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Technical Note

TN_BSC_SW_2006_835
Dynamic Abis Configuration

Base Station Controller
BSC
S11.5, S12

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Technical Note


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Contacts:
Edited by: 14-J un-2007 / Ibrahim Gargi
Approved by: 26-J un-2007 / Toni Viitanen
Summary of changes:
14-J un-2007 / Version 1.1 / Ibrahim Gargi / Validated for S12
20-07-2006 / 1.0 / S. Anttila, V. Lahtinen, K. Suihkonen / The first version
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Technical Note


Purpose
This document contains generic information about products. These can be instructions that
explain problem situations in the field, instructions on how to prevent or how to recover from
problem situations, announcements about changes or preliminary information as requirements for
new features or releases.
Keywords
Dynamic Abis
Summary
There are several limitations that should be considered when EDAPs are created to PCU and
when EGPRS and GPRS channels are configured to PCU. If the limitations are surpassed the
load of the BSC increases because of failed territory upgrade trials and, it is possible that some
default (E)GPRS channels can not be taken into use. This Technical Note clarifies issues related
to Dynamic Abis configuration.
Detailed description
PSW territory upgrade loops
In PSW territory upgrade procedure BSC connects radio timeslots to EGPRS or GPRS use.
During this procedure the BSC allocates PCUPCM transmission resources and the PCU software
allocates DSP channel resources from the PCU. If there are no applicable PCUPCM or DSP
resources available for all new radio timeslots, then PCU upgrades those radio timeslots, for
which the applicable resources can be found (partial territory upgrade) and upgrade procedure
fails for the other radio timeslots. When the territory upgrade procedure fails, the BSC makes a
new territory upgrade trial after a guard time (GTUGT). If any resources have not been released
between these two territory upgrade trials then also the next territory upgrade trial fails. These
consecutive territory upgrades increase the load of the BSC.
PCUPCM resource allocation
Every PCU has two internal PCUPCMs available to Abis interface direction (to BTS direction), see
figure 1. There are 256 PCUPCM channels (16 kbit/s) available in these PCUPCMs for one PCU.
One PCUCPM line is divided to 32 PCUPCM timeslots (PCUPCM TSL) and one PCUPCM TSL
contains four PCUPCM channels (PCUPCM subTSL). The numbering of the PCUPCM TSLs and
subTSLs is started from zero, e.g. first PCUPCM channel is in PCUPCM TSL0 and subTSL0.
Transmission for EDAPs, PBCCH/PCCCHs, EGPRS channels and, GPRS channels are allocated
from these PCUPCMs. However, internal system limitations can cause a lack of applicable
resources before the 256-channel limit. These limitations should be considered when configuring
EDAP, EGPRS and GPRS channels to PCU. If the maximum amount of radio channels that can
be connected to the PCU is less than 256 (see Technical Note No. 813), these internal limitations
are still applicable.

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Technical Note




Figure 1.PCU has two internal PCUPCMs.

Connecting EDAP area to PCUPCM
When DAP (Dynamic Abis Pool) is connected to PCUPCM, it is called EDAP (EGPRS Dynamic
Abis Pool).

BSC connects EDAPs to PCU starting from the end of the second PCUPCM. If there is not
enough room for all EDAPs in the second PCUPCM then the BSC continues the connection from
the end of the first PCUPCM. The whole EDAP has to be connected to one PCUPCM. EDAP
cannot be divided between two PCUPCMs.

The BSC connects as many EDAP timeslots to the second PCUPCM as possible. The purpose is
to save resources for the EGPRS synchronization master channels. If new EDAPs are created to
PCU or, the existing EDAPs are modified, then the PCUPCM channel allocation for EDAPs may
fragment in the PCU leaving non-EDAP timeslots between EDAP areas. (More information about
synchronization master channels in chapter: EGPRS synchronization master channels). See
figure 2 for an example of EDAP connections.

Note: When changes are made to the EDAP configuration of PCU, it is recommended to make
BCSU switchover for the BCSU that controls the PCU. This optimizes PCUPCM channel
allocation for the PCU.

