age
basis the over 65yr group are less likely than other age sets to
evoke a long-haul destination and more likely to evoke a european
country. The younger 18-34yr cluster are more likely than other
groups to respond with far away destinations and the 18-24yr
group select Greece more often.
By gender it is found there is little difference between
responses. The socio-econoniic profile provides evidence that the
C2DE groups are more likely to evoke Spain whereas the AB group
is more liable to respond with France and less usual exotic
destinations.
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page 272
GRAPif 5.5 EVOKEDAREASETS
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Number of Destinations Evoked
The following ta ble 5.17 shows tha t the ma jority of resp ondents
p rovide five or less evoked set destina tions. The numbers show
a sha rp decline for the sixth destina tion (only 2 0.7 %) a nd
beyond. It is therefore p ossible to cla im tha t the ma jority of
the sa mp le (52 .1%) ha d a n evoked set ma de up of five destina tions
a nd there a re few a dditiona l a rea s a dded a fter this p oint. For
exa mp le only 2 .8 p ercent of the sa mp le found it p ossible to
p rovide a n evoked set of eig ht oversea s a rea s. Gra p h 5.5
indica tes the dra ma tic fa ll off a fter the fourth destina tion.
TABLE 5.17 TOTAL EVOKED OVERSEAS AREA SET AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
PROPENSITY 1st 2 nd3 rd 4th 5th 6th 7 th 8th
OFMENTION _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
Tota l All
Countries3 613 593 462 981887 53 2 10
% Of10099.5 95.8 82 .5 52 .]. 2 0.7 8.92 .8
Sa mp le
(Ba se 3 61)
Ea ch resp ondent wa s requested to p la ce their initia l evoked set
into fina l choice set ra nk order. The following results
rep resent the p referred choice, ra nk order of the tota l sa mp le.
The finding s show tha t while the fa r a wa y destina tion ma y be
rep resented in hig h numbers in the first three evoked set
mentions this is not the ca se in the choice set.It ca n
therefore be cla imed tha t p otentia l dema nd is p resent for these
a rea s which is not being tra nsformed into a ctua l dema nd.
For the first p la cing of the choice set it is found the older
resp ondents (55 to over 65yrs) a re less likely tha n the young er
page 274
groups to select far away destinations. On the whole it is the
ABC1 cluster who are more prone to select long-haul destinations
as first places in their choice set.
TABLE 5.18 CHOICE SET OF OVERSEAS AREA COMPARED TO EVOKED SET
PROPENSITY 1st2nd3rd 4th5th6th 7th 8th
OFMENTION _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____
France
choice 64 47 2814 610 0
evoked40 392530 1562 0
Spain
choice 815520
14 6110
evoked
44 64 29
2682 30
Greece
choice
1614 34
87 4 0 0
evoked
14 1332
17 7 2 0 0
Rest w.
Europe
choice
136172 156
1165320 2 3
e voked
137 133146
122 77 2867
East
Europe
choice
10 10 8
9
62 4 i.
evoked
14 116
667 .10
N. America
choice
211841
34 1830 1
evoked
40 1926
2817 7 4 0
Africa
choice
87 6
23194 4 0
evoked
12 1617
10 92 4 0
Far East
choice
10 1315
22 18114 2
evoked
20 20 20
1691110
Others
choice
1624 41595327 153
evoked
40 44 454340 10 113
(Base 362)
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page 275
GR APH 5.6 C OMPAR ISON OF EVOKED AND C HOIC E SETS
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A g ra p hica l disp la y (Gra p h 5.6 ) of the a g g re g a te of the
tra ditiona l ove rse a s holida y a re a s ( Fra nce , Sp a in a nd Gre e ce ),
the re st of Europ e (Ea st a nd We st) a nd long ha ul a re a s ( Ame rica
a nd othe rs) we re utilize d to comp a re the initia l e voke d se t with
the more re a listic choice se t. This cle a rly shows the p a tte rn
of the e voke d se t a s p roviding more a mbitious de stina tions within
the first me ntions which a re not de monstra te d in the more
p ra g ma tic choice se t.
Strength Likelihood of a Visit
To qua ntify the stre ng th of motiva tion towa rd the choice se t the
inte rvie we e wa s a ske d to g ive the p e rce nta g e like lihood of
visiting e a ch individua l country me ntione d in the ir choice se t.
If we inte rp re t the da ta from ta ble 5.19, 91.4% of the first
choice of a visit in the ne xt thre e ye a rs is in the ove r 7 0%
like lihood ca te g ory. For the se cond ca te g ory this is 6 3.6 %, a nd
the third 2 5.8%. For the ne xt two ra nks of 4 a nd 5 the fig ure s
a re 11.1% a nd 2 .8% re sp e ctive ly. It ca n the re fore be cla ime d tha t
consume rs of holida ys ove rse a s do not ha ve long te rm p re fe re nce
a s only the first two choice s a re cha ra cte rise d by ove r fifty
p e rce nt like lihood of a visit a t the 7 0 p e rce nt le ve l. It ca n
a lso be se e n tha t the re is a dra ma tic fa ll of f a fte r choice four
in the like lihood of a visit to the de stina tions chose n be yond
this p oint. At the 50 p e rce nt a nd a bove le ve l the stre ng th of
commitme nt to the first choice is 98.6 p e rce nt, se cond choice
89.7 p e rce nt, third choice 6 5.9 p e rce nt a nd forth 40.3 p e rce nt.
The following Gra p h (5.7 ) a nd ta ble 5.19 cle a rly de monstra te
tha t it is only the first thre e p la cing on the choice se t which
a re the ma in conte nde rs for a fina l de cision.
page 277
TABLE 5.19 LIKELIHOOD OP A VISIT WITHIN A THREE YEAR PERIOD
% STRENGTH10203040 50 60 70 8890 100
OF
MOTIVATION_____ ____ _____ ____ ___ ____ ____ ____ _____ ____
1st Choice 112 114 12 13 47 100 171
2nd Choice 6148933 60 48 83 5643
3rd Choice 4123282687 48 28 361515
4th Choice 82 3532 3063 18 18 11 2 9
5th Choice 862912 1129 10132 4
6th Choice 32 108962 0411
7th Choice 22 42 2 100001
8th Choice 7 102 000000
(Base 362)
For the above analysis it is not surprising to find that the AB
group are more likely to be represented in the higher percentage
strength of motivation than the other sets.
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GRAPH 5.7 LIKELIHOOD OP A VISIT IN A THREE YEAR PERIOD
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page 2 7 9
DECISION RULES FOR CHOICE SET
The list of countries provided by the respondent was read back
to them so that they could decide whether the destination matched
one of five criteria. These were that it:
1) Offered one single overwhelming advantage
2 ) Offered a few overwhelming advantages
3) Offered a best balance of the most favoured
characteristics
4) Had one unacceptable feature
5) Had a few unacceptable features
The following table indicates that the first placed choice sets
are characterised by having a best balance of favoured
attributes, or one or more overwhelming advantages. It can be
seen that these are not as important from the fifth choice and
beyond. It can be concluded that the consumer will place a
destination into the primary choice places when it is thought the
destination offers a good balance of benefits and no unacceptable
features. It can also be seen that from the 4th choice
destination unacceptable features outweigh advantages and may
indicate the rules related to final choice set processes.
TABLE 5.20 DECISION RULES RELATED TO CHOICE SET
DECISION 1st2 nd 3rd 4th5th6th7 th8th
RULES_____ _____ _____ _____ ______ ______ ______ _____
One Adv.12 111512 7 611
Few Adv.69 9 41138862 19 42
Best Bal2 802 42 18112 347 1681
One Unac111337 0552 3135
Few Unac0368159 52
(Base 362 )
page 280
DECISION RULES RELATED TO PRIOR INFORMATION
In order to try to expose the reason that some countries are
higher than others in the choice set the first three ranked
countries were tested against whether:
1) The respondent had visited it before
2)
A close friend had given them information
3) They had seen it on television
4) They had already booked
5) They had seen any recent advertising
6)
What other sources of information they had used
TABLE 5.21 INFORMATION SOURCES RELATED TO CHOICE BET
1st2nd3rd
ChoiceChoiceChoice
INFORMATION
SOURCE___________ ____________ ___________
Personal
Visit269225156
Close Friend307263242
Seen on TV243185150
Already Bkd9643
Seen Ads804546
Other General452626
Other Broch701614
Other Print25179
(Base 362)
The above table (5.21) indicates the importance of choice related
to friends' information, a prior visit or a programme on TV.
Each of these can be seen to be the most credible sources from
the list. As a form of communication they offer less risk of
bias when an individual is considering different holiday
destinations. However, it should also be noted that in all cases
a large percentage of the sample did not utilize any of the
sources listed. Graph 5.8 provides a clear descriptive display.
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page 281
GRAPH 5.8 INFORMATION SOURCES RELATED TO CHOICE
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c h a p t e i 5 . : The Reseat-ch Resultspage 282
PSYCHOGRAPHICS AND DESTINATION CHOICE
Two sets of questions were included in the research ( Q14 and
Ql5) in order to examine if there is a link between the
attribution of psychographic type to destination selected. A
comparison was made between the first ranking of preference for
country and self attributed character type. The first and second
choice places were added together as they reflect the highest
order rankings. The third and fourth places were ignored as not
significant. The aggregate percentages of place 1 or 2 provide
the figures for the table below. The first country preference
was utilized as it was found from table 5.17 that the first
choice likelihood of a future visit in the next three year period
accounted for 91.4% of an over 70% probability.
The countries mentioned fell into the categories of: France
(Fran), Spain (Spa), Greece (Gre), Rest of western europe (Rest
ofWE), Eastern europe, (E.Eu), United States of America (USA),
Africa (Afr), Far east (F.E.), Others (0th).
page 283
TABLE 5.22 FIRST COUNTRY PREFERENCE TO SELF ATTRIBUTE
Mod.Mod.Mod.Mod.Trad. Trad. Trad. Trad
confi moral refor Quest confo value resLawa
______ dent betinerioner rmist best pect bide
Fran61.062.656.354.729.746.934.454.7
Spa64.267.059.272.827.246.926.635.8
Gre87.562.568.893.80.043.82518.8
Rest
ofWE60.349.639.747.131.660.350.461.0
E.Eu60.070.060.077.822.220.050.040.0
USA57.261.933.361.923.857.147.657.1
Afr62.537.575.087.512.562.525.037.5
F.E.70.060.050.080.010.050.040.040.0
0th50.037.637.568.825.056.368.856.3
(Base 362)Key: Modern ( Mod.), Traditional ( Trad.).
The within column comparisons show the propensity of different
types to select particular destinations. This is because it is
the split of the strongest first responses which have been used
for each column. It is therefore only possible to compare types
on a within column basis prior to between comparisons. If the
above table is considered it is found the person who ascribes
modern attributes is more likely to prefer countries such as
Greece, Spain and Eastern Europe whereas the more traditional
attribute is linked to France and the rest of Western Europe.
The traditional type is also more likely to prefer a long-haul
destination especially the USA. This data correlates with age
crosstabulations to show that the traditional type is more likely
to be in the older age groups. The results therefore reflect age
as much as traditional or modern values.
page 284
IMPORTANCE OF GROUP MEMBERS
The research study included an investigation of the self
awareness of each individual's perceived importance in group
decision making, (Q17). The following table 5.23 represents the
total sample and as such it is important to note that the
majority of respondents were travelling without children. The
figures are in percentages for each group of responses and
therefore the percentage split indicates the level of importance
of each sub group in a decision making exercise. It should be
noted that the three bands used in table 5.23 show that the
majority of decision influence falls in a twenty percent band
between 41 and 60 percent for the respondent their partner or
friends. (Graph 5.9 reinforces this). Children can be seen to
have only minor influence.
Some of the individuals reporting on their own degree of
influence (self) perceive they will have the majority say in some
of the decisions. The percentage figures show that some
individuals believe they have more say (over 60% influence) in
the taking of the holiday and financial matters than they do in
the length of the trip, destination choice and overall decision.
Having identified this we should consider the earlier point
whereby with the exception of children the band around the fifty
percent point ( 41 to 60%) has been selected more times in each
category than the aggregate of the 0-40% and 61-100% bands. This
indicates the joint decision character of overseas holiday
purchase behaviour.
p a g e 2 8 5
TABLE 5.23
DEGREE OF INFLUENCE OVER HOLIDAY DECISION
Missing
DEGREE OF0-40%41-60% 61-100%from
INFLUENCE %%%%de cision
___________________ _________ __________ __________%
Ta ke Holida y
Se lf2 2 .765 .5 11.8 0.0
Ta ke Holida y
Pa rtne r30.439.72 .02 7.9
Ta ke Holida y
Frie nd9.418 .5 1.5 70.7
Ta ke Holida y
Childre n14.90.00.08 5 .1
De st Choice
Se lf
2 0.2 73.06.90.0
De st Choice
Pa rtne r2 7.2
44.40.32 8 .2
De st Choice
Frie nds5 .5 2 3.2 0.970.4
De st Choice
Childre n15 .40.00.08 4.5
Trip Le ng th
Se lf
7.48 6.75 .8 0.0
Trip Le ng th
Pa rtne r15 .45 5 .8 1.2 2 8 .2
Trip Le ng th
Frie nds8 .719.90.970.7
Trip Le ng th
Childre n14.90.00.08 4.8
p a g e 2 8 6
TABLE 5.23 CONTD.
Missing
DEGREE OF0-40% 41-6 0% 6 1-100%f r o m
INFLUENCE %%%%de cisio n
Fina ncia l
Se lf 8 .18 1.2 10.70.0
Fina ncia l
Pa r tne r 19.150.8 1.92 8 .2
Fina ncia l
Fr ie nds17.2 11.8 0.370.7
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page 288
Decision Making by Gender
While there is an indication that decision making falls within
a 41 to 60 percent band, an examination of the perceived self
importance by gender indicates almost two fifths of females
report they believe they are marginally more likely to have a
greater influence, than males, on the decision to take a holiday,
(Graph 5.10). 39 percent of females believed they had a more
than a 50 percent say in deciding to take a holiday as opposed
to 24 percent of males believing they had a more than 50 percent
influence.
The preceding result is reinforced by the finding that 20 percent
of males reported that their overseas holiday trip companions had
a more than 50 percent say than them, whereas for females only
6 percent reported this.
Agreement to the destination to be visited provided a similar
pattern but not as significant as shown in the decision to
actually take the holiday. Females believe they have more than
a 50 percent say in 26 percent of cases whereas for males this
is twelve percent. (Graph 5.11).
A reversal of this pattern is found when the decision relates to
trip length. (graph 5.12). With this decision 24 percent of
males report they represent more than fifty percent importance
and females that 15 percent of them are more likely to be more
dominant for this decision. Males can also be seen to judge
themselves to be marginally more important when it comes to
financial decisions regarding the holiday. (graph 5.13). Two
fifths (40 percent) of all males believe they take more than a
fifty percent share in the decision over financial aspects of the
holiday whereas twenty eight percent of females report that they
feel they are more important.
chapter::TheReeoPchResuLtt .page 289
Finally it is interesting to observe that on the final decision
regarding all the aspects of an overseas holiday only 11 percent
of males and 15 percent of females thought they made more than
a fifty percent part of the decision. (graph 5.14). Note should
also be made of the pointedness of this graph and lack of
skewness around the mean, especially in comparison to graph 5.10.
Graph 5.14 is a clear indication that when J, aspects of an
overseas holiday are being considered it is more likely that
there will be greater concordance or jointness of decision making
than will be the case with some of the other more specific
decision areas.
The foregoing analysis indicates there is some marginal
difference in certain decision making but on the whole decisions
are generally characterised by some form of joint resolution as
it is found the differences lie in a band between 41 to 60
percent for all adult agreements related to overseas holiday
arrangements.
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GRAPH 5.10 CONCORDANCE REGARDING DECISION TO TRAVEL
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GRAPH 5.11 CONCORDANCE REGARDING DESTINATION TO BE VISITED
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GRAPH 5.12 CONCORDMCE REGARDING LENGTH OF TRIP
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GRAPH 5.3.3 CONCORDANCE REGARDING FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS
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page 295
REFERENCES FOR CHAPTER FIVE
Kruskal, J. B., 1963, A S ystematic Approach to Multidimensional
Scalinci, Murray Hill, Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Kruskal, J. B., Young, F. W., and Seery, J. B., 1973, How to use
KYST, a very flexible program to do multidimensional scalin g and
unfolding , Murray Hill, Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Schiffman, S. S., Reynolds, M. L., and Young, F. W., 1981,
Introduction to Multidimensional Scaling : Theory , Methods and
Applications, Academic Press, New York.
CHAPTER SIX
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
page 297
DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
Introduction
The results of this research have provided a considerable amount
of information related to overseas holiday choice. In fact the
research results have provided a great deal of evidence of
overseas holiday decision making which was never adequately
assessed in the past. The methodology has allowed for a
quantitatively based approach which could uncover rankings of
motivation, holiday preferences, destination consideration sets,
as well as who is important to different types of decisions which
are made regarding the holiday arrangements.
All the principal areas related to holiday choice, which are
presented as results in chapter 5, are discussed in this chapter
to assess their significance.
As will be shown in this chapter the results can be further
refined to develop a fuller meaning for the data. For example __
the results on motivation have been recognized to fall into three
discrete areas.In addition the information collected has
allowed for a model to be constructed of the decision making
process for UK overseas holidayniakers. All the main inputs
related to the model are expanded upon in this chapter and an
initial brief summary and exposition of the model is offered.
There are two attempts to clarify the findings in a diagrammatic
form with the first being little more than an explanation of the
way the findings have been arranged in a unidimensional logical
order, (Figure 6.1). The second is a dynamic model (6.2) which
emanates from and replaces the flow of the linkages identif led
in figure 6.1 with a more considered set of relationships. It
is believed the dynamic model offers a quantitatively assessed
account of some of the main decision making linkages.
This chapter commences with a main findings review and a proposed
dynamic model of the overseas' holiday decision making process
prior to progressing with a detailed explanation and discussion
of the results.
page 298
THE FLOW MODEL DEVELOPED FROM THE STUDY
Before the discussions of each of the result areas are considered
it is believed it is germane to offer the overview of the whole
of the findings in model form. The following five areas of:
motivation; evoked set of destinations considered; decision rules
for preference match; the final choice set of alternatives; and
resolution with others as to the final decision, form the basis
of the two models. The areas are explained in greater detail
within this chapter and therefore the identification of the
following forms only a simplified introduction to the findings.
SIMPLIFIED EXPLANATION OF FIVE MAJOR AREAS AND FINDINGS
1. MOTIVATION ( CHARACTERISED BY A TRIAD OF NEEDS)
1) From an individuals existing 'life space' in terms of gender,
age, whether single or married, socio-economic group and so on
it has been found there will be a general set of motivations.
It has been possible to quantify both the set and valency of
these motivators or energising forces. The individual
motivations have been identified as representing different
triadic relationships with reference to different 'life space'
groups. The major motivators were found to fall into the three
categories of: Reinstaters; Pleasurers and Personal Enhancers.
2. EVOKED SET OF DESTINATIONS CONSIDERED
2) The motivation stage can be seen to produce intentionality in
terms of goals, goal hierarchies and valencies of activation
which lead to the broad perception of possible destinations which
could be visited. A potential overseas traveller is found to
provide an evoked set of destinations with an average of 5.22
evoked areas and up to a maximum of B mentions. The evoked set
constitutes the destinations which are under consideration.
Furthermore, each evoked set has been found to differ by
demographic variables.
page 299
3. DECISION RULES FOR PREFERENCE MATCH
3) Each individual has a preference for the set of attributes
which will satisfy them most. Preference decision criteria are
identified by rank and strength of compliance required to
satisfy holiday related needs. The results obtained in the MDS
analysis provide for an exposition of the key preference matches
which are made in relation to overseas holiday decision making.
The rules have been identified, quantified and fully interpreted.
4. THE FINAL CHOICE SET OF ALTERNATIVES
4) From the evoked set a smaller subset or choice set is chosen
which is the closest match possible to the personal criteria of
the individual. It was found that this set is an active set of
two to three possibilities depending on level of valency applied.
This set comprises the manifest preferences of the traveller and
is the one which is the essential target for every destination
marketer.
5. RESOLUTION WITH OTHERS OF CLOSENESS OF FIT TO NET
VALUES OF ACCEPTABILITY
5) Once the alternatives regarding the holiday have been assessed
on the basis of individual decision processing there is a need
for a resolution with others of the actual decision to be made.
It was found that decision making is marginally skewed to
different members of the group but that on the whole most
decisions fell into the 41 to 60 percent split of responsibility.
The final choice then creates each individual's derived tourist
role and potential experience.
page 300
FIGURE 6.1ASPECTS OF DECISION PHASES FOR UK OVERSEAS
HOLIDAYMAKERS ( AS IDENTIFIED FROM THE FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY)
1. MOTIVATION : REINSTATERS,
PLEASURERS AND PERSONAL ENKANCERS
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INVOLVED IN ASPECTS
OF HOLIDAY DECISION MAKING
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Note: MARKETING WILL HAVE AN INFLUENCE ON ALL STAGES OF THIS MODEL
AND WILL AFFECT THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS. There will also be some
feedback, after consumption, on future decision making.
The above stages are explained in a more comprehensive manner
within the following discussion of results. However, the model
above is too weak to offer as a definitive model for this
research as it is unidimensional in its flow and this is not the
way consumers will be found to make decisions. A parallel or
concurrent system of decision making, which is dynamic is
offered, based upon the research findings. (Figure 6.2).
page 301
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page 302
A Conceptual Model of Overseas Holiday Decision Making
The conceptual model (Figure 6.2) provides a full explanation of
the process stages of decision making for overseas holidays. The
model recognizes there are four stages to the decision making
process. These are represented by: Antecedent variables; Process
variables; Filter variables and Final Selection stage. From an
understanding of the research it is felt these are the most
logical groupings. The direction of the process is generally
left to right but individuals may regress to an earlier stage if
they find the decision resolution difficult. The antecedent
variables are the least flexible part of the process. These are
made up of the characteristics of the decision maker in terms of
their demographic profile, preference criteria and type and
composition of travel group (eg Family Unit, Males or Females).
The research results show conclusively that different aspects of
age, gender or socio-economic grouping will create differences
in the decisions sought. The traveller will also have a range of
preferences, ranging on a scale from strong to weak propensities
(From the MDS plots). These preferences have been built up by
individuals from a range of inputs ranging from experience,
sources of information and self-knowledge. As part of the
research into information sources information which is more
personal to the potential traveller has been found to be the most
important reference used.
The research provided evidence that certain aspects of the
holiday are considered more important than others such as climate
available, landscape, activities available, level of tourism
development etc. Within the antecedent variables is also the
finding that total cost is the most important variable. It is
obvious that as an antecedent, income thresholds will dictate the
consideration of different holiday types.
The next stage is characterised by the initiator process
variables which drive the system. It has been proposed that
individuals have different sets of motivators which can be
classified as falling within three different groups or triads.
-page 303
This is explained in greater detail later in this chapter. These
different motivators, or energisers, lead individuals to demand
differing holiday types. At the initiator stage of the process
individuals are found to have an ideal evoked set of overseas
destinations which they would consider travelling to. It has
been found that on average about five destinations are actively
considered at this stage of the process.
Finally for the initiation of a holiday to take place certain
individuals in the group will play a leading role. It was found
that the female is marginally more active in initiating the
holiday decision process. The filter stage of the process is
where the different alternatives are finally judged against
information sources based upon internal experience or external
media or contacts. This results in a choice set of destinations
and arrangements. As the majority of overseas holidays are group
based then the final choice becomes a resolving of the wants and
needs of individual group members to the attributes and
possibilities of the choice set destinations.
The above dynamic system of mapping out the interrelationships
within the overseas holiday choice process should not be read as
being rigidly set as a flow between the four phases. It is
obvious that the antecedents have been affected by prior
experience and marketing information. However this is not
directly consequential to this study as it is the wider decision
process which is important to this inquiry. Many studies have
concentrated on identifying attitudes of consumers but none have
really furthered the knowledge of why consumers behave as they
do. This author believes a great deal of attitude research has
been carried out by different agents because it provides
justificatory benefit to those agencies involved in advertising
or promotion. For the choice of an overseas holiday there will
be differential flows based upon individual characteristics and
choice constraints but on the whole it is believed the individual
progresses in relation to the schema outlined (Figure 6.2).
-page 304
A CLASSIFICATION OF MOTIVATION TYPES
Motivation is an important energiser of travel behaviour. There
is general agreement that a motive is linked to arousal and
action based strategies of behaviour. A motive is "an internal
factor that arouses, directs and integrates a person's
behaviour", Murray (1964). As Deci has argued, (1975) motivation
is linked to "an awareness of potential satisfaction" related to
a future situation and Pizam et al (1979) link this to tourism
where the motivation to travel "refers to the set of needs which
predisposes a person to participate in a touristic activity".
In essence then this research created a situation whereby the
arousal of respondents towards identifying motivation descriptors
led to a series of responses. This provided certain factors or
activities which individuals thought they could, should or might
do on a future overseas holiday which would lead to personal
satisfaction.
The results of this study are based upon the respondent's
cognition of drawing upon discovered internal stimuli to provide
an expected future state. The resultant breakdown of motivators
and frequencies by percentage are identified and shown in graph
6.1. These provide a quantified understanding of the goals, and
goal hierarchy, of individuals who travel on overseas holidays
from the UK.
While many authors have provided notional motivation lists this
research has managed to create a rank order. Graph 6.1 can be
further interpreted in an attempt to derive greater meaning. The
motivators are able to be further refined and placed into the
typological groupings of: Enhancers, Pleasurers and Reinstaters.
(see Graph 6.2). This grouping is delineated on the basis of an
understanding of the data input, whereby different motivation
sets seemed to have a greater affinity than others. As will be
shown it is interesting to note that the final three grouped
motivators provide for different findings in relation to socio-
economic groups, age groups and by gender.
page 305
Discussion of the Importance of Personal Enhancers, Pleasurers
and Reinstaters
The Reinstaters
We start our discussion with the most important grouping
identified. As can be seen from the results and discussion,
there is a powerful need for individuals to regain their
equilibrium or reinstate their wellbeing by taking a break,
making a change, enjoying better weather, having a rest or
meeting new or old social contacts. The benefits to the
individual related to these motivations are both physical and
mental. They form the basis of needing to go away in order to
return. The motivators in this category are linked to the change
the individual undergoes while taking part in the overseas
holiday experience. The overseas holiday reinstates the human,
social and energy states of the individual and provides for an
improved sense of physical and mental wellbeing. Given the
forgoing explanation whereby change and escape, rest and
relaxation and a desire for good weather are incorporated into
the Reinstater category it is not surprising that they were found
to form the largest class of motivations.
In essence the reinstaters are the means by which an individual
retains stability, and gains restitution and homeostasis.
The reinstaters provide for the need of a future state of
restoration of self and a regaining of lost equilibrium.
Individuals are energised to escape or have a change from work,
stress, social relationships etc. in order to reinstate
themselves within some sense of what is the normality of
existence.
The Pleasurers
The individual also requires pleasure and play while on holiday.
There is a need for reward or excitement with a looking forward
to being active and embarking upon exciting projects and new
adventures. The overseas holiday provides an opportunity for
page 306
heightening the awareness of a range of possible sensual and
physical adventures and of entering into situations which may be
unfamiliar. The experience therefore provides for some degree
of a sense of the unknown and situations in which the outcome
cannot be easily predicted from the basis of the norms of the UK.
In addition there is also the need for releasing the new energy
levels gained from physical and mental rest and therefore
activity pursuits are an important aspect of holiday motivators.
The pleasurers are part of a future desired state for pleasure
and physical reward. The energiser is for pleasure and play
through activity and enjoyment, as well as in seeking out
different forms of adventure.
The Personal Enhancers
Many individuals see the holiday experience as a means of self-
improvement and an addition to their self-knowledge of other
countries and cultures. The benefits derived are intrinsic to
the individual as part of a developmental process of learning and
experience.
The personal enhancers are for some groups (with the exception
of older and higher socio-economic groups) found to be the
weakest set of the energisers with a future desired state seeming
to be inherent benefits of knowing or learning. These are thought
to be at a cerebral level and are intrinsic rewards brought about
by wanting to travel for educative or cultural reasons, for
experiencing and learning more of the countryside, or
experiencing the foods, wines and drinks of an area.
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page 307
GRAPH 6.1 BREAKDOWN BY PERCENT OF OVERSEAS HOLIDAY HOTIVATORS
p a g e 3 0 8
GRAPH 6.2 GROUPED MOTIVATORS (REINSTATERS, PLEASURERS, ENHANCERS)
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page 309
The following is a schema and fuller discussion of the three sets
of energisers which have been identified:
TABLE 6.1 TYPES OP MOTIVATORS IDENTIFIED