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Technical Note




Figure 2.Example of EDAP connections

BTS limits the maximum size of EDAP to 12 timeslots even though it is possible to create 24
timeslots to EDAP in BSC.

Maximum amount of EDAPs connected to PCU is 16 because there are 16 DSPs in one PCU.
One DSP can handle only one EDAP in PCU.

Every EDAP timeslot connected to PCUPCM reserves 64 kbit/s transmission from the PCUPCM
and reduces 4 PCUPCM channels (16 kbit/s) from the PCUs total capacity that is 256 PCUPCM
channels.

Maximum amount of EDAP timeslots connected to one PCU is 51 because then PCU needs 13
timeslots for 51 EGPRS master channels that are able to use the EDAP timeslots.

Note: When a new DAP is created to the PCU, BSC connects the EDAP area to the PCUPCM.
The EDAP reserves PCUPCM resources, even when there is no TRX attached to it. (Check also
Initial DSP allocation)
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Technical Note


Dedicated PCUPCM timeslots
DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots

When EDAPs are configured to the PCU, the PCU dedicates 64 kbit/s timeslots to the EDAPs
from the beginning of the first PCUPCM, at least one timeslot for each EDAP. These timeslots
are called DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots.

The purpose of the DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots is to guarantee that PCU always has
timeslots (at least one) in first PCUPCM available for the EDAP synchronization master channel
(EDAP SMCH) for each EDAP. From the DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots, the PCU dedicates
as many 16 kbit/s sub-timeslots as there are BTSs and PBCCH/PCCCH channels connected to
the EDAP. These dedicated sub-timeslots are called DAP dedicated subTSLs that can be used by
the EGPRS channels or PBCCH/PCCCH from the certain EDAP only. PCU assumes that the BTS
with PBCCH/PCCCH has at least one default EGPRS channel (as with other EGPRS territories),
thus dedicating two subTSLs because of the BTS with PBCCH/PCCCH.

When connecting radio timeslots to the PCUPCM channels, only EGPRS channels are allowed to
use the DAP dedicated subTSLs. GPRS and EGPRS channels are both allowed to use the non-
DAP dedicated subTSL of the DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslot. EGPRS channels from the one
EDAP cannot use any of the subTSLs from the timeslot(s) dedicated to the other EDAP.

PBCCH/PCCCH channels are handled the same way as the EGPRS channels if the TRX is
attached to a certain DAP. See figure 3 for an example of timeslot dedication where PCU
dedicates 5 subTSLs (from 2 TSLs in the first PCUPCM) for DAP001 that has 4 BTSs and one
PBCCH/PCCCH. The PBCCH/PCCCH channels and the first EGPRS channels will use these two
dedicated TSLs.

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Technical Note



Figure 3. Example of DAP dedicated and non-DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots.
PCUPCM hunting order
The following paragraphs below present selection criteria of PCUPCM allocation for different
channel types. See figure 4 for a sample PCUPCM channel allocation.
EGPRS synchronization master channels
PCU requires that every EDAP must have one EGPRS channel (or PBCCH/PCCCH) used as a
synchronization master channel for all EGPRS channels of the EDGE-TRXs that are connected to
the same EDAP. If PBCCH/PCCCH is present in some EDGE-TRX of the EDAP then it is used as
a synchronization master channel. If PBCCH/PCCCH is not present in any of the EDGE-TRXs
then EGPRS channel situating in greatest available radio timeslot (RTSL7) of the first EDGE-TRX
of the EDAP is usually used as a synchronization master channel. Dedicated EGPRS channels
are preferred over default channels in the selection of synchronization master channel. If
necessary, default EGPRS channels are preferred over additional channels. PCU can reallocate
synchronization master channel dynamically if needed e.g. when synchronization master channel
becomes faulty.
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Technical Note