MOTIVATORSLEVELSFUTURE STATE
DESIRED
(satisfaction
_____________________ _____________________expectations)
PERSONAL ENKANCERS
Education/ Culture Cerebral /

Inherent benefits

/ Gastronomy /Intrinsic Reward / of Knowing and


Geography.PersonalLearning.
Enhancement.
PLEASURERS
Activity /Physical / Play /

The need for


Enjoyment /Pleasure.Pleasure and
Physical /

Reward.
Adventure.
REINSTATERS
Escape / Rest /

PersonalThe need for re-


Relaxation /

Reinstater of Self equilibrium and


Change / Social /

restoration of
Weather.self.
The above explanation is offered as a way of clarifying the types
of motivation found as part of this study. The following offers
a further discussion of these important areas of overseas holiday
motivators.
Discussion of the relationship of the typologies
The elements in these three groupings are not discrete and
independent of each other but form relationships as to the final
multiplex set of motivators brought to bear on a purchase
situation. The motivators are all included in the desire for an
overseas holiday and therefore their relatedness creates an
interrelated system. It is therefore proposed that there should
be the means by which all can be treated as a triangular set of
influences.
page 310
To operationalise the concept there is a requirement for
different triangles to be processed for independent market
segments. This is found to create different triadic
relationships between reinstater, pleasurer and personal enhancer
motivators. Different groups display preferences for each of the
motivation sets and as such can be represented algebraicly as
derived angles. If reference is made to the following graphs of
triadic relationships it is found that triangular shape alters
with weighting toward one set of motivators or another. Thus
both the magnitude of motivator response and the balance of
relationship creates an ideal type segment within the
marketplace. The repertory of individual's descriptive
inotivators collected in this study form expressions of desired
overseas holiday experiences. It is the aggregate of these which
provide the ideal type triadic relationships.
The separate segments which are demonstrated by specific triadic
angles einphasises that a seemingly simple decision making
situation includes a variety of motivators. The models developed
out of the motivation research allow consumer behaviour, in
relation to overseas travel, to be considered in a holistic way.
For example if graphs 6.3 and 6.4 are compared, or graphs 6.5
and 6.6, it will be seen that there is a dissimilarity in
triangulation based upon the underlying differences of
preferences for enhancers rather than reinstaters.
The algebra for this is based upon:
E/E,P,R + P/E,P,R + R/E,P,R = TORN
Where E is Enhancers, P is Pleasurers, R is Reinstaters and TORN
is Total Overseas Holiday Motivations. The ratios between these
three can easily be transformed into angles. The usefulness of
this is that the shape of the triangle is therefore linked to the
changing ratios, and hence skew of energisers between the angles.
For example for graph 6.3 and 6.4 the male motivation
triangulation is more upright than the female one due to male
motivation reinstaters (MR) being less than female reinstaters
(FR) That is: MR < FR.
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page 311
GRAPH 6.3 MALES' GROUP MOTIVATION TRIAD
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GRAPH 6.5 ABC1 GROUP MOTIVATION TRIAD
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page 315
Motivator Mentioned to Overseas Area Comparison
A cross-tabulation of the first two motivators mentioned (Q4
results) was run against the first destination chosen, to examine
their relationship, (Table 6.2). The motivators were grouped into
the triads which have been fully discussed earlier in this
chapter. It was found that destinations chosen such as Eastern
Europe and Long Haul areas other than the USA corresponded to a
higher level of Enhancer motivation, whereas Spain was quite low
(Culture /Gastronomy /Geography /Educative). Spain, Greece and
Eastern Europe equate to a high level of Pleasurers (Adventure
/Activity /Enjoyment). All areas are highly related to
Reinstaters with the exception of Eastern Europe. (Escape /
Relaxation /Weather /Social Activities). The results are :
TABLE 6.2 FIRST TWO MOTIVATORS MENTIONED TO 1ST DESTINATION
% first two mentions REINSTATERS PLEASURERS
J
ENUANCERS
France1472626
Spain1384912
Greece1205725
Rest W Europe1483715
East Europe808040
U. S. A.1581924
Africa/F East1223248
Others1381250
Base 362
The above analysis has obvious ramifications in the way
destinations should be marketed. Both targeting and promotional
strategies can be improved through such analysis. The problems
Spain has experienced due to being treated as a commodity
destination product is exemplified in the table (6.2) as a lack
of demand from segments with enhancer motivations.
page 316
Implications of the Findings on Motivation
The findings related to motivation have important implications.
The first is that important theorists who have treated the
tourist as a secular pilgrim (MacCannell, 1973,1976), or as
utilizing holiday time as sacred non ordinary time (Graburn,
1989), are questioned. Arguments about people in modern society
carrying out sightseeing as a ritual form of homage has to be set
against the empirical evidence that UK tourists who travel abroad
are in the main (over 50% of all self-reported motivations)
motivated by seeking out escape from their daily lives, wanting
social relationships with others and different climatic
conditions. Cultural, educational and sightseeing motivations
form only a minor part of the energising forces for travel.
Motivation is an indicator of intentionality and as such provides
evidence of expectations and behaviour during the holiday trip.
Middleton (1988) has provided us with different classifications
of travel motivations. He quotes the following authors as
providing motivation for different types of travel:
1) McIntosh and Gupta (1980): physical motivators;
cultural motivators; interpersonal motivators; status
or prestige motivators.
2) Schmoll (1977): health and recreation; educational
and cultural; relaxation, adventure and pleasure;
ethnic and family; social and competitive (including
status and prestige).
Hudman (1980), is also quoted but his list is mainly tourist
types rather than motivation.
The results gained in this study are far more detailed in their
exposition of the range and underlying aspects of motivation than
any previous study. Many other studies mix up the tourist as type
with the motivational aspects of demand. One notable exception
is Crompton (1979) who revealed through in-depth research that
potential tourists were those who felt disequilibrium due to work
page 317
and life conditions. The imbalance they felt was found to be
corrected by taking a break from the routine by going on holiday.
The need for improving family and social unity was considered to
reflect deep-rooted needs, which in turn led to motivation toward
holidaytaking. This study did not identify motivational aspects
of demand related to conspicuous consumption and status
requirements. It is felt the primary motivators of escape and
change and social aspects and so on, are far more powerful than
a need for status recognition as there was an absence of any
mention of travel or its importance in relation to a third party.
Some of the responses which make up the personal enhancers may
include prestige requirements but it is felt these constitute
only a minor aspect of the reason someone wants to take an
overseas holiday. McIntosh and Goeldner's status and prestige
inotivators which is one of their four categories ( discussed in
chapter 3), includes the desire for the continuation of education
as well as the desire for recognition so there is coverage of,
what are termed in the literature, status or prestige motivators
within this study. However educative reasons for travel were
less than one percent in the findings.
OVERSEAS HOLIDAY DECISIONS BY PREFERENCE CRITERIA
Apart from the identification of inotivators one other malor
finding from this research involves the Multidimensional Scaling
(MDS) plots which revealed the preferences and degree of
perceived flexibility of choice of the traveller. Different
decision Holiday preference attributes were examined to identify
the underlying patterns. The use of MDS as a program provided
different spatial plots of the data and these are presented in
chapter 5. The information provided for the plots was collected
first in the form of a strong rank order list, where the
respondent had to allocate one rank to each statement, and second
in a spatial list where the respondent could separate the list
by strength of feeling. The results were found to be consistent
between the two approaches and the resultant plots can be
interpreted to fall along two continuums. (Figure 6.3).
page 318
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The first continuum is straight forward and can be found to
consist of items on a strong preference consideration, to weak
preference consideration line. Graph 6.7 indicates the strength
and direction of the relationships. This shows that overall
cost, landscape and activities are very important aspects of
overseas holiday decision making. It also has revealed that the
distance travelled, medical facilities and the travel company
utilized are not important considerations for holiday choice.
The other continuum (Graph 6.8) spreads the importance of holiday
preference between those considerations which are personally
controllable and can remain flexible in relation to personal
circumstances and those which are more destination specific and
therefore less controllable and more inflexible. Here the
overall cost and food and beverage costs, the activities desired,
the travel company and mixing with other holidaymakers is within
the control of the decision and has some degree of flexibility,
whereas the overseas aspects of landscape, climate, tourism
development, accommodation and safety and cleanliness are
destination specific and less flexible. An examination of the
two plots reveals that the less rigid ranking, (plot 5.8) where
respondents could chose to rank spatially, provides an increase
in the strength of personally specific attributes. For example
the plotted points related to holiday cost have both moved a
significant distance in relation to other plots.
The second plot also reinforces the interpretation of the
destination specific aspects of the vertical dimensions. The
bottom half of the plot contains only destination specific
features which are fixed and inflexible in relation to a
consumer's preference and choice. The consumer therefore
recognizes they have to match a destination to their preferences
while at the same time they retain control of the more personal
considerations of the holiday choice.
page 320
The flow of decision preference was clarified by creating a graph
from the horizontal axis calculations for the MDS transformation
(given two is added to make all values positive). This was also
carried out for the vertical axis in order to provide further
understanding of the strength of perception for the continuum of
controllable personal to uncontrollable destination attributes.
Graph 6.7 indicates quite clearly the direction of decision
making importance for overseas holidays with a ranked list of the
most important considerations to the least important
considerations.
Graph 6.8 provides clarity as to those decisions which the
individual has some flexibility and choice over through to the
less flexible aspects linked to the physical attributes of the
overseas' destination.
It is notable that this inforivaticrn. is a significant first step
in the development of a quantified approach to the understanding
of demand for overseas' areas, as no other comparable analysis
has been found in the tourism literature which could lead to a
discussion in relation to the findings.
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page 321
GRAPH 6.7 PRIORITY SCALE OF OVERSEAS HOLIDAY DECISIONS
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GRAPH 6.8 FLEXIBILITY SCALE OF OVERSEAS HOLIDAY DECISIONS
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page 323
IDEAL EVOKED AND CHOICE COUNTRY SETS
The study attempted to uncover the relationships between evoked
and choice sets.
The Evoked Set is made up of those destinations of which the
consumer is aware and therefore has some likelihood of visiting.
The evoked ideal set is the set which is judged to meet all the
criteria which is important to motivate an individual to visit
an overseas destination. The destinations actively considered are
therefore the evoked set.
The Choice Set is the final choice made from the evoked
alternatives.
There is an opportunity set which would include the whole range
of possible holidays which are available at a particular time.
Obviously the consumer will not have full knowledge of all
possibilities and therefore there is an inert set which the
respondent of this research study would not select as they would
have neither a positive nor negative association to draw upon.
The consumer may be aware of them but not have sufficient
information to evaluate them one way or another and would not
therefore include them in the possibility of their final choice.
There is also an inept set where some destinations have been
rejected due to a bad experience or negative communication from
other sources. Thus the inept set contains destinations the
respondent rejects and would have been unwilling to consider.
Narayana and Markin (1975) defined the rejected set as the 'inept
set' and they also proposed the term 'inert set' as the set which
the consumer has neither a positive nor negative evaluation.
As this present study had as its main objective the
identification of a broad range of decision making variables, it
was decided that it was not productive to expend resource time
on the identification of destination areas which an overseas
traveller would not consider. The study therefore concentrated
on evoked and choice sets.
page 324
Some studies related to travel refer to opportunity sets related
to industry or consumer circumstances ( Woodside, Ronkainen and
Reid, 1977, Woodside and Sherrell, 1977, Ulm and Croxnpton, 1987,
Goodall, 1990, Stabler, 1988 & 1990, Kent, 1990, Moutinho, 1987,
Desbarats, 1983), which was developed from the early work by
Marble and Bowiby (1968), who utilized the concept in connection
with retailing studies and Howard (1977) who proposed the evoked
set concept.
This study recognizes the difference between antecedent variables
whereby the respondent needs to perceive and to provide an ideal
consideration set for their next holiday and the process
variables by which the same respondents created choice sets from
those initial sets.
This author believes the distinct choice set for each individual
can be defined as:
'a finite set of mutually exclusive destinations with
a conditional probability of choice based upon the
process of weighing up advantages and disadvantages".
The findings related to this will now be discussed in detail.
The results provide evidence of the number of destinations which
are evoked as ideal. This research has provided evidence of an
ideal evoked set where a few responses included up to eight
mentions. However it is important to note only 20.7 percent of
respondents provided six mentions, 8.9 percent seven mentions and
2.8 percent eight mentions. The sharp decline in mentions after
the fifth point allow the claim to be made that on average UK
potential overseas travellers submit five mentions as the norm
(the mean is 5.22 ) with a maximum set size of eight.
The research design for this study enabled the compilation of a
self-selected list of countries which individuals would consider,
as it is this which corresponds with the definition of an evoked
set. Other holiday related studies have not always adhered to
such strict theoretical guidelines.
-page 325
Moutinho (1987) argues decision sets are likely to contain no
more than seven choices, whereas Woodside and Sherrell found the
average size of the leisure travellers set to be 3.38 minus or
plus 1.75 (1977), and Woodside and Lysonski (1989) found the
average set to be 4.2. As both the former studies were carried
out with non representative samples of overseas travellers ( the
latter being 92 New Zealand university students who would have
restricted budgets), it is difficult to conclude that the results
reflect the overseas traveller. Kim et al (1989) in a study of
husbands' and wives' evoked sets found that the mean size of set
was 6.85 for husbands and 6.53 for wives. However, the research
design of Kim et al provided a prompted list as part of a
questionnaire, which may have led to a higher response.
Within this research, the choice set compiled from the evoked set
provided evidence that individuals may produce initial evocations
which are more wished for, than realistic. It was found that
there is a difference between first placed evoked and choice
sets. For example the traditional evoked set (France, Spain and
Greece) are ranked below the rest of Europe and Long Haul
destinations on the first mention, whereas it is highest on the
choice set first mention, (Graph 6.9). This indicates the
presence of a Wish set and an Action set within the evoked set.
The inclusion into the choice set of active choice destinations
was found to be three, as the strength of adoption of these areas
provided evidence of the majority stating a fifty percent or over
chance of visit. It is believed that strength of motivation
below this level is not acceptable as an argument for inclusion
in the choice set.
Figure 6.4 indicates the different stages of preference selection
with the increasing propensity toward the final holiday choice
being characteristically through a process of evoking 5
destinations which are narrowed to a choice set of two or three
strong possibilities and then to final holiday choice.
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page 326
GRAPH 6.9 COMPARISON BETWEEN EVOKED AND CHOICE SETS
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FIGURE 6 .4 C HOIC E HIERARC HY FROM EVOKED TO SELEC TION
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Decision Rules Related to Order of Destination Mention
An investigation of decision rules related to the final order of
overseas destination choice was carried out. Decision rules are
important as they reflect the strategies which people adopt when
they make up their minds when faced with a number of
alternatives. Therefore the process by which an individual ranks
the evoked set into a choice set was believed to be an important
component to include into the research design.
It was found that the first four mentions provided an indication
that areas had been chosen on the basis of providing a best
balance of most favoured characteristics. For the fifth to
eighth mentions the level of unacceptable features rose
considerably while at the same time the best balance ranking
dropped dramatically. Graph 6.10 clearly demonstrates the
decision rule relationships. It is interesting to see that
alternatives are selected most often on the basis of how well
they match up to providing a balance rather than providing one
overriding benefit such as price, the culture or unique area
attraction. This shows the major form of demand for overseas
holidays is noncompensatory because one overriding strength is
not enough to compensate for other aspects.
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page 330
Information Influence
Information is used by potential holidaymakers to help in their
decision making process. It has been found that travellers
construct their preferences for alternatives from destination
awareness (Michie, 1986, van Raiij, 1986). As part of the
research design it was believed the quantification of information
inputs were required.
People need to seek comparison points to judge their own
behaviour, especially with a high risk purchase such as an
overseas holiday. Previous visits to an area have allowed the
individual to learn first hand all about the product and
therefore it is a powerful determinant of choice if a wide set
of remembered satisfactions are linked to a former visit.
The results demonstrate information gained from a close friend,
a previous visit, or television are of key importance especially
for first choice destinations, (Graph 6.11). Advertising,
brochures and other forms of communication, as well as having
already booked, can be seen to be important for the first choice
but reduce considerably for second and subsequent choices. A
full graphical display of the results is obtained from graph 5.8.
It is of obvious importance for any sector of the tourism
industry (see Figure 1.1) to ensure the outcome of any purchase
situation is one where satisfaction is of the highest level. An
emphasis on total quality management is important to ensure that
there is positive past experiences which will aid in the future
recommendations and decisions of consumers. This is because
personal experience has been found to be a key determinant of
final choice.
Based upon the above analysis the first three ranked choice set
overseas countries were more closely studied in order to identify
page 331
the possible use of different forms of information, (Graph 6.11).
As indicated the results show that friends and relatives are more
likely to influence the overseas holidaymakers than any other
source of information. Reference group persuasion through this
medium of influence, as well as the respondent having visited a
destination on a previous occasion emerged as the two most
important information sources. Both of these can be judged to
be personal forms of information which are low in risk and
therefore offer credible referents for decision processes. In
addition the use of friends as reference allows the potential
overseas holidaymaker not only credible advice but also the
opportunity to ensure their choice meets the determination of
appropriateness against the norms of the group.
It has been found in other studies that personal influence has
a major impact on consumer behaviour. For example early studies
by Katz and Lazarsfield (1955) and Atkin (1962) and numerous
later studies by researchers such as Dichter (1983) and Arndt
(1967) provided evidence that personal influence is far more
important than advertising in persuading people to behave in
particular ways. Other studies (eg Cunningham, 1966, Woodside
and Delozier, 1976) have shown that higher risk products (one of
which would be tourism) are more likely to engender a need to
reduce the risk of purchase through personal consultation with
others.
Gitelson and Crompton (1983) found that either the duration or
the length of the trip would affect the amount of information
selected. In addition the type of trip such as a visit to
friends and relations was found to be significantly related to
the use of information sources. Further research based upon
these results could be refined to include the type of holiday
taken. This would allow for more elaboration of the importance
of information sources for different holiday types. Any future
research could also incorporate the information needs of
consumers as to whether they require factual, technical or
psychological forms of communication.
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GRAPH 6.11 INFORMATION SOURCES RELATED TO FIRST THREE CHOICES
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page 333
Psychographic Type to Choice
In order to examine the link between psychographic type and
destination choice respondents were asked to rate themselves
against a range of statements which gave a four by four
separation of modern values to traditional values. The self
attributes plotted against first destination choice reveals the
person with a modern value profile is more likely to chose Greece
or Spain or the Far East or Africa, whereas the person who
reflects more traditional values is more probable to select
France, USA and other longhaul destinations or the rest of
western europe rather than Spain or Greece. (Graph 6.12) However,
this data does correlate with age to reflect an older profile for
those with traditional values. Further research into this area
should perhaps develop a broader category of value attributes to
uncover a more rich insight into the psychographical links with
destination choice.
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page 334
GRAPH 6.1.2 RESPONDENT VALUES AND DESTINATION CHOICE
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Importance of Group Members to Decision Making
Whereas the majority of consumer behaviour theory stresses
individual decision making as paramount (as identified in chapter
3), within tourism it is the group decision which is influential
as to the outcome. Since the majority of overseas holidays are
based upon group travel it is important to distinguish the
weighting of influence of different group members over holiday
decisions.
In this research study it was found that much of the decision
making was of a joint nature with some areas being more
controlled by females and some areas more by males. On the
decision to take a holiday females had slightly more of an
influence and only marginally more influence in agreement to the
destination to be visited. A reversal of this pattern was found
whereby males are more likely to have a greater influence over
trip length and financial decisions. On the final decision
regarding all aspects of the holiday the decision can be judged
to be mutual as only 11 percent of males and 15 percent of
females thought they had made more than fifty percent of the
decision. Where children are included in the decision they were
found to be always in the less than 40 percent category of
influence. When friends are included in the decision it is found
they very rarely ever have a more than 50 percent influence over
the decision.
Sheth (1974) has identified the different conditions which may
lead to joint decision making:
1) When the perceived level of risk is high
2) When the purchasing decision is important to the
family
3) When there are few time pressures
4) For middle socio-economic groups, younger families
or where there are no children in the group
page 336
While the research study did not set out to measure the above
aspects of joint decision making, points 1 and 2 would seem to
be characteristics of tourism. Sheth's conditional aspects if
related to overseas holiday purchases may increase our
understanding of the joint nature of decision making which was
identified as part of this study.
Other Trip related Research
Travel Research International (1968), interviewed 500 respondents
to find out about decision making related to airline use for
pleasure trips. It was found that husbands played a predominant
role in instigating the trip and selecting the airline whereas
the decision on where to go was found to be under joint
influence. The major drawback of this and studies by researchers
such as Sharp and Mott (1956) is the sample consisted solely of
wives as respondents. Davis and Rigaux in some wide ranging
research found travel decisions for Belgian couples to be highly
syncratic but a more recent study by Filiatrault and Ritchie
(1980), indicated that husbands had more influence over sub-
decisions. This study reinforces the findings of Filiatrault and
Ritchie whereby children are relatively insignificant in terms
of influence. Furthermore, in the latter study, it was found that
in those families without children, husbands had an increase in
influence over the travel decisions. Despite the growing
importance of the market for leisure travel there are very few
studies which address the decision making process for holiday
travel, especially in the field of overseas travel.
-page 337
CONCLUSION
The research study has led to the identification of the main
factors of consumer behaviour surrounding decisions to travel on
overseas holidays. In addition the study has provided evidence
which allows for the compilation of a composite dynamic model.
The model itself (Figure 6.2) is shown as an interactive flow
process incorporating the variables of antecedents, process
initiators, and filters all leading to the final decision choice.
It is thought that this is the process in which overseas' holiday
decisions are made as decision situations will often occur in
tandem, especially with regard to family decision making. The
derived model contains sufficient conclusive detail to form part
of further study for which this study can act as the basic
exploratory research. A future task may be that of studying
group dynamics in greater detail to identify the complexities of
timing decisions and levels of authority.
It is felt that the results of this study will provide theorists
and students with a whole new paradigm of information. It is
hoped that new thinking and stimulation will occur as a result
of this analysis, in order to engender further ways of
investigating the motivations, preferences and decisions of
tourists.
t h 8 p t t r 6 I o n of the
page 338
SUGGESTED I MPROVEMENTS TO TI LE RESEARCH STUDY
After any study which has taken several years is completed there
should always be some recommendations for improving the
methodology. In retrospect it was found that the research could
h ave been imp r o ved
by taking into account the following
suggestions:
1)
The question related to household income does not take
into consideration that certain members of the
household may only draw upon a portion of that amount.
For example teenage children who are working may
contribute to the household income but may separately
budget for their own holiday. It may be beneficial to
include in any further research a question on
household income which links the amount to the party
size or composition. This will allow the income
figure to be more compatible with the pattern of
holiday demand.
2)
The existing research does not question who pays? For
many of the l8-24yr group cost was not important and
may have produced findings which had some further
hidden subtleties. These could have been brought to
light with the right question. In spite of this the
findings are valid in presenting the views of young
people in relation to their overseas holiday demand.
3) Some respondents asked whether the information should
relate to winter or summer holidays. Future research
may want to incorporate questions related to
differences between both periods so as to provide for
more clarity and to identify any major differences.
page 339
4) It was found that the age of the family can affect
choice. For example a couple with a young baby may
not want to travel far, or go to a very hot
destination. A question on the age of the children
would bring out the underlying variations.
5) Those respondents who had young children felt it
unnecessary to answer questions related to choice
decisions. A question clarifying the age of children
as a filter to asking about decision involvement,
could be a refinement for the questionnaire.
6) A few of the over 65yr age group thought that thinking
three years ahead when planning holidays was too far
a time horizon given their age. It is necessary to
add a 'provided your health is as good as today' if
this is to be avoided. However the current research
is a reflection of the true plans of this older group.
7) The four point scale for questions 14 to 16 could be
expanded to five or seven points to enable MDS
analysis to be utilized.
8) Although the research includes aspects of cost there
is no question which directly relates to price
sensitivity aspects of holiday choice. Trade off
analysis based upon price could be incorporated in
future research.
page 340
POSSIBLE FURTHER RESEARCH
1) It would be possible to carry out research into an
individual's travel preferences prior to an overseas holiday and
to construct a triadic relationship of their motivators. Further
research could then be carried out on the return from the holiday
to assess those motivators which were fulfilled. Another triadic
plot could be made and then the pre and post situations could be
compared along with the individual's level of satisfaction. If
enough subjects were studied it may be found that there is a
relationship between satisfaction and the degree of fit between
the two triangles. It may be found that the post holiday
triangle could be plotted in the other and the areas left as
space would constitute the unfulfilled motivator experiences.
2) An expansion of the research on consideration sets could
include an analysis of the way perceived weaknesses and problems
affect an individual's different inert, inept, evoked and final
choice sets. This would require an evaluation of information
sources and events over time. The research could include the
objective of providing evidence of threshold choice through trade
off analysis, and the differing levels of indifference as
individuals transfer utility judgements.
It would also be of interest to identify the constraints which
are brought to bear on the evoked set in order to filter out
different destinations. For example the inclusion of a small
baby in the family group may rule out certain types of holiday
related to distance or temperature. Income thresholds may also
preclude various types of overseas holiday purchases.
3) The study has provided comprehensive information regarding
those who travel on overseas holidays. Further studies may need
to be directed to those groups who do not travel overseas, in
order to provide a fuller understanding of the dynamics of
holiday travel.
page 341
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Atkin, K.L., 1962, Advertising and Store Patronage, Journal of
Advertising Research, December (2),
pp.
18-23.
Crompton, J. L., 1979, Motivations for Pleasure Vacation, Annals
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Cunningham, S.M., 1966, Perceived Risk as a Factor in the
Diffusion of New Product Information, in R.M., Haas, ed.
'Science. Technology and Marketing', American Marketing
Association, Chicago.
Davis, H. L., and Rigaux, B. P., 1974, Perception of marital
roles in decision processes, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol
1 June,
pp.
51-60.
Deci, T. L., 1975, Intrinsic Motivation, Plenum Press, New York.
Desbarats, J., 1983, Spatial choice and constraints on
behaviour, Annals, Association of American Geographers, Vol 73
No 3
pp.
340-357.
Dichter, E., 1983, The Shifting Power of Influentials in Purchase
decisions, Ad Forum, July, p55.
Gitelson, R. J. and Crompton, J. L., 1983, The Planning Horizons
and Sources of Information used by Pleasure Vacationers, Journal
of Travel Research, Vol 21 (3)
pp.
2-7.
Goodall, B., 1990, Opportunity sets as analytical marketing
instruments: a destination area view, in Marketing Tourism
Places, eds Ashworth, G., Goodall, B., Routledge, London.
Goodall, B., 1991, Understanding holiday choice, in Progress in
Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol 3, ed Cooper,
C., Belhaven Press, London.
Graburn, N., 1989, Tourism: The Sacred Journey. In Smith, V.,
ed., Hosts and Guests. The Anthropology of Tourism. Second
Edition, University of Pensylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Howard, J. A., 1977, Consumer behavior: Application of theory,
McGraw-Hill, New York.
Hudinan, L. E., 1980, Tourism in a Shrinkin g World, Grid, Ohio.
Katz, E., and Lazarsfield, P., 1955, Personal Influence: The Part
Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications, Free Press,
Glencoe.
page 342
Kent, P., People, places and priorities: opportunity sets and
consumers' holiday choice, in Marketing Tourism Places, eds
Ashworth, G., & Goodall, B., Routledge, London.
Kim, C., Laroche, M., Guttenberg, E., and Rosenblatt, J., 1989,
A study of the contents of husbands' and wives' evoked sets of
vacation destinations, Proceedin g s of the EMAC conference, pp.
603-617
MacCanell, D., 1973, staged Authenticity: Arrangements of Social
Space in Tourist Settings, American Journal of Sociolo gy , Vol 79
pp.
589-603.
MacCannell, D., 1976, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure
Class, Shocken Books, New York.
Marble, D., and Bowlby, S., 1968, Shopping alternatives and
recurrent travel patterns, Studies in Geo g raphy , No 16,
Department of Geography, Northwestern University, Evanston.
McIntosh, R. W., 1972, Tourism, Principles and Practices,
Philosophies,(4th edition, with Goeldner, C. R., Wiley, New
York), Grid, Ohio.
Middleton, V. T. C., 1988, Marketin g in Travel and Tourism,
Heinemann, Oxford.
Michie, D. A., 1986, Family travel behaviour and its implications
for tourism management, Tourism niana q ement,Vol 13 March,
pp.
8-
20.
Mill, R. C. and Morrison, A. M., 1985, The Tourism System: An
introductory text, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Moutinho, L., 1987, Consumer behaviour in tourism, European
Journal of Marketing , Vol 21 No 10
pp.
3-44.
Murray, E. J., 1964, Motivation and Emotion, Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Narayana, C. L., and Markin, R. J., 1975, Consumer behavior and
product performance: An alternative conceptualisation, Journal
of Marketing, Vol 39
pp.
1-6.
Pizam, A., Neumann, Y., and Reichel, A., 1979, Tourist
satisfaction: Uses and misuses (A Rejoinder), Annals of Tourism
Research, Vol 6 No 2,
pp.
195-197
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Press, London.
page 343
Sharp, H., and Mott, P., 1956, Consumer decisions in a
metropolitan family, Journal of Marketing, Vol 21, October, pp.
149-56.
Sheth, J. N., 1974, Models of Buyer Behaviour, (A Theory of
Family Buying Decisions), Harper Row, New York.
Stabler, M. J., 1988, Modelling the tourist industry: the concept
of opportunity sets, paper, Leisure Studies Association, 2nd
International Conference, University of Sussex, Brighton.
Stabler, N. J., 1990, The concept of opportunity sets as a
methodological framework for the analysis of selling tourism
places: the industry view, in Marketing Tourism Places, eds
Ashworth G., Goodall, B., Routledge, London.
Travel Research International Inc., 1968, A study of the role of
husband and wife in air travel decisions, Sports Illustrated,
September.
tJlm, S., and Crompton, J. L., 1987, A cognitive model of pleasure
destination choice, unpublished manuscript, Department of
Recreation and Parks, Texas A & M University, Houston.
van Raiij, F. W., 1986, Consumer research on tourism mental and
behavioral constructs, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 13
pp.
1-
9.
Woodside, A G., Delozier, M. W., 1976, Effects of Word-of-Mouth
Advertising on Consumer Risk Taking, Journal of Advertising,
Fall, (5),
pp.
12-19.
Woodside, A. G., and Sherrell, D., 1977, Traveller evoked set,
inept set and inert sets of vacation destinations, Journal of
Travel Research, Vol 16,
pp.
14-18.
Woodside, A. G., Ronkainen, I. A., and Reid, D. M., 1977,
Measurement and utilisation of the evoked sets as a travel
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pp.
123-130.
Woodside, A. G., and Lysonski, S., 1989, A general model of
traveller destination choice, Journal of Travel Research, vol 27
(4) Spring, pp. 8-14.
APPENDICES
Appendix 7.1 FINAL RESEARCH STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE Page 1
page 345
OVERSEAS HOLIDAY QUESTIONNAIRE
Good morning/afternoon/evening. I am from the Management Studies Department of the
University of Surrey. I would like to ask you a few questions about your overseas
holidays. Could you please help me complete this questionnaire?
CodeNo..........................(3-6)
Location..........................(7)
InterviewerNo.....................(8)
(Are you over the age of 18?)
Have you taken a holiday abroad in the past 4 years?
(IF NO TO EITHER QUESTION, CLOSE INTERVIEW AND THANK)
PART A
QiThink about the last time you arranged an overseas holiday. At the time of deciding
to travel, why do you think you wanted to go away?
1st given

(9)2nd

(10)
3rd

(11)
Q2What were you looking forward to on your last overseas holiday?
1st given

(12)2nd

(13)
3rd(14) _________________________________
Q3
Now picture yourself both at home in the UK and also on holiday abroad. Describe
to me the differences which gave you reason to want to go away.
1stgiven(15) 2nd _______________________________ (16)
3rd(17)
Q4 The questions I have asked so far have given me a list of reasons for your going on
holiday. If there are no others, I now want you to rank them for me with your most
important reason first, second, etc.(WRITE CARDS, FOR RESPONDENT, OF REASONS GIVEN)
(26) _% 1st

(18)(27)_% 2nd

(19)
(28) _% 3rd

(20) (29) _% 4th

(21)
(30) _% 5th

(22) (31) _% 6th

(23)
(32)% 7th(24) (33) _% 8th(25)
Q5 (LEAVE CARDS) Now think about the strength of feeling you have for each of these
reasons. If you had 100% to allocate in relation to each of your reasons how would
you allocate this?(WRITE IN ABOVE) Give each of your responses a % score so that
each total is out of 100%.
A l

page 346
Appendix 7.1 Final Questionnaire Continued Page 2
PART B
Q6
Pl ease l ook at this card (SHOW CA RD 1) and tel l me if there is anything missing
which woul d be important to you when you make an overseas hol iday decision.
(WRITE IN)
Q7 LA NDSCA PE A ND SCENERY ________ (35/36)
DISTA NCE TO TRA VEL ___________ (39/40)
OVERA LL COST _________________ (43/44)
CLEA NLINESS __________________ (47/48)
A VA ILA BLE MEDICA L SERVICES - (51/52)
PHYSICA L SA FETY _______________ (55/56)
LEVEL OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT_ (59/60)
THE TRA VEL COMPA NY ___________ (63/64)
(34)
CLIMA TIC CONDITIONS_______________ (37/38)
DESTINA TION'S FOREIGN PEOPLE (41/42)
TYPEOF FOOD _____________________ (45/46)
RA NGE OF A CTIVITIES A VA ILA BLE - (49/50)
FOOD A ND DRINK COSTS ____________ (53/54)
OTHER VISITING HOLIDA YMA KERS(57/58)
A CCOMMODA TION TYPES _____________ (61/62)
(65/66)
Q8
Pl ease l ook at these cards (A S A BOVE) and pl ace them in the order of importance
which rel ates to any decision you make to travel on hol iday abroad. Pl ace the most
important factor first, second most important factor second, etc. on this board.
(WRITE IN A S Q6)
For each of the first ten cards you have ranked what is each singl e ideal type of
hol iday feature which comes to mind. Just give me one singl e meaning that
corresponds to each card. (TA KE FIRST 10 FROM RESPONDENT'S LIST)
(67)
(69)
(71)
(1)
(3)
(5)
(7)
(9)
Landscape and Scenery ______
Distance to Travel _________
Overal l Cost ______________
Cl eanl iness_______________
A vail abl e Medical Services -
Physical Safety ____________
Level of Tourism Devel opment
The Travel Company _________
Cl imatic conditions __________
Destination's Foreign Peopl e -
Typeof Food ____________________
Range of A ctivities A vail abl e -
Food and Drink Costs __________
Other Visiting Hol idaymakers -
A ccommodation Types --
(68)
(70)
(72)
(2)
(4)
(6)
(8)
(10)
Q9
Now that you have thought about each of the aspects of a hol iday, I am going to ask
you if you want to pl ace the cards in a different order of importance again.
(WA IT FOR SORTING TO FINISH) I now want you to pl ace the cards apart from each
other on the board to refl ect the differences in importance you feel can be
attributed to each item. For exampl e, if you feel one or a group of items are more
important then space them away from the others. Pl ace the most important highest on
the board.
(11)
(13)
(15)
(17)
(19)
(21)
(23)
(25)
Landscape and Scenery ______
Distance to Travel _________
Overal l Cost ______________
Cl eanl iness _________________
A vail abl e Medical Services -
Physical Safety ____________
Level of Tourism Devel opment
The Travel Company __________
Cl imatic conditions _________
Destination's Foreign Peopl e -
Typeof Food _________________
Range of A ctivities A vail abl e
Food and Drink Costs ________
Other Visiting Hol idaymakers
A ccommodation Types _______ -
(12)
(14)
(16)
(18)
(20)
(22)
(24)
(26)
page 347
Appendix 7.]. Final Questionnaire Continued Page 3
P A R T C
Q10
C an you give me a list of countries you would consider for your next holiday, that
would be ideal for you.

(27)

(28)

(29)

(30)

(31)

(32)

(33)

(34)
Ql1C ould you now give them to me in order of your most likely realistic first choice,
second choice, etc.
1. ____________________ (43) _.__% (35) 2. ______________________ (44) _% (36)
3. ____________________ (45) _% (37) 4. ______________________ (46) _% (38)
5. ____________________ (47) % (39) 6. ______________________ (48) _% (40)
7. _____________________ (49) _% (41) 8. _______________________ (50) _% (42)
I will now read your list. C ould you tell me, as honestly as possible, the
likelihood of visiting the country mentioned, in the next 3 years. P lease give me
the answer as a percentage likelihood out of 100 for each choice. For example 0% if
you are definitely sure you will not visit through to 100% if you are sure you will
visit.
Q12 I will now read back your list for the last question. C an you look at this card
(SHOW C A R D 2) and tell me which one of the five points listed corresponds most to
your decision to visit each country.
I believe the destination:
A . Offers one single overwhelming advantage
B. Offers a few overwhelming advantages
C . Offers a best balance of the characteristics I favour most
0.Has one unacceptable feature
E .Has a few unacceptable features
1st

A l

B2

C 3

04

E 5

(51)
2nd

A l

82

C 3

04

E 5

(52)
3rd

A l

82

C 3

04

E 5

(53)
4th

A l

82

C 3

04

E 5

(54)
5th

A l

B2

C 3

04

E 5

(55)
6th

A l

B2

C 3

04

E 5

(56)
7th

A l

B2

C 3

04

E 5

(57)
8th

A l

82

C 3

04

E 5

(58)
Q13Of the first destination you have just mentioned, can you tell me for your first
choice ((R E MIND R E SP ONDE NT )
Have you personally made a visit before
Has a close friend or relative told you about the destination?
Have you seen it on television?
Have you already booked it for your next holiday?
Have you seen any recent advertising for the destination?
What other sources of information have you used?
(WR IT E IN) ____________________________ _____
Yes 1 No 2 (59)
Yes 1No 2 (60)
Yes 1No 2 (61)
Yes 1No 2 (62)
Yes 1No 2 (63)
(64)
page 348
Appendix 7.1 Final Questionnaire Continued Page 4
REPEAT FOR 2ND AND THIRD CHOICE DESTINATIONS ONLY:
VISITYes 1No 2(65)Yes 1No 2

(71)
FRIENDYes 1No 2(66)Yes 1No 2

(72)
TVYes 1No 2(67)Yes 1No 2

(73)
BOOKEDYes 1No 2(68)Yes 1No 2

(74)
ADVERT.Yes 1No 2(69)Yes 1No 2

(75)
OTHER _________________ (70)______________ (76)
PART D
I am now going to ask you something about yourself.
I am going to show you some cards (SHOWCARDS 3 AND 4). I want you to give me, in the
order 1 to 4, your choice of statements which you believe correspond most to you. Tell
me the statement that you believe corresponds most to yourself first, then the one that
corresponds most to you next as second, etc.
Q14 SHOW CARD 3
I believe the old ways of doing things can sometimes be best
I believe modern morals have allowed people to be more natural
I respect the monarchy and the law
I would reform laws and the structure of society jf I could
Q15 SHOW CARD 4
I am traditional, law abiding and safe
I am modern, questioning and adventurous
I am confident, decisive and secure
I am a conformist, follower and careful
1 2 3 4 (1)
1 2 3 4 (2)
1 2 3 4 (3)
1 2 3 4 (4)
1 2 3 4 (5)
1 2 3 4 (6)
1 2 3 4(7)
1 2 3 4 (8)
Q16 I would like you to think about how you come to a decision in a family or with
friends. Can you tell me on a scale of 1 to 4 how you normally react with others.
Look at this card (SHOW CARD 5) and tell me one if you believe you most normally
act like the statement or four if you believe it is the least normal way of your
acting.
mostleast
normallynormally
I listen to all the views but I still want my choice
I try to negotiate to get most of what I want
I always compromise to others
I insist the final decision has to be democratic
I am likely to give in to the person for whom the decision
will be most important
I am always happy with the final decision
1 2 3 4 (9)
1 2 3 4 (10)
1 2 3 4 (11)
1 2 3 4 (12)
1 2 3 4 (13)
1 2 3 4 (14)
page 349
To take the holiday:

yourself
(marriage) partner
friends
children
The destination agreed upon:

yourself
(marriage) partner
friends
children
The length of the trip:

yourself
(marriage) partner
friends
children
The overall cost:

yourself
(marriage) partner
friends
children
The final decision:

yourself
(marriage) partner
friends
children
Appendix 7.1 Final Questionnaire Continued Page 5
Q17 I am going to ask you to look at this card (SHOWCARD 6) and think about who is
important to making a holiday decision. Allocate a total of 100 points in the way
you feel you or any others were important in influencing a final holiday decision.
Ignore the children category if you travel without children, and ignore the friends
category if you travel without friends.
SHOW CARD 6
_____ (15)
_____ (16)
_____ (17)
_____ (18)
100 pointS
______ (19)
______ (20)
______ (21)
______ (22)
100 pointS
______ (23)
______ (24)
______ (25)
______ (26)
100 points
______ (27)
_____ (28)
______ (29)
______ (30)
100 points
_____ (31)
______ (32)
_____ (33)
______ (34)
100 points
PART E
The final questions have been included to help with the survey findings. They will remain
strictly confidential.
Q18
Please look at this showcard (SHOW CARD 7) and give me the letter which describes
your age group:
(35)
A18-24 years1
B25-34 years2
C35-44 years3
D45-54 years4
E55-64 years5
F 65+ years6
''d:DCLbrt:

page 350
Appendix 7.1 Final Questionnaire Continued Page 6
Q19Gendermale1

(36)
female2
Q20Please look at this showcard (SHOW CARD 8) and give me the letter
which best describes the age when you finished full-time education

(37)
A under 18 years1
B 18 to under 22 years2
C 22 years or over3
D still studying4
Q21
Are you single, married,living with someone, separated or widowed?

(38)
single1
married/cohabiting2
separated3
widowed4
Q22
If married,living with someone, separated or widowed:
How many children under 18 years old do you have?
None0

(39)
One1
Two2
Three3
Four or more4
Q23Can you give me the letter which best describes the total

income of the household. (SHOWCARD 9)

(40)
Aunder 12,0001
B12-17,0002
Cover 17-22,0003
Dover 22-27,0004
Eover 27-32,0005
Fover 32-37,0006
Gover 37-42,0007
Hover 42,0008
REFUSAL9
Q24Finally, can you tell me the occupation of the head of the household?
Occupation..........................

AB. . .1

(41)
(ASK FOR INDUSTRY IF NOT CLEAR) C1...2
C2. . .3
DE. . .4
THANK and end interview
page 351
Appendix 7.2 DRAFTQUESTIONNAIREPage 2.
OVERSEAS HOLIDAY QUESTIONNAIRE
Good morning/afternoon/evening. I am from the Management Studies Department of the
University of Surrey. I would like to ask you a few questions about your holidays. Could
you please help me complete this questionnaire?
CodeNo..............................(3-6)Location ..........................(7)
InterviewerNo..........................(8)
(Are you over the age of 18?)
Have you taken a holiday abroad in the past 4 years?
(IF NO TO BOTH, CLOSE INTERVIEW AND THANK)
PART A
QiThink about the last time you booked a holiday. At the time of booking, why do you
think you wanted to go away?
1stgiven___________________________ (9) 2nd ________________________________ (10)
3rd (11) ___________________________________
Q2What were you looking forward to on that holiday?
1stgiven___________________________ (12) 2nd ________________________________ (13)
3rd (14) _________________________________
Q3Now picture yourself both in the UK and on holiday. Describe to me the differences
which gave you reason to go away.
1stgiven(15) 2nd _______________________________ (16)
3rd(17) ___________________________________
Q4You have given me a list of reasons for going on holiday. If there are no others,
I now want you to rank them for me with your most important reason first, second
second, etc.
(WRITE CARDS, FOR RESPONDENT, OF REASONS GIVEN)
(26)% 1st(18)(27)% 2nd(19)
(28) _% 3rd(20) (29)% 4th(21)
(30)% 5th(22)(30)% 6th(23)
(32) _% 7th(24) (33)% 8th(25)
5 (LEAVE CARDS) Now think about the strength of feeling you have for each of these
reasons. If you had 100% to allocate in relation to the reasons you think you had,
for wanting to go away, how would you allocate this? (WRITE IN ABOVE)
Appendices - DGilbert

page 352
Appendix 7.2 Draft Questionnaire Continued Page 2
PART B
Q6
Please look at this card (SHOW CARD 1) and tell me if there is anything missing
which would be important to you when you make an overseas holiday decision.
(WRITE IN)
Q7 LANDSCAPE AND SCENERY _________ (35/36)
DISTANCE TO TRAVEL ___________ (38/39)
OVERALL COST __________________ (42/43)
CLEANLINESS ___________________ (46/47)
AVAILABLE MEDICAL SERVICES (50/51)
PHYSICAL SAFETY _______________ (54/55)
LEVEL OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT_ (58/59)
THE TRAVEL COMPANY ___________ (62/63)
(34)
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS______________ (36/37)
DESTINATION'S FOREIGN PEOPLE (40/41)
TYPEOF FOOD ____________________ (44/45)
RANGE OF ACTIVITIES AVAILABLE(48/49)
FOOD AND DRINK COSTS ____________ (52/53)
OTHER VISITING HOLIDAYMAKERS(56/57)
ACCOMMODATION TYPES ____________ (60/61)
(64/65)
Q8
Please look at these cards (AS ABOVE) and place them in the order of importance
which relates to any decision you make to travel on holiday abroad. Place the most
important factor first, second most important factor second, etc.
(WRITE IN AS Q6)
What is your single ideal type of holiday feature which comes to mind when you think
about the following aspects:
(TAKE FIRST 10 FROM RESPONDENT'S LIST)
(66)
(68)
(70)
(72)
(74)
(76)
(78)
(80)
Landscape and Scenery ______
Distance to Travel _________
OverallCost ______________
Cleanliness _________________
Available Medical Services -
Physical Safety ____________
Level of Tourism Development
The Travel Company _________
Climatic conditions _________
Destination's Foreign People
Typeof Food _________________
Range of Activities Available
Food and Drink Costs ________
Other Visiting Holidaymakers
Accommodation Types _________
(67)
(69)
(71)
(73)
(75)
(77)
(79)
(81)
Q9
Now that you have thought about each of the aspects of a holiday, I am going to ask
you if you want to place the cards in a different order of importance again.
(WAIT FOR SORTING TO FINISH) I now want you to place the cards apart from each
other against this 1 metre measure to reflect the differences in importance you feel
can be attributed to each item. For example, if you feel one or a group of items
are more important then space them away from the others.
(1)
(3)
(5)
(7)
(9)
(11)
(13)
(15)
Landscape and Scenery ______
Distance to Travel _________
OverallCost ______________
Cleanliness __________________
Available Medical Services
Physical Safety ____________
Level of Tourism Development
The Travel Company
Climatic conditions ________
Destination's Foreign People
Typeof Food _________________
Range of Activities Available
Food and Drink Costs ________
Other Visiting Holidaymakers
Accommodation Types _________
(2)
(4)
(6)
(8)
(10)
(12)
(14)
(16)
page 353
Appendix 7.2 Draft Questionnaire Continued Page 3
PART C
Q1OCan you give me a list of destinations you would consider for your next holiday,
that would be ideal for you.
(1-3)
QilCould you now give them to me in order of your most likely realistic first choice,
second choice, etc.
1. ___________________ (4) _% (12)2. _____________________ (5) ____% (13)
3. ____________________ (6)% (14)4. ______________________ (7)% ( 15)
5. ____________________ (8) _% (16)6. ______________________ (9)% (17)
7. _______________________ (10) ____% (18) 8. __________________________(11) _% (19)
I will now read your list. Could you tell me, as honestly as possible, the
likelihood of visiting the country mentioned, in the next 3 years. Please give me
the answer as a percentage likelihood out of 100.
Q12 I will now read back your list with the percentages. Can you look at this card
(SHOW CARD 2) and tell me which one of the four points listed corresponds most to
your decision.
I believe the destination:
A. Offers one single overwhelming advantage
B. Offers a few overwhelming advantages
C. Offers a best balance of the characteristics I favour most
0.Has unacceptable features
1st

Al

B2

C3

04

(20)
2nd

Al

B2

C3

04

(21)
3rd

Al

B2

C3

04

(22)
4th

Al

B2

C3

D4

(23)
5th

Al

B2

C3

04

(24)
6th

Al

B2

C3

D4

(25)
7th

Al

82

C3

04

(26)
8th

Al

C3

04

(27)
Ql5Of the first destination you have just mentioned, can you tell me for your first
choice ((REMIND RESPONDENT)
Have you personally made a visit before?
Has a close friend or relative told you about the destination?
1-lave you seen it on television?
Have you already booked it for your next holiday?
Have you seen any recent advertising for the destination?
What other sources of information have you used?
(WRITE IN)
Yes 1 No 2 (28)
Yes 1 No 2 (29)
Yes 1 No 2 (30)
Yes 1 No 2 (31)
Yes 1No 2(32)
__________ (33/34)
page 354
No 2( 4 9 )
No2( 5 0 )
No 2( 5 1 )
No2( 5 2)
No2( 5 3 )
( 5 4 /5 5 )
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
No 2
YesiNo2

( 5 5 )
YeslNo2

( 5 6)
YeslNo2

( 5 7)
YesiNo2

( 5 8)
YesiNo2

( 5 9 )
( 60 )
Appendix 7.2 Draft Questionnaire Continued Page 4
REPEAT FOF
2nd
VISIT

Yes 1
FRIEND

Yes 1
TV

Yes 1
BOOKED

Yes 1
ADVERT.