EGPRS master channels
The first EGPRS channel of the BTS is connected to the DAP dedicated subTSL in the first
PCUPCM, if there is one available. Otherwise the non-dedicated subTSL from the first PCUPCM
is preferred. If there arent any free channels in the first PCUPCM then the EGPRS channel can
be connected to the second PCUPCM.
GPRS channels
The hunting of PCUPCM transmission for GPRS channels is started from the beginning of the
second PCUPCM. If there is no free subTSL in the second PCUPCM, then the GPRS channels
are preferably connected to the non-DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslot in the first PCUPCM. If
there are not any free non-DAP dedicated PCUPCM timeslots in the first PCUPCM, then non-
DAP dedicated PCUPCM subTSL can be selected for GPRS channels. GPRS channels are not
allowed to use DAP dedicated subTSl.
PBCCH/PCCCH
PBCCH/PCCCH channels are connected like EGPRS synchronization master channels or like
ordinary GPRS channels depending on whether TRX is attached to DAP or not.


5
Figure 4. Example of PCUPCM channel allocation.

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Technical Note


PCU DSP resource allocation
There are 16 DSP cores available in the PCU. Each of these DSP cores can handle up to 20
channels (16 kbit/s) including active EGPRS slave channels, EGPRS channels, GPRS channels
and, PBCCH/PCCCH channels. Total amount of 16 kbit/s channels in one PCU is 256 because of
the available PCUPCM transmission of the PCU. There can appear a lack of applicable DSP
resources before the 256-channel limitation because of internal system limitations. These
limitations should be considered when EDAP, EGPRS, GPRS and PCCCH channels are
configured to the PCU. (Check GPRS in BSC chapter 7.5 Restrictions to Dynamic Abis).
Initial DSP allocation

PCU software allocates DSPs for EDAPs when a new dynamic Abis pool is created or an existing
pool is deleted or modified. DSPs are also allocated after the BCSU restart or a BCSU switchover.
The allocation algorithm is described in the document GPRS in BSC in chapter 7.5 Restrictions to
Dynamic Abis.
EDAP specific DSP resources
Each EDAP needs EDAP specific DSP resources from the PCU. One DSP can take care of only
one EDAP but one EDAP can be shared between several DSPs. The PCU software makes
decision how many DSPs are given for a single EDAP.

Note: There is a limitation in the PCU where EGPRS channels of one TRX have to be served by
either even or odd numbered (indexed) DSPs. The PCU software can give only even or odd DSPs
for single EDAP during initial DSP allocation algorithm.

The amount of active 16 kbits/s channels in a single DSP varies during the operation. Each
EGPRS, GPRS or PBCCH/PCCCH channel allocates one 16 kbit/s channel from the DSP. Rest
of the DSP resources can be allocated for EGPRS slave channels using the EDAP resources.
PCU software allocates resources for these EGPRS slave channels dynamically according to the
EGPRS traffic situation.

PCU software allocates dynamically resources from the EDAP for the EGPRS slave channels.
There is no fixed allocation between EDAP resources and EGPRS slave channels in the PCU.

EGPRS channels

EGPRS channels of EDGE capable TRX have to be allocated from the DSP that is serving the
EDAP. There can be a maximum of 16 EGPRS (+GPRS +PBCCH) channels in a single DSP.

Note: Since DSPs are allocated for EDAPs only in a startup or when PCU EDAP configuration is
modified, the PCU software may face an EDAP load situation where upgrade of EGPRS channels
would exceed DSP resources available for the given EDAP. In this case PCU rejects the territory
upgrade request (or performs partial territory upgrade). This kind of temporary limitation is likely to
happen with an upgrade of additional EGPRS channels and under heavy EGPRS traffic.
GPRS channels
GPRS channels are primarily allocated to the GPRS dedicated DSP, but they can be allocated
from any DSP because GPRS channels do not use EDAP resources. One GPRS dedicated DSP
can handle 20 GPRS channels, because slave reservation is not needed.
PBCCH/PCCCH
If PBCCH/PCCCH channel situates in the EDGE capable TRX, one 16 kbit/s channel is allocated
from the DSP that is serving the EDAP in the PCU.
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Technical Note



If PBCCH/PCCCH channel situates in the TRX which is not attached to the DAP, the 16 kbit/s
channel can be allocated from any DSP in the PCU.