Yes 1
OTHER
5 th
VISIT
FRIEND
TV
BOOKED
ADVERT.
OTHER
No 2( 3 5 )
No 2( 3 6)
No 2( 3 7)
No 2( 3 8)
No 2( 3 9 )
( 4 0 /4 1 )
3 rd
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
6th
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
( 4 2)
( 4 3 )
( 4 4 )
( 4 5 )
( 4 6)
( 4 7/4 8)
( 61 )
( 62)
( 63 )
( 64 )
( 65 )
( 66)
4 th
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
Yes 1
7th
YesiNo2
YesiNo2
YesiNo2
YesiNo2
YeslNo2
( 67)
( 68)
( 69 )
( 70 )
( 71 )
( 72)
PART B
I am going to show you some cards. I want you to give me, in the order 1 t 4 , your choice
of statements which you believe correspond most to you. Tell me the statement that you
believe corresponds most to yourself first, then the one that corresponds most to you next
as second, etc.
Q1 6 SHOW CARD 3
I believe the old ways of doing things can sometimes be best
I believe modern morals have allowed people to be more natural
I respect the monarchy and the law
I would reform laws and the structure of society if I could
Q1 7 SHOW CARD 4
I am traditional, law abiding, safe
I am modern, questioning, venturesome
I am confident, decisive, secure
I am a conformist, follower, careful
1 2 3 4 ( 1 )
1 2 3 4 ( 2)
1 2 3 4 ( 3 )
1 2 3 4 ( 4 )
1 2 3 4 ( 9 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 0 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 1 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 2)
Q1 8 I would like you to think about how you come to a decision in a family or with
friends. Can you tell me on a scale of 1 to 4 how you normally react with others.
Look at this card ( SHOW CARD 5 ) and tell me one if you believe you most normally
act like the statement or four if you believe it is the least normal way of your
acting.
I listen to all the views but I still want my choice
I try to negotiate to get most of what I want
I always compromise to others
I insist the final decision has to be democratic
I am likely to give in to the person for whom the decision
will be most important
I am always happy with the final decision
1 2 3 4 ( 1 3 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 4 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 5 )
1 2 3 4 ( 1 6)
1 2 3 4 ( 1 7)
1 2 3 4 ( 1 8)
(22)
(23)
(24)
100
(25)
(26)
(27)
100
A " '

page 355
A ppendix 7.2 Draft Questionnaire Continued Page 5
Q19I
am going to ask you to think about who is important to making a holiday decision.
Allocate 100 points in the way you feel you or any others were important in
influencing the final decision. Ignore the children category if you travel without
children. If you are married, ignore friends.
SHOW CARD 7
To take the holiday:yourself_____ (19)
marriage partner /friends_____ (20)

children_____ (21)
100
The destination agreed upon:yourself
marriage partner /friends
children
The length of the trip:yourself
marriage partner /friends
children
The overall cost:

yourself

(28)

marriage partner /friends

(29)

children

(30)
100
The final decision:

yourself

(31)

marriage partner /friends

(32)

children

(33)
100
PART E
The final questions have been included to help with the survey findings. They will remain
strictly confidential.
Q20
Please look at this showcard (SHOW CARD 7) and give me the number of your age
group:
(36)
118-24 years1
225-34 years2
335-44 years3
445-54 years4
555-64 years5
page 356
Appendix 7.2 Draft Questionnaire Continued Page 6
Q21Gendermale1
(35)
female2
Q22Please look at this showcard (SHOW CARD 9) and give me the number which best
describes the age when you finished full-time education (36)
1under 181
2under 222
322orover3
4 still studying4
Q23Are you single, married, separated or widowed?

(37)
single1
married2
separated3
widowed4
Q25If married, separated or widowed:
How many children under 18 years old do you have?
None0
One1
Two
2
Three3
Four or more4
Q26Finally, can you give me the letter which best describes the total income of the
household.(39)
Aunder 12,000 1
B12-17,000 2
Cover 17-24 ,000 3
0over 22-27,0004
E over 27-32,0005
Fover 32-37,0006
G
over 37,0007
Refusal8
Thank and end interview
jLixr*

page 357
Appendix 7.3 1990 Refereed Publication From this Thesis in:
Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management,
Volume 2, Beihaven Press, Chapter 1
pp.
4-27.
1 Conceptual issues in the
meaning of tourism
D. C. Gilbert
Introduction
Tourism as a domain of study has, in the main, provided descriptive analysis
based on the 'world view' of various authors. The task for the future may have
to be linked to the principal premise that there is a need to develop a deeper
understanding of the consumer of the tourism product. Contemporary tourism
theory has to accept that narrow operative views of tourism behaviour may be
inappropriate. The scope, content, and role of being a tourist is often mis-
perceived.
The traditional simplistic view of tourist behaviour could be rejected and
replaced with a new understanding of the tourist as a consumer who demon-
strates particular actions of behaviour. These actions involve the needs,
motivation, attitudes, values, personality and perceptions which all lead to
specific preferences for tourism-related activities.
To approach the subject in a scientific manner it is not necessary to establish
facts, test a hypothesis or construct some apriori theory. Initially it is important
to identify the peculiar character and concepts of tourism as a particular
phenomenon. However, as a phenomenon it has meaning but no substantial
property, no real form or ways of changing. It relies on theorists to attribute a
particular nature, and to identify component parts. In order to provide a defini-
tion of tourism we need to examine the construction of different ideas or
meanings emanating from the current practice of industry and the con-
temporary ideas of theorists.
The work of theorists has to be a filtering out of the unimportant from an
array of valid attributes which make up the daily routines of what we currently
term tourism. From these attributes we can develop universal statements and
explanations. The definitions should therefore emanate from the process of
tourism and be grounded in its nature. This chapter recognizes that tourism is
concerned with economic, epistemological and social issues and it attempts to
provide analysis of the conceptual basis for these perspectives.
Scope, nature and meaning of tourism
The underlying objective of this chapter is to highlight the need for more
development of a consumer behaviour approach within tourism. It is believed
. litbert

page 358
Appendix 7.4 : 1991 Refereed Publication From this Thesis in:
Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management,
Volume 3, Beihaven Press, Chapter 5
pp.
78-105.
5 An examination of the
consumer
behavioii r process related to
tourism
D. C. Gilbert
Introduction
Tourism holiday choice can be treated as a consumption process which is
influenced by a number of different factors. These may be a combination of
needs and desires, availability of time and funds, supply of the preferred holiday
type, image conveyed of the destination, perception and expectation built on
experience and information gathered. Holidaymakers as reflexive human beings
will bring their own personality and biography to bear on this process and
will therefore exhibit differential motivation influenced by levels of anxiety,
optimism, indecisiveness or enthusiasm.
While research has been carried out, both in pre-travel, tourist origin areas
and also in tourist destinations as post-decision studies, to date little empirical
evidence exists to explain the process in any detail. As a relatively new area
of study, tourism consumer behaviour theory is fraught with unproven assump-
tions, ambiguous terminology and contradictory evidence. While at present it
may be impossible to solve the conundrum of the consumer choice process,
different approaches are creating some pattern in an otherwise diffuse situation.
This chapter will attempt to examine the main areas of motivation, image,
tourist role, family behaviour and consumer models in order to provide a review
of the current approaches.
A classification of approach
The current theory regarding travel and tourism purchase behaviour falls
within one or more of the four approaches shown below. Much of the work
carried out in these areas is subsequently incorporated into overall tourism
models which attempt to isolate and map out the purchase process. It is the
emphasis on applied research within these four areas which sets tourism
research apart from more general consumer research. Whilst these four areas
are identified it is recognised there are interrelationships between each of the
areas which create areas of overlap. Moreover, some of the work carried out in
*'dibCtbrt

page 359
Appendix 7.5 : 1990 Refereed Publication From this Thesis in:
Service Industries Journal, Volume 10, (4) pp. 664-679.
European Tourism Product Purchase
Methods and Systems
by
D.C. Gilbert*
The distribution of tourism products, within Western Europe,
is being affectedby consumer needs as well as technological
advancement. This article attempts to identify the current
trends in distrthution usage as well as the pressures which
may bring about a shift in purchase behaviour, especially
in relation to buying direct from wholesalers. In conclusion,
the article identifies the current adoption of technology as one
means of creating long-term advantage in the travel industry.
However, it also reveals that direct agency channels couldbe
developedif companies were willing to take advantage of the
emergence of new opportunities.
A current examination of the distribution of European tourism products
reveals that although new technology has facilitated the development
of direct-sell distribution for the travel and tourism industry, there is
little evidence that this has occurred. However, changes in the future
owing to the overall effect of technology on the distribution of the
tourism product and on consumer purchasing behaviour is open to
considerable speculation. IBM specialists have predicted that by the
early 1990s central automated systems could remove the need for travel
agents. Alternatively, there is little evidence that direct sell is on the
increase. Consumers are resistant to automated direct-sell and there is
little involvement in direct home buying by consumers.
While this view may be typical in the current situation, a whole range
of pressures are now bearing down on the travel industry. This article
examines the role of technology and consumer behaviour in relation to
the future of distribution channels and systems in Europe.
THE PURCHASING HABITS OF THE EUROPEAN TOURISM MARKET
Europe represents a large regional market in which countries are
becoming more closely linked economically. In order to understand
Department of Management Studies for Tourism and Hotel Industries, University of
Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH, UK
page 360
Appendix 7.6 Technical Aspects Of MDS
The Basic Nature of the Shepard-Kruskal Development in
Multidimensional Scaling.
The data needed for the application of MDS analysis include a set
of objects (n) and a set of proximities between each pair. In
particular, to every pair of objects i and j corresponds a
proximity
S.
Proximity is defined by Schiffman, et al., (1981)
as a number that shows the amount of similarity or difference
between a pair of perceived objects - input data values are
referred to as proximities. The aim is to arrive at such a
configuration of n points in the Euclidean space that the least
possible dimensions are used, the degree of approximation is
acceptable, and distances d 1 between the pair (i, j)are
monotonically related to the given S; (Shepard, 1972). That
is:
d 1 < dwhenever S >
SkL
In order to choose a suitable number of dimensions whenever they
are not given in advance, a best-fitting configuration is
estimated for one to four dimensions. Then the one that achieves
the desired equilibrium between "parsimony, stability, and
visualizability" and "overall goodness of f it" is chosen.
However, this is easier said than done in a trade-off
relationship as far as the number of dimensions is concerned.
In particular, goodness of fit improves with the increase of
dimensionality whereas visualizability decreases.
Thus by convention the following criteria are used as guidance
to the choice of dimensionality:
o stress, the measure that shows how far the data depart
from the model, should not be too large and
furthermore, should not drop too abruptly as further
dimensions are added.The stress levels for this
study were excellent.
o the representation should be statistically reliable meaning
that if solutions are obtained separately for two
independent sets of data and if these two solutions are
rotated into optimum correspondence with each other, then
the n points should project in essentially the same orders
on corresponding axes of these two representations;
othe representation should be interpretable;
o the representation should be readily visualizable and so
confined whenever possible to two or at most three
dimensions due to the need for rotation of the dimensions
in order to find an interpretable solution (there was no
need for the use of Carroll's INDSCAL program. This
program was not utilized due to the study data collected
being complete ).
page 361
Appendix 7.7 GLOSSARY OF MDS TERMINOLOGY
TERMS CONCERNING DATA (based upon Schiffman, 1981)
Object

A thing or event, for example, an apple.


Stimulus A perceived object, for example, a tasted apple.
Attribute A perceived characteristic of a stimulus, for example
sweet.
Proximity A number that shows the amount of similarity or
difference between a pair of stimuli. Input data values are often
referred to as proximities. The usual symbol is 6 .
Data Matrix Arrangement of the data into a table where the first
column shows the proximities between stimulus 1 and each of the
succeeding stimuli, the second column shows the proximities
between stimulus 2 and succeeding stimuli, and so on. The
proximities between all pairs of stimuli can be shown in the
lower-half matrix lined in below:
813614
6 21 622 623 624
631 632 833 634
The total matrix shown above is said to be square. It is also
symmetric if the proximities in the upper-half matrix are equal
to the proximities in the lower-half matrix, for example,
6 4 2 =
824
The measurement of data can be 1) Nominal where objects are
sorted into groups only, 2) Ordinal where objects are ranked in
order of magnitude, 3) Interval where objects are placed on a
scale, 4 ) Ratio where objects are placed on a scale such that the
position along the scale represents the absolute magnitude of the
attribute. (Mass and velocity are examples of a ratio scale).
TERMS CONCERNING PERCEPTUAL SPACES
Point

A position in a space that is an abstract


representation of a stimulus.
Dimension A characteristic that serves to
define a point in a space; an
axis through the space.
Space

The set of all potential points defined by


a set of dimensions.
page 362
Configuration A particular organization of a set of points,
that is, a map.
Direction

A vector through a space that


relates to an attribute.
OrthogonalThis means perpendicular to, as
in a vector through space that
relates to an attribute. Most
MDS spaces are developed with
orthogonal axes.
Subject
Weights Numbers showing the relative
importance a subject attaches to
each of the stimulus dimensions
when making his or her similarity
judgements. Sometimes they are
also referred to as dimensional
saliences.
Subject Space A map showing the vectors of
subject weights( in INDSCAL and
ALSCAL indicates how much of the
subjects's data, or some
transformation of that data, is
explained by the model). The
subject space has as many
dimensions as the stimulus space.
Euclidean
Distance
This is the distance that
corresponds to everyday
experience. The distance between
two stimuli can be calculated
from their coordinates according
to the Pythagorean formula. In a
three-dimensional map, for
example, the distance between
stimulus A (coordinates
XA,
A'
ZA)
and stimulus B (coordinates X6,
B' Z
8 )is
[ ( XA-
X8 )2 +
(A-B)
+
( ZA-ZB)2 ]
Aid1' Dtt

page 363
TERMS CONCERNING MDS COMPUTER PROGRAMS
MDS Multidimensional scaling.
Algorithm The mathematical procedure used to solve the problem.
The word becomes tied to the computer program based on
the procedure: "The INDSCAL algorithm allows for
individual perceptual differences"Or it is dropped
entirely: "INDSCAL allows for individual perceptual
differences.
Metric The type of measuring system. The work is
used very widely in different contexts
which can be confusing. It is coininon in MDS
to refer to metric solutions to preserve (as
far as possible) the original similarity
data in a linear fashion. The distances in
noninetric solutions preserve only the rank
order of the original similarity data. The
actual computation of the co-ordinates of
the stimulus space is, of course, a metric
(numerical) operation. Monotone
transformations (see the following) of the
original similarity data provide the bridge
between rank order and distances in the
stimulus space.
Transfor
mation Nonmetric MDS programs apply monotone transformations
to the original data to allow performance of
arithmetic operations on the rank orders of
proximities.Amonotone transformation need only
maintain the rank order of the proximities.
Stress Aparticular measure that shows how far the
data depart from the model. There are
several stress formulas available in the
various algorithms.
Shepard
Diagram Also scattergram of scatter diagram. Aplot
comparing the distances derived by MDS and
transformed data (disparities) with the
original data values or proximities.
page 364
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for BPBSX Computations
* SPSS 4.0 has been installed on HP-UX - type 'man spss'
*
please migrate to version 4.0 as soon as possibLe *
14 Hay 92SPSS-X Release 3.0 for HP-UX
13:51 :41University of Surrey CentralHP9000 Ser 800HPUX AB8.00
For HPUX A.B8.00University of Surrey CentralLicense Nuiber 62515
This software is functional through Septener 30, 1992.
Try the new SPSS-X Release 3.0 features:
* Interactive SPSS-X comand execution * Inrovements in:
* OnLine Help* REPORT
* Nonlinear Regression* TABLES
* Time Series and Forecasting (TRENDS)
*
Siirplified Syntax
a Macro Facility* Matrix I/O
See SPSS-X Users Guide, Third Edition for more information on these features.
TITLE"TOURISM C8"
SET LENGTHNONE
DATA LIST FILE "TOURISM" RECORDS = 3
/1
VAR1 3-6, VAR2 7, VAR3 8, VAR4 9,VAR5 10,VAR6 11,
VAR7 12, VAR8 13, VAR9 14, VAR1O 15, VAR11 16, VAR12 17,
VAR13 18, VAR14 19,VAR15 20,VAR16 21,VAR17 22,VAR18 23, VAR19 24,
VAR2O 25, VAR21 26, VAR22 27, VAR23 28, VAR24 29, VAR2S 30,
VAR26 31, VAR27 32, VAR28 33, VAR29 34, VAR3O 35-36, VAR31 37-38,
VAR32 39-40, VAR33 41-42, VAR34 43-44, VAR35 45-46, VAR36 47-48,
VAR37 49-50, VAR38 51-52, VAR39 53-54, VAR4O 55-56, VAR41 57-58,
VAR42 59-60, VAR43 61-62, VAR44 63-64, VAR45 65-66, VAR46 67,
VAR47 68, VAR48 69, VAR49 70, VAR5O 71,VAR51 72
/2VAR52 1, VAR53 2, VAR54 3, VAR55 4, VAR56 5, VAR57 6, VAR58 7,
VAR59 8, VAR6O 9, VAR61 10, VAR62 11, VAR63 12, VAR64 13,
VAR65 14,VAR66 15,VAR67 16,VAR68 17,VAR69 18,VAR7O 19,VAR71 20,
VAR72 21,VAR73 22,VAR74 23,VAR75 24,VAR76 25,VAR77 26,
VAR78 27, VAR79 28 ,VAR8O 29,VAR81 30,VAR82 31,VAR83 32.
VAR84 33,VAR85 34, VAR86 35,VAR87 36,VAR88 37,VAR89 38,VAR9O 39,
VAR91 40, VAR92 41,VAR93 42,VAR94 43,VAR95 44,VAR96 45,VAR97 46,
VAR98 47,VAR99 48,VAR100 49,VAR1O1 50,VAR1O2 51,VAR1O3 52,
VAR1O4 53,VAR1O5 54,VAR1O6 55,VAR1O7 56,VAR1O8 57,VAR1O9 58,
VAR11O 59,VAR111 60,VAR112 61,VAR113 62,VAR114 63,VAR115 64,
VAR116 65,VAR117 66, VAR118 67,VAR119 68,VAR12O 69
VAR121 70,VAR122 71,VAR123 72,VAR124 73,VAR125 74,VAR126 Th,
VAR127 76
VAR128 1,VAR129 2,VAR13O 3,VAR131 4,VAR132 5,VAR133 6,VAR134 7,
VAR135 8,VAR136 9,VAR137 10,VAR138 11,VAR139 12,VAR14O 13,
VAR141 14,VAR142 15,VAR143 16,VAR144 17,VAR145 18,VAR146 19,
VAR147 20,VAR148 21,VAR149 22,VAR15O 23,VAR151 24,VAR152 25,
VAR153 26,VAR1S4 27,VAR15S 28,VAR156 29,VAR157 30,VAR158 31,
VAR159 32,VAR16O 33,VAR161 34,VAR162 35,VAR163 36,VAR164 37,
VAR16S 38,VAR166 39,VAR167 40,VAR168 41
0
2 0
3 0
4 0
5 0
6 0
7 0
8 0
9 0
10 0
11 0
12 0
13 0
14 0
15 0
16 0
17 0
18 0
19 0
20 0
21 0
22 0
23 0
24 0
25 0
26 0
27 0
28 0
29 0
30 0
31 0
32 0
33 0
34 0
35 0
36 0
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
a
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
page 365
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for
SPSSX Computations
37 0
38 0
THE COMMAND ABOVE READS 3 RECORDS F ROM TOURISM
VARIABLE REC STARTEND

VAR 1

VAR2

7

7

VAR3

VAR4

VAR5

1 0

1 0

VAR6

1 1

1 1

VAR7

1 2

1 2

VAR8

1 3

1 3

VAR9

1 4

1 4

VAR 1 0

1 5

1 5

VAR 1 1

1 6

1 6

VAR 1 2

1 7

1 7

VAR 1 3

1 8

1 8

VAR 1 4

1 9

1 9

VAR1 5

20

20

VAR 1 6

21

21

VAR 1 7

22

22

VARI 8

23

23

VAR 1 9

24

24

VAR2O

25

25

VAR21

26

26

VAR22

27

27

VAR 23

28

28

VAR24

29

29

VAR25

30

30

VAR26

31

31

VAR27

32

32

VAR28

33

33

VAR29

34

34

VAR3O

35

36

VAR31

37

38

VAR32

39

40
VAR33

41

42

VAR34

I

43

44

VAR35

45

46

VAR36

47

48

VAR37

49

50

VAR38

51

52

VAR39

53

54

VAR4O

55

56

VAR41

57

58

VAR42

59

60

VAR43

61

62

VAR44

63

64

VAR45

65

66

VAR46

67

67

VAR47

68

68

VAR48

69

69
VAR49

70

70
VAR5O

71

71
VAR5 1

72

72
VAR52

2
VAR53

2
F ORMAT WIDTH DEC
page 366
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
VAR54

VAR55

VAR56

VAR57

VARS8

VAR59

VAR6O

VAR61

1 0

1 0

VAR62

1 1

1 1

VAR63

1 2

1 2

VAR64

1 3

1 3

VAR65

1 4

1 4

VAR66

1 5

1 5

VAR67

1 6

1 6

VAR68

1 7

1 7

VAR69

1 8

1 8

VAR7O

1 9

1 9

VAR71

20

20

VAR72

21

21

VAR73

22

22

VAR74

23

23

VAR75

24

24

VAR76

25

25

VAR77

26

26

VAR78

27

27

VAR79

28

28

VAR8O

29

29

VAR81

30

30

VAR82

31

31

VAR83

32

32

VAR84

33

33

VAR85

34

34

VAR8.6

35

35

VAR87

36

36

VAR88

37

37

VAR89

38

38

VAR9O

39

39

0
VAR91

40

40

0
VAR92

41

41

0
VAR93

42

42

0
VAR94

43

43

0
VAR95

44

44

0
VAR96

65

45

0
VAR97

46

46

0
VAR98

47

47

0
VAR99

48

48

VAR1 00

49

49

VAR1 O1

50

50

VAR1 02

51

51

VAR1 03

52

52

VAR1 04

53

53

VAR1 05

54

54

VAR1 06

55

55

VAR1 07

56

56

VAR1 08

57

57

VAR1 09

58

58

VAR1 1 0

59

59

VAR1 1 1

60

60

VAR1 1 2

61

61

VAR1 1 3

62

62

0
eSDCttbe*I

page367
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPBSX Computations
VAR 114

63

63

0
VAR 115

64

64

0
VAR 116

65

65

0
VAR 117

66

66

0
VAR 118

67

67

0
VAR 119

68

68

0
VAR 120

69

69

0
VAR 121

70

70

0
VAR 122

71

71

0
VAR123

72

72

0
VAR 124

73

73

0
VAR 125

74

74

0
VAR 126

75

75

0
VAR 127

76

76

0
VAR 128

0
VAR 129

0
VAR 130

0
VAR 131

0
VAR 132

0
VAR 133

0
VAR 134

0
VAR 135

0
VAR 136

0
VAR 137

10

10

0
VAR 138

11

11

0
VAR1 39

12

12

0
VAR 140

13

13

0
VAR141

14

14

0
VAR 142

15

15

0
VAR 143

16

16

0
VAR144

17

17

0
VAR 145

18

18

0
VAR 146

19

19

0
VAR1 47

20

20

0
VAR 148

21

21

0
VAR 149

22

22

0
VAR 150

23

23

0
VAR 15 1

24

24

0
VAR 152

25

25

0
VAR 153

26

26

0
VAR1 54

27

27

0
VAR 155

28

28

0
VAR1 56

29

29

0
VAR 157

30

30

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VAR 158

31

31

0
VAR 159

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0
VAR 160

33

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0
VAR 161

34

34

0
VAR 162

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VAR 163

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VAR 164

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VAR 165

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VAR 166

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VAR1 67

40

40

0
VAR1 68

41

41

0
ENDOF DATALIST TABLE
39 0 VAR LABELSVAR1,QUEST NO!
page 368
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
40 0

VAR2, LOCAT ION!