Figure 5. Example of the DSP channel allocation where 4 (16 kbit/s) channels are allocated for
the EGPRS master channels and 2 (16 kbit/s) channels are allocated for the GPRS channels.
Remaining 14 channels can be used for the EGPRS slave channels according to the traffic.
In the picture there are 8 active EGPRS slave channels.



Figure 6. Example of the DSP channel allocation where 2 (16 kbits/s) channels are allocated for
PBCCH/PCCCH channels, 9 (16 kbit/s) channels are allocated for EGPRS master channels and,
5 (16 kbit/s) channels are allocated for GPRS channels. Remaining 4 channels can be used only
for the EGPRS slave channels.



Figure 7. Example of the DSP channel allocation where GPRS dedicated DSP is filled with GPRS
channels and PBCCH/PCCCHs in TRX not attached to the DAP.



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Technical Note


Solution / Instructions
Dimensioning resources of single PCU
This chapter gives a short introduction to the dimensioning of the single PCU. EDGE
dimensioning is more precisely described in the BSS S11.5 GSM/EDGE Dimensioning Customer
document set.
EDAP resources
It should be estimated the amount of GPRS channels that will not use the EDAP, amount of
EGPRS channels that will use the EDAP and the service level of these EGPRS channels, when
size of EDAP is configured.

1. Maximum size of one EDAP is 12 timeslots because of BTS limitations.
2. It is not recommended to configure more timeslots to EDAP than there are EGPRS
channels that use the EDAP.

The amount of DSPs needed for each EDAP can be calculated with the next formula:

20
) * 4 ( els PBCCHchann els EGPRSchann EDAPsize
EDAP reCountFor IdealDSPco
+ +
=


where
EDAPsize is EDAP size presented in 64 kbit/s timeslots
EGPRSchannels is amount of default and Dedicated EGPRS channels using the EDAP
PBCCHchannels is amount of PBCCH/PCCCH channels situating in TRXs that are attached to
the DAP.

The amount of DSPs needed for GPRS can be calculated with the next formula:

20
ls GPRSchanne
GPRS DSPNeedFor =

where
GPRSchannels is the amount of default and Dedicated GPRS channels not using the EDAP

The ideal DSP core count is rounded up to the nearest integer and the count of DSP cores
needed for the GPRS is rounded down to the nearest integer.

If the sum of ideal DSP core counts for all EDAPs in PCU exceeds the available DSP core count
(16), then PCU automatically reduces amount of DSP core counts among EDAPs with more than
1 ideal DSP core. The algorithm uses the average 16 kbit/s channel load of single DSP as a basis
for the reduction. The reduction is made during the initial DSP allocation. In this case none of the
DSPs are dedicated to the GPRS use.

If the sum of the ideal DSP core counts for all the EDAPs in the PCU is less than the available
DSP core count and the DSP need for GPRS core count is greater than zero, then the PCU
automatically dedicates some DSPs for GPRS use. These DSPs are called GPRS dedicated
DSPs. The amount of GPRS dedicated DSPs can be calculated with the next formula:

} ), {( GPRS DSPNeedFor EDAP reCountFor IdealDSPco SPCores AvailableD MIN
t tedDSPCoun GPRSDedica

=


Note that only GPRS channels are allowed to the GPRS dedicated DSP. Both GPRS and EGPRS
channels are allowed to DSP assigned for EDAPs.
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Technical Note



3. When dimensioning EDAPs for a single PCU, the using of PCUPCM resources should
be planned so that the automatic reduction algorithm is not used in the PCU. The sum
of the ideal DSP cores used for EDAPs in the PCU should not overstep 16 DSP cores.

There is a limitation in the PCU where all EGPRS channels of one TRX have to be served by
either even or odd numbered DSP cores. During initial DSP allocation algorithm all DSP cores
dedicated for a single EDAP are selected from the same DSP core group. There are 8 DSP cores
in the both DSP core groups. With certain EDAP configuration it is not possible to place DSP
Dyncores to these DSP core groups without reducing DSP core count from some EDAP. The
algorithm uses the average 16 kbit/s channel load of single DSP as a basis for the reduction. The
reduction is made during the initial DSP allocation.