41 0

VAR3, INTERVIEWER!
42 0

VAR4,lst BOOKING MOTIVATION!


43 0

VAR52ND BOOKING MOTIVATION!


44 0

VAR63RD BOOKING MOTIVATION!


45 0

VAR7,1ST BENEFIT MOTIVATION!


46 0

VAR82ND BENEFIT MOTIVATION!


47 0

VAR9,3RD BENEFIT MOTIVATION!


48 0

VAR101ST DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION!


49 0

VAR11,2ND DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION!


50 0

VAR12,3RD DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION!


51 0

VAR13,lst RANKED MOTIVATION!


52 0

VAR14,2ND RANKED MOTIVATION!


53 0

VAR15,3RD RANKED MOTIVATION!


54 0

VAR16,4TH RANKED MOTIVATION!


55 0

VAR175TH RANKED MOTIVATION!


56 0

VAR18 6TH RANKED MOTIVATION!


57 0

VAR197TH RANKED MOTIVATION!


58 0

VAR2O,8TH RANKED MOTIVATION!


59 0

VAR21,1ST STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


60 0

VAR22,2ND STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


61 0

VAR23,3RD STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


62 0

VAR24,4TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


63 0

VAR25,5TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


64 0

VAR26,6TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


65 0

VAR277TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


66 0

VAR28,8TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION!


67 0

VAR29,EXTRA PREFERENCE!
68 0

VAR3O,LANDSCAPE RANK!
69 0

VAR31,CLIMATICS RANK!
70 0

VAR32,D I STANCE RANK!


71 0

VAR33FOREIGNERS RANK!
72 0

VAR34COST RANK!
73 0

VAR35, FOWTYPE RANK!


74 0

VAR36,CLEANLINESS RANK!
75 0

VAR37,ACTIVITIES RANK!
76 0

VAR38MED ICAL RANK!


77 0

VAR39 FBCOSTS RANK!


78 0

VAR4O,SAFETY RANK!
79 0

VAR41 ,OTHERHOLS RANK!


80 0

VAR42, TOUR I SMDEV RANK!


81 0

VAR43,ACC RANK!
82 0

VAR44, TRAVCO RANK!


83 0

VAR45,OTHPREF RANK/
84 0

VAR46 LANDSCAPE TYPE!


85 0

VAR47CLIMATIC COND!
86 0

VAR48,TRAV DIST!
87 0

VAR49, FOREIGN PEOPLE!


88 0

VAR5OTOTA1 COST!
89 0

VAR51FOOO TYPE!
90 0

VAR52CLEANL I NESS!
91 0

VAR53.ACTIVITIES/
92 0

VAR54 MED I CAL!


93 0

VAR55, FBCOSTS/
94 0

VAR56 PHYSI CAL SAFETY!


95 0

VAR57,OTHERHOLS TYPE!
96 0

VAR58TOURSDEV TYPE!
97 0

VAR59,ACC TYPE!
98 0

VAR6O,TRAVCO TYPE/
99 0

VAR61EXTRA TYPE!
page 369
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
100 0

VAR62,LANDSCAPE SPATIAL PREF/

101 0

VAR63,CLIMATIC SPATIAL PREF/

102 0

VAR64 TRAVELDIST SPATIAL PREF/

103 0

VAR65,FOREIGNPOP SPATIAL PREFI


104 0

VAR66T0TC0ST SPATIAL PREF/

105 0

VAR67,F000TYPE SPATIAL PREF/

106 0

VAR68,CLEANLINESS SPATIAL PREF!

107 0

VAR69,ACTIVITIES SPATIAL PREF!

108 0

VAR7OI4EDICAL SPATIAL PREF!

109 0

VAR7I,F6COSTS SPATEAL PREF(

110 0

VAR72,PHYSICAL SAFETY SPATIAL PREF/

111 0

VAR73, OTHERHOL IDA Y I4AKERS SPATIAL PREF/


112 0

VAR74,LEVEL TOURDEV SPATIAL PREF/

113 0

VAR75ACCTYPE SPATIAL PREF/

114 0

VAR76,TRAVCO SPATIAL PREF/


115 0

VAR77,OTHER SPATIAL PREF/

116 0

VAR78,1ST COUNTRY EVOKED!

117 0

VAR79,2ND COUNTRY EVOKED!

118 0

VAR8O,3RD COUNTRY EVOKED!

119 0

VAR81,4TH COUNTRY EVOKED!

120 0

VAR82,5TH COUNTRY EVOKED!

121 0

VAR836TH COUNTRY EVOKED!

122 0

VAR84,7TH COUNTRY EVOKED!

123 0

VAR85,8TH COUNTRY EVOKED!

124 0

VAR861ST DESTINATION RANKED!

125 0

VAR872ND DESTINATION RANKED!

126 0

VAR88,3RD DESTINATION RANKED!

127 0

VAR894TH DESTINATION RANKED!

128 0

VAR9O5TH DESTINATION RANKED!

129 0

VAR91,6TH DESTINATION RANKED!

130 0

VAR92,7TH DESTINATION RANKED!

131 0

VAR93,8TH DESTINATION RANKED!

132 0

VAR94,1ST DEST PROPENSITY!

133 0

VAR95 2ND DEST PROPENSITY!

134 0

VAR96,3RD DEST PROPENSITY!

135 0

VAR97 4TH DEST PROPENSITY!

136 0

VAR98,5TH DEST PROPENSITY!

137 0

VAR99,6TH DEST PROPENSITY!

138 0

VAR100,7TH DEST PROPENSITY!

139 0

VAR1O1,8TH DEST PROPENSITY!

140 0

VAR1O21ST DEST DECISION REASONS!

141 0

VAR1O3,2ND DEST DECISION REASONS!

142 0

VAR1O4,3RD DEST DECISION REASONS!

143 0

VAR1O5,4TH DEST DECISION REASONS!

144 0

VAR1O6,5TH DEST DECISION REASONS!

145 0

VAR1O7,6TH DEST DECISION REASONS!

146 0

VAR1O8,7TH DEST DECISION REASONS!

147 0

VAR1O9,8TH DEST DECISION REASONS!

148 0

VAR11O1ST CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT!

149 0

VAR1111ST CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND!

150 0

VAR112,1ST CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV!

151 0

VAR1131ST CHOICE ALREADY BKD!

152 0

VAR114,1ST CHOICE RECENT ADS!

153 0

VAR115,1ST CHOICE OTHER SOURCES!

154 0

VAR116,2ND CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT!


155 0

VAR117,2ND CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND!


156 0

VAR118,2ND CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV!


157 0

VAR1192ND CHOICE ALREADY BKD!


158 0

VAR12O,2NO CHOICE RECENT ADS!


159 0

VAR1212ND CHOICE OTHER SOURCES!


page 370
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
160 I
161
162
163
164(
165 C
166(
167 (
168C
169 C
170 0
171 0
172 0
173 0
174 0
175 0
176 0
177 0
178 0
179 0
180 0
181 0
182 0
183 0
184 0
185 0
186 0
187 0
188 0
189 0
190 0
191 0
192 0
193 0
194 0
195 0
196 0
197 0
198 0
199 0
200 0
201 0
202 0
203 0
204 0
205 0
206 0
207 0
208 0 SET LENGTH
209 0
210 0
211 0
212 0
213 0
214 0
215 0
216 0
217 0
218 0
219 0
VAR1223RO CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT!
VAR123,3R0 CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND!
VAR124,3R0 CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV!
VAR125,3RD CHOICE ALREADY BKD/
VAR126,3RD CHOICE RECENT ADS!
VAR1273RD CHOICE OTHER SJRCES(
VAR12B,TRADITIONAL VALUES BEST!
VAR129,MODERN MORALS BETTER!
VAR13O,TRADITIONAL RESPECT!
VAR131 ,HODERN REFORMER!
VAR132,TRADITIONAL LAWABIDER/
VAR133,MOOERN QUESTIONER!
VAR134,MOOERN CONFIDENT!
VAR135,TRADITIONAL CONFORMIST!
VAR136,LISTEN BUT DECIS!VE/
VAR137,WEGOTIATE FOR OWN WAY/
VAR138,COMPROMI SER/
VAR139,DEMOCRATIC INSISTER!
VAR14O,CONSIDERATE SATISFICER!
VAR141,O(JTCOME SMILER!
VAR142,GROIJPDECIS HOLTAKE SELF!
VAR143,GRO(JPDECIS HOLTAKE PARTNER!
VAR144,GROIJPDECIS HOLTAKE FRIENDS!
VAR145,GROUPDECIS HOLTAKE CHILDREN!
VAR146,GROUPDECIS DESTAGREE SELF!
VAR147,GRQ(JPDECIS DESTAGREE PARTNER!
VAR148,GROIJPDECIS DESTAGREE FRIENDS!
VAR149,GROUPOECIS DESTAGREE CHILDREN/
VAR15O,GROUPOECIS TRIPLENGTH SELF!
VAR151,GROUPOECIS TRIPLENGTH PARTNER!
VAR152,GRO(JPDECIS TRIPLENGTK FRIENDS!
VAR153,GROIJPDECIS TRIPLENGTH CHILDREN!
VAR154,GROIJPOECIS FINANCIALDECIS SELF!
VAR155.GRJPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS PARTNER!
VAR1S6,GRO(JPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS FRIENDS!
VAR157,GRO(JPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS CHILDREN/
VAR158,GRO(JPDECIS FINALDECIS SELF!
VAR159,GRO(JPDECIS FINALDECIS PARTNER!
VAR16O,GRO&JPDECIS FINALDECIS FRIENDS!
VAR161,GRO(JPDECIS FINALDECIS CHILDREN!
VAR162,AGE GROIJP/
VAR 163 , GENDER!
VAR164,COMPLETION OF EDUCATION!
VAR165,MARITAL STATUS!
VAR166,CHILDREN STATUS!
VAR 167, FINANCIAl STATUS!
VAR16B4OCCUPATION/
=NONE
VALUE LABELS VAR2, (1)SURREY (2)OTHER/
VAR3, (1)DG (2)OTHER!
VAR4, (1)REST1 (2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)cIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG!
VAR5, (1)REST1 (2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)CULGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
page 371
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for BPSSX Computations
220 0
221 0
222 0
223 0
224 0
225 0
226 0
227 0
228 0
229 0
230 0
231 0
232 0
233 0
234 0
235 0
236 0
237 0
238 0
239 0
240 0
241 0
242 0
243 0
244 0
245 0
246 0
247 0
248 0
249 0
250 0
251 0
252 0
253 0
254 0
255 0
256 0
257 0
258 0
259 0
260 0
261 0
262 0
263 0
264 0
265 0
266 0
267 0
268 0
269 0
270 0
271 0
272 0
273 0
274 0
275 0
276 0
277 0
278 0
279 0
VAR6, (1)REST1(2)EI4JOYAOV (3)CHA1ESC (4)cIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EOUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR?, (1)REST2(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)cIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR8, (1)REST2(2)ENJOYADV (3)cHANEsc (4)cuLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITV (9)GEOG/
VAR9, (1)REsT2(2)EWJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)cULGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOC!AL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEDG/
VAR1O,(1)REST3(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANEsc (4)QJLGAS t5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR11,(1)REST3(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANEsc (4)C1JLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOcIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR12,(1)REST3(2)EWJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)cIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)sOcIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOGI
VAR13,(1)REST4(2)EWJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)CULGAS (5)WEATI$
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR14,(1)REST4 (2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANEsc (4)cULGAs (5WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR15,(1)REST4(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)cULGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR16,(1)REST4(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)CUIGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR17,(1)REST4(2)ENJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)CIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR18,(1)REST4(2)EI4JOYADV (3)CHANESC (4cuLGAs (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR19,(1)REST4(2)ENJOYAOV (3)cHANEsC (4)cIJLGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACT!VITY (9)GEOG/
VAR2O,(1)REST4(2)EHJOYADV (3)CHANESC (4)CULGAS (5)WEATH
(6)EDUCAT (7)SOCIAL (8)ACTIVITY (9)GEOG/
VAR21,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)%30- (3)Z40- (4)50- (5)%60-
(6)X70- (7)Z80- (8)%90- (9)Z100-I
VAR22,(0)Z10- (1)X20- (2)X30- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)%6D-
(6)%70- (7)Z80- (8)%90- (9)X100-/
VAR23,(0)10- (1)Z20- (2)30- (3)%40- (4)Z50- (5)%60-
(6)%70- (7)%80- (8)X90- (9)%100-I
VAR24,(0)%1O- (1)Z20- (2)%30- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)Z60-
(6)%70- (7)Z80- (8)%90- (9)Z100-f
VAR25,(0)%1O- (1)%20- (2)30- (3)Z40- (4)X50- (5)X60-
(6)70- (7)%80- (8)Z90- (9)%100-I
VAR26,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)%30- (3)Z40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)X70- (7)%80- (8)%90- (9)%100-I
VAR27,(0)Z10- (1)20- (2)X30- (3)X40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)Z70- (7)%80- (8)%90- (9)X100-/
VAR28,(0)Z10- (1)20- (2)%30- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)X70- (7)Z80- (8)%90- (9)Z100-/
VAR29,(1)NONE (2)ADD!TION/
VAR3O,(1)1ST (2)2ND (3)3RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7)7TH
(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12)12TH (13)13TH
(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17)17TH (18)18TH!
VAR31,(1)1ST (2)2ND (3)3RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7)7TH
(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12)12TH (13)13TH
(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17)17TH (18)18TH!
VAR32,(1)1ST (2)2ND (3)3RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7)7TH
(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12)12TH (13)13TH
(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17)17TH (18)18TH!
VAR33,(1)1ST (2)2ND (3)3RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7)7TH
(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12)12TH (13)13TH
(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17)17TH (18)18TH/
VAR34,(1)1ST (2)2ND (3)3RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7)7TH
cIt page3 7 2
Appendix 7 .8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
2 800

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 81 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 82 0

VAR3 5,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 83 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 84 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 85 0

VAR3 6(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 86 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 87 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 88 0

VAR3 7 (1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 89 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 900

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 91 0

VAR3 8,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 92 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 93 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 94 0

VAR3 9,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 95 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 96 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

2 97 0

VAR4O,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

2 98 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

2 99 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH/

3 000

VAR41,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

3 01 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

3 02 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

3 03 0

VAR42 ,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

3 04 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

3 05 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

3 06 0

VAR43 .(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

3 07 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

3 08 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

3 09 0

VAR44,(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

3 100

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

3 11 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH!

3 12 0

VAR45(1)1ST (2 )2 ND (3 )3 RD (4)4TH (5)5TH (6)6TH (7 )7 TH

3 13 0

(8)8TH (9)9TH (10)10TH (11)11TH (12 )12 TH (13 )13 TH

3 14 0

(14)14TH (15)15TH (16)16TH (17 )17 TH (18)18TH/

3 15 0

VAR46,(1)VARIED (2 )LAKMONTS (3 )BEACHES (4)OTHER!

3 16 0

VAR47 , (1)SUNWARH (2 )OTHER!


3 17 0

VAR48,(1)SHDRT (2 )OTHER/
3 18 0

VAR49,(1)FRIENDLY (2 )OTHER!
3 19 0

VAR5O,(1)BUDGET (2 )OTHER!
3 2 00

VAR51, (1 )ACCEPT (2 )OTHER/


3 2 1 0

VARS2 ,(1)ACCEPT (2 )OTHER!


3 2 2 0

VAR53 ,(1)VARIED (2 )NIGHT (3 )SPORT (4)OTHER!


3 2 3 0

VARS4, (1 )ACCEPT (2 )OTHER!


3 2 4 0

VAR55, (1)ACCEPT (2 )OTHER/


3 2 5 0

VAR56 (1 )ACCEPT (2 )OTHER/


3 2 6 0

VAR57 ,(1)FRIENDLY (2 )NOTBRIT (3 )OTHER/


3 2 7 0

VAR58,(1)MED (2 )HIGH (3 )10W (4)OTHER!


3 2 8 0

VAR59,(1)HOTEL (2 )APART (3 )OTHER/


3 2 9 0

VAR6O (1)LARGE (2 )KNOWN (3 )OTHER/


3 3 00

VAR61,(1)SPECIAL/
3 3 1 0

VAR62 ,(0)%10- (1)%2 0- (2 )X3 0- (3 )%40- (4)%50- (5)Z60-


3 3 2 0

(6)%7 0- (7 )X80- (8)%90- (9)X100-/


3 3 3 0

VAR63 ,(0)%10- (1)Z2 0- (2 )%3 0- (3 )%40- (4)%50- (5)Z60-


3 3 4 0

(6)%7 0- (7 )X80- (8)%90- (9)Z100-/


3 3 5 0

VAR64(0))10- (1)%2 0- (2 )%3 0- (3 )%40- (4)%50- (5)%60-


3 3 6 0

(6))7 0- (7 )X80- (8)%90- (9)X100-!


3 3 7 0

VAR6S,(0)X10- (1)X2 0- (2 )X3 0- (3 )%40- (4)%50- (5)60-


3 3 8 0

(6)%7 0- (7 )%80- (8)X90- (9)%100-/


3 3 9 0

VAR6,(0)%10- (1)X2 0- (2 )%3 0- (3 )%40- (4)%50- (5)%60-


page 373
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
3400
3410
3420
343 0
3440
3450
3460
347 0
3480
3490
3500
3510
3520
353 0
3540
3550
3560
357 0
3580
3590
3600
3610
3620
363 0
3640
3650
3660
367 0
3680
3690
3700
3710
3720
373 0
3740
3750
3760
377 0
3780
3790
3800
3810
3820
383 0
3840
3850
3860
387 0
3880
3890
3900
3910
3920
393 0
3940
3950
3960
397 0
3980
3990
(6)X70- (7)%80- (8)90- (9)%100-/
VAR67,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)30- (3)X40- (4)X50- (5)%60-
(6)%70- (7)80- (8)%90- (9)%100-/
VAR68,(0)10- (1)X20- (2)%30- (3)Z40- (4)X50- (5)X60-
(6)%70- (7)%80- (8)Z90- (9)Z100-I
VAR69.(0)Z10- (1)%20- (2)X30- (3)X40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)70- (7)%80- (8)%90- (9)Z100-/
VAR7O,(0)Z10- (1)%20- (2)%30- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)%70- (7)80- (8)%90- (9)X100-/
VAR71,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)30- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)%60-
(6)Z70- (7)%80- (8)%90- (9)X100-/
VAR72,(0)X10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)X40- (4)%50- (5)60-
(6)Z70- (7)X80- (8)%90- (9)%100-/
VAR73,(0)Z10- (1)X20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)730- (5)%60-
(6)%70- (7)730- (8)Z90- (9)%100-/
VAR74,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)730- (5)730-
(6)X70- (7)730- (8)%90- (9)%100-/
VAR7S,(0)Z10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)Z40- (4)730- (5)730-
(6)%70- (7)730- (8)%90- (9)X100-/
VAR76,(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)730- (5)730-
(6)%70- (7)730- (8)Z90- (9)%100-/
VAR77,(0)10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)730- (5)730-
(6)Z70- (7)730- (8)%90- (9)%100-/
VAR78,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)W.AIIERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR79,(1)FRA(2)SPAIN (3)GREEcE (4)RESTW.EUR(5EAsTEUR
(6)N.At4ERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR80(1)FRAI1(2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR81.(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VARB2,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR83,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIW (3)GREECE (4)RESTWEUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)14.AMERICA(7)AFRIcA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR84.(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR85,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIW (3)GREECE (4)RESTU.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AIIERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR86,(0)%10- (1)X20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)730- (5)730-
(6)X70- (7)730- (8)%90- (9)%100-/
VAR87(0)%10- (1)%20- (2)730- (3)%40- (4)%50- (5)730-
(6)Z70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-!
VAR88,(0)%10- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-1
VAR89,(0)7.10- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-I
VAR9O,(0)7.1O- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-i
VAR91,(0)%10- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-1
VAR92,(0)7.10- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-1
VAR93,(0)%10- (1)7.20- (2)7.30- (3)7.40- (4)7.50- (5)7.60-
(6)7.70- (7)7.80- (8)7.90- (9)7.100-f
VAR94,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR95,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIW (3)GREEcE (4)RESTW.EUR (5)EASTEUR
(6)NAMERICA(7)AFRICA(8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR96,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)REsTW.EUR(5)EASTEUR
page 374
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
400 0
401 0
402 0
403 0
404 0
405 0
406 0
407 0
408 0
409 0
410 0
411 0
412 0
413 0
414 0
415 0
416 0
417 0
418 0
419 0
420 0
421 0
422 0
423 0
424 0
425 0
426 0
427 0
428 0
429 0
430 0
431 0
432 0
433 0
434 0
435 0
436 0
437 0
438 0
439 0
440 0
441 0
442 0
443 0
444 0
445 0
446 0
447 0
448 0
449 0
450 0
451 0
452 0
453 0
454 0
455 0
456 0
457 0
458 0
459 0
(6)I4.AI4ERICA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR97,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTWEUR (5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR98(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EUR (5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERICA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR99,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREEcE (4)RESTW.EUR (5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AMERIcA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR100,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIW (3)GREECE (4)RESTWEUR (5)EASTEUR
(6)N.AIERICA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR1O1,(1)FRAN (2)SPAIN (3)GREECE (4)RESTW.EIJR (5)EASTEUR
(6)w.AIIERIcA (7)AFRICA (8)FAREAST (9)OTHERS/
VAR1O2.(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALANCE (4)1UNAC (5)FEWUNAC/
VAR1O3,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALANCE (4)1UI4AC (5)FEWUAC/
VAR1O4,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEU (3)BALACE (4)1UNAC (5)FEI&JNAC/
VAR105(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALAUCE (4)1UNAC (5)FEWUNAC/
VAR1O6,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALAWCE (4)1UNAC (5)FEW!JNAC/
VAR1O7,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALANCE (4)1IJNAC (5)FEWIJNAC/
VAR1O8,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)8ALANCE (4)1UNAC (5)FEWIJHAC/
VAR1O9,(1)1ACEP (2)AFEW (3)BALANCE (4)1LJNAC (5)FEWUNAC/
VAR11O,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR111,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR112,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR113,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR114,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR115,(1)BROCKURE (2)BOOK/
VAR116,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR117,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR118,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR119,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR12O,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR121,(1)BROCHURE (2)BOOK/
VAR122,(1)YES (2)1401
VAR123(1)YES (2)140/
VAR124,(1)YES (2)140/
VAR125(1)YES (2)140/
VAR126(1)YES (2)140/
VAR127, (1)BROCHURE (2)BOOK/
VAR128,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR129,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th I
VAR13O,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR131,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR132,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR133(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR134,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th I
VAR135,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR136,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR137(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR138,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR139,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR14O,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR141,(1) 1st (2) 2nd (3) 3rd (4) 4th /
VAR142,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR143(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR144(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR145,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR146,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
page 375
Appendix 7.8 Master Command Program for SPSSX Computations
460 0
461 0
462 0
463 0
464 0
465 0
466 0
467 0
468 0
469 0
470 0
471 0
472 0
473 0
474 0
475 0
476 0
477 0
478 0
479 0
480 0
481 0
482 0
483 0
484 0
485 0
486 0
487 0
488 0
489 0
490 0
491 0
492 0
493 0
494 0
495 0
496 0
497 0
498 0
499 0
500 0
501 0 PROX
502 0
503 0
504 0
505 0
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR147,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR148,(0)-07. (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30w (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR149,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR15O,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR151,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR152,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR153,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR154,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR155,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR156,(0)-0Z (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR157,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR158,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR159(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%/
VAR16O,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR161,(0)-0% (1)1-10% (2)11-20% (3)21-30% (4)31-40%
(5)41-50% (6)51-60% (7)61-70% (8)71-80 (9)81-100%!
VAR162,(1)18-24YRS (2)25-34YRS (3)35-44YRS (4)45-54YRS
(5)55-64YRS (6)+65YRs/
VAR163,(1)MALE (2)FEMALE/
VAR164,(1)UNDER18 (2)UNDER22 (3)22+ (4)STILLSTUD!
VAR165(1)SINGLE (2)MARRIED (3)SEPARATED (4)WIDOWED/
VAR166,(0)NONE (1)OWE (2)TWO (3)THREE (4)FOIJR&+/
VAR167,(1)-12K (2)12-17K (3)+17-22K (4)+22-27K (5)+27-32K
(6)+32-37K (7)+37-42K (8)+42K (9)REFUSAL/
VAR168,(1)A8 (2)C1 3)c2 (4)DE/
VAR62 TO VAR76
/V1 EWVAR IABLE
/MEASURE=EUCL ID
/MATRIXOUT(*)
There are 190856 bytes of memory availabLe.
The Largest contiguous area has 190184 bytes.
PROXIMITIES requires 44112 bytes of workspace for execution.
14 May 92TOURISM CO
13:51:43University of Surrey CentratHP9000 Ser 800HPUX A.B&00
** **
ROX I MIT I E
Data Information
page 376
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
13:01:02
University of Surrey CentralHP9000 Ser 800HPUX A.B8.00
VAR2LOCATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABEL
- VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
SURREY129982.682.882.8
OTHER
26217.117.2100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.172
VALID CASES

361MISSING CASES1
VAR3INTERVIEWER

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABEL
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
DG133692.893.193.1
OTHER2256.96.9100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.069
VALID CASES

361MISSING CASES1
VAR41st BOOKING MOTIVATION
VALUE LABEL
REST1
ENJOYADV
CHANESC
CULGAS
WEATH
EDUCAT
SOCIAL
ACTIVITY
GEOG

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

14311.911.911.9

23810.510.522.4

313336.736.759.1

492.52.561.6

5164.44.466.0

661.71.767.7

78222.722.790.3

8195.25.295.6

9164.44.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.254
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 377
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR52ND BOOKING MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST11339.114.514.5
ENJOYADV2298.012.727.2
CHANESC
35214.422.850.0
CULGAS4113.04.854.8
WEATH5164.47.061.8
EDUCAT682.23.565.4
SOCIAL74412.219.384.6
ACTIVITY8205.58.893.4
GEOG9154.16.6100.0

13437.0 MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.482
VALID CASES228 MISSING CASES134
VAR63RD BOOKING MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST113.89.19.1
ENJOYADV261.718.227.3
CHANESC351.415.242.4
CULGAS441.112.154.5
WEATH551.415.269.7
SOCIAL761.718.287.9
ACTIVITY83.89.197.0
GEOG91.33.0100.0

32990.9MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.424
VALID CASES33 MISSING CASES329
page 378
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR71ST BENEFIT MOTIVATION
VALUE LABEL
REST2
ENJOYADV
CHANESC
CULGAS
WEATH
EDUCAT
SOCIAL
ACTIVITY
GEOG
MEAN4.715
VALID CASES362

VALIDCTJN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

15515.215.215.2

2226.16.121.3

36116.916.938.1

44612.712.750.8

55515.215.266.0

61.3.366.3

74412.212.278.5

85013.813.892.3

9287.77.7100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAP82ND BENEFIT MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST21349.411.711.7
ENJOYADV2205.56.918.6
CHANESC3328.811.0.29.7
CULGAS44011.013.843.4
WEATH54111.314.157.6
EDUCAT661.72.159.7
SOCIAL75314.618.377.9
ACTIVITY83810.513.191.0
GEOG9267.29.0100.0

7219.9MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN5.103
VALID CASES290 MISSING CASES72
page 379
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR93RD BENEFIT MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST21 1 43.91 7.1 1 7.1
ENJOYADV25 1 .46.1 23.2
CHANESC341 .1 4.928.0
CULGAS41 64.41 9.5 47.6
WEATH
5 1 1 3.01 3.461 .0
SOCIAL71 43.91 7.1 78.0
ACTIVITY
81 1 3.01 3.491 .5
GEOG971 .98.5 1 00.0

28077.3MISSING

TOTAL36;1 00.0
MEAN4.927
VALID CASES82MISSING CASES 280
CGtbertpage 380
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1O1ST DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST314612.712.712.7
ENJOYADV2308.38.321.1
CHANESC37219.919.941.0
CULGAS4133.63.644.6
WEATH5 11230.931.075 .6
EDUCAT63.8.876.5
SOCIAL73910.810.887.3
ACTIVITY8226.16.193.4
GEOG9246.66.6100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.479
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES1
VAR112ND DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST31298.09.99.9
ENJOYADV2298.09.919.9
CHANESC34412.215 .134.9
CULCAS4318.610.645 5
WEATH5 7219.924.770.2
EDUCAT62.6.770.9
SOCIAL73810.5 13.083.9
ACTIVITY8174.75 .889.7
GEOG9308.310.3100.0

7019.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.75 0
VALID CASES292MISSING CASES70
page 381
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR123RD DIFFERENCE MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST31185.017.617.6
ENJOYADV2123.311.829.4
CHANESC3113.010.840.2
CULGAS482.27.848.0
WEATH5256.924.572.5
EDUCAT62.62.074.5
SOCIAL7123.311.886.3
ACTIVITY8123.311.898.0
GEOG92.62.0100.0

26071.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.333
VALID CASES102 MISSING CASES 260
VAR131st RANKED MOTIVATION
VALUE LABEL
REST4
ENJOYADV
CHANESC
CULGAS
WRATH
EDUCAT
SOCIAL
ACTIVITY
GEOG
MEAN4.050
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

15013.813.813.8

24612.712.726.5

313537.337.363.8

482.22.266.0

5102.82.868.8

61.3.369.1

77921.821.890.9

8195.25.296.1

9143.93.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 382
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR142ND RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST4
16417.717.717.7
ENJOYADV
24311.911.929.6
CHANESC
37119.619.749.3
CULGAS4164.44.453.7
WEATH54211.6 11.665.4
EDUCAT661.71.767.0
SOCIAL76016.616.683.7
ACTIVITY8277.57.591.1
GEOG9328.88.9100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.424
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES1
VAR153RD RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST413910.810.910.9
ENJOYADV2287.77.818.7
CHANESC35013.13.932.6
CULGAS4298.08.140.7
WEATH58523.523.764.3
EDUCAT641.11.165.5
SOCIAL75114.114.279.7
ACTIVITY8369.910.089.7
GEOG93710.210.3100.0

3.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.981
VALID CASES359MISSING CASES3
AwrieS:*:UiLbertpage 383
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR164TH RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST41277.58.18.1
ENJOYADV2277.58.116.2
CHANESC3 3 810.511.427.6
CULGAS45013 .815.042.6
WEATH58523 .525.568.2
EDUCAT61.3 .3 68.5
SOCIAL73 710.211.179.6
ACTIVITY83 710.211.190.7
GEOG93 18.69.3 100.0

298.0MISSING

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MEAN4.985
VALID CASES3 3 3 MISSING CASES29
VAR175TH RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST41226.110.510.5
ENJOYADV213 3 .66.216.7
CHANESC
3 23 6.411.027.6
CULGAS43 08.3 14.3 . 41.9
WEATH
54011.019.061.0
EDUCAT
682.23 .864.8
SOCIAL
7256.911.976.7
ACTIVITY
83 18.614.891.4
GEOG
9185.08.6100.0

15242.0MISSING

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MEAN5.095
VALID CASES210 MISSING CASES152
$1fie$DC Ctbeit

page 384
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR186TH RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST41102.812.812.8
ENJOYADV241.15.117.9
CHANESC361.77.725.6
CULCAS
4123.315.441.0
WEATH
5143.917.959.0
EDUCAT
63.83.862.8
SOCIAL
7185.023.185.9
ACTIVITY
871.99.094.9
GEOG
941.15.1100.0

28478.5MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN5.000
VALID CASES78MISSING CASES 284
page 385
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR197TH RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
REST411. 36. 36. 3
ENJOYADV2 1. 36. 312 . 5
CHANESC33. 818. 831. 3
CULCAS42 . 612 . 543. 8
EDUCAT63. 818. 862 . 5
SOCIAL73. 818. 881. 3
ACTIVITY82 . 612 . 593. 8
GEOG91. 36. 3100. 0

34695. 6MISSING

TOTAL362 100. 0100. 0


MEAN5. 2 50
VALID CASES16 MISSING CASES 346
VAR2 O8TH RANKED MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
ENJOYADV2 1. 310. 01. 0
CHANESC31. 310. 02 0. 0
CULGAS43. 830. 050. 0
WEATH51. 310. 060. 0
SOCIAL71. 310. 070. 0
ACTIVITY81. 310. 080. 0
GEOG92 . 62 0. 0100. 0

352 97. 2 MISSING

TOTAL362 100. 0100. 0


MEAN5. 500
VALID CASES10 MISSING CASES352
page 386
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR211ST STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%10-
01. 3. 3. 3
%30-
21. 3. 3. 6
%40-31. 3. 3. 8
%50-
451. 41. 42. 2

582. 22. 24. 5


%70-
6164. 44. 58. 9
%80-75515. 215. 324. 2
%90-
810428. 729. 053. 2
%100-916846. 446. 8100. 0

3. 8MISSING

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
MEAN8. 050
VALID CASES359MISSING CASES3
VAR222ND STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%20-12. 6. . 6
%30-22. 6. 61. 1
%4-382. 22. 23. 4
%50-4123. 33. 46. 7
%60-5318. 68. 715. 4
%70-64412. 212. 327. 7
%80-711030. 430. 858. 5
%90-87821. 521. 880. 4
%100-97019. 319. 6100. 0

51. 4MISSING

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
MEAN7. 062
VALID CASES357MISSING CASES5
AdfDCCffbertpage 387
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR233RD STRENGTH MOTIVATION
VALUE LABEL
%10-
% 20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
%80-
% 9 0-
%100-
MEAN5.784
VALID CASES356

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01.3.3.3

182.22.22.5

2123.33.45.9

3123.33.49 .3

449 13.513.823.0

56317.417.740.7

67219 .9 20.261.0

78523.523.9 84.8

8339 .19 .39 4.1

9 215.85.9 100.0

61.7MISSING

TOTAL 362 100.0 100.0


MISSING CASES6
VAR244TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PEICENT
%10-0 3.8.9
%20-1123.33.64.5
%30-2185.05.510.0
%40-33710.211.221.2
%50-47821.523.644.8
%60-56818.820.665.5
%70-66718.520.385.8
%80-7318.69 .49 5.2
%9 0-882.22.49 7.6
%100-9 82.22.4100.0

328.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.745
VALID CASES330 MISSING CASES32
page 388
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR25
5TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%7 0-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN3.866
VALID CASES209

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0164.47 .7 7 .7

192.54.312.0

2246.611.523.4

3349.416.339.7

45515.226.366.0

5359.7 16.7 82.8

6185.08.691.4

7 61.7 2.994.3

841.11.996.2

982.23.8100.0

15342.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES153
VAR266TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%10-061.7 7 .8-7 .8
%20-151.46.514.3
%30-292.511.7 26.0
%40-3185.023.449.4
%50-4226.128.67 7 .9
%60-561.7 7 .885.7
%7 0-641.15.290.9
%80-7 51.46.597 .4
%90-81.31.398.7
%100-91.31.3100.0

2857 8.7 MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.519
VALID CASES7 7 MISSING CASES 285
page 389
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR27
7TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

%20-
1 3 . 8 1 8 . 8 1 8 . 8

%3 0-24 1 . 1 25. 04 3 . 8

%50-4 3 . 8 1 8 . 8 62. 5

%60-52. 61 2. 575. 0

%70-61 . 3 6. 3 8 1 . 3

%8 0-71 . 3 6. 3 8 7. 5

%1 00-9 2. 61 2. 51 00. 0

3 4 69 5. 6MISSING

TOTAL3 621 00. 01 00. 0


MEAN4 . 000
VALID CASES1 6 MISSING CASES 3 4 6
VAR28 8 TH STRENGTH MOTIVATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

%1 0-04 1 . 1 4 0. 04 0. 0

%3 0-21 . 3 1 0. 050. 0

%50-4 1 .3 1 0. 060. 0

%60-52. 620. 08 0. 0

%70-61 . 3 1 0. 09 0. 0

%1 00-9 1 . 3 1 0. 01 00. 0

3 529 7. 2MISSING

TOTAL3 621 00. 01 00. 0


MEAN3 . 1 00
VALID CASES1 0 MISSING CASES3 52
VAR29 EXTRA PREFERENCE

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
NONE1 3 279 0. 3 9 1 . 3 9 1 . 3
ADDITION23 1 8 . 68 . 71 00. 0

4 1 . 1 MISSING

TOTAL3 621 00. 01 00. 0


MEAN1 . 08 7
VALID CASES3 58 MISSING CASES4
page 390
Appendix 7.9 Frecjuency Print Out of the Results
VAR3OLANDSCAPE RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
MEAN4.290
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

17119.619.619.6

25515.215.234.8

35715.715.750.6

4369.99.960.5

5349.49.469.9

6287.77.777.6

7256.96.984.5

8195.25.289.8

9133.63.693.4

10102.82.896.1

113.8.8 97.0

1251.41.498.3

133.8.899.2

142.6.699.7

151.3.3100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR31CLIMATICS RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
13TH
15TH

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

1349.49.49.4

28022.122.131.5

36217.117.148.6

45715.715.764.4

54111.311.375.7

6328.88.884.5

7226.16.190.6

8143.93.994.5

961.71.796.1

1071.91.998.1

1151.41.499.4

131.3.399.7

151.3.3100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.083
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
ccnt

page 391
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR32DISTANCE RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH
MEAN11.704
VALID CASES362

VALIDCt J M
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

11.3.3.3

261.71.71.9

382.22.24.1

4102.82.86.9

571.91.98.8

6113.03.011.9

771.91.913.8

8195.25.219.1

9154.14.123.2

10267.27.230.4

11267.27.237.6

12277.57.545.0

133810.510.555.5

145916.316.371.8

159927.327.399.2

163.8.8100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR33FOREIGNERS RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

1215.85.85.8

2287.77.713.5

3318.68.622.1

4359.79.731.8

5308.38.340.1

64111.311.351.4

7267.27.258.6

8256.96.965.5

9267.27.272.7

10195.25.277.9

11185.05.082.9

12185.05.087.8

13215.85.893.6

14133.63.697.2

15102.82.8100.0
TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN6.992
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 392
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR34COST RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
MEAN4.094
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

112634.834.834.8

2349.49.444.2

34111.311.355.5

4308.38.363.8

5277.57.571.3

6226.16.177.3

7174.74.782.0

8123.33.385.4

9174.74.790.1

10164.44.494.5

1161.71.796.1

1251.41.497.5

1341.11.198.6

143.8.899.4

152.6.6100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR35FOODTYPE RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

11.3.3.3
2 71.91.92.2.

3236.46.48.6

4256.96.915.5

5277.57.522.9

6308.38.331.2

7359.79.740.9

84713.013.053.9

9277.57.561.3

10359.79.771.0

115013.813.884.8

12226.16.190.9

13215.85.896.7

1492.52.599.2

152.6.699.7

161.3.3100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN8.210
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 393
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR36CLEANLINESS RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
MEAN8.688
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

151.41.41.4

2113.03.04.4

3102.82.87.2

4195.25.212.4

5256.96.919.3

6318.68.627.9

7267.27.235.1

8349.49.444.5

94311.911.956.4

103910.810.867.1

11328.88.876.0

123810.510.586.5

13277.57.593.9

14195.25.299.2

153.8.8100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR37ACTIVITIES RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

14011.011.011.0

25013.813.824.9

3308.38.333.1

4339.19.142.3

5308.38.350.6

6308.38.358.8

7298.08.066.9

8205.55.572.4

9164.44.476.8

10174.74.781.5

11123.33.384.8

12154.14.189.0

13174.74.793.6

1482.22.295.9

15154.14.1100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN6.185
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 394
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR38
MEDICAL RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

13. 8. 8. 8

22. 6. 61. 4

341. 11. 12. 5

471. 91. 94. 4

5102. 82. 87. 2

661. 71. 78. 8

7133. 63. 612. 4

8123. 33. 315. 7

9215. 85. 821. 5

10256. 96. 928. 5

11215. 85. 834. 3

12369. 99. 944. 2

134612. 712. 756. 9

147621. 021. 077. 9

158022. 122. 1100. 0

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
MEAN

11. 834
VALID CASES

362

MISSING CASES0
VAR39FBCOSTS RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

151. 41. 41. 4

2174. 74. 76. 1

3113. 03. 09. 1

4185. 05. 014. 1

5287. 77. 721. 8

6215. 85. 827. 6

7298. 08. 035. 6

83710. 210. 245. 9

9339. 19. 155. 0

10215. 85. 860. 8

114211. 611. 672. 4

12359. 79. 782. 0

13277. 57. 589. 5


14277. 57. 597. 0

15102. 82. 899. 7

16-- 1. 3. 3100. 0

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
MEAN8. 820
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 395
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR4OSAFETY RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH
MEAN9.235
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

1102.82.82.8

2123.33.36.1

3154.14.110.2

4102.82.813.0

5205.55.518.5

6154.14.122.7

7195.25.227.9

8287.77.735.6

94111.311.347.0

10359.79.756.6

113810.510.567.1

124913.513.580.7

133710.2 10.2 90.9


1425.

1571.91.999.7

161.3.3100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 396
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR41OTHERHOLS RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2 ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12 TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH
MEAN10.914
VALID CASES362

VALID CUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

12 .6.6.6

2 51.41.41.9

382 .2 2 .2 4.1

4102 .82 .86.9

5133.63.610.5

6133.63.614.1

7133.63.617.7

8164.44.42 2 .1

92 2 6.16.12 8.2

102 87.77.735.9

11339.19.145.0

12 4813.313.358.3

1362 17.117.175.4

144713.013.088.4

154011.011.099.4

162 .6.6100.0

TOTAL 3&2 100.0 100.0


MISSING CASES0
VAR42 TOURISMD EV RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2 ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12 TH
13TH
14TH
15TH

VALID CUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

1164.44.44.4

2 339.19.113.5

32 36.46.419.9

42 46.66.62 6.5

52 98.08.034.5

6339.19.143.6

7349.49.453.0

8308.38.361.3

932 8.88.870.2

102 46.66.676.8

112 15.85.882 .6

12 143.93.986.5

13174.74.791.2

142 05.55.596.7

1512 3.33.3100.0

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN7.392
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
eDCCttbei-ipage 397
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR43ACC RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

1215.85.85.8

2195.25.211.0

3277.57.518.5

4359.79.728.2

5349.49.437.6

6298.08.045.6

74311.911.957.5

8298.08.065.5

9277.57.572.9

10339.19.182.0

11154.14.186.2

12164.44.490.6

13123.33.393.9

14133.63.697.5

1592.52.5100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

7.072
VALID CASES

362MISSING CASES0
VAR44TRAVCO RANK
VALUE LABEL
1ST
2ND
3RD
4TH
5TH
6TH
7TH
8TH
9TH
10TH
11TH
12TH
13TH
14TH
15TH
16TH

VALIDCt J N
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

13.8.8.8

22.6.61.4

392.52.53.9

4133.63.67.5

582.22.29.7

6205.55.515.2

7246.66.621.9

8195.25.327.1

9226.16.133.2

10267.27.240.4

113910.810.851.2

12349.49.460.7

13328.88.969.5

143810.510.580.1

156818.818.898.9

1641.11.1100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN
10.784
VALID CASES361 MISSING CASES1
page 398
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR45OTHPREF RANK

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ST13 . 8 23 . 123 . 1
2ND21. 3 7. 73 0. 8
3 RD3 2. 6 15. 446 . 2
4TH42. 6 15. 46 1. 5
5TH51. 3 7. 76 9. 2
8 TH8 1. 3 7. 776 . 9
9TH91. 3 7. 78 4. 6
10TH101. 3 7. 792. 3
12TH121. 3 7. 7100. 0

3 4996 . 4MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN4. 8 46
VALID CASES13 MISSING CASES 3 49
VAR46 LANDSCAPE TYPE

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
VARIED13 8 10. 53 1. 73 1. 7
LA. KMONTS2246 . 6 20. 051. 7
BEACHES 3 8 2.2 6.7 58.3
OTHER45013 . 8 41. 7100. 0

2426 6 . 9MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN2. 58 3
VALID CASES120MISSING CASES 242
page 399
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR47CLIMATIC COND
VALUE LABEL
SUNWARN
OTHER
MEAN1.287
VALID CASES115

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

18222.771.371.3

2339.128.7100.0

24768.2MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES 247
VAR48TRAV DIST

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
SHORT14011.071.471.4
OTHER2164.428.6100.0

30684.5MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.286
VALID CASES

56MISSING CASES 306


VAR49FOREIGN PEOPLE

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRIENDLY1359.761.461.4
OTHER2226.138.6100.0

30584.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.386
VALID CASES

57MISSING CASES305
A ' IiceD C Gflbert page 400
A ppendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR5OTOTAL COST

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
BUDGET1 541 4.993.1 93.1
OTHER2 41 .1 6.91 00.0

30484.0MISSING

TOTAL362 1 00.01 00.0


MEAN1 .069
VALID CASES58 MISSING CASES304
VAR51 FOOD TYPE

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
ACCEPT1 2 36.457.557.5
OTHER2 1 74.742 .51 00.0

32 2 89.0MISSING

TOTAL362 1 00.01 00.0


MEAN

1 .42 5
VALID CASES

40MISSING CASES32 2
VAR52 CLEANLINESS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
ACCEPT1 401 1 .090.990.9
OTHER2 41 .1 9.1 1 00.0

31 887.8MISSING

TOTAL362 1 00.01 00.0


MEAN1 .091
VALID CASES44 MISSING CASES31 8
Arlies:*:.b C C i t b e r t page 401
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR53AC TIVITIES

VALIDC UM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENC YPERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
VARIED1 451 2.450.050.0
NIGHT26 1 .76 .756 .7
SPORT3236 .425.6 82.2
OTHER41 6 4.41 7.81 00.0

27275.1 MISSING

TOTAL36 21 00.01 00.0


MEAN

2.1 1 1
VALID C ASES

90MISSING C ASES 272


VAR54MEDIC AL

VALIDC t Th I
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENC Y PERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
AC C EPT1 256 .992.6 92.6
OTHER22.6 7.41 00.0

33592.5MISSING

TOTAL36 21 00.01 00.0


MEAN

1 .074
VALID C ASES

27MISSING C ASES335
VAR55FBC OSTS

VALIDC UM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENC Y PERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
AC C EPT1 349.494.494.4
OTHER22.6 5.6 1 00.0

326 90.1 MISSING

TOTAL36 21 00.01 00.0


MEAN1 .056
VALID C ASES36 MISSING C ASES326
D C G i L b e r t page 402
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR56PHYSIC AL SAFETY

VAL ID C UM
VAL UE L ABEL VAL UE FREQUENC Y PERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
AC C EPT1 256.989.389.3
OTHER23.81 0.71 00.0

33492.3MISSING

TOTAL 3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN

1 . 1 07
VAL ID C ASES

28MISSING C ASES 334


VAR57OTHERHOL S TYPE

VAL ID C UM
VAL UE L ABEL VAL UEFREQUENC YPERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
FRIEND L Y1 82.225.825.8
NOTBRIT261 .71 9.445.2
OTHER31 74.754.81 00.0

331 91 .4MISSING

TOTAL 3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN2.290
VAL ID C ASES31 MISSING C ASES331
VAR58TOURSD EV TYPE

VAL ID C UM
VAL UE L ABEL VAL UEFREQUENC YPERC ENT PERC ENT PERC ENT
MED
1 205.531 .331 .3
HIG H21 43.921 .953.1
L OW
3236.435.989.1
OTHER
471 .91 0.91 00.0

29882.3MISSING

TOTAL 3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN2.266
VAL ID C ASES64 MISSING C ASES298
DC C Lbert

page 403
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR59ACC TYPE

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
HOTEL1 277.535.1 35.1
APART251 .46.541 .6
OTHER3421 1 .654.596.1

43.8 3.91 00.0

28 578 .7MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN2.273
VALID CASES77 MISSING CASES28 5
VARGOTRAVCO TYPE

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
LARGE1 92.533.333.3
KNOWN21 1 3.040.774.1
OTHER371 .925.91 00.0

33592.5 21SSING
TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0
MEAN1 .926
VALID CASES27 MISSING CASES335
VAR61 EXTRA TYPE
VALUE LABEL
VALID CASES0
VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
3621 00.0MISSING
TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0
MISSING CASES362
page 404
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR62LANDSCAPE SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
% 8 0-
% 9 0-
%100-
MEAN6.500
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0154.14.14.1

19 2.52.56.6

2113.03.09 .7

3215.8 5.8 15.5

4205.55.521.0

5339 .19 .130.1

638 10.510.540.6

74612.712.753.3

8 5715.715.769 .1

9 11230.9 30.9 100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR63CLIMATIC SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
% 30-
%40-
% 50-
%60-
%70-
%8 0-
%9 0-
%100-
MEAN6.740
VALID CASES362

VALIDCt J M
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

08 2.22.22.2

161.71.73.9

251.41.45.2

39 2.52.57.7

4164.44.412.2

54311.9 11.9 24.0

648 13.313.337.3

76718 .518 .555.8

8 79 21.8 21.8 77.6

9 8 122.422.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
". oc
page 405
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR64TR1VELDIST SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
% 8 0-
%90-
%100-
MEAN1.160
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

025670.770.770.7

1195.25.276.0

2205.55.58 1.5

3154.14.18 5.6

4113.03.08 8 .7

58 2.22.290.9

6102.8 2.8 93.6

7154.14.197.8

8 51.41.499.2

93.8 .8 100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR65FOREIGNPOP SPATIAL PREF

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%1O-08 724.024.224.2
%20-1154.14.2 28 .3
%30-2256.96.935.3
%40-
3339.19.244.4
%50-
4328 .8 8 .953.3
%60-
5359.79.763.1
%70-
638 10.510.673.6
%8 0-
7277.57.58 1.1
%90-
8 318 .68 .68 9.7
%100-
93710.210.3100.0

2.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.069
VALID CASES360 MISSING CASES2
tGiLbertpage 406
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR66TOTCOST SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
% 5 0-
%60-
%70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN6.834
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0195 .25 .25 .2

192.5 2.5 7.7

282.22.29.9

392.5 2.5 12.4

4185 .05 .017.4

5 308.38.325 .7

6369.99.935 .6

7339.19.144.8

84713.013.05 7.7

915 342.342.3100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR67FOODTYPE SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%5 0-
%60-
%70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN3.069
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