4. When dimensioning EDAPs for a single PCU, the using of PCUPCM resources should
be planned so that the ideal DSP core counts for EDAPs can be shared between the
two DSP core groups both having 8 DSP cores without the need to reduce DSP core
count from any EDAP.

There is 256 PCUPCM channels (16kbit/s) transmission capacity available for a single PCU. So it
is not possible to allocate 20 PCUPCM channels transmission capacity for every DSP in the PCU.

When dimensioning PCUPCM resources for EDAP and EGPRS channels, PCUPCM resources
should be handled as PCUPCM timeslots (64 kbits/s). There are 64 PCUPCM timeslots
transmission capacity available for a single PCU. These 64 PCUPCM timeslots are shared
between 16 DSPs of the PCU. One DSP can handle maximum 5 PCUPCM timeslots and
minimum 0 PCUPCM timeslots.

5. The maximum total amount of EDAP timeslots connected to one PCU is 51 PCUPCM
timeslots.

Traffic channels
Each EDAP timeslot (64 kbit/s) reduces one PCUPCM timeslot from the total 64 PCUPCM t
timeslots capacity of the PCU. The PCUPCM timeslots that can be used for traffic channels in the
PCU is counted with the next formula:

=
=
15
0
64
n
n
SizeOfEDAP hannels orTrafficC timeslotsF FreePCUPCM

where
FreePCUPCMtimeslotsForTrafficChannels is the amount of free PCUPCM timeslot that can be
used for PBCCH/PCCCH channels, EGPRS channels and GPRS channels.
SizeOfEDAP is size of one EDAP connected to PCU.
PBCCH/PCCCH channels
Each PBCCH/PCCCH channel uses one PCUPCM channel (16 kbit/s) from the PCU.

If the TRX is attached to DAP, then the PBCCH/PCCCH channel is handled as the EGPRS
channel. This must be considered when optimal size for the EGPRS territory is defined.

If the TRX is not attached to any DAP, then PBCCH/PCCCH channels must be taken into account
when the amount of GPRS channels in the PCU is defined.
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Technical Note


EGPRS channels
Each EGPRS channel needs one PCUPCM channel (16 kbits/s) from the PCU and one channel
from the DSP. There is also a limitation that one 64 kbit/s timeslot in PCUPCM must be handled
by one DSP core. Because one DSP core has 20 channels and four channels are reserved for
slave usage from the DSPs that are serving some EDAP, it also means that EDAP serving DSP
core can handle only four 64 kbit/s timeslots.

As we have estimated the amount of the EGPRS channels and we have calculated the amount of
the DSPs serving the EDAPs (IdealDSPCoreCountForEDAP), we can check does one PCU have
enough resources to handle estimated amount of the EGPRS channels with the following
formulas.

First, the amount of the needed PCUPCM timeslot (64kbit/s) for EGPRS is calculated with next
formula.

4
elsDAP PBCCHchann elsDAP EGPRSchann
sForEDAP CMtimeslot NeededPCUP
x
+
=


where
NeededPCUPCMtimeslotsForEDAP
x
is amount of PCUPCM timeslot needed by a single DAP.
EGPRSchannelsDAP is the size of EGPRS territory that is using the DAP (default +Dedicated
EGPRS channels)
PBCCHchannelDAP is the amount of PBCCH/PCCCH channels in TRXs attached to the DAP
The result is rounded upwards.

Then the next formula can be used for checking if the DSPs serving the EDAP have enough
resources to handle all needed PCUPCM timeslots:

x x
untForEDAP IdealDSPco sForEDAP CMtimeslot NeededPCUP * 4

where
NeededPCUPCMtimeslotsForEDAP
x
is amount of PCUPCM timeslot needed by a single DAP.
IdealDPScountForEDAP
x
is amount of DSPs serving the EDAP
x


If the previous clause is true, then we can proceed to the next step. If the result is false, then the
EGPRS territories under the examined EDAP should be re-dimensioned i.e. territory sizes should
be decreased or some territories should be moved to another PCU.