011130.730.730.7

1287.77.738.4

2277.5 7.5 45 .9

34111.311.35 7.2

43910.810.868.0

5 3710.210.278.2

6277.5 7.5 85 .6

7246.66.692.3

8174.74.797.0

9113.03.0100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
ies*b'cCitbert
page 407
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR68
CLEANLINESS SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
% 3 0-
%40-
% 5 0-
%60-
%70-
% 80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN2.85 1
VALID CASES3 62

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01223 3 .73 3 .73 3 .7

13 28.88.842.5

2287.77.75 0.3

3 4111.3 11.3 61.6

43 3 9.19.170.7

5 3 49.49.480.1

6226.16.186.2

723 6.46.492.5

8174.74.797.2

9102.82.8100.0

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR69
ACTIVITIES SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
% 20-
%3 0-
%40-
%5 0-
%60-
%70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN
5 .03 0
VALID CASES3 62

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

06818.818.818.8

113 3 .63 .622.4

2174.74.727.1

3 174.74.73 1.8

4267.27.23 9.0

5 3 910.810.849.7

63 3 9.19.15 8.8

73 5 9.79.768.5

845 12.412.480.9

96919.119.1100.0

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 408
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR7OMEDICAL SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
% 70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN1.193
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

025670.770.770.7

1164.44.475.1

2185.05.080.1

3205.55.585.6

482.22.287.8

5174.74.792.5

661.71.794.2

771.91.996.1

882.22.298.3

961.71.7100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR71FBCOSTS SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
% 80-
% 90-
%100-
MEAN2.840
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

014239.239.239.2

1277.57.546.7

2246.66.6533

33S.S.4

4277.57.570.2

5246.66.676.8

6318.68.685.4

7143.93.989.2

8123.33.392.5

9277.57.5100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 409
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR72PHYSICAL SAFETY SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%1O-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN2.417
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

015743.443.443.4

1349.49.452.8

2277.57.560.2

3339.19.169.3

4226.16.175.4

5287.77.783.1

6154.14.187.3

7154.14.191.4

8143.93.995.3

9174.74.7100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 410
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR73
OTHEPJIOLIDAYMJJ(ERS SPATIAL PREF

VALIDdiM
VALUE LABEL
VALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%io-
0 23464.664.864.8
%20 -
1 256.96.971 .7
%30 -
221 5.85.877.6
%40 -
31 64.44.482.0
%50 -
41 33.63.685.6
%60 -
51 43.93.989.5
%70 -
61 43.93.993.4
%80 -
71 54.1 4.297.5
%90 -
861 .71 .799.2
%loo-
93.8.81 0 0 .0

1 .3MISSING

TOTAL3621 0 0 .0 1 0 0 .0
MEAN1 .388
VALID CASES361 MISSING CASES1
VAR74
LEVEL TOURDEV SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%1 0 -
%20 -
%30 -
%40 -
%50 -
%60 -
%70 -
%80 -
%90 -
%1 0 0 -
MEAN

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0 8623.823.823.8

1 1 95.25.229.0

2287.77.736.7

3339.1 9.1 45.9

4451 2.41 2.458.3

5359.79.768.0

630 8.38.376.2

7226.1 6.1 82.3

8298.0 8.0 90 .3

9359.79.71 0 0 .0

TOTAL3621 0 0 .0 1 0 0 .0
3.895
VALID CASES

362MISSING CASES0
page 411
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR75ACCTYPE SPATIAL PREF
VALUE LABEL
%1O-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%70-
%80-
%90-
%100-
VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
TOTAL

7119.619.6

4311.911.9

195.25.2

349.49.4

349.49.4

4011.011.0

339.19.1

3810.510.5

236.46.4

277.57.5

362100.0100.0
19. 6
31.5
36.7
46.1
55.5
66.6
75.7
86.2
92.5
100.0
MEAN3.895
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR76TRAVCO SPATIAL PREF

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

%10-022060.861.161.1

%20-1287.77.868.9

%30-2215.85.874.7

%40-3277.57.582.2

%50-4195.25.387.5

%60-5174.74.792.2

%70-6102.82.895.0

%80-771.91.996.9

%90-882.22.299.2

%100-93.8.8100.0

2.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.422
VALID CASES360 MISSING CASES2
page 412
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR77OTHER SPATIAL PREF

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

%10-02. 6 18. 218. 2

%40-3 1. 3 9. 127. 3

%6 0-5 41. 13 6 . 46 3 . 6

%70-6 1. 3 9. 172. 7

%100-93 . 827. 3 100. 0

3 5 197. 0MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN5 . 091
VALID CASES11MISSING CASES 3 5 1
VAR781ST COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN14011. 011. 111. 1
SPAIN
24412. 212. 223 . 3
GREECE3 143 . 93 . 927. 1
RESTW. EUR
413 73 7. 83 8. 06 5 . 1
EASTEUR5 143 . 93 . 96 9. 0
N. AMERICA
6 4011. 011. 180. 1
AFRICA7123 . 3 3 . 3 83 . 4
FAREAST
8205 . 5 5 . 5 88. 9
OTHERS
94011. 011. 1100. 0

1. 3 MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN4. 5 21
VALID CASES3 6 1MISSING CASES1
A
fe$''DCGiLbertpage 413
A ppendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR792ND COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN13910.810.910.9
SPAIN26417.717.828.7
GREECE3133.63.632.3
RESTW.EUR413336.737.069.4
EASTEUR5 113.03.172.4
N.AMERICA6195 .25 .377.7
AFRICA7164.44.5 82.2
FAREAST8205 .5 5 .687.7
OTHERS94412.212.3100.0

3.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.387
VALID CASES35 9MISSING CASES
3
page 414
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR8O3RD COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCLJ N
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1256.97.27.2
SPAIN2298.08.415.6
GREECE3328.89.224.9
RESTW.EUR414640.342.267.1
EASTEUR561.71.768.8
N.ANERICA6267.27.576.3
AFRICA7174.74.981.2
FAREAST8205.55.887.0
OTHERS94512.413.0100.0

164.4MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.720
VALID CASES346 MISSING CASES16
VAR814TH COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1308.310.110.1
SPAIN2267.28.718.8
GREECE3174.75.724.5
RESTW.EUR412233.740.965.4
EASTEUR561.72.067.4
N.ANERICA6287.79.476.8
AFRICA7102.83.480.2
FAREAST8164.45.485.6
OTHERS94311.914.4100.0

6417.7MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN4.711
VALID CASES298 MISSING CASES64
iDIGitbert
page 415
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR825TH COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1 1 54.1 8.08.0
SPAIN282.24.31 2.2
GREECE37 1 .93.7 1 6.0
RESTW.EtJR47 7 21 .341 .056.9
EASTEUR561 .7 3.260.1
N.ANERICA61 7 4.7 9.069.1
AFRICA7 92.54.87 3.9
FAREAST892.54.87 8.7
OTHERS9401 1 .021 .31 00.0

1 7 448.1 MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN5.250
VALID CASES1 88 MISSING CASES1 7 4
VAR836TH COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1 61 .7 8.08.0
SPAIN22.62.7 1 0.7
GREECE32.62.7 1 3.3
RESTW.EUR4287 .7 37 .350.7
EASTEUR57 1 .99.360.0
N.ANERICA67 1 .99.369.3
AFRICA7 2.62.7 7 2.0
FAREAST81 1 3.01 4.7 86.7
OTHERS91 02.81 3.31 00.0

287 7 9.3MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN5.293
VALID CASES7 5 MISSING CASES287
page 416
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR847TH COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN12 . 66. 36. 3
SPAIN2 3. 89. 415. 6
RESTW. EUR461. 718. 834. 4
EASTEUR51. 33. 137. 5
N. AMERICA641. 112 . 550. 0
AFRICA741. 112 . 562 . 5
FAREAST81. 33. 165. 6
OTHERS9113. 034. 4100. 0

33091. 2 MISSING

TOTAL362 100. 0100. 0


MEAN6. 12 5
V1LID CASES32 MISSING CASES330
VAR858TH COUNTRY EVOKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
RESTW. EUR471. 970. 070. 0
OTHERS93. 830. 0100. 0

352 97. 2 MISSING

TOTAL362 100. 0100. 0


MEAN5. 500
VALID CASES10 MISSING CASES352
u e itbe1-t

page 417
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR861ST DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABEL

VALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT


%1O-

0 1. 3 . 3 . 3
%20 -

11. 3 . 3 . 6
%3 0 -

22. 6. 61. ] .
% 40 -

3 1. 3 . 3 1. 4
%50 -

4143 . 93 . 95. 2
%60 -

5123 . 3 3 . 3 8. 6
%70 -

613 3 . 63 . 612. 2
% 80 -

74713 . 0 13 . 0 25. 1
%90 -

810 0 27. 627. 652. 8


%10 0 -

917147. 247. 210 0 . 0

TOTAL3 6210 0 . 0 10 0 . 0
MEAN

7. 928
VALID CASES3 62MISSING CASES0
page 418
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR872ND DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%10-06 1.71.71.7
%20-1143.93.95.6
%30-282.22.27.8
%40-392.52.510.3
%50-4339.19.219.4
%6 0-56 016 .6 16 .736 .1
%70-6 4813.313.349.4
%80-78322.923.172.5
%90-856 15.515.6 88.1
%100-94311.911.9100.0

2.6 MISSING

TOTAL36 2100.0100.0
MEAN6 .092
VALID CASES36 0MISSING CASES2
VAR883RD DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%10-04111.311.811.8
%20-1236 .46 .6 18.4
%30-2287.78.126 .5
%40-326 7.27.534.0
%50-48724.025.159.1
%6 0-54813.313.872.9
%70-6 287.78.181.0
%80-736 9.910.491.4
%90-8154.14.395.7
%100-9154.14.3100.0

154.1MISSING

TOTAL36 2100.0100.0
MEAN4.092
VALID CASES347MISSING CASES15
page 419
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR894TH DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
%10-08222.727.327.3
%20-1359.711.739.0
%30-2328.810.749.7
%40-3308.310.059.7
%50-46317.421.080.7
%60-5185.06.086.7
%70-6185.06.092.7
%80-7113.03.796.3
%90-82.6.797.0
%100-992.53.0100.0

6217.1MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.710
VALID CASES300 MISSING CASES62
VAR9O5TH DESTINATION RANKED
VALUE LABEL
%10-
% 20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%60-
%80-
%90-
%100-
MEAN1.770
VALID CASES187

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

08623.846.046.0

1298.015.561.5

2123.36.467.9

3113.05.973.8

4298.015.589.3

5102.85.394.7

61.3.595.2

73.81.696.8

82.61.197.9

941.12.1100.0

17548.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES175
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%30-
%40-
%50-
%100-
MEAN.844
VALID CASES32
page 420
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR916TH DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0328.843.843.8
%20-1102.813.757.5
%30-282.211.068.5
%40-392.512.380.8
%50-461.78.289.0
%60-52.62.791.8
%80-741.15.597.3
%90-81.31.498.6
%100-91.31.4100.0

28979.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.808
VALID CASES73 MISSING CASES 289
VAR927TH DESTINATION RANKED

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0226.168.868.8

141.112.581.3

22.66.387.5

32.66.393.8

41.33.196.9

91.33.1100.0

33091.2MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES330
page 421
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR938TH DESTINATION RANKED
VALUE LABEL
%10-
%20-
%40-
MEAN.700

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

071.970.070.0

11.310.080.0

32.6 20.0100.0

35297.2MISSING

TOTAL36 2100.0100.0
VALID CASES10 MISSING CASES 352
VAR941ST DEST PROPENSITY
VALUE LABEL
FRAN
SPAIN
GREECE
RESTW. EUR
EAST EUR
N. AMERICA
AFRICA
FAREAST
OTHERS
MEAN3.519
VALID CASES36 2

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

16 417.717.717.7

28122.422.440.1

316 4.44.444.5

4136 37.6 37.6 82.0

5102.82.884.8

6 215.85.8. 90.6

782.22.292.8

8102.82.895.6

916 4.44.4100.0

TOTAL36 2100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 422
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR952ND DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1 471 3.01 3.1 1 3.1
SPAIN2 551 5.2 1 5.328.3
GREECE31 4 3.93.932.2
RESTW.EUR4 1 72 47.547.880.0
EASTEUR51 02.82.882.8
N.ANERICA6 1 85.05.087.8
AFRICA771 .91 .989.7
FAREAST81 33.6 3.6 93.3
OTHERS924 6 .6 6 .71 00.0

2 .6 MISSING

TOTAL36 2 1 00.01 00.0


MEAN3.928
VALID CASES36 0MISSING CASES2
VALUE LABEL
FRAN
SPAIN
GREECE
RESTW. EUR
EASTEUR
N. ANERICA
AFRICA
FAREAST
OTHERS
MEAN5.490
VALID CASES300
page 423
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR963RD DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN1 287.78.08.0
SPAIN2205.55.71 3.8
GREECE3349.49.723.5
RESTW.EUR41 5643.1 44.768.2
EASTEUR582.22.370.5
N.ANERICA641 1 1 .31 1 .782.2
AFRICA761 .71 .784.0
FAREAST81 54.1 4.388.3
OTHERS941 1 1 .31 1 .71 00.0

1 33.6 MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0


MEAN4.61 6
VALID CASES349 MISSING CASES1 3
VAR974TH DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01 .3.3.3

1 1 43.94.75.0

21 43.94.79.7

382.22.71 2.3

41 1 632.038.751 .0

592.53.054.0

6349.41 1 .365.3

7236.47.773.0

8226.1 7.380.3

9591 6.31 9.71 00.0

621 7.1 MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.01 00.0


MISSING CASES62
VALUE LABEL
FRAN
SPAIN
GREECE
RESTW. EUR
EASTEUR
N. AMERICA
AFRICA
FAREAST
OTHERS
MEAN6.112
VALID CASES187
ies..DCGiLbert page 424
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR985TH DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

0 1.3 .5.5

161.73 .23 .7

261.73 .27.0

3 71.93 .710 .7

4 53 14 .628.3 3 9.0

561.73 .24 2.2

6185.0 9.651.9

7195.210 .262.0

8185.0 9.671.7

953 14 .628.3 10 0 .0

1754 8.3 MISSING

TOTAL3 6210 0 .0 10 0 .0
MISSING CASES175
VAR996TH DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
FRAN11.3 1.4 1.4
SPAIN21.3 1.4 2.7
GREECE3 4 1.15.58.2
RESTW.EUR4 20 5.527.4 3 5.6
EASTEUR52.62.73 8.4
N.AMERICA63 .84 .142.5
AFRICA4 1.15.54 7.9
FAREAST8113 .0 15.163 .0
OTHERS9277.53 7.0 10 0 .0

28979.8MISSING

TOTAL3 6210 0 .0 10 0 .0
MEAN6.60 3
VALID CASES73 MISSING CASES289
A '
jg D
" CCtbei-t page 425
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1007TH DEST PROPENSITY
VALUE LABEL
SPAIN
RESTW. EUR
EAST EUR
AFRICA
FAREAST
OTHERS
MEAN7.258

VALID
CUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01.3 3 .23 .2

21.3 3 .26.5

42.66.512.9

541.112.925.8

741.112.93 8.7

841.112.951.6

9154.148.4100.0

3 3 191.4MISSING

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
VALID CASES3 1 MISSING CASES 3 3 1
VAR1O18TH DEST PROPENSITY

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
RESTW.EUR43 .83 0.03 0.0
EASTEUR51.3 10.040.0
N.ANERICA61.3 10.050.0
FAREAST82.620.070.0
OTHERS93 .83 0.0100.0

3 5297.2MISSING

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0-
MEAN6.600
VALID CASES10 MISSING CASES3 52
VAR1O21ST DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP1123 .3 3 .3 3 .3
AFEW26919.119.122.4
BALANCE3 28077.3 77.3 99.7
1UNAC41.3 .3 100.0

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MEAN2.746
VALID CASES3 62MISSING CASES0
page 426
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1O32ND DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCt J M
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP11] . 3. 03. 03. 0
AFEW29426. 026. 029. 1
BALANCE324266. 967. 096. 1
1UNAC4113. 03. 099. 2
FEW'WAC5 3. 8 . 8 100. 0

1. 3M ISSING

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
M EAN2. 726
VALID CASES361M ISSING CASES1
VAR1O43RD DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP115 4. 14. 34. 3
AFEW211331. 232. 5 36. 8
BALANCE318 15 0. 05 2. 08 8 . 8
1UNAC4339. 19. 5 98 . 3
FEWUNAC5 61. 71. 7100. 0

143. 9M ISSING

TOTAL362100. 0100. 0
M EAN2. 718
VALID CASES348 M ISSING CASES14
page 427
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1O54TH DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP1123.34.04.0
AFEW28824.329.233.2
BALANCE312334.040.974.1
1UNAC47019.323.397.3
FEWUNAC582.22.7100.0

6116.9MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.914
VALID CASES301MISSING CASES61
VAR1O65TH DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP171.93.83.8
AFEW26217.133.337.1
BALANCE3
25.362.4
1UNAC45515.229.691.9
FEWUNAC5154.18.1100.0

17648.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.048
VALID CASES186MISSING CASES176
b ' Citbert page 428
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1O76TH DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP161.78.28.2
AFEW2195.226.034.2
BALANCE3164.421.9 56.2
1UNAC4236.431.587.7
FEWUNAC592.512.3100.0

28979.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.137
VALID CASES73 MISSING CASES289
VAR1O87TH DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCt J M
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP11.33.23.2
AFEW241.112.916.1
BALANCE382.225.841.9
1UNAC4133.641.9 83.9
FEWUNAC551.416.1100.0

33191.4MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.548
VALID CASES31 MISSING CASES331
page 429
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1O98TH DEST DECISION REASONS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1ACEP11. 3 9. 19. 1
AFEW2 2 . 6 18. 2 2 7. 3
BALANCE3 1. 3 9. 13 6 . 4
1UNAC45 1. 445 . 5 81. 8
FEWUNAC5 2 . 6 18. 2 100. 0

3 5 197. 0MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2 100. 0100. 0


MEAN3 . 45 5
VALID CASES11MISSING CASES3 5 1
VAR11O1ST CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES12 6 974. 3 74. 3 74. 3
NO2 93 2 5 . 72 5 . 7100. 0

TOTAL3 6 2 100. 0100. 0


MEAN1. 2 5 7
VALID CASES3 6 2 MISSING CASES0
page 430
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1111ST CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES
130784.884.884.8
NO
2 5515.2 15.2 100.0

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN1.152
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR112 1ST CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES
12 4367.167.167.1
NO2 11932 .932 .9100.0

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN1.32 9
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR1131ST CHOICE ALREADY BKD

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABEL
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES
1962 6.52 6.72 6.7
NO
2 2 6472 .973.3100.0

2 .6MISSING

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN1.733
VALID CASES360 MISSING CASES2
page 431
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1141ST CHOICE RECENT ADS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES18022.122.122.1
NO228277.977.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.779
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
VAR1151ST CHOICE OTHER SOURCES

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
BROCHURE17019.350.050.0
BOOK2256.917.967.9

34512.432.1100.0

22261.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.821
VALID CASES140MISSING CASES 222
VAR1162ND CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES122562.262.362.3
NO213637.637.7100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.377
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES
page 432
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1172ND CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND

VALIDCt J M
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES126372.773.173.1
NO29726.826.9100.0

2.6M ISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
M EAN1.269
VALID CASES360 M ISSING CASES2
VAR1182ND CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES118551.151.251.2
NO217648.648.8100.0

1.3M ISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
M EAN1.488
VALID CASES361 M ISSING CASES1
VAR1192ND CHOICE ALREADY BKD

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES141.11.11.1
NO235798.698.9100.0

1.3M ISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
M EAN1.989
VALID CASES361 M ISSING CASES1
page 433
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR].20 2ND CHOICE RECENT ADS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES1 451 2.41 2.51 2.5
NO231 687.387.51 00.0

1 .3MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.0 1 00.0


MEAN1 .875
VALID CASES361 MISSING CASES1
VAR1 21 2ND CHOICE OTHER SOURCES

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABEL
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
BROCHURE1 1 64.427.1 27.1
BOOK21 74.728.855.9

3267.244.1 1 00.0

30383.7MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.0 1 00.0


MEAN2.1 69
VALID CASES59 MISSING CASES303
VAR1 22 3RD CHOICE PERSONAL VISIT

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES1 1 5643.1 44.744.7
NO21 9353.355.31 00.0

1 33.6MISSING

TOTAL3621 00.0 1 00.0


MEAN1 .553
VALID CASES349 MISSING CASES1 3
page 434
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1233RD CHOICE CLOSE FRIEND

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES124266.969.369.3
NO210729.630.7100.0

133.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.307
VALID CASES349 MISSING CASES13
VAR1243RD CHOICE SEEN IT ON TV

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES115041.443.043.0
NO219955.057.0100.0

133.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.570
VALID CASES

349MISSING CASES13
VAR1253RD CHOICE ALREADY BKD

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES
13.8 .9.9
NO234695.699.1100.0

133.6MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN

1.991
VALID CASES

349MISSING CASES13
page 435
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1263RD CHOICE RECENT ADS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
YES14612.713.213.2
NO230383.786.8100.0

133.6 MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.868
VALID CASES349 MISSING CASES13
VAR1273RD CHOICE OTHER SOURCES

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
BROCHURE1143.928.628.6
BOOK292.518.446.9

3267.253.1100.0

31386.5MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.245
VALID CASES49 MISSING CASES313
VAR128TRADITIONAL VALUES BEST

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st110127.927.927.9
2nd28924.624.652.5
3rd310027.627.680.1
4th47219.919.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.395
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
Lbeit

page 436
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR129MODERN MORALS BETTER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st111331.231.531.5
2nd29225.425.657.1
3rd311130.730.988.0
4th44311.912.0100.0

3.8MISSING

TOTAL62100.0100.0
MEAN2.234
VALID CASES359 MISSING CASES3
VAR13OTRADITIONAL RESPECT

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st15314.614.814.8
2nd29426.026.240.9
3rd38924.624.865.7
4th412334.034.3100.0

3.8MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.786
VALID CASES359 MISSING CASES3
VAR131MODERN REFORMER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st19225.425.425.4
2nd28724.024.049.4
3rd36217.117.166.6
4th412133.433.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.586
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
Appeflde:DCC1tbert
page 437
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR132TRADITIONAL LAWABIDER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st112033.133.133.1
2nd
26217.117.150.3
3rd
312835.435.485.6
4th
45214.414.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.309
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
VAR133MODERN QUESTIONER

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st113637.637.737.7
2nd28322.923.060.7
3rd37921.821.982.5
4th46317.417.5100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.191
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES1
CCitbertpage 438
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR134MODERN CONFIDENT

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st
18523.523.523.5
2nd214038.738.762.2
3rd38322.922.985.1
4th45414.914.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.293
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
VAR135TRADITIONAL CONFORMIST

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st1215.85.85.8
2nd27621.021.126.9
3rd37219.919.946.8
4th419253.053.2100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.205
VALID CASES361 MISSING CASES1
VAR136LISTEN BUT DECISIVE

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st110127.927.927.9
2nd216545.645.673.5
3rd37119.619.693.1
4th4256.96.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.055
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
page 439
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR137
NEGOTIATE FOR OWN WAY

VALID
CUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st110930.130.130.1
2nd218851.951.982.0
3rd35114.114.196.1
4th4143.93.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.917
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR138COMPROMISER

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st1298.08.08.0
2nd217147.247.255.2
3rd313136.236.291.4
4th4318.68.6100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.453
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR139DEMOCRATIC INSISTER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st15414.914.914.9
2nd215542.842.857.7
3rd313035.935.993.6
4th4236.46.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.337
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
CGitbt
page 440
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR14OCONSIDERATE SATISFICER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABEL
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st17119.619.619.6
2nd221960.560.580.1
3rd36217.117.197.2
4th4102.82.8100.0
TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.030
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR141OUTCOME SMILER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1st112634.834.834.8
2nd219353.353.388.1
3rd3369.99.998.1
4th471.91.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.790
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
VAR142GROUPDECIS HOLTAKE SELF
VALUE LABEL
-0%
1-10%
11-20%
2 1-3 0%
3 1-4 0%
4 1-5 0%
5 1-60%
6 1-7 0%
7 1-80
8 1-100%
MEAN

5.210
VALID CASES

362

VALIDCUM
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01.3.3.3

141.11.11.4

241.11.12.5

382.22.24.7

46518.018.022.7

516846.446.469.1

66919.119.188.1

7195.25.293.4

8133.63.697.0

9113.03.0100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 441
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR143
GROUPDECIS HOLTAKE PARTNER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABEL
VALUE
FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%
041.11.51.5
1-10%
12 .6 .8 2 .3
11-2 0%
2 12 3.34.6 6 .9
2 1-30%
32 2 6 .18 .415.3
31-40%
47019.32 6 .8 42 .1
41-50%
5116 32 .044.48 6 .6
51-6 0%
6 2 8 7.710.797.3
6 1-70%
73.8 1.198 .5
71-8 0
8 2 .6 .8 99.2
8 1-100%
92 .6 .8 100.0

1012 7.9MISSING

TOTAL36 2 100.0100.0
MEAN4.502
VALID CASES2 6 1 MISSING CASES101
VAR144
GROUPDECIS HOLTAXE FRIENDS

VALIDCt J M
VALUE LABEL
VALUE
FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%
041.13.8 3.8
1-10%
13.8 2 .8 6 .6
11-2 0%
2 51.44.711.3
2 1-30%
341.13.8 15.1
31-40%
418 5.017.032 .1
41-50%
556 15.552 .8 8 4.9
51-6 0%
6 113.010.495.3
6 1-70%
72 .6 1.997.2
71-8 0
8 1.3.998 .1
8 1-100%
92 .6 1.9100.0

2 56 70.7MISSING

TOTAL36 2 100.0100.0
MEAN4.557
VALID CASES106 MISSING CASES2 56
page 442
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR145GROUPDECIS HOLTAXE CHILDREN

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%0133.624.124.1
1-10%1164.429.653.7
11-20%2205.537.090.7
21-30%31.3 1.992.6
31-40%441.17.4100.0

30885.1 MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.389
VALID CASES54 MISSING CASES308
VAR146GROUPDECIS DESTAGREE SELF
VALUE LABEL
1-10%
11-20%
2 1-3 0%
3 1-4 0%
4 1-50%
5 1-60%
6 1-70%
71-80
8 1-10 0%
MEAN5.064
VALID CASES362

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

11.3 .3 .3

241.11.11.4

351.41.42.8

46317.417.420.2

522060.860.880.9

64412.212.293.1

7143.93.997.0

841.11.198.1

971.91.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
page 443
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR147
GROUPDECIS DESTAGREE PARTNER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%
02 .6.8 .8
1-10%141.11.52 .3
11-2 0%2 51.41.94.2
2 1-30%3102 .8 3.8 8 .1
31-40%4772 1.32 9.6 37.7
41-50%514640.356.2 93.8
51-60%6154.15.8 99.6
61-70%71.3.4100.0

102 2 8 .2 MISSING

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN4.535
VALID CASES2 60 MISSING CASES102
VAR14SGROUPDECIS DESTAGREE FRIENDS

VALIDCTJ M
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
1-10%12 .61.91.9
11-2 0%2 41.13.75.6
2 1-30%371.96.512 .1
31-40%471.96.518 .7
41-50%5762 1.071.08 9.7
51-60%68 2 .2 7.597.2
61-70%
71.3.998 .1
71-8 08 1.3.999.1
8 1-100%91.3.9100.0

2 5570.4MISSING

TOTAL362 100.0100.0
MEAN4.776
VALID CASES107 MISSING CASES2 55
page 444
Appendix 7.9 Prequency Print Out of the Results
VAR149GROUPDECIS DESTAGREE CHILDREN

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%08 2.214.314.3
1-10%16 1.710.725.0
11-20%236 9.96 4.38 9.3
21-30%33.8 5.494.6
31-40%43.8 5.4100.0

306 8 4.5MISSING

TOTAL36 2100.0100.0
MEAN1.76 8
VALID CASES56 MISSING CASES 306
DCUbertpage 445
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR15OGROUPDECIS TRIPLENGTH SELF
VALUE LABEL
-0%
1-10%
11-20%
2 1-3 0%
3 1-4 0%
4 1-50%
5 1-60%
6 1-7 0%
7 1-80
8 1-100%
MEAN5.202
VALID CASES36 2
VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01.3 .3 .3

11.3 .3 .6

23 .8 .8 1.4

3 3 .8 .8 2.2

4 195.25.27 .5

5264 7 2.97 2.980.4

65013 .813 .8 94 .2

7 7 1.91.996.1

8 4 1.11.197 .2

9102.8 2.8 100.0

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR151GROUPDECIS TRIPLENGTH PARTNER

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%04 1.11.51.5
1-10%12.6.8 2.3
11-20%23 .8 1.23 .5
21-3 0%3 61.7 2.3 5.8
3 1-4 0%4 3 910.8 15.020.8
4 1-50%519152.8 7 3 .594 .2
51-60%6113 .04 .298.5
61-7 0%7 1.3 .4 98.8
7 1-808 2.6.8 .99.6
81-100%91.3 .4 100.0

10228.2MISSING

TOTAL3 62100.0100.0
MEAN4 .7 50
VALID CASES260 MISSING CASES102
A' ' li1 D cGitbert
page 446
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR1 52
GROUPD ECIS TRIPLENGTH FRIEND S

VALID CUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%
051 .44.74.7
1 -1 0%
1 1 .3 .9 5.7
1 1 -20%
22.61 .9 7.5
21 -3 0%
3 61 .75.71 3 .2
3 1 -40%
41 74.71 6.029 .2
41 -50%
569 1 9 .1 65.1 9 4.3
51 -60%
63 .8 2.8 9 7.2
61 -70%
72.61 .9 9 9 .1
8 1 -1 00%
9 1 .3 .9 1 00.0

25670.7MISSING

TOTAL3 621 00.01 00.0


MEAN
4.500
VALID CASES1 06 MISSING CASES 256
VAR1 53
GROUPD ECIS TRIPLENGTH CHILD REN

VALID CUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%
049 1 3 .58 9 .1 8 9 .1
1 1 -20%
23 .8 5.59 4.5
21 -3 0%
3 3 ..3 1 .8 9 6.4
3 1 -40%41 .3 1 .8 9 8 .2
41 -50%
51 .3 1 .8 1 00.0

3 078 4.8 MISSING

TOTAL3 621 00.01 00.0


MEAN.3 27
VALID CASES55 MISSING CASES3 07
DGiLbpage 447
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR154
GROUPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS SELF
VALUE L?BEL
-0%
1-10%
2 1-3 0%
3 1-4 0%
41-50%
5 1-60%
6 1-7 0%
7 1-8 0
8 1-100%
MEAN5.412
VALID CASES3 62

VALIDCUN
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

01.3 .3 .3

12 .6 .6.8

3 51.41.42 .2

42 15.8 5.8 8 .0

52 1058 .058 .066.0

68 42 3 .2 2 3 .2 8 9.2

7195.2 5.2 94.5

8 92 .52 .597.0

9113 .03 .0100.0

TOTAL3 62 100.0100.0
MISSING CASES0
VAR155GROUPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS PARTNER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%041.11.51.5
1-10%141.11.53 .1
11-2 0%2 51.41.95.0
2 1-3 0%3 51.41.96.9
3 1-40%45114.119.62 6.5
41-50%516946.765.091.5
51-60%6154.15.8 97.3
61-70%741.11.598 .8
8 1-100%93 .8 1.2 100.0

102 2 8 .2 MISSING

TOTAL3 62 100.0100.0
MEAN4.704
VALID CASES2 60 MISSING CASES102
page 448
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR156GROUPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS FRIENDS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENTPERCENTPERCENT
-0%02 . 61. 91. 9
1-10%141. 13. 85. 7
11-2 0%2 71. 96. 612 . 3
2 1-30%3143. 913. 2 2 5. 5
31-40%4359. 733. 058. 5
41-50%54011. 037. 796. 2
51-60%63. 82 . 899. 1
61-70%
7
1
. 3
. 9100. 0

2 5670. 7
MISSING

TOTAL
362
100. 0
100. 0
MEAN
4. 009
VALID CASES106
MISSING CASES 2 56
t b e r t page 449
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR157GROUPDECIS FINANCIALDECIS CHILDREN

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%05013.892.692.6
1-10%12.63.796.3
11-20%21.31.9 98.1
21-30%31.31.9 100.0

30885.1MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN.130
VALID CASES54 MISSING CASES308
VAR158GROUPDECIS FINALDECIS SELF

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

21-30%31.3.3.3

31-40%4 4612.712.713.0

41-50%526773.874.087.0

51-60%6256.9 6.9 93.9

61-70%74 1.11.195.0

71-80882.22.297.2

81-100%9 102.82.8100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN5.136
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES1
page 450
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR159GROUPDECIS FINALDECIS PARTNER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%01. 3 . 4. 4
1-10%13 . 8 1. 21. 5
11-20%26 1. 72. 3 3 . 9
21-3 0%3 5 1. 41. 95. 8
3 1-40%448 13 . 3 18 . 524. 3
41-50%518 551. 171. 495. 8
51-6 0%6 113 . 04. 2100. 0

103 28 . 5MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN4. 6 8 3
VALID CASES259 MISSING CASES103
VAR16 OGROUPDECIS FINALDECIS FRIENDS

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%041. 13 . 8 3 . 8
1-10%141. 13 . 8 7. 5
11-20%22. 6 1. 99. 4
21-3 0%3 3 . 8 2. 8 12. 3
3 1-40%4102. 8 9. 421. 7
41-50%58 122. 476 . 498 . 1
51-6 0%6 2. 6 1. 9100. 0

256 70. 7MISSING

TOTAL3 6 2100. 0100. 0


MEAN4. 472
VALID CASES106 MISSING CASES256
page 451
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR161GROUPDECIS FINALDECIS CHILDREN

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
-0%0185.032.132.1
1-10%182.214.346.4
11-20%2277.548.294.6
21-30%32.63.698.2
31-40%
41.31.8100.0

30684.5MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.286
VALID CASES56 MISSING CASES306
VAR162AGE GROUP

VALIDCU] 4
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
18-24YRS17420.420.420.4
25-34YRS268 18.818.8 39.2
35-44YRS36919.] .19.158.3
45-54YRS458 16.016.074.3
55-64YRS55114.114.188.4
+65YRS64211.611.6100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN3.193
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR163GENDER

VALIDCUM
VALUE LABELVALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
MALE118049.749.949.9
FEMALE218150.050.1100.0

1.3MISSING

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.501
VALID CASES361MISSING CASES
page 452
Appendix 7.9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR164
COMPLETION OF EDUCATION

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABEL
VALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
UNDER18122060.860.860.8
UNDER2228122.422.483.1
22+34211.611.694.8
STILLSTUD
4195.25.2100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.613
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
VAR165MARITAL STATUS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
SINGLE111030.430.430.4
MARRIED222662.462.492.8
SEPARATED3123.33.396.1
WIDOWED4143.93.9100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN1.807
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR166CHILDREN STATUS

VALIDCUN
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCYPERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
NONE026673.573.573.5
ONE14311.911.985.4
TWO24813.313.398.6
THREE351.41.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN.425
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
Ab'
: .
page 453
Appendix 7. 9 Frequency Print Out of the Results
VAR167FINANCIAL STATUS
VALUE LABEL
-12K
12 -17K
+ 17 -2 2K
+ 22-27K
+ 27-32K
+ 32-37K
+ 37-42K
+ 42K
REFUSAL
MEAN3.798

VALIDCUl l
VALUE FREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT

17019.319.319.3

26818.818.838.1

35615.515.553.6

44311.911.965.5

5267.27.272.7

6328.88.881.5

7339.19.190.6

8308.38.398.9

941.11.1100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
VALID CASES362 MISSING CASES0
VAR168OCCUPATION

VALIDCUl l
VALUE LABELVALUEFREQUENCY PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT
AB111732.332.332.3
Cl .28523.523.555.8
C239726.826.882.6
DE46317.417.4100.0

TOTAL362100.0100.0
MEAN2.293
VALID CASES362MISSING CASES0
29 May 92 TOURISM CB
13:01:03University of Surrey Central HP9000 Ser 800HPUX A.B8.00
PRECEDING TASK REQUIRED
502 0 FINISH
502 COMMAND LINES READ.
0 ERRORS DETECTED.
O WARNINGS ISSUED.
3 SECONDS CPU TIME.
3 SECONDS ELAPSED TIME.
END OF JOB.
2.37 SECONDS CPU TIME;2.00 SECONDS ELAPS
Aes-ID
'Cilbert

page 454
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
* SPSS 4.0 has been installed on HP-UX - type 'man spss'*
* please migrate to version 4.0 as soon as possible *
14 May 92

SPSS-X Release 3.0 for HP-tJX


500 0
501 0 PROXVAR3O TO VAR44
502 0

/VIEW=VARIABLE
503 0

/MEASURE=EUCLI D
504 0

/MATRIX=OUT ( *)
505 0
There are 190856 bytes of memory available.
The largest contiguous area has 190184 bytes.
PROXIMITIES requires 44112 bytes of workspace for execution.
13:48:01University of Surrey Central HP9000 Ser 800 HPUX A.B8.00
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * PROXIMITIES * * * * * * * * * *
Data Information
361 unweighted cases accepted.
1 cases rejected because of missing value.
Euclidean measure used.
Euclidean Dissimilarity Coefficient Matrix
Variable
VAR3 4
VAR31
VAR3 2
VAR3 3
VAR3 4
VAR35
119.8249
VAR36
134.4545
VAR3 7
109.0917
VAR3 8
177.9663
VAR3 9
119.5282
VAR4O
140.7196
VAR41
161.7189
VAR42
117.7030
VAR4 3
115. 1043
VAR44
158.3414
VAR3 0
VAR35
73.3962
167.2154
100.2696
95.7706
115.7497
117.4989
88.3063
109.7588
108.5311
165.6442
113.4725
134.3019
85. 0941
126.2854
100.0300
158.5844
105.0571
108.6278
105. 6693
108.8439
100.2846
153.4080
110. 9504
VAR31
VAR36
168.2676
109.0000
75.3459
107.3732
118.5875
98. 3158
117.8346
169.5907
9. 559
122.4010
101. 1682
130. 4 109
92. 1846
152. 483
106 2591
105. 92
110.2452
106
87 8123
152.8823
9 1210
VAR32
VAR3 7
131.6776
171.7585
109.4669
115. 6763
151. 7168
91.6242
155. 6631
113.5077
112.9070
111.3957
130.8549
104.9000
131.3621
137.7353
103.1940
130.6905
115.2736
109.1375
141. 6510
VAR33
122.3356
102.8202
115.8534
114.1534
135. 72 03
117.5202
109.2795
124.0282
101.2620
110. 1227
130.1077
PRINTED
NOT PRINTED
PLOTTED
NOT CREATED
COMPUTED
Adc': DCGUber1

page 455
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
Variable
VAR4 2
VAR39
VAR4O
VAR41
VAR42
VAR43
110.5305
VAR44
123.1666
VAR3 8
VAR43
116. 58 90
95. 498 7
99.5741
138 .9100
127.2753
93.3916
120. 2 539
VAR39
107. 0654
98 .3158
115.2259
109.5536
110.9009
VAR4O
106.8 223
109.08 71
108 .0602
107.3219
VAR41
118 .0551
125.0200
100.4141
14 May 92 TOURISM CB
13:48 :16University of Surrey Central HP9000 Ser 8 00 HPUX A.B8 .00
PRECEDING TASK REQUIRED1.59 SECONDS CPU TIME;22.00 SECONDS
ELAPSED.
506 0 ALSCALMATRIX=IN(*)
507 0/PRINT=HEADER
508 0/PLOT
509 0
FILE:MATRIX FILE
ALSCAL PROCEDURE OPTIONS
DATA OPTIONS-
NUMBER OF ROWS (OBSERVATIONS/MATRIX)15
NUMBER OF COLUMNS (VARIABLES) . . 15
NUMBER OF MATRICES ......1
MEASUREMENT LEVEL .......ORDINAL
DATA MATRIX SHAPE .......SYMMETRIC
TYPE ...........DISSIMILARITY
APPROACH TO TIES .......LEAVE TIED
CONDITIONALITY ........MATRIX
DATA CUTOFF AT .........000000
MODEL OPTIONS-
MODEL......

EUCLID
MAXIMUM DIMENSIONALITY

2
MINIMUM DIMENSIONALITY

2
NEGATIVE WEIGHTS

NOT PERMITTED
OUTPUT OPTIONS-
JOB OPTION HEADER .......
DATA MATRICES
CONFIGURATIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
OUTPUT DATASET ........
INITIAL STIMULUS COORDINATES .
+
page 456
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
ALGORITHMIC OPTIONS -
MAXIMUM ITERATIONS ......30
CONVERGENCE CRITERION ......00100
MINIMUM S-STRESS ........00500
MISSING DATA ESTIMATED BY .
+ULBOUNDS
TIESTORE ..........105
14 May 92 TOURISM CB
13:48:16University of Surrey Central HP9000Ser 800HPUX A.B8.00
FILE:MATRIX FILE
ALSCAL requires10640bytes of memory.
There are 197240bytes of memory available.
The largest contiguous area has 197160bytes.
ITERATION HISTORY FOR THE 2 DIMENSIONAL SOLUTION(IN SQUARED DISTANCES)
YOUNGS S-STRESS FORMULA 1 IS USED.
ITERATIONS-STRESSIMPROVEMENT

1.14014

2.10909
+
.03105

3.10163
+
.00746

4.09768
+

.00395

5.09565
+

.00203

6.09475
+
.00090
ITERATIONS STOPPED BECAUSE
S-STRESS IMPROVEMENT LESS THAN .001000
STRESS AND SQUARED CORRELATION
(RSQ) IN DISTANCES
RSQ VALUES ARE THE PROPORTION OF VARIANCE OF
THE SCALED DATA (DISPARITIES)
IN THE PARTITION (ROW, MATRIX, OR
ENTIRE DATA) WHICH
IS ACCOUNTED FOR BY THEIR
CORRESPONDING DISTANCES.
STRESS VALUES ARE KRUSKAL'S
STRESS FORMULA 1.
FOR MATRIX
STRESS.119
RSQ = .932
STIMULUS
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
1 2
1 3
1 4
1 5
A p p e f l d i c e s - D ' G j L b e r t

p age 4 5 7
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
1 4 May 9 2 TOURISM CB
1 3 :4 8 :2 5 Uni ve rs i ty of Surre y Ce ntral HP9 000 Se r 8 00 HPUX A .B8 .00
FILE:MA TRIX FILE
CONFIGURA TION D ERIVED IN 2 D IMENSIONS
STIMULUS COORD INA TES
D IMENS ION
STIMULUS PLOT1 2
NA ME SYMBOL
VA R3 O1 1 .7 5 4 5

- .5 2 6 7
V?R3 1 2 1 .7 5 08

- .1 2 3 7
VA R3 2 3 - 1 .9 5 6 8

- .1 1 2 1
VA R3 3 4 .5 6 2 1

- .9 3 9 9
VA R3 4 5 2 .01 6 9

.6 7 1 1
VA R3 5 6 - .1 1 4 9

.09 4 2
VA R3 6 7 - .4 7 9 2

- .1 3 2 7
VA R3 7 8 1 .2 6 3 1

.7 7 6 9
VA R3 8 9 - 1 .9 6 08

- .2 7 5 5
VA R3 9 A - .3 5 9 1

.8 2 5 5
VA R4 OB- .7 04 5

- .5 03 9
VA R4 1 C - 1 .4 2 4 3

.6 7 7 6
VA R4 2 D .6 1 8 5

- .5 06 9
VA R4 3 E.5 2 9 7

- .4 1 2 8
VA R4 4 F - 1 .4 9 5 8

.4 8 9 0
FILE:MA TRIX FILE
1 4 May 9 2 TOURISM CB
1 3 :4 8 :3 0Uni ve rs i ty of Surre y Ce ntral HP9 000 Se r 8 00 HPUX
A . B8 .00
PRECED ING TA SK REQUIRED .3 2 SECOND S CPU TIME;1 4 .00 SECOND S
ELA PSED .
5 1 0 0 FINISH
5 1 0 COMMA ND LINES REA D .
0 ERRORS D ETECTED .
0 WA RNINGS ISSUED .
3 SECOND S CPU TIME.
3 7 SECOND S ELA PSED TIME.
END OF JOB.
AZ
AppeceDCG*[bert

page458
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
501 0 PROXVAR62 TO VAR76
502 0
/VIEW=VARIABLE
503 0/MEASURE=EUCLID
504 0/MATRIX=OUT(*)
505 0
There are 190856 bytes of memory available.
The largest contiguous area has 190184 bytes.
PROXIMITIES requires 44112 bytes of workspace for execution.
14 May 92 TOURISM CB
13:51:43University of Surrey Central HP9000 Ser 8001-IPUX A.B8.00
*************************** PROXIMITIES ****
Data Information
357 unweighted cases accepted.
5 cases rejected because of missing value.
Euclidean measure used.
Euclidean Dissimilarity Coefficient Matrix
VariableVAR62VAR63VAR64VAR65VAR66
VAR67VAR68VAR69

VAR6360.7783

VAR64
118.8613120.8470

VAR65
84.2734
91.553386.2670

VAR66
79347362.8649125.7140100.5684

VAR67
98.498793.776373.239383.6421102.4305

VAR68
95.8697
98.595176.452690.6035110.3857
70. 9859

VAR69
904378
77.9936106.212191.416684.7054

87.5386
96.0729

VAR7O
118.245

121.400257.982891.7170127.8984

75.7892
66.2344
108.5864

VAR7J
110.0364

101.262078.879793.509498.0918

68.1616
82.3590
91.7006

VAR72
i02.33

107.976976.019783.5284115.5379

78.7718
72.0417
104.1921

VAR73
119.6787
118.241363.631889.3700124.7678

75.6241
76.0263
99.4887
88.164692.903280.740399.2724

VAR74
87.8578 82.0610

87.4128
87.4528
89.855485.708886.867798.8130

VAR75
91.1921
91.1098

78.5111
64.3195
116.9316
64.428392.3959121.2559

VAR76
114.8260 1O4.
7

78.2113
66.8880
Variable
VAR71VAR72VAR73VAR74
VAR7O
VAR75

VAR71
80.6102

84.7172

VAR72
64.O85

75.306074.8999

VAR73
64.9538
92.016385.953585.5336

VAR74
96.0469

85.311283.516588.073886.8965

VAR75
82.0366

80.193572.649864.451587.2926

VAR76
58.3524
82.8674
Gflbert

page 459
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the }IDS plots
PRECEDING TASK REQUIRED1.61 SECONDS Cpu TIME;8.00 SECONDS ELAPSED.
506 0 ALSCAL
MATRIX=IN(*)
507 0/PRINT=HEADER
508 0/PLOT
509 0
FILE:MATRIX FILE
ALSCAL PROCEDURE OPTIONS
DATA OPTIONS-
NUMBER OF ROWS (OBSERVATIONS/MATRIX).
NUMBER OF COLUMNS (VARIABLES) .
NUMBER OF MATRICES
MEASUREMENT LEVEL .......
DATA MATRIX SHAPE .......
TYPE
APPROACH TO TIES
CONDITIONALITY ........
DATA CUTOFF AT ........
15
15
1
ORDINAL
SYMMETRIC
DISSIMILARITY
LEAVE TIED
MATRIX
.000000
MODEL OPTIONS-
MODEL...........EUCLID
MAXIMUM DIMENSIONALITY .....2
MINIMUM DIMENSIONALITY .....2
NEGATIVE WEIGHTS .......NOT PERMITTED
OUTPUT OPTIONS-
JOB OPTION HEADER .......
DATA MATRICES
CONFIGURATIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
OUTPUT DATASET ........
INITIAL STIMULUS COORDINATES .
+
PRINTED
NOT PRINTED
PLOTTED
NOT CREATED
COMPUTED
ALGORITHMIC OPTIONS-
MAXIMUM ITERATIONS......30
CONVERGENCE CRITERION......00100
MINIMUM S-STRESS ........00500
MISSING DATA ESTIMATED BY.
+ULBOUNDS
TIESTORE..........105
c e s I -bc Uber

page 460
Appe ndix 7.10 Computation I nformation of the MDS plots
14 May 92TOURI SM CB
13:51:50Unive rs ity of Surre y Ce ntralHP9000 Se r 800UPUX A.B8.00
FI LE:MATRI X FI LE
ALSCAL re quire s 10640 byte s of me mory.
The re are 197240 byte s of me mory available .
The large s t c ontiguous are a has 197160 byte s .
I TERATI ON HI STORY FOR THE 2 DI MENSI ONAL SOLUTI ON(I N SQUARED DI STANCES)
YOUNGS S-STRESS FORMULA 1 I S USED.
I TERATI ONS-STRESSI MPROVEMENT

1.12353

2.10957
+.01396

3.10541
+.00416

4.10371
+.00169

5.10294
+.00078
I TERATI ONS STOPPED BECAUSE
S-STRESS I MPROVEMENT LESS THAN .001000
STRESS AND SQUARED CORRELATI ON (RSQ) IN
DI STANCES
RSQ VALUES ARE THE PROPORTI ON OF VARI ANCE OF THE SCALED DATA
(DI SPARI TI ES)
I N THE PARTI TI ON (ROW, MATRI X, OR ENTI RE DATA)
WHI CH
I S ACCOUNTED FOR BY THEI RCORRESPONDI NG
DI STANCES.
STRESS VALUES ARE KRUSKAL'S STRESS FORMULA 1.
FOR MATRI X
STRESS =.115RSQ = .944
page 461
Appendix 7.10 Computation Information of the MDS plots
14 May 92 TOURISM CB
13:51:57University of Surrey CentralHP9000 Ser 800HPUX A.B8.O0
FILE:MATRIX FILE
CONFIGURATION DERIVED IN 2 DIMENSIONS
STIMULUS
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
STIMULUS COORDINATES
DIMENSION
STIMULUS PLOT12
NAME SYMBOL
VAR6211.8838

- .7533
VAR6322.0483

- .0282
VAR643 -1.5107

-.1416
VAR654.2233

- .8979
VAR6652.3357

.8243
VAR676- .3757

.4516
VAR687- .6245

- .2601
VAR6981.3347

.7 704
VAR7O9 -1.5927

.0460
VAR71A- .4830

1. 0198
VAR72B- .9258

- .5426
VAR73C -1.3729

.1590
VAR740.3658

- .6443
VAR75E.0326

- .0109
VAR76F -1.3389

.0078
26 SECONDS CPU TIME;

18.00 SECONDS ELAPSED.


PRECEDING TASK REQUIRED
510 0 FINISH
510 COMMAND LINES READ.
O ERRORS DETECTED.
O WARNINGS ISSUED.
3 SECONDS CPU TIME.
27 SECONDS ELAPSED TIME.
END OF JOB.
AZ
L