Total amount of PCUPCM timeslots needed by EGPRS channels can be calculated with the next
formula:

=
=
15
0 n
n
sForEDAP CMtimeslot NeededPCUP nPCU sForEGPRSi CMtimeslot NeededPCUP

where
NeededPCUPCMtimeslotsForEGPRSinPCU is total amount of PCUPCM timeslots needed by
the EGPRS territories in PCU
NeededPCUPCMtimeslotsForEDAP
x
is amount of PCUPCM timeslot needed by a single DAP..

Final step is to check that the amount of free PCUPCM timeslots for traffic channels is equal or
greater than the needed PCUPCM timeslots for EGPRS. If the amount is less then the re-
dimensioning is needed.


5. When dimensioning EGPRS territories, the sum of EDAP timeslots and PCUPCM
timeslots needed for EGPRS in PCU is not allowed to overstep 64 PCUPCM timeslots.
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Technical Note


GPRS channels
Maximum amount of PCUPCM channels (16 kbit/s) that can be used for GPRS and
PBCCH/PCCCH channels can be calculated with the next formula:

) ( * 4 nPCU sForEGPRSi CMtimeslot NeededPCUP hannels orTrafficC timeslotsF FreePCUPCM
sInPCU PRSchannle MaxAmountG

=

where
MaxAmountGPRSchannelsInPCU is the maximum amount of default GPRS channels
configured to PCU (+PBCCH/PCCCH channels in TRXs not attached to DAP).
FreePCUPCMtimeslotsForTrafficChannels is the amount of free PCUPCM timeslot that can be
used for PBCCH/PCCCH channels, EGPRS channels and GPRS channels
NeededPCUPCMtimeslotsForEGPRSinPCU is total amount of PCUPCM timeslots needed by
the EGPRS territories in PCU

If some resources for dynamic expansion of the PSW territories are taken into account, the
formula is written

et nT Utilizatio
nPCU sForEGPRSi CMtimeslot NeededPCUP hannels orTrafficC timeslotsF FreePCUPCM
sInPCU PRSchannle MaxAmountG
arg *
) ( * 4
=

where
UtilizationTarget is the utilization factor (less than 1) of the PCUPCMs when the Dedicated and
Default channels are upgraded.
Dynamic Abis pool in Abis ETPCM
Several Abis ETPCM connected to same BTS
It is possible to use several ETPCMs for Abis transmission in some BTS types. When several
Abis ETPCMs are used, it is possible to increase EDAP capacity of the BTS by creating own
DAPs to each Abis ETPCM. In this case only the TRXs situating in the same Abis ETPCM with
the DAP can use the EDAP resources.

Note: EGPRS territory handling procedures do not share load equally between the EDAPs.
Changing Dynamic Abis pool size in BSC and in BTS
The user has to be aware of Abis ETPCM mappings in the BTS when he/she makes changes to
the DAP configuration in the BSC. It may be harmful if the area reserved for the dynamic Abis
pool in BTS is overstepped in the BSC.

The user has to be aware of the DAP configuration in the BSC when he/she makes changes to
the Abis ETPCM mappings in the BTS. Every time Abis ETPCM mappings are changed in the
BTS, these changes have to be taken into account also in the BSC.

WARNING:
One EDAP resource cannot be shared between several BCF cabinets. It may damage the TRX or
DTRU HW if EDAP is tried to be shared between several cabinets.

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Technical Note


GPRS territory update guard time (GTUGT)
The BSS Radio Network Parameter GPRS territory update guard time defines a guard time
between subsequent GPRS territory upgrade/downgrade procedures. This parameter can be set
to a higher value if load problems appear because of the PSW territory handling procedures. It is
not recommended to set this parameter to a lower value than the default value.
Note
Information in this TN is valid from S11.5 CD 1.0 GEN onwards. This TN835 replaces the old
TN789 in S11.5 release. TN789 is still valid up to S11 level.References
None.
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